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1905: A World on the Brink OOC/Sign-up

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The Manticoran Empire
Postmaster-General
 
Posts: 10506
Founded: Aug 21, 2015
Anarchy

1905: A World on the Brink OOC/Sign-up

Postby The Manticoran Empire » Sun Nov 26, 2023 5:54 pm





It is the dawn of a New Century. As the 20th Century begins, nations young and old face both old enemies and new foes. In Europe, the competition of colonial empires has created a powder keg that may, at any moment, explode into open war. Young nations in the Balkans and the Aegean seek to expand their power, territory, and influence at the expense of their neighbors. In the factories and universities, new ideas are spread. Subject peoples across Europe’s Empires clamor for statehood while day laborers are intrigued by the writings of Marx and Engels.

How might this new century be shaped? Which nations will weather the storm? And which will be consigned to the dustbin of history, remembered only as lessons for future generations to gawk at?



Major Events:
American Civil War occurring
Franco-Prussian War occurring
Unification of Italy
Unification of Germany
Austro-Prussian War
Boer War
Boxer Rebellion
1st Sino-Japanese War
Russo-Turkish War

The Council:

Chairman/OP: The Manticoran Empire
Co-OPs: Chewion
NewLakotah
Shohun

Rules:

    1. DO NOT GODMOD! No, but seriously, don’t Godmod, it makes the RP terrible.
    2. The decisions of the Council are final. You will have an opportunity to argue your case but once a decision is made, no further argument will be tolerated.
    3. Abide by NS rules and terms of service, obviously.
    4. Do not mix IC and OOC problems, and please keep it courteous in the OOC and IC.
    5. If you have an issue with another player, please ask the OP or Co-OP to moderate it.
    6. Please coordinate with other players if you want to jointly write a post/negotiate deals.
    7. Posts must be at least two paragraphs long and of good quality.
    8. Be respectful.
    9. Histories can be changed beginning from 1 January 1855 until 31 December 1904. Any changes outside of that period will be considered off limits. Note that historical changes that impact more than one nation will require the cooperation of other impacted players (if applicable). Furthermore, history changes must include a justification. If you are unable to at least explain how and why the change occurs, it will not be accepted. Simply saying, “X person doesn’t get elected” or “Y event doesn’t happen” will not be accepted. Changes to major events will be subjected to increased scrutiny.
    10. Posts can cover a span of up to three months. Each three-month period starts following an IEC post except for the first period. The start date is January 1st, 1905
    11. Players must make at least one post a week, meaning at least every seven days from each post. Extensions may be granted by the OP and Co-OPs on a case-by-case basis.
    12. Any changes to the irl military must be laid out in the military information section, otherwise, the numbers etc will be assumed to be the same as irl.
    13. Join the Discord server. Negotiations, cooperative writing, and generally OOC discussion will largely occur on the Discord.


IEC:

The IEC (International Entity Council) is composed of the OP, Co-OPs, and anyone else accepted into it. The IEC is responsible for making the IEC post that includes multiple events and members can serve as an NPC nation in conferences so long as they do not have a direct interest in the negotiations.

IMPORTANT:

To calculate GDP, please use the following links to find the GDP Per Capita and the other link to calculate adjusted for inflation.

GDP Per Capita List: https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/gdp- ... ?time=1905

Inflation calculator: https://www.in2013dollars.com/

Application:

Code: Select all
Nationstates Name:
Nation Name:
Capital:
Territory:
Population:
Official Language:
Recognized Languages:
Flag:
National Anthem (optional):

Head of State:
HoS Picture:
Head of Government:
HoG Picture (If different from HoS):
Legislature Name:
Party in Power (If bicameral note who controls each):

Major Domestic Issues:
Major Foreign Issues:

GDP:
Currency:
Economic policy Overview:

Military Information:

Alliances:
Diplomatic Policy:

History Changes (Subject to review and approval by OP and Co-OP):


Do not remove - LV426



Reservation:

Code: Select all
Nationstates Name:
Nation Name:

Do not remove - LV223



Roster

Reservations:
Turkducken as the Republic of Rome

Player Nations:
NewLakotah as the Second French Empire
Tracian Empire as the Great Qing
Shohun as the Ottoman Empire
Intermountain States as the Empire of Korea
Chewion as the German Empire
Cymrea as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Imperialisium as the Russian Empire
The Manticoran Empire as the United States
Newne as Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary
Ormata as the Baltic Confederation
Cybernetic Socialist Republic as the Iberian Empire
Plus Nova Imperii as the Kingdom of Romania
Last edited by The Manticoran Empire on Tue Jan 09, 2024 6:36 pm, edited 24 times in total.
For: Israel, Palestine, Kurdistan, American Nationalism, American citizens of Guam, American Samoa, Puerto Rico, Northern Mariana Islands, and US Virgin Islands receiving a congressional vote and being allowed to vote for president, military, veterans before refugees, guns, pro choice, LGBT marriage, plural marriage, US Constitution, World Peace, Global Unity.

Against: Communism, Socialism, Fascism, Liberalism, Theocracy, Corporatocracy.


By the Blood of our Fathers, By the Blood of our Sons, we fight, we die, we sacrifice for the Good of the Empire.

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The Manticoran Empire
Postmaster-General
 
Posts: 10506
Founded: Aug 21, 2015
Anarchy

Postby The Manticoran Empire » Sun Nov 26, 2023 6:08 pm

Nationstates Name: The Manticoran Empire
Nation Name: The United States

Do not remove - LV223
For: Israel, Palestine, Kurdistan, American Nationalism, American citizens of Guam, American Samoa, Puerto Rico, Northern Mariana Islands, and US Virgin Islands receiving a congressional vote and being allowed to vote for president, military, veterans before refugees, guns, pro choice, LGBT marriage, plural marriage, US Constitution, World Peace, Global Unity.

Against: Communism, Socialism, Fascism, Liberalism, Theocracy, Corporatocracy.


By the Blood of our Fathers, By the Blood of our Sons, we fight, we die, we sacrifice for the Good of the Empire.

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Newne Carriebean7
Negotiator
 
Posts: 6714
Founded: Aug 08, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby Newne Carriebean7 » Sun Nov 26, 2023 6:28 pm

Nationstates Name: Newne Carriebean7
Nation Name: The United Kingdom of Austria

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Krugeristan wrote:This is Carrie you're referring to. I'm not going to expect him to do something sane anytime soon. He can take something as simple as a sandwich, and make me never look at sandwiches with a straight face ever again.

Former Carriebeanian president Carol Dartenby sentenced to 4 years hard labor for corruption and mismanagement of state property|Former Carriebeanian president Antrés Depuís sentenced to 3 years in prison for embezzling funds and corruption

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New Eestiball
Diplomat
 
Posts: 593
Founded: Jan 06, 2021
Civil Rights Lovefest

Postby New Eestiball » Sun Nov 26, 2023 6:30 pm

Nationstates name: New Eestiball
Nation Name: Dominion of Finland

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I dunno, Terry Pratchett?

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Chewion
Postmaster of the Fleet
 
Posts: 20627
Founded: May 21, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby Chewion » Sun Nov 26, 2023 6:55 pm

Nationstates Name: Chewion
Nation Name: The German Empire (1905 Germany)

Do not remove - LV223
Pro: America, guns, freedom, democracy, military, Trump, conservatism, Israel, capitalism, state rights.

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Hypron
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1745
Founded: May 10, 2018
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby Hypron » Sun Nov 26, 2023 6:59 pm

Nationstates Name: United Kingdom of Hypron
Nation Name: French Third Republic

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Cybernetic Socialist Republics
Minister
 
Posts: 2041
Founded: May 17, 2019
New York Times Democracy

Postby Cybernetic Socialist Republics » Sun Nov 26, 2023 7:04 pm

Nationstates Name: Cybernetic Socialist Republics
Nation Name: Russian Empire

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The Manticoran Empire
Postmaster-General
 
Posts: 10506
Founded: Aug 21, 2015
Anarchy

Postby The Manticoran Empire » Mon Nov 27, 2023 7:54 am

Hypron wrote:Nationstates Name: United Kingdom of Hypron
Nation Name: French Third Republic

Do not remove - LV223

France had been reserved over Discord by another player. My apologies.
For: Israel, Palestine, Kurdistan, American Nationalism, American citizens of Guam, American Samoa, Puerto Rico, Northern Mariana Islands, and US Virgin Islands receiving a congressional vote and being allowed to vote for president, military, veterans before refugees, guns, pro choice, LGBT marriage, plural marriage, US Constitution, World Peace, Global Unity.

Against: Communism, Socialism, Fascism, Liberalism, Theocracy, Corporatocracy.


By the Blood of our Fathers, By the Blood of our Sons, we fight, we die, we sacrifice for the Good of the Empire.

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Hypron
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1745
Founded: May 10, 2018
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby Hypron » Mon Nov 27, 2023 7:56 am

Eh, fair enough.

Nationstates Name: United Kingdom of Hypron
Nation Name: Kingdom of Greece

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Last edited by Hypron on Mon Nov 27, 2023 8:14 am, edited 1 time in total.

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The Manticoran Empire
Postmaster-General
 
Posts: 10506
Founded: Aug 21, 2015
Anarchy

Postby The Manticoran Empire » Mon Nov 27, 2023 9:49 am

New Eestiball wrote:Nationstates name: New Eestiball
Nation Name: Dominion of Finland

Do not remove - LV223

So there is the minor detail of Finland being a part of the Russian Empire in 1905, with the Russian Tsar serving as Grand Duke of Finland. It had substantial autonomy but this was heavily eroded during the 1890s and early 1900s, so this would require discussion with CRS, who has reserved Russia.
For: Israel, Palestine, Kurdistan, American Nationalism, American citizens of Guam, American Samoa, Puerto Rico, Northern Mariana Islands, and US Virgin Islands receiving a congressional vote and being allowed to vote for president, military, veterans before refugees, guns, pro choice, LGBT marriage, plural marriage, US Constitution, World Peace, Global Unity.

Against: Communism, Socialism, Fascism, Liberalism, Theocracy, Corporatocracy.


By the Blood of our Fathers, By the Blood of our Sons, we fight, we die, we sacrifice for the Good of the Empire.

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Cybernetic Socialist Republics
Minister
 
Posts: 2041
Founded: May 17, 2019
New York Times Democracy

Postby Cybernetic Socialist Republics » Mon Nov 27, 2023 10:01 am

Given the direction I intend to take the Russian Empire, Finland might well have an opportunity for considerable autonomy soon.

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NewLakotah
Minister
 
Posts: 2431
Founded: Feb 18, 2011
Left-wing Utopia

Postby NewLakotah » Mon Nov 27, 2023 10:34 am

Nationstates Name: NewLakotah
Nation Name: Second French Empire

sorry for the late reservation.

Do not remove - LV223
"How smooth must be the language of the whites, when they can make right look like wrong, and wrong like right." ~~ Black Hawk, Sauk

"When it comes time to die, be not like those whose hearts are filled with the fear of death, so when their time comes they weep and pray for a little more time to live their lives over again in a different way. Sing your death song, and die like a hero going home." ~~ Tecumseh

Free Leonard Peltier!!

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Ormata
Senator
 
Posts: 4944
Founded: Jun 30, 2016
Iron Fist Socialists

Postby Ormata » Mon Nov 27, 2023 12:07 pm

NationStates Name: Ormata
Nation Name: 大日本帝國 / Dai Nihon Teikoku / Empire of Japan
Capital: Tokyo City
Territory: Japanese Home Islands, Kuril Islands, Taiwan, Penghu Islands
Population: 47,038,000
Official Language: Japanese
Recognized Languages: Hokkien, Mandarin, Hakka, Korean
Flag: Flag of Japan
National Anthem: 君が / “Kimigayo” / "His Imperial Majesty's Reign"


Head of State: Emperor Mutsuhito
HoS Picture: Emperor Mutsuhito
Head of Government: Count Katsura Tarō
HoG Picture: Count Katsura Tarō
Legislature Name: House of Peers | House of Representatives
Party in Power: N/A | Rikken Seiyūkai


Major Domestic Issues:
    Home Economics
      Necessarily dependent on foreign imports in order to fuel a rapidly growing economy, Japan must go abroad in order to sustain herself. As such, she grows active throughout the region to maintain this growth, becoming increasingly aggressive against those who might deny what is required.
    The Popular Will
      The popular Japanese opinion, and indeed the one for which the Japanese people will demonstrate publicly, is the desire for a strong Japanese foreign policy against all other nations, whether they be allies or enemies. As such, the Japanese policy is often decidedly aggressive in opposition to the official desires of the government. Such internal effects on foreign policy is seen by Tokyo as undesirable and must be brought under control.
    Political Ideologies
      The many ideas from abroad, both from the United States and from Great Britain, has generated a substantial number of questions within the Japanese dialogue. From democracy in any form to suffrage, these questions have served to alter the concepts of the people and what they have. As such, the country and the Emperor continue to work to maintain control.
Major Foreign Issues:
    The Northern Problem
      Driven by the Russian occupation of Manchuria, and by her own people’s demonstrations that such could not be tolerated by Tokyo, Japan is convinced that Russia must be expelled by all measures necessary. The 1903 Russo-Japanese talks only further cemented a belief in the weakness of the Russian position, and through these talks a link was established between Japanese interests in Korea and Russian interests in Manchuria. Reports of Russian military buildups in Manchuria only further accelerated the Japanese response, that of war.
    Korean Empire
      Held onto by the treaties of the previous century, which gave Japan trading rights to three Korean ports, the nation as a whole remains a significant interest to the Japanese government. With a large market to sell to and receive raw materials from, it is seen as imperative that Japan not allow the country to close itself to their development and industrial interests.
    Qing China
      The large neighbor, the Qing Dynasty’s gradual fall in stature has emboldened the little brother of the Japanese. The Tokyo government sees China as a large, potential partner in future economic endeavors…albeit one which will require much effort on the part of the Japanese. Already fragmented by the Boxer Rebellion’s effects, the use of Japanese troops to secure her interests may yet be needed again should the nation finally fragment.


GDP: 3,928,821,770 USD
Currency: Yen
Economic Policy Overview:
    Rapidly industrializing in her central cities, Japan nevertheless retains large tracts of fairly agrarian, undeveloped land throughout the countryside. Generally speaking, Japan is incapable of producing larger, modern industrial products such as battleships, reliant instead on purchasing such from overseas partners such as the British, though an interest to develop the means to build such domestically drives her people. Production of smaller industrial products, such as water pumps, rifles, and automobiles is possible in Japan, though the latter has not taken hold due to a strong lack of easily available fuel. In addition to this, she grows increasingly reliant on exports for her oil, rubber, and ore to fuel a growing, modern economy.


Military Information:
    Relying on a conscription system to maintain a large, trained body of men, the Japanese armed forces have been rapidly modernized and coalesced into a European style of standardized force. With bolt-action rifles, modern copies of artillery used in Europe, and uniform equipment, the army has a total of 1,200,000 trained men with 350,000 in the standing army and 850,000 trained in reserve. The Army maintains a strong, optimistic spirit in regards to its actions, viewing victory as necessary for continued honor under the Bushido codes which, despite previous modernization efforts, continue to survive in many circles.

    Its navy, with the exception of smaller vessels such as torpedo boats and destroyers, is in part built in foreign yards. Officers and sailors are generally well-drilled, highly disciplined, and highly determined in their duties. In total, the Imperial Japanese Navy operates 6 battleships, 8 armored cruisers, 9 cruisers, 24 destroyers, and 63 torpedo boats.


Alliances:
    1898 French-Japanese Alliance (Treaty of Saigon)
      Signed largely in self-interest, the Treaty of Saigon opened the ports of Saigon and Haiphong for Japanese commercial interests, specifically in regards to raw materials, while Japanese companies began the sale of manufactured goods in the area at discounted rates. In addition to this, the treaty would largely declare French and Japanese interests to be separate, that neither would intrude upon the other in those matters.
    1902 Anglo-Japanese Alliance
Diplomatic Policy: 富国強兵 / Fukoku kyōhei / Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Armed Forces
    To strengthen the self, to strengthen Japan, is the driving principle behind all Japanese diplomatic actions. In addition, they view the world around them as intrinsically a hostile one, insofar as a capability to cause harm to Japan and Japan’s standing should the country not have the capability to meet that nation on even footing, on even standing. As such, the nation is driven to provide for itself a strong, capable means of defense, both for its domestic populations and for its interests abroad. Despite this, Japanese diplomacy remains interested in developing her ties abroad through all means, whether diplomatically or militarily, and is not above signing treaties to gain what she requires.



History Changes: N/A
Do not remove - LV426
Last edited by Ormata on Mon Nov 27, 2023 6:30 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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New Eestiball
Diplomat
 
Posts: 593
Founded: Jan 06, 2021
Civil Rights Lovefest

Postby New Eestiball » Mon Nov 27, 2023 12:48 pm

Cybernetic Socialist Republics wrote:Given the direction I intend to take the Russian Empire, Finland might well have an opportunity for considerable autonomy soon.

kinda wanna do a 'Mannerheim does many things and gets rewarded' timeline ig
I dunno, Terry Pratchett?

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Sao Nova Europa
Minister
 
Posts: 3376
Founded: Apr 20, 2019
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby Sao Nova Europa » Mon Nov 27, 2023 3:33 pm

Nationstates Name: Sao Nova Europa
Nation Name: Italian Socialist Republic (if allowed to have a socialist revolution in Rome inspired by Paris Commune) - otherwise Canada

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Signature:

"I’ve just bitten a snake. Never mind me, I’ve got business to look after."
- Guo Jing ‘The Brave Archer’.

“In war, to keep the upper hand, you have to think two or three moves ahead of the enemy.”
- Char Aznable

"Strategy without tactics is the slowest route to victory. Tactics without strategy is the noise before defeat."
- Sun Tzu

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The Manticoran Empire
Postmaster-General
 
Posts: 10506
Founded: Aug 21, 2015
Anarchy

Postby The Manticoran Empire » Mon Nov 27, 2023 5:13 pm

Sao Nova Europa wrote:Nationstates Name: Sao Nova Europa
Nation Name: Italian Socialist Republic (if allowed to have a socialist revolution in Rome inspired by Paris Commune) - otherwise Canada

Do not remove - LV223

If you can spin a convincing history, I'll allow it.
For: Israel, Palestine, Kurdistan, American Nationalism, American citizens of Guam, American Samoa, Puerto Rico, Northern Mariana Islands, and US Virgin Islands receiving a congressional vote and being allowed to vote for president, military, veterans before refugees, guns, pro choice, LGBT marriage, plural marriage, US Constitution, World Peace, Global Unity.

Against: Communism, Socialism, Fascism, Liberalism, Theocracy, Corporatocracy.


By the Blood of our Fathers, By the Blood of our Sons, we fight, we die, we sacrifice for the Good of the Empire.

User avatar
The Manticoran Empire
Postmaster-General
 
Posts: 10506
Founded: Aug 21, 2015
Anarchy

Postby The Manticoran Empire » Mon Nov 27, 2023 6:41 pm

Nationstates Name: The Manticoran Empire
Nation Name: The United States of America
Capital: Washington D.C.
Territory: The Continental United States, Alaska, Hawai’i, the US Overseas Territories, the Philippines
Population: 83,822,000
Official Language: N/A, de facto English
Recognized Languages: N/A
Flag:
National Anthem (optional):

Head of State: Theodore Roosevelt
HoS Picture:
Head of Government: Theodore Roosevelt
HoG Picture (If different from HoS):
Legislature Name: Congress
Party in Power (If bicameral note who controls each): Republicans control both houses of Congress.

Major Domestic Issues: The Square Deal; Roosevelt’s central interest in domestic policy, The Square Deal involves giving every American a “Square Deal” by promoting conservation efforts, combating corruption, and protecting both consumers and workers from exploitative business practices. While unpopular with many in the American political establishment, the Square Deal is deeply popular with working class Americans, many of whom have become increasingly inspired by the writings of European thinkers like Karl Marx.

Racial Tension in the Deep South; Despite decades of work during Reconstruction and the solidification of black Civil Rights with the backing of the US Army, there remains an undercurrent of resentment and tension among the white population of the American South. American blacks are firmly entrenched, card carrying members of the Republican Party and have enough voters to ensure contested elections in much of the Deep South. But it only guarantees that white Southerners almost exclusively vote Democrat, leaving the South just as divided in 1905 as it had been in 1865. Racially motivated violence is common but, with ongoing Federal support for black rights in the South as a cornerstone of continued Republican electoral success, such violence is undertaken with limited fanfare and in the dark. But there is only so long such a state of affairs can be maintained. The black population in the South, despite Federal protections, remains downtrodden, often unable to find work due to bigotry from white Southerners. Eventually, something will give. And when it does, the streets of the American South will run red with blood.

Protectionism vs. Free Trade: The United States has, for most of its history, maintained high tariffs on imported products as a way to protect American industries. While this has been popular among industrialists and industrial workers, particularly in the Northeast, it has been extremely unpopular in the rural American South and the new states of the American West. The argument between the traditionally protectionist Republicans and traditionally free-trade Democrats has been made increasingly complicated by the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt, a progressive Republican. Roosevelt’s call for a “Square Deal” is seen by many Democrats and other progressive Republicans as a way to finally reduce tariffs and, perhaps, institute an income tax through a Constitutional Amendment. More conservative Republicans, however, fear the consequences for American industry.

Major Foreign Issues: Competition with Japan; America’s newly won imperial possessions in Asia have run them up against another rising power, the Empire of Japan. Japan, a British ally, is seen by many as an obvious threat to American holdings in the region, especially given Japan’s own territorial ambitions. While currently the Japanese are engaged in a costly conflict with the Russian Empire, the Japanese alliance with the British Empire gives most in America pause. Missteps could easily result in the US having to fight the most powerful naval power on the planet while their Navy is still building up. But perhaps there is a possibility for understanding and mutual gain for America and Japan, two rising powers to sweep the Old Order out and usher in a new one.

Protectionist Tariffs: On the lips of every foreign official to the United States is a scathing critique of America’s tariffs. With rates as high as 50%, they make selling goods in the United States expensive and virtually unprofitable. While this has not been enough to halt trade entirely, it remains a crucial sticking point in America’s relationships with many foreign powers, in particular those of Europe and Japan. But domestic developments may see a shift in this policy, perhaps one that will at last see the United States abandon protectionist policies for free trade.

GDP: $31,877,506,600
Currency: US Dollar
Economic policy Overview: The United States retains a protectionist trade policy, funding most of its budgetary needs through tariffs on imports. Internally, the US practices free market capitalism, though it has many of the warts typical of largely unregulated industrial capitalism of the early 20th century. This fact is changing as new labor and consumer protection laws are introduced and large corporations, monopolies, and trusts are broken up.

Military Information: During the Virginius Affair of 1873, where Spain captured an American ship and arrested and tried its crew as pirates, the United States was forced to confront the dilapidated state of its navy. Seeking to never again be reliant on the Royal Navy to protect American citizens in the Americas, Congress authorized an unprecedented naval building program. In 1875, 5 new ironclads were laid down. The Puritan Class would be mastless turret ships, similar in many ways to the British Devastation Class. By the start of the 1880s, the Puritans would be joined by the 5 Amphirites (laid down in 1880) and 5 ships of the Monterey class (laid down in 1885). These 15 ironclad battleships (dates indicate when the ship is laid down) would be followed in 1890 by the Indiana Class, in 1894 by the Kearsarge class, in 1896 by the Maine class, in 1898 by the Virginia class, in 1900 by the Connecticut class, in 1902 by the New York Class, and in 1904 by the California class. This buildup gave the United States a powerful and modern battle fleet with 15 coastal ironclad battleships (more commonly known in the US Navy as Second Class Battleships) and 25 pre-dreadnought battleships (more commonly known in the US Navy as First Class Battleships) in commission with 5 first class battleships fitting out, 5 building, and 5 ordered.
Aside from the Battleships, the US Navy also boasts a fleet of cruisers and lighter vessels, including 18 armored cruisers and 23 protected cruisers in commission with 6 armored cruisers and 12 protected cruisers either under construction or on order. Finally, 16 torpedo boat destroyers are in active service with another 32 under construction or ordered.
The building program sees the US maintaining three distinct formations. The Atlantic Fleet, based in Virginia, has 15 First Class and 10 Second Class battleships, 5 Armored Cruisers, and 6 Protected Cruisers, as well as 10 torpedo boat destroyers. The Pacific Fleet, based in San Diego, has 10 First Class and 5 Second Class battleships, 5 Armored Cruisers, and 6 Protected Cruisers, as well as 6 torpedo boat destroyers. Finally, the Asiatic Squadron, based in Manila and Pearl Harbor, boasts 8 Armored Cruisers and 11 Protected Cruisers.

Part of the USNs build up during the latter quarter of the 19th century was the expansion of the Mare Island Naval Shipyard, building a total of four drydocks able to house large capital ships between 1880 and 1900.

A notable issue for the US Navy, uncovered during the War with Spain, is the seakeeping of its battleships is poor. The Second Class battleships, designed primarily for coastal defense, boast very low freeboards and sheer bows, as well as limited bunkerage for coal, limiting their range and ability to operate at sea. The first generation of First Class battleships, the Indianas, Kearsarges, and Maines, share similar issues. Beginning with the Virginia Class, the United States would begin to rectify those issues, adopting higher freeboards, though the nearly vertical bows would remain. The fact that more than half the US Navy’s modern line of battle is almost entirely restricted to coastal waters remains a point of contention for the Navy.

But while the Navy has received significant amounts of funding, even more in the wake of crushing naval success in the War with Spain two years ago, the Army has experienced very different treatment. Largely used as a frontier patrol and coastal defense force since the end of the Civil War, the Army performed poorly during the War, experiencing heavy casualties to disease, logistical failures, and poor tactical, operational, and strategic planning and leadership. While the Navy has seen its strength and prowess increase dramatically, the Army remains a small, underfunded, and poorly equipped force. However, efforts are underway to change that. Secretary of War Elihu Root is leading the charge to reform the Army into a modern and capable force, the equal of any European Army.
Root’s goal is to establish an Army War College to expand the training of Army officers beyond the initial training at West Point as well as establishing a General Staff to coordinate Army war planning during peacetime, all in the quest to avoid the troubles of the War with Spain. The Army currently has 75,000 officers and men, though Congress has authorized the Army’s strength at 100,000 officers and men. The Army includes, under field service regulations, a number of divisions numbering approximately 12,000 officers and men. However, these divisions are largely paper formations, with their constituent units still scattered across the country in small forts and company-sized posts, a fact that is exacerbated by a lack of funding due to the Navy’s building programs. The Secretary of War and the General Staff are still fighting Congress for permission to concentrate the Army’s strength and begin building a proper, modern Army.

Alliances: No Official Alliances
Diplomatic Policy: The US is largely neutral on the world stage, though it maintains a firm stance. Roosevelt’s idea of “Speak softly and carry a big stick” has defined American diplomacy, especially in Latin America, where the US has recently flexed its new found naval muscles to exact concessions from both Latin American and European governments.

History Changes (Subject to review and approval by OP and Co-OP): American history remains largely unchanged until the election of 1876, where incumbent Republican President Ulysses Grant is convinced to run for a historic third term. Despite holding significant personal reservations, in many ways related to a number of high profile scandals that plagued his administration, he was the one candidate that the Republican Party could unite behind. Running against the Southern Democrat Samuel Tilden, Grant was able to secure a convincing victory over Tilden, a result that would see Reconstruction continue. By the end of his third term in 1881, Grant had managed to enshrine equal rights for Black Americans into the US Constitution and Federal Law and establish prosperous communities in the American South that would maintain the efforts of Reconstruction into the future. Grant would be nominated again in 1880 thanks to the efforts of the Stalwarts Faction within the Republican Party, winning the 1880 election narrowly against his former subordinate Winfield Scott Hancock. Grant would decline Republican party efforts for a fifth term, seeking to finally end his political career.
To replace him, the Republicans would nominate James Blaine, a controversial choice who was marred by allegations of corruption. The splitting of the Republican party over Blaine would enable Grover Cleveland to secure an election victory, the first Democratic President since before the Civil War. Cleveland would, however, lose out in 1888 to Benjamin Harrison, returning the Republicans to the White House. The Democrats would return with Cleveland in 1892, though Cleveland would again lose his effort at reelection in the 1896 campaign to William McKinley. McKinley’s presidency would prove a boon for the Republican Party, with McKinley’s successful handling of the War with Spain and the personal heroism of Theodore Roosevelt, McKinley’s one-time Assistant Secretary of the Navy.
That success would see McKinley secure a second term in 1900, a term cut short in September 1901 when he was assassinated. Theodore Roosevelt, his Vice President, would be sworn in as the new President, embarking on a radical effort to reform the United States. Championing his “Square Deal”, Roosevelt would crackdown on corruption, spearhead conservation efforts, and make headway on breaking up bad trusts and monopolies, improving the standard of living for everyday Americans in the process. While unpopular with some Republican politicians, his domestic policies made him extremely popular with the American working class, seeing him through to a landslide election in the 1904 campaign.
On foreign policy, Roosevelt is openly Imperialist. Under his leadership, the United States has established Cuba as a nominally independent protectorate, annexed Hawai’i, and taken greater control over the Philippines. More than that, Roosevelt has taken over a section of Panama, using it to build a canal to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans while simultaneously expanding the US Navy’s shipbuilding programs

Throughout the 1870s and 1880s, America would embark on a naval build-up encouraged by the Virginius Affair while Grant’s efforts to maintain peaceful relations with the Indian tribes would see the US Army’s role as a constabulary force in the West increasingly reduced in favor of coastal and border security duties. This would remain the case until the War with Spain in 1897. The US Navy, with the first of its pre-dreadnought battleships and a powerful fleet of older Ironclad Battleships, would decisively defeat the Spanish Navy in the Pacific and the Caribbean while the US Army would invade Cuba and Puerto Rico, expeditions that would prove far less illustrious than they were for the Navy. In a series of battles in Cuba, the US Army would perform poorly, their troops poorly trained, led by inexperienced or overaggressive officers, and troops equipped with obsolete or overcomplicated weapons. Despite these shortcomings, the Army would emerge victorious over the Spanish defenders. In response, reform efforts would be launched in 1899 by Secretary of War Elihu Root, who would seek to reform the US Army into a well drilled, well equipped force that could equal or exceed any European army.


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Last edited by The Manticoran Empire on Fri Dec 08, 2023 8:41 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Postby The Manticoran Empire » Mon Nov 27, 2023 7:11 pm

Ormata wrote:
NationStates Name: Ormata
Nation Name: 大日本帝國 / Dai Nihon Teikoku / Empire of Japan
Capital: Tokyo City
Territory: Japanese Home Islands, Kuril Islands, Taiwan, Penghu Islands
Population: 47,038,000
Official Language: Japanese
Recognized Languages: Hokkien, Mandarin, Hakka, Korean
Flag: Flag of Japan
National Anthem: 君が / “Kimigayo” / "His Imperial Majesty's Reign"


Head of State: Emperor Mutsuhito
HoS Picture: Emperor Mutsuhito
Head of Government: Count Katsura Tarō
HoG Picture: Count Katsura Tarō
Legislature Name: House of Peers | House of Representatives
Party in Power: N/A | Rikken Seiyūkai


Major Domestic Issues:
    Home Economics
      Necessarily dependent on foreign imports in order to fuel a rapidly growing economy, Japan must go abroad in order to sustain herself. As such, she grows active throughout the region to maintain this growth, becoming increasingly aggressive against those who might deny what is required.
    The Popular Will
      The popular Japanese opinion, and indeed the one for which the Japanese people will demonstrate publicly, is the desire for a strong Japanese foreign policy against all other nations, whether they be allies or enemies. As such, the Japanese policy is often decidedly aggressive in opposition to the official desires of the government. Such internal effects on foreign policy is seen by Tokyo as undesirable and must be brought under control.
    Political Ideologies
      The many ideas from abroad, both from the United States and from Great Britain, has generated a substantial number of questions within the Japanese dialogue. From democracy in any form to suffrage, these questions have served to alter the concepts of the people and what they have. As such, the country and the Emperor continue to work to maintain control.
Major Foreign Issues:
    The Northern Problem
      Driven by the Russian occupation of Manchuria, and by her own people’s demonstrations that such could not be tolerated by Tokyo, Japan is convinced that Russia must be expelled by all measures necessary. The 1903 Russo-Japanese talks only further cemented a belief in the weakness of the Russian position, and through these talks a link was established between Japanese interests in Korea and Russian interests in Manchuria. Reports of Russian military buildups in Manchuria only further accelerated the Japanese response, that of war.
    Korean Empire
      Held onto by the treaties of the previous century, which gave Japan trading rights to three Korean ports, the nation as a whole remains a significant interest to the Japanese government. With a large market to sell to and receive raw materials from, it is seen as imperative that Japan not allow the country to close itself to their development and industrial interests.
    Qing China
      The large neighbor, the Qing Dynasty’s gradual fall in stature has emboldened the little brother of the Japanese. The Tokyo government sees China as a large, potential partner in future economic endeavors…albeit one which will require much effort on the part of the Japanese. Already fragmented by the Boxer Rebellion’s effects, the use of Japanese troops to secure her interests may yet be needed again should the nation finally fragment.


GDP: 3,928,821,770 USD
Currency: Yen
Economic Policy Overview:
    Rapidly industrializing in her central cities, Japan nevertheless retains large tracts of fairly agrarian, undeveloped land throughout the countryside. Generally speaking, Japan is incapable of producing larger, modern industrial products such as battleships, reliant instead on purchasing such from overseas partners such as the British, though an interest to develop the means to build such domestically drives her people. Production of smaller industrial products, such as water pumps, rifles, and automobiles is possible in Japan, though the latter has not taken hold due to a strong lack of easily available fuel. In addition to this, she grows increasingly reliant on exports for her oil, rubber, and ore to fuel a growing, modern economy.


Military Information:
    Relying on a conscription system to maintain a large, trained body of men, the Japanese armed forces have been rapidly modernized and coalesced into a European style of standardized force. With bolt-action rifles, modern copies of artillery used in Europe, and uniform equipment, the army has a total of 1,200,000 trained men with 350,000 in the standing army and 850,000 trained in reserve. The Army maintains a strong, optimistic spirit in regards to its actions, viewing victory as necessary for continued honor under the Bushido codes which, despite previous modernization efforts, continue to survive in many circles.

    Its navy, with the exception of smaller vessels such as torpedo boats and destroyers, is in part built in foreign yards. Officers and sailors are generally well-drilled, highly disciplined, and highly determined in their duties. In total, the Imperial Japanese Navy operates 6 battleships, 8 armored cruisers, 9 cruisers, 24 destroyers, and 63 torpedo boats.


Alliances:
    1898 French-Japanese Alliance (Treaty of Saigon)
      Signed largely in self-interest, the Treaty of Saigon opened the ports of Saigon and Haiphong for Japanese commercial interests, specifically in regards to raw materials, while Japanese companies began the sale of manufactured goods in the area at discounted rates. In addition to this, the treaty would largely declare French and Japanese interests to be separate, that neither would intrude upon the other in those matters.
    1902 Anglo-Japanese Alliance
Diplomatic Policy: 富国強兵 / Fukoku kyōhei / Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Armed Forces
    To strengthen the self, to strengthen Japan, is the driving principle behind all Japanese diplomatic actions. In addition, they view the world around them as intrinsically a hostile one, insofar as a capability to cause harm to Japan and Japan’s standing should the country not have the capability to meet that nation on even footing, on even standing. As such, the nation is driven to provide for itself a strong, capable means of defense, both for its domestic populations and for its interests abroad. Despite this, Japanese diplomacy remains interested in developing her ties abroad through all means, whether diplomatically or militarily, and is not above signing treaties to gain what she requires.



History Changes: N/A
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Postby Tracian Empire » Tue Nov 28, 2023 3:20 am

Nationstates Name: Tracian Empire
Nation Name: Great Qing (大淸)

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I'm a Romanian, a vampire, an anime enthusiast and a roleplayer.
Hello there! I am Tracian Empire! You can call me Tracian, Thrace, Thracian, Thracr, Thracc or whatever you want. Really.

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Postby Tracian Empire » Tue Nov 28, 2023 3:48 am

Nationstates Name: Tracian Empire
Nation Name: Great Qing (大淸), also known as the Empire of the Great Qing (大清帝國) or as the Empire of China (中華帝國)
Capital: Beijing
Territory: All territories historically controlled by the Qing in 1905, including Tibet and Manchuria, with the latter continuing to be claimed by the Qing despite the illegal Russian occupation of it.
Population: ~400,000,000
Official Language: Mandarin Chinese, Manchu
Recognized Languages: Mongolian, Tibetan, Hakka
Flag:
Image

National Anthem: Cup of Solid Gold - (鞏金甌)

Head of State: His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of the Great Qing Dynasty, Son of Heaven, Lord of Ten Thousand Years. His Majesty the Emperor is usually not referred to by name, but foreigners in particular refer to him by his era name as the Guangxu Emperor.
HoS Picture:
Image

Head of Government: His Excellency, the Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet, Kang Youwei
HoG Picture:
Image

Legislature Name: Imperial Court (宮廷), divided between the upper Inner Court (内廷) and the lower Outer Court (外朝))
Party in Power: The elected Outer Court is currently led by a majority formed by the so called Constitutionalists, an alliance between the Continuous Constitutionalism Association, the Chinese Empire Reform Association, and other various constitutionalist forces, with an opposition formed by independents and the Xingzhonghui. The appointed Inner Court is nominally independent, but its members generally lean towards the reformists and constitutionalists.

Major Domestic Issues:
  • Expel Tartar barbarians? - While the perception of the dynasty in the eyes of the general has somewhat improved alongside the successes of the Self-Strengthening Movement, Anti-Qing and anti-Manchu sentiment continues to exist throughout broad segments of Chinese society. From monarchists rallying under the cry of Oppose Qing and restore Ming, to revolutionaries claiming their desire to expel the Manchu barbarians, or to simple peasants fueled by racism, anti-Manchu positions have led to the Qing dynasty and the Manchu people as a whole being largely blamed for the current situation in China, in particular for the semi-colonial status in which the country has been forced, and for the defeat against Japan in the Sino-Japanese War. While the Guangxu Emperor himself generally has a measure of popularity due to his support for reformist Han such as Kang Youwei, regaining legitimacy in front of the population continues to be a major issue and objective for the Qing dynasty, and it is clear that the dynasty can not survive any more major shocks without losing all of its legitimacy in the eyes of the people.
  • Home and abroad as one family - Espoused by such slogans as "Home and abroad as one family", or "Five Races under one Empire", the Qing have, since their inception and with various level of success attempted to integrate the various cultures of China, Han, Manchu, Mongols, Hui and Tibetans into a single, united Chinese identity, that of Chinese people" (中國人). This has had various levels of success, and alongside the previously mentioned anti-Qing and anti-Manchu sentiment that is present among the Han Chinese, anti-Manchu and anti-Han feelings continue to exist in Mongolia, Tibet and Xinjiang, deteriorating imperial authority. It has been clear to the Qing government and to the members of the Self-Strengthening Movement that if China were to ever match Japan it needs to develop a strong national identity and strong feelings of patriotism and loyalty towards the Emperor, and this is viewed as a major issue that has been slowly worked upon by attempting to integrate the concepts of Tianxia (All under Heaven) and Zhonghua minzu (the Chinese nation) and to spread a nationalistic ideology among the people.
  • Changing Chinese Ways through Barbarian Ways - The central motto of the Self-Strengthening Movement describes in many ways the major objective of the Qing government and of all the reformists - the great need to tackle the most important domestic issue - the way in which China has lagged behind other great powers and even its neighbor Japan, by adopting Westernization, without fully abandoning the conservative Confucian worldview that sits at the core of the Chinese imperial system. Although the Self-Strengthening Movement has its origins before the Japanese Meiji Restoration, with the reform movement being initiated in 1861, China has been unable to replicate the major changes experienced by Japan and has had to face a lot more challenges. Regardless, becoming a modern state remains the most important priority of the government, and despite setbacks such as the Sino-Japanese War, the Self-Strengthening Movement's legitimacy has been proven by the economic improvement, economical stabilization, and by the successes of the Western-trained units.
  • The wealthy join acre after acre of land, while the poor have none at all. - The economy of China continues to remain a major domestic issue for the Qing government, despite the great reforms that have been undertaken. Besides from the need for land reform to counterbalance the increased taxes on agriculture, the continuation of agricultural reforms and oversight in order to prevent further famines, the continued development of industry and of infrastructure, and the military modernization have all placed a lot of strain on the Qing budget, even if the situation is improving and the negative balance has been reduced year by year. A significant portion of revenue is however unfortunately spent on loans that have been taken in order to pay back Japan after the Sino-Japanese War, and it is hoped to somehow bring those payments to an end.
Major Foreign Issues:
  • Six Decades of Humiliation - Ever since the First Opium War, the Qing have suffered more than six decades of repeated humiliations and of unequal treaties enforced upon them. The country is effectively in a semi-colonial status, with citizens of the great powers enjoying extraterritoriality, Christian missionaries spreading their faith without regard for ancient Chinese traditions or the authority of imperial officials, significant areas have been leased or ceded to foreign powers, and the payment of heavy reparations to Japan continues, while Russia refuses to withdraw from the occupied region of Manchuria, openly deifying Beijing. Bringing an end to this state of affairs is the most important foreign goal of the Qing government, with some progress having been made after the Boxer Rebellion, and taking advantage of the belief in some of the great powers that the current state of affairs is too humiliating for China and can not continue.
  • The Bear in Manchuria - Despite the fierce resistance of Manchu bannermen and some Imperial Army units, alongside the Boxers and the Honghuzi bandits, in one of the few instances of official military units fighting against foreigners, the Russians used the Boxer Rebellion as a pretext to occupy Manchuria, breaching the Sino-Russian Secret Treaty of 1896. Subsequently, the Russians assured that they would vacate the area, but instead they have strengthened their military presence in Manchuria, despite official complaints by the Qing government. The situation has continued to degenerate due to tensions between Russia and Japan over Manchuria, and Beijing is increasingly facing the prospect of a war that would be at least partially fought on what it considers to be its soil has become a major foreign issue for the Qing, with its government vacillating between remaining neutral and throwing its weight behind either Japan or Russia, in hopes of recovering either Taiwan or Manchuria.
  • All under Heaven? - The past century has completely uprooted the previous Chinese view upon the foreign world, and the Chinese foreign policy is still reeling from the shock. While Korea has stopped being a tributary state after the defeat of the Qing against Japan, the tributary system has not been completely abandoned, with Burma, Vietnam and Nepal still sending infrequent tribute missions to Beijing. It is however rather clear to everyone in the Qing court that this antiquated system no longer has any semblance of relevance, and that the nation must temper its self-importance in order to find allies and to once again become an influential power in Asia.

GDP: $18.8 billion
Currency: Yuan (圓)
Economic policy Overview: The economic policy of the Qing government can be simply summarized as a large and concentrated effort to modernize, reorganize and industrialize the economy of China so as to improve the state's finances and to allow China to make full use of its resources. After the reforms of the previous decade, the economic policy is currently mainly focused on a few specific areas - land reform, alongside a modernization of agriculture and more government oversight in order to placate the peasant class and avoid the regular famines that some regions of China have been experiencing; continuing industrialization, with a particular focus on the military industry to sustain its modernizing armed forces and on expanding mining and manufacturing; encouraging the development of Chinese companies and limiting foreign imports from taking them out as much as possible; continuing to develop and refine the taxation system in order to help the state revenue and to maintain the new yuan currency stable; and fighting against corruption and the decentralization of finances.

Military Information: The Self-Strengthening Movement has been championing the reform of Qing military forces along Western lines, which has occurred in several different levels. The latest, and most major happened after the Sino-Japanese War, where the complete failure of military units which were not trained in Western standards has led to the general demobilization of the old units and a complete reorganization of most Chinese military forces under the model of German forces,

The main part of the Qing military forces is the Imperial Chinese Army (帝國中國軍隊), also known as the Newly Created Army (新建陸軍). The core of it is the Regular Army (陸軍), with a peace-time standing force known as the Changbei jun (长辈军) organized into 36 divisions with 12,512 men for a total of 450,432. Each division is organized into 8 battalions, 5 of infantry and 1 of cavalry, 1 of artillery and 1 of engineers. The service term is 3 years, and after that the soldier is moved into the first reserve, known as Xubei jun (戌北軍), with a paper strength of 36 divisions of 9,840 men each for 4 more years, after which they are moved into the second reserve, known as the Houbei jun (湖北军) for a further four years before they are moved into the records of the general reserve from which they can in theory be recalled in times of emergency, with the second reserve having a paper strength of 36 divisions each of 4,960 men. The intention of the government is to keep expanding the reserve forces available by conscripting new forces and moving them further into the reserve, but since the New Army was only crated in early 1895, the process is still moving on. Imperial Army units are overall largely Han Chinese in terms of composition, and are trained in the style of the Royal Prussian Army by German advisors and by already trained Chinese advisors, under the large oversight of Constantin von Hanneken. The Imperial Army also generally uses German equipment, with imported Mauser Gewehr 98, Mauser Model 1889 and the Chinese produced Hanyang 88 based on the Mauser Gewehr 1888 as the main rifles. German artillery and grenades are also used, and the new forces also make extensive use of European-style uniforms, which started dark blue but which have started to trend towards a darker gray in recent variants.

The second part of the Imperial Army is represented by the Patrol and Defense Forces, the Xunfangdui (巡防隊). It was formed after the disbandment and reorganization of the Green Standard Army, which during peace-time acts as a gendarmerie force and a force to quell to internal dissent. Each of China's 22 provinces currently has 5 divisions of Xunfangdui forces, three of infantry, with 3,010 men each, and two of cavalry, with 1,890 each, with a total of 281,820 men throughout the country. The Xunfangdui are also expected to be trained to Western standards, but they are of poorer quality than the Regular Army units, even if they are certainly a great improvement over the bloated and completely inefficient Green Standard Army, particularly as great effort has been taken to arm them with modern weaponry. In times of war, they are meant to serve coastal defense duties and to patrol behind the front, but Beijing is highly hesitant to deploy them into actual war. Eventually the Xunfangdui are meant to be expanded, but with the government's focus being centered on the Regular Army, and with attempts to cut back inefficient spending, this development has been slow.

The Imperial Army is under the control of the Ministry of War and under the command of the Imperial General Staff (帝國參謀本部). Inspired by the Prussian and Japanese General Staffs, the General Staff is formed by the best officers the Qing can muster, and has been a real revolution in that in according to the initial proposals, its members are appointed on merit and not on rank. It is currently led by Marshal Yinchang, one of the leading Chinese commanders in the Sino-Japanese War, and does still have nobles and officials among its ranks due to difficulty of developing a meritocratic officer caste. Regardless, this has been slowly happening, with political appointments having been largely blamed for the blunders in the war. Officers are generally being trained to German standards, with the Baoding Military Academy and the Yunnan Military Academy among them. The Imperial General Staff has been the one leading the reorganization and expansion of the Imperial Army.

Another separate branch of the Qing military is represented by the Imperial Guards (侍衛), also known as the Guards Army (武衛軍). Another modernized, Western unit, the Guards are trained in the style of the Regular Army and are formed by infantry, cavalry, and artillery units for a total of 10,000 men, but are expected to be more disciplined and are recruited almost entirely from the remains of the Manchu bannermen. The Guards are indoctrinated in loyalty to the Emperor and to the Qing dynasty, and are used as an elite force to guard Beijing and to resist any potential unrest or coup attempts, much like during the Boxer Rebellion, when during the command of Prince Zaiyi, its predecessor, the Hushenying, defended the Forbidden City against Boxer units. After the rebellion, the Hushenying were reorganized and united with handpicked members of the former Imperial Guard, which was essentially disbanded.

The final branch of the military is the Imperial Chinese Navy (清朝新式海軍), under the command of Admiral Sa Zhenbing. Despite previous large efforts at modernization, the failure of the Imperial Navy to defeat the Japanese in the Sino-Japanese War has shown the profound issues and cracks that existed in the navy at the time, and led to a massive reorganization with the Beiyang, Nanyang, Guangdong, and Fujian Fleets being reorganized into the Sea Fleet and the River Fleet, under a single command, with the failure in the war leading to the dismissal of the regional commanders which had refused to cooperate, and with efforts for modernization being redoubled with a larger budget. The promotion of Sa Zhenbing to admiral was part of a larger effort of promoting meritorious officers who had studied abroad, with the navy attempting to take inspiration from Western navies, with the use of various Western advisors at the Weihaiwei Naval Academy. In particular, harsh efforts have been undertaken to punish corruption, to increase the available ammunition stocks, to improve coordination and the use of signals, and to undertake regular gunnery practice.

Currently the navy consists of 3 pre-dreadnought battleships, 4 ironclads, 2 coastal battleships, 7 protected cruisers, 10 cruisers, 15 destroyers and 20 torpedo boats.

Outside of the military, the Qing can in times of war call upon militia forces known as brave camps, or Yong Ying (勇營), with their funding provided by local civilians. Such units would be poorly armed, with swords, spears, and old firearms, and there is a general intention at the level of the Qing government not to call for such troops again.
Alliances: None.
Diplomatic Policy: China's diplomatic policy is mainly aimed at ending the current state of affairs in which the country is treated as a semi-colonial state by the great powers, and significant effort has been placed into developing better relations with the great powers in general.
  • Germany has been a great focus of Qing diplomacy due to the good relations between the two states and the level of influence that Germany has among the Self-Strengthening Movement, which has led to Germany sending a military mission and being the main military equipment supplier for the Imperial Army. There is however a belief that Germany might be forced to choose between Beijing and Saint Petersburg if the situation in Manchuria were to deteriorate, in which case Germany would clearly lean towards its European ally, but figures within the Qing court hope that a German mediation could perhaps resolve the issue.
  • The United States also enjoys a relatively good relation with Beijing and attempts have been made to further court American support due to their Open Door Policy and commitment to Chinese territorial integrity.
  • British relations, initially fraught due to their status as the first power to force unequal treaties on China, has improved in recent years with Britain building ships for the Imperial Navy, and with the Mackay Treaty of 1902 indicating that Britain would be willing to abandon its rights to extraterritoriality when Chinese legal reform would be completed.
  • Relations with France were complicated by tensions around French Indochina, and the Sino-French war, but recently, with French hostility towards Russia and French support for the Ottomans in Europe, there have been efforts to court French support in exchange for limiting Russian interests.
  • Relations with Russia are almost collapsed, due to a widespread belief in the Qing court that the Russians have broken the Sino-Russian Secret Treaty of 1896 by not helping China against Japan in the Sino-Japanese War and by continuing to illegally occupy Manchuria after having used the Boxer Rebellion as an excuse to occupy the region far beyond the limits of the treaty of 1896 and the Pavlov Agreement of 1898. Beijing continues to protest the Russian occupation of Manchuria and to ask Saint Petersburg to withdraw its forces, and with the start of the Russo-Japanese War, the Qing have used the continued Russian occupation and the danger of dragging Manchuria as a whole in the war as a reason to suspend its payment of the loans that it had to pay back to Russia and to stop the favorable tariff rates that had been granted to Russian merchants and to the Russo-Chinese Bank, while some figures in court go as far as to ask for the Qing to declare the Pavlov Agreement forfeit and to demand the return of Port Arthur from the Russians. The faction in the Chinese government that has initially signed the Sino-Russian Secret Treaty does still exist despite the death of Li Hongzhang, and they argue that Japan is a much bigger threat to Qing rule and that China should do its utmost to help Russia - including by directly entering the war, but such a measure would be difficult to imagine without significant concessions by Russia.
  • Relations with Japan are fraught due to the humiliation of the Qing with their defeat in the Sino-Japanese War, the Japanese occupation of Taiwan, and the large war reparations that the Qing are still paying to Tokyo. They have grown even more complicated due to the recent war that has started near China's borders, with a belief shared by many in Beijing that the Japanese wish to instead occupy Manchuria and Port Arthur by themselves - a humiliation that the Qing couldn't possibly accept. A pro-Japanese faction has however developed in the government, influenced by the traditional respect and admiration for the Meiji reforms shared by many among the Self-Strengthening Movement and revolutionary groups alike, and they argue for reaching an agreement with Japan in order to help recover Manchuria, considered more important than Taiwan due to its close proximity to Beijing.


History Changes:
  • Early 1860 - the modernized forces of the Ever Victorious Army join the troops of the Green Standard Army in their push against the Taiping Rebels. While most Green Standard forces were routed by the daring Taiping counterattack, the arrival of the Ever Victorious Army as reinforcements took the rebels by surprise. The Battle of Jiangnan ends in a Qing victory, and Nanking is taken by July.
  • 1860-1862 - The failure of the Green Standard Forces and the contribution of the Ever Victorious Army leads to a reorganization of imperial forces under the command of generals such as Zeng Guofan, Zuo Zongtang and Li Hongzhang. Most of the Taiping princes were executed, and the imperial forces routed the remaining Taiping forces, with the rebellion finally stamped out by early 1862.
  • 1863: Sir Robert Hart becomes the head of the Imperial Maritime Customs Service, and petitions the Imperial Court with the proposal to establish national mint and post office. His proposal, although worded quite harshly, was presented to court due to his friendship with Prince Gong, who overruled the opposition of Empress Dowager Cixi. Her opposition to the proposal based solely on the "tone of the language" of Robert Hart was the first of many acts which eventually led to the development of a rift between Cixi and Prince Gong due to their different opinions in regards to how quickly reforms should be implemented.
  • April 1865 - Empress Dowagers Ci'an and Cixi publicly reprimanded Prince Gong and stripped him of his position as Prince-Regent. Several court officials, including Prince Chun, asked the two Empress Dowagers to restore Prince Gong to his position as Prince-Regent, they refused. Prince Gong, already having built a powerful network of allies in court, and feeling betrayed by the actions of Cixi in particular, Prince Gong forms an unofficial alliance with liberal Manchu nobles and with pro-reform Han figures like Zeng Guoquan, along with Li Hongzhang, Zuo Zongtang, all of them having had experience in fighting against the Taiping.Prince Gong outmaneuveres Cixi, and together with the Grand Council, acted to oust the two Empresses. Ci'an and Cixi were exiled to the Shenyang Imperial Palace, away from Beijing's politics. This marks a second beginning of the Self-Strengthening Movement, with the more liberal faction of Prince Gong in charge.
  • 1865-1875: Under the Self-Strengthening Movement, a continuous series of reforms were implemented in an attempt to strengthen the state. Following the establishment of the School of Combined Learning, the Tongwen Guan, in Beijing, a series of similar colleges were established throughout the major cities, teaching foreign languages and knowledge. The Imperial Examinations were reformed following proposals by Li Hongzhang, by removing the requirement to write eight-legged essays and by introducing Western subjects, with mathematics, science, commerce, and Western languages being added gradually. Bureaus of Western Learning were established in coastal cities to attract foreign teachers and native students, and graduating from such bureaus or from a Tongwen Guan was considered equivalent to graduating the imperial examinations. The Imperial Court also started to sponsor the sending of bright young students to study abroad, particularly in Prussia and in the United States, this program was subsequently expanded. Following the recommendations of sir Hart, the Qing also established a Customs College in Shanghai in order to train Chinese to serve in the Imperial Maritime Customs Service. The valuable revenue coming from the Customs Service convinced the reformers that further changes were needed. The national mint that had been previously established proposed the establishment of a new stabilized currency, taking inspiration from similar changes happening in Japan. The Imperial Bank of China was established in 1872, alongside a new currency, the yuan, having parity with the Mexican silver dollar. The Board of Revenue was reorganized and the grain tax was abolished, switching to a silver tax and a universal land tax, and increasing taxes in order to collect the revenue that the state needed, in particular, officials were instructed to encourage the use of the new currency. In order to improve taxation, which began to be centralized, it was also established that land ownership had to be registered, with the establishment of several land surveys that would take decades to complete. The new revenue was used, alongside the paying of indemnities, to invest into the textile industry, by acquiring foreign steam mills, and in the expansion of Western trained units such as the Peking Field Force. By the suggestion of Li Hongzhang, the first railways and telegraph lines were also developed - with some of them paid for by the Qing, and with others built through the use of foreign loans. By 1872, following proposals from Shen Baozhen, the Chinese started to send cadets in France and England to staff the newly formed Beiyang Fleet.

    In 1873, the Tongzhi Emperor was nominally given personal rule, but Prince Gong continued to have great influence through his position in the Grand Council. The Emperor's decision to rebuild the Summer Palace which had been destroyed by foreign troops during the Second Opium War was rejected by Prince Gong as a waste of resources - criticizing the decision in court. The young monarch, without any ability, withdrew his edict, and continued to focus more on pleasures and escapades, and he eventually fell sick and died, on the 13 of January 1875, the Tongzhi Emperor died, reportedly from smallpox. Much like in real life, this led to the establishment of a succession crisis, with Prince Gong refusing to crown one of his descendants, instead, the young Zaitian, son of Prince Chun, was enthroned as the Guangxu Emperor, with the Prince Gong reclaiming his earlier title of Prince-Regent. Considering that the traditional upbringing of the Tongzhi Emperor had been a failure, Prince Gong to decided to give the new monarch an additional Western training.
  • 1875-1894: With the iron-fisted Prince Gong strengthening his power, reforms continued. Corruption became the biggest issue to tackle, and while efforts in that direction were not perfect, the situation was improved by the dual focuses of increasing centralization and cutting down on the bureaucracy in order to balance the government spending on modernization. The Imperial Censorate was also expanded, usually with younger and reformist Han Chinese officials, and began the arduous task of tackling regional corruption, while central corruption in Beijing was fought alongside the attempts of reformists to limit the influence of the conservative remains of the Manchu court. Officers started to be sent to study abroad, particularly in Japan, Germany, Britain and France. After noticing the difficulty experienced by native merchants in competing with foreigners, the state began to sponsor native merchants and companies, like the China Merchants' Steam Company.

    The Sino-French War technically ended with a French victory, but the modernized Qing forces fought relatively well, particularly in the failed French invasion of Taiwan. The lack of cooperation from some of the southern Viceroys during this war was used as an opportunity to recall them, subsequently, the Imperial Court did not appoint others. By 1885, the position of Viceroy was disbanded, and the 22 provinces were reorganized under governors and were further subdivided into prefectures, increasing central oversight.
  • 1894-1895 - The Sino-Japanese War. The clash between the modern Beiyang Fleet of the Qing and the Japanese naval forces ends in a defeat for the Qing navy, which despite its modernization and good material situation was unable to match the tactical prowess of the Japanese. Korea joined the war alongside Japan, and while modern Qing forces did well, like the Beiyang Army in their defense during the Battle of Weihaiwei, Green Standard forces and Yong Ying forces proved no match for the Japanese Army. With the fall of Port Arthur and the withdrawal of the remains of the Beiyang Fleet to the south in fear of another Japanese attack, the approaches to Beijing were open, and the Qing were forced to sue for peace much like in real life.
    At home, this disastrous defeat proved to be the end of the old generation of reformers. Prince Gong, Li Hongzhang, Yuan Shikai and others in his clique were removed from power by a coup d'etat organized by the young Guangxu Emperor and a clique of other young reformers, beginning the Guangxu Reforms.
  • 1895-1900 - With faith in the dynasty and in the reforms badly shaken by the defeat against Japan, the Emperor and his reformist advisors acted quickly in order to address what they perceived to have been shortcomings in the reforms of previous decades. Kang Youwei, Liang Qichao and other reformist students were put into positions of power, outmaneuvering the rest of the Manchu court with the help of the loyal unit of the Hushenying in the capital. Conservative opponents like Prince Duan and Ronglu were executed, and many Han Chinese were promoted into positions of power to counterbalance the remains of the Manchu aristocracy. The Grand Council was abolished by imperial decree, instead replaced by a new Advisory Council chaired by Kang Youwei, and which included former Japanese Prime Minister Itō Hirobumi, included due to his experience in the Meiji reforms. The traditional examination system was abolished, turning all traditional academies into Western-based schools based on the model of the Schools of Combined Learning. The Peking University was created, and agricultural schools were also ordered to be created throughout the provinces. The bureaucracy was reformed, both to secure the power of the new clique and to remove sinecures, with significant reorganizations of both the central and regional governments. In the regions, the Baojia system was abolished, the military powers of governors were removed, and a modern police system inspired after the Japanese one was created. The central government underwent further reform. By 1896, the Advisory Council petitioned the Emperor to implement "the separation of the three powers" and a "constitutional government" over a 12 years period. The Emperor ordered the Advisory Council to set up an "Inspection of the Political Pavilions", to study the political systems of foreign countries and to prepare a report, visiting foreign countries including Japan, Germany, and the US. Next year, the Emperor decreed the beginning of Preparatory Constitutionalism, establishing a Parliamentary Institute in Beijing and Preparatory Constitutional Guilds throughout the country, to prepare the people for the establishment of constitutional rule. By 1897, by imperial decree, the government announced the Constitutional Outline, announcing the election of provisional provincial advisory councils and of a pre-parlamentary body, the Central Advisory Council, by next year, with a constitutional monarchy expected to be introduced within 9 years. In order to support this transition, the Great Qing Legal Code was replaced by a new civil and a new penal code, essentially inspired by the French Civil Code and the German Penal Code. The Three Departments and Six Ministries were reorganized as the First Imperial Cabinet under Kang Youwei, with the Ministries of War, Finances, Civil Affairs and a new Foreign Ministry to replace the Zongli Yamen.
    Eager to further cement their control, the reformists also understood the necessity to create a new armed force. This began with the creation of the Commission for Army Reorganization, formed by Chinese reformists and foreign advisors like Constantin von Hanneken in 1896, a year later, the commission issued its recommendations. The Green Standard Army and the Eight Banners were officially disbanded as military forces with their budgets cut and demobilization, instead, the Emperor decreed the formation of a New Army, the Imperial Chinese Army, from the remains of modern forces such as the Peking Field Force and the Beiyang Army. With help from Constantin von Hanneken, Germany send a comprehensive military mission to oversee military reforms and the Chinese state continued to acquire significant levels of foreign equipment. The navy was also reorganized, with the regional fleets brought together under a single command. Forces such as the Hushenying were reorganized into the Imperial Guard Corps, kept as a loyal force in Beijing. Germany also built several shipyards in the Shandong peninsula, hiring German experts and native workers in an attempt to further develop a domestic shipbuilding industry.
    Other reforms included the practice of sending members of the imperial family to study abroad, which hoped to limit conservatism among the ruling elite, the end of the queue mandate, a preliminary land reform, with land held by the state as military land being given to farmers, the creation of a Bureau for Railways and Mines, and of trade schools for traditional Chinese crafts. The Advisory Council also redoubled Qing efforts to invest into the industrialization of the country, with a particular focus on manufacturing, and taxes were increased to help pay for the modernization and to pay the war reparations owed to Japan, and the Bureau of Investigations and Censoring was set up under the Advisory Council with the stated goal of combating internal enemies and corruption - which in part also led to policies meant to pressure Manchu nobles to giving voluntary "donations" to help cover the increased budget deficit. In Foreign Affairs, despite the opposition of Itō Hirobumi, the reformists signed the Secret Sino-Russian Treaty, on June 3, 1896, with the Russians promising to maintain the territorial integrity of China and to help defend against future Japanese attacks, alongside providing loans through the Russo-Chinese Bank, while the Qing granted concessions like in real life. This however had the unintended effect of increasing anti-foreign sentiment in China - with the Russian presence in Manchuria angering the now mostly destitute Manchu bannermen, who began to join the organization known as the Boxers in ever greater numbers.
  • 1900: The Boxer Rebellion. The situation had degraded throughout Northern China already, and much like in real life the Boxer Rebellion spread quickly, killing foreigners and missionaries. The Qing proved to be unable to deal with them, in particular due to their military reforms still being ongoing, with the Imperial Court unwilling to move its best units from Huguang and Shandong. Instead, they tried to rely on lower quality troops like the Muslim Gansu units and the Manchu units of Zaiyi. This backfired, as such units mostly supported the Boxers - and the Imperial Court hesitated to bloodily suppress rebels that at least still in name, supported the dynasty. In June however, the situation got out of control, with German soldiers executing a Boxer boy, and the Boxers breaking into Beijing, supported by the local forces which rebelled, and besieging the foreign legations. The Emperor tried to personally order the Qing units in the capital to fight against the borders, but the Boxer mobs refused to recognize him and attacked him - with the Emperor being sheltered by the Guard Corps and brought back to the Forbidden City. The mood in the city changed rapidly, with the Boxers starting to shout the traditional slogan of "Oppose the Qing and Restore the Ming". Imperial Guard Units were blocked in the Forbidden City, and the Qing government finally called in Imperial Army units, and agreed to work alongside the foreign powers. Using Boxer attacks on railroads in Manchuria, the Russians mobilized their own forces and intervened, invading the region. Imperial units from Shandong joined the Seymour Expedition and marched towards Beijing, defeating Gansu forces in the Battle of Langfang, and eventually reaching Beijing, liberating the legations and massacring the Boxers alongside the Guard Units. Ultimately, the Qing and the foreign powers agreed to sign the Boxer Protocols, agreeing to pay an indemnity to the foreign powers for the damage and deaths, and allowing them to fortify and guard the legation quarters. In return, the foreign powers agreed to withdraw their forces from elsewhere.
  • 1900-1905- While the situation remained somewhat unstable due to the chaos in Beijing, the Rebellion was used as an excuse by the reformists to further make moves against the conservatives and anti-foreigners, and modernized Imperial Army units were used to further cleanse the countryside of Boxers and other political opponents. To win back the trust of the common people, the Advisory Council and the Parliamentary Institute petitioned the Emperor to allow for the first parliamentary elections ahead of time - and the emperor agreed. The election was indirect, with each region creating their own Consultative Assemblies, with half of their members elected and half of their members appointed, but this marked the creation of a new Imperial Parliament known as the Imperial Court, with an indirectly elected Outer Court and an appointed Inner Court. The Advisory Council was replaced by the new Imperial Cabinet. Modernization reforms continued, particularly with the expansion of the Imperial Army and Navy. By 1901, the German-developed shipyards in Shandong began the construction of Shi Lang and Zheng He, two battleships built after the plans and specifications of the Braunschweig-class, to serve as the core of the navy, while other older ships were acquired from the Germans.
    Unfortunately, Russia refused to withdraw its forces from Manchuria, leading to rising tensions between Beijing and Saint Petersburg, and forcing the Qing to deploy military forces north of Beijing to guard against potential Russian aggression. By 1904, war started between Russia and Japan - the Qing remained neutral and in a difficult position, but with an increased push to join the war on one side or the other, and negotiations were started with both the Russians and the Japanese. By mid 1904, to put pressure on the Russians to withdraw from Manchuria, the Imperial Cabinet announced the end of any loan and indemnity payments to Russia. Later in the year, the first direct elections were organized for the Outer Court, with a broad Constitutionalist majority winning, but with a small minority of the generally revolutionary Revive China Society entering parliament - with the Emperor being convinced to ratify the results of the elections by the Cabinet.


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Postby Shohun » Wed Nov 29, 2023 7:30 pm

Nationstates Name: Shohun
Nation Name: Ottoman Empire

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Postby Shohun » Thu Nov 30, 2023 3:55 am

Nationstates Name: Shohun
Nation Name: Ottoman Empire
Capital: Constantinople
Territory: IRL Ottoman Empire in 1905
Population: 20,975,345 (official, millions uncounted across Empire)
Official Language: Ottoman Turkish
Recognized Languages: Arabic, Persian, Greek, Chagatai, French, many other smaller ones
Flag:
Image

National Anthem (optional): Hamidiye Marşı

Head of State: Sultan and Caliph Abdul Hamid II
HoS Picture:
Image

Head of Government: Grand Vizier Mehmed Ferid Pasha
HoG Picture (If different from HoS):
Image

Legislature Name: General Assembly
Party in Power (If bicameral note who controls each): Committee of Union and Progress controls the Chamber of Deputies, while the upper Senate is appointed by the Sultan

Major Domestic Issues:
Internal Unrest: The old dispute between the Sultan and the Young Turks continues to brew, as the Sultan and his loyalists fight to hang onto power. For their part, the Young Turks are unsatisfied with the concessions from the Sultan, and are demanding for a more democratic and Westernized government.

A Big Empire: With so many ethnic groups combined into one nation, there is significant tension across the Empire. Already numerous provinces of the Empire have revolted or become autonomous, threatening the Sultan's grip on power. While battling Armenians in the Caucasus, the Ottoman government has a lot of work to do to ensure Jews, Muslims, and Christians can live side by side.

Major Foreign Issues:
The Russian Menace: Following several wars with Russia culminating in the Russo-Ottoman War in 1878, the Ottoman Empire remain under threat. The Russians insist on territorial expansion, and it is widely feared they may attempt to go to war once again. The Sultan, embarrassed after the previous war, has remained bent on liberating lost Turkish territories as soon as the Empire has a chance.

The Public Debt: Prior to 1875, the Empire owed a vast sum of money to European powers, totaling 224.5 million British pounds. Following a default and subsequent European intervention, the Ottoman Public Debt Administration was formed under European control, allowing the Empire to slowly decrease its debt. Now, the Empire has paid off 90% of its debts, and seeks to finally be free of the financial burden.

Balkan Troubles: To the West, the Empire is surrounded by a mix of former provinces and enemies. Number one on the list are the rebellious Greeks, whom the Ottomans have fought on more than one occasion. Bulgaria and Austria-Hungary are considered too close to Russia for comfort, with an unstable balance of power causing concern in Constantinople.

The Straits: As per the London Straits Convention, the straits are closed to any foreign warships, except for the Sultan's allies during wartime. With the hostile Russians to the north, there are concerns if this arrangement will remain in place, and if the Empire's allies will come to its defense once again.

GDP: $1.2 Billion
Currency: Ottoman Lira
Economic Policy Overview: For much of its history, the Ottoman economy has been primarily agrarian, relying on farming to generate revenue. In the later 1700s, a manufacturing industry would be developed, focusing on textiles but later being expanded to other goods such as iron and paper. With a significant amount of resources strewn across the Empire, development was enabled, utilizing coal from Lebanon to drive the steam revolution. The Empire saw military expansion of currency, more emphasis on manufacturing and industry in the wealth-power-wealth equation, and a shift towards capitalist economics comprising expanding industries and markets.

Military Information: The Military of the Ottoman Empire consists of the Ottoman Army, Ottoman Navy, and Ottoman Gendarmerie, consisting of an official peacetime strength of 870,00 active and reserve personnel. During wartime, it is expected that around 3 million men could be called up for service, with many young men across the Empire being familiar with firearms due to hunting or other local defensive duties.

The Ottoman Army consists of 400,000 active soldiers and 340,000 reservists in seven armies. Following the defeat of Ottoman forces in the Russo-Ottoman War, the Sultanate was quick to pursue modernization of the ground forces under the advice of French and British advisors. The Ottoman Army would soon adopt French military standards in its modernization program, including the adoption of the Lebel Model 1886 rifle as the standard infantry weapon. It would extensively purchase French equipment, and additionally acquired rights for licensed production or based Ottoman weapons after French designs and influences. In later modernization and reform following political upheaval, the Army would introduce further standards to limit corruption in the military.

The Imperial Guard is the most elite formation in the entire Ottoman Army, consisting of 36,000 soldiers who are under the direct command of the Sultan. These elite soldiers are well trained by Western advisors, have the best equipment the Empire can offer, and many of its officers have studied abroad in Western military schools. During peacetime, the Imperial Guard is primarily responsible for protecting the Sultan, his government and his palaces, but during wartime the three divisions that are each 12,000 strong can be utilized as a frontline force. The 1st and 2nd Imperial Guards Divisions are deployed to Constantinople, while currently the 3rd Imperial Guards Division is forward deployed to the former capital city of Adrianople.

The First Army consists of the 1st and 2nd Infantry Divisions, as well as the 1st Cavalry Division and 1st Artillery Division, along with four reserve infantry divisions for a total of 36,000 active and 40,000 reserve troops. It is headquartered in Selimiye, Constantinople, and is primarily tasked with defending Constantinople and the Bosporus.

The Second Army consists of of the 3rd, 4th, 20th, and 21st Infantry Divisions, as well as the 2nd Cavalry Division, 2nd Artillery Division, and Adrianople Fortress Artillery Regiment. It is supported by six reserve infantry divisions and 1 reserve infantry brigade for a total of 58,000 active and 61,000 reserve troops. It is headquartered in Adrianople and is primarily tasked with defending Thrace and the Dardanelles Strait. The 2nd Army is tasked with the important role of defending the Empire from attacks in the Balkans. It is currently arrayed on the northern border, in preparation of defending against a Russian attack.

The Third Army consists of the 5th, 6th, 17th, and 18th Infantry Divisions, as well as the 3rd Cavalry Division and four Fortress Artillery Battalions. It is supported by twelve reserve infantry divisions, totaling 50,000 active and 120,000 reserve troops. It is headquartered in Salonica and is responsible for defending Western Rumelia. It is primarily arrayed to defend against Greek attack, or in the Balkans.

The Fourth Army consists of the 7th, 8th, 19th, and 23rd Infantry Divisions, as well as the 4th and 5th Cavalry Divisions, 4th Artillery Division, Erzurum Fortress Artillery Regiment, and one Artillery Battalion. It is supported by six reserve infantry divisions, totaling 61,000 active and 60,000 reserve troops. It is headquartered in Erzurum and is responsible for defending the Caucasian frontier against Russian attack.

The Fifth Army consists of the 9th, 10th, and 15th Infantry Divisions, as well as the 5th Artillery Division and sixteen Fortress Artillery Battalions. It is not supported by any reserve units, and totals 52,000 active troops. It is headquartered in Çanakkale and is tasked with defending the Dardanelles utilizing fortifications, artillery positions, torpedo nets, and during wartime, minefields.

The Sixth Army consists of the 11th, 12th, 16th and 22nd Infantry Divisions, as well as the 15th Artillery Brigade. It is supported by four reserve infantry divisions, totaling 43,000 active and 40,000 reserve troops. It is headquartered in Baghdad and is responsible for defending Mesopotamia.

The Seventh Army consists of the 13th and 14th Infantry Divisions, as well as the 1st Cavalry Regiment and the 1st Artillery Regiment. It is supported by two reserve infantry divisions, totaling 24,000 active and 20,000 reserve troops. It is officially headquartered in Jerusalem but is tasked with defending Arabia and Yemen.

Besides the army commands, several independent units exist, including the Hamidiye cavalry units that patrol the Ottoman-Russian frontier. Their ranks are primarily made up of Kurdish troops, who have been trained and modeled after Russian Cossacks. They number 20,000 strong in several units dispersed along the border.

Other small independent units also exist, serving as a garrison for local isolated towns or on the various island territories of the Empire.

The Ottoman Navy, once the third best in the world has been severely degraded over time. It is manned by 70,000 active personnel and 20,000 reservists. The Ottoman Navy currently consists of 2 Battleships, 9 Cruisers, 12 Destroyers, 47 Torpedo Boats, 14 Ironclads, 1 River Monitor, 3 Corvettes, 20 Minelayers, 4 Screw Corvettes, 2 Training Steam Frigates, and 1 Submarine.

While by no means a powerful enough force to challenge most Western navies, it has become a more capable force following French assistance capable of protecting itself and controlling the Dardanelles. It has recently embarked on a modernization and rearmament program, focused on procuring more heavy warships for the fleet as well as the repair and modernization of older vessels.

Several small units of the navy serve as ground troops to protect fortresses and naval bases. These have been dubbed the Navy Security Brigades. All sailors and naval personnel are given basic ground combat training, and are expected to be able to serve alongside Army units if necessary during wartime.

The Ottoman Gendarmerie consists of 40,000 active personnel who serve as both military and civilian law enforcement. Acting effectively as a police force and militia, it can be transferred to the Ministry of War, wherein it will undertake military duties as a combat force.

The Yıldız Intelligence Agency is most powerful intelligence agency and secret police in the entire Empire, boasting a powerful network of over 30,000 agents, spies, detectives, officers, and collaborators. While not an official branch of the military, the agency reports directly to the Sultan and his ministers. While kept in high secrecy, agents are said to be deployed to Paris to collaborate with French partners, as well as on missions in London, Brussels, Vienna, Rome, Geneva, Cairo, Moscow, Dubrovnik, New Delhi, Berlin, and many other cities. Spread across the world, the Sultan receives over 3,000 reports each month, which he or his ministers personally read, with each being stored for future reference. The primary duties of the agency is focused on preventing internal revolt or dissident, as well as Turkish movements against the Empire outside its borders. Despite this, the agency also follows international activities closely.

Other Military Info: The Empire cooperates closely with smaller tribes that inhabit the Empire and in the Middle East, which can serve military purposes. In addition, within the Empire are numerous autonomous provinces, such as the Khedivate of Egypt, the Kava of Kuwait, the Kaza of Qatar, Eastern Rumelia, and the Principality of Bulgaria, which operate their own armies or militias, offering aid as well as posing a threat to Ottoman control over the region.

Alliances: Franco-Ottoman Alliance
Diplomatic Policy: The Ottomans are actively seeking out as many allies as possible, including working to maintain and improve relations with the British, Austria-Hungary, United States, and other major powers. The Ottomans have taken a stance against Russia due to tensions and the previous conflict, resulting in an aggressive foreign policy to improve the Empire and counter hostile interests.

History Changes (Subject to review and approval by OP and Co-OP):

Following the Russo-Ottoman War and the Congress of Berlin, the Young Turk movement in the Empire pressures Sultan Abdul Hamid II to maintain the constitution, while accepting several amendments affording the Sultan greater control. Plagued with debt and a declining Empire, the Sultan would reach out to European allies for assistance, culminating in the creation of the Public Debt Administration.

In 1882, the Urabi Revolt would lead to the effective British occupation of Egypt, angering the Sultan. Realizing his inaction (due to paranoia the mobilized Army would revolt against him) was to blame, the Sultan would vow an active foreign policy to prevent further encroachment into Ottoman territories. As part of a diplomatic effort, the Empire would sign a deal with France in 1885, forming a mutual defense alliance and receiving French assistance rebuilding the navy.

Such assistance would prove useful in the Ottoman-Greek war of 1897, although the Empire would continue to lose ground elsewhere. At the start of the war between Russia and Japan in 1904, the Sultan has been excited to learn news of the results, publicly voicing support for Japan while the Ottoman Army plots to liberate its lost lands and rebuilt the country.


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Postby Intermountain States » Fri Dec 01, 2023 9:15 pm

Nationstates Name: Intermountain States
Nation Name: Empire of Korea

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Intermountain States
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Postby Intermountain States » Fri Dec 01, 2023 9:25 pm

Nationstates Name: Intermountain States
Nation Name: Empire of Korea
Capital: Hanseong (Seoul)
Territory: Korean Peninsula and Jeju Island, Gando region (claimed); essentially IRL territories of the Korean Empire
Population: 17,123,000
Official Language: Korean
Recognized Languages: N/A
Flag: Flag of the Korean Empire
National Anthem (optional): Patriotic Hymn of the Great Korean Empire

Head of State: Gwangmu Emperor (Yi Myeong-bok)
HoS Picture: Gwangmu Emperor
Head of Government: Prime Minister Han Kyu-seol
HoG Picture (If different from HoS): Prime Minister Han Kyu-seol
Legislature Name: Jeongchuwon
Party in Power (If bicameral note who controls each): Royalist Party

Major Domestic Issues: Reactionary oppositions to western ideologies in Korea, liberal calls for democratic reforms
Major Foreign Issues: Safeguarding Korea's independence as a small nation neighboring the large countries of China, Russia, and Japan.

GDP: $1,051,380,000.00
Currency: Won
Economic policy Overview: Free market capitalism with some state control in certain sectors of the economy.

Military Information: The Gwangmu Reforms reorganized the Army and the Navy of the Joseon Dynasty into a modern western-style military of the Imperial Korean Army and the Imperial Korean Navy.

The Imperial Korean Army consists of the imperial guards based in the capital, the central military concerned with national defense, and the provincial armies raised by the eight provinces. Initial trainings were done by foreign officers prior to the establishment of the Yeonmugongwon (연무공원, 鍊武公院), or the Military Academy of the Korean Empire with the purpose of an officer training program to allow for an indigenous officer corps to lead the military into battle. The Imperial Korean Army utilizes foreign designs for firearms and artillery with weapon manufactured by domestic factories such as Yongsan Military Factory. Training and armaments aren't exactly standardized with armaments and training of the military being from the western powers and Japan.

The Imperial Korean Navy received less attention compared to the Imperial Korean Army. Unlike the early to mid Joseon dynasty where the navy was of great importance, the Imperial Korean Navy had no significant naval forces outside of coastal fortresses. Efforts were made to address this however. The Korean government purchased two vessels from Japan; the KIS Yangmu and the KIS Guangjae (although the KIS Yangmu was better used as a cargo ship as its intended role) and established the Korean Imperial Navy Academy, or the Tongjaeyonghakdang (통제영학당, 統制營學堂), constructed on Ganghwa Island and produced so far 160 naval officers. Efforts are made to purchase more vessels from outside sources, although there are plans to have some of the coastal cities establish yards for shipbuilding.

Militias known as the Righteous Army, or Uibyeong (의병, 義兵), have appeared several times throughout the history of Korea when the national armies were in need of assistance against foreign invaders ever since the Khitan and Mongol invasions of Goryeo, and the Japanese and Manchu invasions of Joseon. Peasants, scholars, former government officials, religious monks, merchants, artisans, anyone regardless of background and social status made up members of these irregular militias. While most of these righteous armies are equipped with hunting equipment and farming tools rather than state-of-the-art weapons employed by the Imperial Army, the irregular militias make up for their equipment shortcomings with patriotic fervor and knowledge of home terrain. Lately, with the advent of western and Japanese encroachment into Korea, there were reports made of an increase of activity and membership into the Righteous Army, including remnants of the Donghak rebels. Some cells of the Righteous Army have presence in the black market or had enlistees in the imperial military to procure modern weapons for the preparation of a call to arms against possible foreign invasions. Officially, the imperial government does not acknowledge the existence of the Righteous Army nor endorse their activities. Unofficially, conservative elements of the government are in contact with individual cells as fear of foreign encroachment into Korea grows.

Alliances: Not so much alliances but treaties of cooperation and non-aggression with the western powers, Japan, and China.
Diplomatic Policy: Korea maintains a diplomatic policy of an attempt to be friendly to the major powers based in the Pacific in an effort to retain its newly gained independence from Chinese influence, believing that having the country act as a middle man would increase its worth as a neutral partner in the global market. Korea would put particular importance on policies that would aim at friendly relations with the major powers based in the Pacific

History Changes (Subject to review and approval by OP and Co-OP): The Japanese sponsored series of sweeping reforms known as the Gabo Reform starting in 1894 by the pro-Japanese government was more successful in pursuing much needed modernization in the country. Such reforms met the demands of the Donghak peasant rebels in areas regards to land reforms, abolition of social status and slavery, and fiscal changes while still straying from more radical changes that would incite opposition from moderate and conservative scholars like the requirement of shorter hairs. Although the reforms still saw some form of opposition from conservative officials, the success of these reforms did allow for Korea to be open to a later series of reforms initiated by Emperor Gwangmu from 1897 known as the Gwangmu Reform. The Gabo reform also lead to the creation of a modern, Japanese trained military and police force.

The deployment of both Chinese and Japanese forces in the assistance of the Joseon military in suppressing the remnants of the Donghak Peasant rebels still occurred, leading to tensions between Qing China and Japan and the beginning of the Sino-Japanese War. Elements of the Gabo Cabinet saw an opportunity for Korea to break free from China's sphere of influence and petitioned the King to approve of sending the Japanese trained soldiers to assist in the conflict, to which the King agreed to after the Japanese victory at Pyeongyang in 1894. During the conflict, the Korean military stationed at the Hamgyong province would cross the border and seize the dispute Gando region from Qing forces. In the Treaty of Shimonoseki, China was forced to cede the Gando region to Korea and recognize Korea as no longer part of its imperial tributary system. Korea would declare itself as an Empire, elevating King Yi Myeong-bok as an Emperor in 1895 with the era name of Gwangmu.

However, relations between Japan and Korea took a hit over the influence Empress Min Ja-yeong, who started to favor pro-Russian officials in the modernization of the military. Such was temporary as the pro-Japanese officials would regain the favor of the Gwangmu Emperor and regain friendly ties with Japan. The assassination attempt of the Empress never occurred due to cooler heads prevailing in Japan. While Korea would officially maintain equal relations with the major powers of the Pacific, the progressive Enlightenment Party would support closer ties with Japan, seeing it as the model oriental nation, while the conservative Royalist faction would look to Russia as a counterweight to Japan, being rather mistrustful of Japan's intent. Another group of small but not insignificant officials called the Independence Association would look to the United States as a third party force, although their influences are quite small and rather marginalized by both the Royalist and the Enlightenment Party.
Do not remove - LV426
Last edited by Intermountain States on Sun Dec 03, 2023 5:28 pm, edited 5 times in total.
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Chewion
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Posts: 20627
Founded: May 21, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby Chewion » Sat Dec 02, 2023 11:25 am

Nationstates Name: Chewion
Nation Name: German Empire
Capital: Berlin
Territory: IRL German Empire
Population: ~60 Million (Continental Germany only)
Official Language: German
Recognized Languages: German, Polish, French, Dutch, Russian, Lithuanian
Flag:
Image

National Anthem (optional):
Imperial Anthem

Head of State: Kaiser Wilhelm III
HoS Picture:
Image

Head of Government: Chancellor Herbert von Bismarck
HoG Picture (If different from HoS):
Image

Legislature Name: Reichstag and Bundesrat
Party in Power (If bicameral note who controls each):

Reichstag: German Conservative Party

Bundesrat: No party affiliation. Loyal to their "states".

Major Domestic Issues: Ethnic tensions in border regions, tensions between North and South, complicated bureaucracy and system.
Major Foreign Issues: Communard France, tensions with Britain, and threats in the overseas Empire.

GDP: 11.6 Billion
Currency: Goldmark
Economic policy Overview: Mostly free market with limited government interference.

Military Information:

Army: 609,758 overall size

1st Guards Infantry Division
2nd Guards Infantry Division
Guards Cavalry Division
1st - 40th Division
1st - 6th Royal Bavarian Division

Navy:

Kaiser-class ironclad x 3
Sachsen-class ironclad x 4
SMS Oldenburg (1884) Ironclad

Siegfried-class coastal defense ship x 7
Odin-class coastal defense ship x 2

Brandenburg-class battleship x 5
Kaiser Friedrich III-class battleship x 5
Wittelsbach-class battleship x 6
Braunschweig-class battleship x 6

Irene-class cruiser x 3
SMS Kaiserin Augusta cruiser
Victoria Louise-class cruiser x 5
SMS Fürst Bismarck cruiser
SMS Prinz Heinrich cruiser
Prinz Adalbert-class cruiser x 2 (Number 2 set to commission in January 1904)
SMS Sperber cruiser
Bussard-class cruiser x 6
SMS Gefion cruiser
Gazelle-class cruiser x 10
Bremen-class cruiser x 4

Blitz-class aviso x 2
SMS Greif Aviso
Blitz-class aviso x 2
Wacht-class aviso x 4

SM U-1 class U-Boats: 3

(Does not include reserve ships etc)

Alliances:

Diplomatic Policy: Germany pursues a more Bismarck-style realpoltick.

History Changes (Subject to review and approval by OP and Co-OP):

Following the Franco-Prussian war and the aftermath, Germany developed much like real-life until 1888 when Kaiser Frederick III was successfully cured of his cancer. This led Germany to continue on a path with Bismarck as Chancellor. Likewise, during the 1890s, Fredrick III pursued better relations with Russia while still expanding the colonial empire and a focus on military power much like real life with a difference of a much more "humanitarian" governing style being employed. Otto Von Bismarck would go on to serve as Chancellor until his death in 1898, when his son, Herbert von Bismarck, was appointed by Kaiser Frederick III as the new chancellor. Herbert continued in many of the same ways as his father although, he brought a more modern view to the table.

In the late 19th century, Germany grew close to China by providing arms, training, and even ships. In this endeavor, the Germans built several large naval slips for the Chinese as part of a larger cooperative deal which saw China use German naval designs and companies to help build up their navy.

Frederick III and Bismarck set out on a policy of continuing growing ties with France and Russia which saw the Empire sign treaties with both nations by 1902. Later that year, Frederick III passed away of natural causes and the Empire saw the rise of Kaiser Wilhelm II, however with the much longer influence of his father and a less traumatic birth, Wilhelm II ruled much more in line with his father than in real life, however, he still vehemently pushed for a stronger navy. Outside of Europe, the Empire continued its focus on colonialism and developed much like the real world with the notable change that the Herero and Namaqua genocide did not start due to Wilhelm III, who his father had placed in charge of Colonial Forces, forbidding his forces to "act in a barbaric way towards other children of God." Instead, the German Colonial forces rounded up and arrested those responsible for attacking settlers while increasing economic incentives to others to help quell any future tension. Benefits were also extended to native men who signed up to join the colonial armed forces in Namibia and other African colonies.

Tragedy struck the empire on December 31st, 1904 as Kaiser Wilhelm II died during an accident while hunting. Leaving his son, Wilhelm III to suddenly take the throne and become Kaiser unawares. Now, as 1904 starts, the fresh Kaiser prepares for the funeral of his father and his own official coronation while the world teeters on the edge.

Do not remove - Alpha777
Last edited by Chewion on Fri Dec 08, 2023 6:57 pm, edited 3 times in total.
Pro: America, guns, freedom, democracy, military, Trump, conservatism, Israel, capitalism, state rights.

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