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1905: Alternative Divergence [AH][OOC-OPEN]

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Alt Div Admin
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Founded: Dec 15, 2016
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

1905: Alternative Divergence [AH][OOC-OPEN]

Postby Alt Div Admin » Tue Jun 08, 2021 11:02 am

1905: Alternative Divergence

OOC THREAD








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“Men make their own history, but they do not make it as they please.”

– Karl Marx


But for the sake of argument, what if we could?

Be it a point of divergence or a whole new nation, what if we could make history EXACTLY at the point that we wish?





Hello and welcome to another Alternative Divergence, an alternative history RP where the world is yours to do whatever you wish. For the sake of continuity, the time now is 1905 C.E.. Europe is teetering on the brink of a war, as the rising tides of nationalism, militarism, and imperialism are threatening to drown the continent in blood and steel. In Asia, two dynasties are claiming the legacy of the Middle Kingdom, while other realms are competing with the Europeans for colonial supremacy. All while in America, tensions are rising between the descendants of colonists and the nations of natives, and the specter of colonialism is about to deeply pierce Africa's heart in a race for land and resources. What would be your vision of a world shaped by a nation that you call your own?





Again, for the sake of continuity, we should set a few ground rules.

  • All apps need a point of start and build-up – Whether you start from the stone age and build it up to 1905 or you simply change a few things here and there from the 1800’s is up to you, but we would like for all nations to have an interesting history behind them, in order to prove that you are a capable alternate history roleplayer.
  • All nations MUST be somewhat original – Let’s try to be a bit more creative than having Great Britain at all its glory. You can keep the name and title, but you must have some degree of difference between your nation and how it was in real life at this point in time.
  • Everything can be excused with reason – We are willing to let anything be possible as long as it is stated clearly in the app with a full explanation as to why it has come to be like that for your nation. Similarly, we will accept no changes without a proper explanation.
  • The Orient has technological parity with the Occident. – Some great powers of East Asia are technological equals of the great European powers. Not all nations in Europe and in Asia will be on the same technological level because of that, but Europe’s rule throughout the world will be contested.

And there should also be a few rules set in stone for claiming:

  • Reservations last for 48 hours. – The OP board reserves the right to be subjective in this matter, but generally reservations will last for two days and will be removed afterwards. Posting a work-in-progress app can earn you an additional 24 hours, but otherwise and especially if no reason is given, reservations will be null and void.
  • Colonial claims are reviewed separately – The OP board can and often will accept nations independently of their respective colonial claims. Colonial claims will be an area of competition between players and competing claims are inevitable, so until the launch of the IC, colonial claims will be treated as requests and will be awarded after deliberation by the board, so that they are realistic and so that everyone can be content with what they have. European claims in Africa will not be restricted solely to the coast, but due to the different situation the world is in, the Scramble for Africa has not yet ended.
  • Players can attempt to play other players’ colonies under certain conditions -In order to allow for more players to have a spot on the map, people will be able to play as the colonies of other nations, as long as they have the main nation’s player’s approval. Considering how important some colonies might be for players, people can reject such claims, but if accepted, the colonial governments can be played. Rules in such a situation would of course include that realism must be maintained – colonies can’t just instantly rebel against their masters, especially not in this time period, and the main nation will have the powers it realistically had over its colony in real life.


Nation Application

Code: Select all
[[Please remove all double brackets from the app before posting it, including this one]]
[b]Full Nation Name :[/b]
[b]Majority/Official Culture :[/b] [[What your people identify themselves with… French, Chinese, Iroquois, Touareg, etc.]]
[b]Territorial Core :[/b] [[The territory that your nation actually controls]]
[b]Territorial Claim :[/b] [[OPTIONAL]] [[The territories that your nation desires]]
[b]Capital City :[/b] [[Its IRL location and name]]
[b]Population :[/b]
     
[b]Government Type :[/b] [[Monarchy, Republic, etc.]]
[b]Government Ideology/Policies :[/b] [[OPTIONAL]] [[Militant, Imperialist, Expansionist, etc.]]
[b]Government Focus :[/b] [[Tell us a little bit about what your government’s focus is… be it military, economy, culture, legitimacy, etc.]]
[b]Head of State :[/b] [[The highest-ranking individual in the nation ]]
[b]Head of Government :[/b] [[If different, the highest-ranking individual who actually runs the nation]]
[b]Government Description :[/b]
     
[b]Majority/State Religion :[/b] [[It does not have to be IRL religion]]
[b]Religious Description :[/b] [[OPTIONAL]]
     
[b]Economic Ideologies :[/b] [[Capitalism, Mercantilism, etc.]]
[b]Major Production :[/b]
[b]Economic Description :[/b]

[b]Development:[/b] [[Modern, Semi-Industrialized, Industrializing or Unindustrialized]]
[b]Development Description :[/b] [[Explain further why your nation is in one of the above categories. A modern nation is at the level of one of Europe’s great industrial powers in OTL, a semi-industrialized nation could be best compared to smaller European powers or Russia, and Industrializing nation has begun its industrialization process, and an Unindustrialized power has no industry to speak of. ]]
     
[b]Army Description :[/b] [[Describe your nation's army in as much detail as you can]]
[b]Army Weakness :[/b]
[b]Naval Description :[/b] [[Describe your nation's navy in as much detail as you can]]
[b]Naval Weakness :[/b]
[b]Further Military Description :[/b] [[OPTIONAL]]
     
 [b]National Goals :[/b] [[What are the main objectives of your nation?]]
[b]National Issues :[/b] [[What needs to be fixed in order for your nation to achieve its true potential?]]
[b]National Figures of Interest :[/b] [[OPTIONAL]] [[Are there any Mother Teresas or Moses that we need to know about?]]
[b]National Ambition/Aspirations :[/b] [[OPTIONAL]] [[Not really set objectives, but rather the big picture that your nation is drawing towards]]
     
[b]History :[/b] [[Can be formatted in paragraphs or as a bulletpoint timeline.]]
[b]RP Sample:[/b] [[Either a link to a past post, or an example written right here.]]
     
#AltDiv (Do not delete this, it is used to keep track of the apps)

Reservations

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[align=middle][size=140][u]Reservation[/u][/size][/align]
[b]Nation Name:[/b]
[b]Territory:[/b]
#AltDiv (Do not delete this, it is used to keep track of the apps)

*Note: Reservations will last for 48 hours. The OP board reserves the right to be subjective in regards to accepting and removing reservations.
Last edited by Alt Div Admin on Thu Jun 17, 2021 9:14 am, edited 7 times in total.

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Alt Div Admin
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Founded: Dec 15, 2016
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby Alt Div Admin » Tue Jun 08, 2021 11:03 am



Accepted Nations

Last Updated : 17.06.2021

Reservations

Last Updated : 17.06.2021

Open Colonies and Vassals

Last Updated : 08.06.2021
  • Exarchate of Egypt - (Εξάρχεια της Αιγύπτου)
Last edited by Alt Div Admin on Thu Jun 17, 2021 9:16 am, edited 12 times in total.

User avatar
Alt Div Admin
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Posts: 168
Founded: Dec 15, 2016
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby Alt Div Admin » Tue Jun 08, 2021 11:03 am



Announcements

Date:08.06.2021

Announcements from AltDiv Development


Welcome!

Main OP
  • OP was created
  • The roleplay now has a Discord server! The link can be found in the OP.

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Tracian Empire
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Posts: 25014
Founded: Mar 01, 2014
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby Tracian Empire » Tue Jun 08, 2021 11:05 am

Hmm
I'm a Romanian, a vampire, an anime enthusiast and a roleplayer.
Hello there! I am Tracian Empire! You can call me Tracian, Thrace, Thracian, Thracr, Thracc or whatever you want. Really.

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Intermountain States
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Posts: 1918
Founded: Oct 12, 2014
Capitalist Paradise

Postby Intermountain States » Tue Jun 08, 2021 11:07 am

Full Nation Name : Empire of Korea, 대한제국, 大韓帝國
Majority/Official Culture : Korean
Territorial Core : Korean Peninsula, Jeju Island, Port Arthur (Liushan), Luzon, Ceylon, Aden, parts of Borneo, Northern Sumatra, Southern Malaya, Singapore,
Territorial Claim : Manchuria
Capital City : Hanseong (Seoul)
Population : 20,000,000 in Korea Proper
300,000 spread across Korean East Indies,
35,000 in Korean Aden
10,000 in Korean East Africa
3,700,000 in Korean Ceylon
2,4000,000 in Korean Luzon

Government Type : Constitutional Monarchy
Government Ideology/Policies : Nationalism, imperialism, liberalism, paternalistic conservatism, christian democracy,
Government Focus : Korea's government is focused on ensuring that there would never be a repeat of many foreign invasions of Korea that brought the country or almost brought the country to its knees such as the Mongol invasion of Goryeo, the Japanese invasion of Joseon, and the Qing invasion of Joseon. That would mean ensuring a balance of power in the East, placing heavy emphasis on military and diplomatic strength, gathering strong allies, and utilizing resources from the Korean peninsula and her colonial gains. Internal development is also at a focus with passing of political and economic reforms to improve the lives of the general public. Containment of Taiping.
Head of State : Emperor Yi Hui/Gwangmu Emperor
Head of Government : Prime Minister Yu Kil-chun
Government Description : The Emperor rules for life and all Emperors of Korea descend from the Imperial House of Yi (Jeongju Yi Clan) since its foundation. The powers of Korean monarchs have changed throughout centuries, with some being absolute monarchs while others leaving power to royal ministers. As part of constitutional reforms in the 1870s, powers of governmental functions were standardized with the Emperor having considerable executive powers comparable to that of the Prime Minister of the Central Assembly as the Emperor is the one who is able to form his cabinet. The bureaucratic element of the government has undergone major changes since the reforms of the Gwangmu Emperor in the 1880s. Gone were the days of Confucian based civil service exams called gwageo that dominated government. Nowadays, the national bureaucracy is held through civil service exams that focus on general knowledge of administration and specific knowledge and experience related to an office or position. With the rise of public education, governmental positions are also open to everyone, allowing women and low-born folks to study for the opportunity of working for government.

In 1819, a national legislative body was established called the Central Assembly, divided into the House of Peers and the House of Delegates. The House of Peers consisted of the aristocracy while the House of Delegates was made up of elected officials throughout the country. The House of Delegates is led by the Prime Minister who also serves in the Emperor's cabinet and holds considerable powers. The House of Delegates is the chamber responsible for the passing of laws while the House of Peers scrutinizes the legislations passed by the House of Delegates. Universal male suffrage was a recent addition, established in the late 19th century.


Majority/State Religion : Catholic plurality, no official religion declared.
Religious Description : The country is largely irreligious due to centuries of Neoconfucian dominance. However, Christianity, especially Catholicism, became the fastest growing religion in Korea. The growth of Christianity led to the Imperial government to declare religious freedom with no religions openly favored nor restricted by government. Buddhism is still common the Korean mainland while Islam is more common among the indigenous population in Southeast Asia.
Economic Ideologies : Capitalism
Major Production : Agriculture remains a major industry in the Korean mainland, however the peninsula is also known for its silk and porcelain production throughout Northeast Asia. Since industrialization, natural resources such as coal, iron, and sulfur have also been produced in the Korean mainland. Korean Ceylon, Luzon, and the East Indies operate on a plantation economy while the colonies in East Africa and Aden are home to trading outposts.
Economic Description : The economy of Korea has been diversified thanks to modernization efforts by the government along with support from the growing commercial class. The northern half of the Korean peninsula is the industrial center of Joseon while the southern half of the peninsula is a place of agriculture and international trade. Korea is also internationally famous for their quality silk and porcelain productions. With its territories across the Indian Ocean, Korea is the nation of the East that funnels trade to Europe and to the Americas.

Development: Modern
Development Description : Korea embraced industrialization in the early 19th century as part of the many reforms by the royal and later imperial government. Originally limited to the resource rich northern half of the peninsula, some factories are constructed in the agrarian heavy south. Efforts were made in the mainland for the government to take an active role in building up the nation's education, healthcare, and welfare system through some varying level of success.

Army Description : The aftermath of the 28 year Mongol invasion of Goryeo, the seven year Japanese Invasion of Joseon that ended in 1598, and the two Manchu invasions of Joseon in 1627 and 1636, saw Korea placing more emphasis on the military than ever before. The Korean military also enjoys the backing of powerful artillery and rocketry made to decimate enemy lines. The Imperial Army stands at around 247,000 with 108,000 soldiers stationed in the northern half of Korea, 83,000 stationed in the southern half, and 56,000 across Korea's imperial territories, with more being able to be called up during wartime.
Army Weakness : The army, while well equipped and modern, is very much a static force. Korea cannot afford to use it to project force, fearing doing so would expose Korea to a potential hostile invasion. Furthermore, the army, while well drilled, has not seen active combat in quite some time, and this likely would show on the battlefield. Much of Korea's imperial endeavors were instead done by the Imperial Navy.
Naval Description : The Navy of Korea is the pride of the nation, large, modern, and well equipped. The Imperial Navy, rather than the Army, is the force that projects Korea's prowess on the international stage. The Imperial Navy stands at a size of 61,000 men, including 23,000 marines. Improving the Navy has been one of the major priorities of the Korean Empire ever since the Imjin War, believing that a strong navy is an absolute necessity in the nation's defense. The Imperial Navy started off in the early 18th century by modifying old ships with new technologies. However by the 1780s, much of the old ships were retired and in came newer ships with better armor, transportation, and armaments; incorporating western and eastern designs for the Navy. The Imperial Navy consists of 6 pre-dreadnought battleships, 12 armored cruisers, 8 protected cruisers, 20 light cruisers, 7 coastal defense ships, 36 destroyers, 12 monitors, 75 torpedo boats, and 97 auxiliary vessels. 7 submarines are currently undergoing testing in the Navy due to their potential, however, submarines are considered to be secondhand to surface fleets. Naval doctrine has been aimed at utilizing the capabilities of its surface fleet to ensure naval supremacy in the region. Each ship in a fleet has specific roles to play when engaging in naval combat. In addition, naval mines are a popular weapon to use in coastal defense and in offensive capability in order to deny areas from enemy fleets and to maintain naval supremacy.
Naval Weakness : The Imperial Navy has focused much of its research traversing across both the Indian and Pacific ocean and with the difficulty of traversing the Pacific, the Korean Imperial Navy is split into five fleets and usually could never realize their full prowess in a multi-front war, creating a fear of a divide and conquer situation for the Navy.
Further Military Description : Militias known as the Righteous Army have appeared several times throughout the history of Korea when the national armies were in need of assistance against foreign invaders ever since the Khitan invasion of Goryeo and lately the Japanese invasion of Joseon in 1592. Peasants, scholars, former government officials, religious monks, merchants, anyone regardless of background made up such militias. While most of these righteous armies are equipped with hunting equipment and farming tools rather than state-of-the-art weapons employed by the Imperial Army, the irregular militias make up for their equipment shortcomings with patriotic fervor and knowledge of home terrain. Vassal states in Southeast Asia operate their own fighting force made up of indigenous and settler soldiers not too dissimilar to European trading companies.

National Goals : Consolidate and expand colonial holdings in Southeast Asia and develop greater relations between the civilized empires under heaven to maintain a balance of power. Continue influence over Northern China to produce a Korean-friendly regime that would serve as a buffer against Taiping or even Russia if relations between Korea and the latter country become hostile.
National Issues : There exists some animosity between the conservative Confucian aristocracy and the powerful merchant class influenced by Christianity with the division making its way to foreign relations. The aristocrats favor stronger bonds with Japan while the merchants are more supportive of France. Local indigenous rulers in the East Indies and Ceylon have also clamored for independence.
National Figures of Interest :
National Ambition/Aspirations :

History : The 474 year old Kingdom of Goryeo was overthrown by Yi Seonggye (King Taejo) of the Jeonju Yi clan. With both military and public support behind him, Yi Seonggye declares the formation of the Kingdom of Joseon and ensured his dynasty's survival, sending envoys to Ming to ask for legitimacy and exiling remnants of the Goryeo family to Jeju Island. The reign of Taejo Seong-gye saw conflict between his sons over succession rights and after an attempt by military officials and his fifth-born son Yi Bang-won in a military coup, declared his second born son Yi Bang-gwa (temple name Jeongjong) as his successor and abdicated the throne in 1398. Jeongjong was an able ruler but abdicated after two years of seeing bloodshed between his brothers Crown Prince Yi Bang-won and Yi Bang-gan. Yi Bang-won (Taejong) became King right after, setting forth changes made to ensure that Joseon would be an absolute monarchy instead of a constitutional monarchy planned by his predecessors. Taejong's rise to power was a bloody affair but he proved to be a just and able ruler, building up national defense and encouraging reforms that improved on the daily lives of the people and limited privileges of the aristocracy. Taejong was succeeded by his third born son Yi Do (immortalized as Sejong the Great) as the fourth King of Joseon. Sejong's reign was marked by various reforms that benefited Joseon. Sejong opened government positions to people of various social classes; encouraged innovation in the fields of science, technology, military, and agriculture; and pushed for the use of the hangul writing system to improve literacy. Sejong was also an interventionist, having sent troops to Tsushima Island to quell the pirate activities and ultimately ended with the island sending tributes to the Korean peninsula. In response to the emboldened border attacks by the Jurchens, Sejong initiated campaigns to pacify the north, building castles across the Amnok (Yalu) River and built settlements south of Amnok.

After Sejong's death in 1450, he was succeeded by his son, Yi Hyang (Munjong) who died just 2 years after being crowned (most of his achievements came when he was a crown prince). Munjong's successor, Yi Hong-wi (Danjong) was only 12 years old when he ascended to the throne and executive responsibilities fell to Chief State Councilor Hwangbo In and Left State Councillor General Kim Jong-seo. One year into his reign, Hong-wi's uncle Yi Yu, also known as Grand Prince Suyang, launched a coup that toppled the regent government and acted as Hong-wi's caretaker. In 1455, Suyang forced Hong-wi to abdicate and was crowned king. While demoted to a prince, Hong-wi still received his title and was posthumously given the temple name Danjong. Despite Suyang overseeing numerous opposition killed for power grab, including his nephew Danjong; he was a strong and able ruler, encouraging publication of history, economics, agricultural, and religious books and was given the temple name Sejo. When Sejo passed away in 1468, his son succeeded him as Yejong of Joseon but died a year later. He was succeeded by his nephew, Yi Hyeol, who became Seongjong of Joseon. Seongjong's reign was marked by growth and prosperity in Joseon. Seonjong passed away in 1494 and was succeeded by his eldest son, Prince Yeongsangun. Although Yeongsangun showed promise as an able ruler, he grew insane and became a tyrant, soon overthrown and replaced by his half-brother who became Jungjong of Joseon. Jungjong's reign was marked by both internal purges and support for reforms and was ultimately a mixed bag ruler. Jungjong was succeeded by his son who became King Injong. Injong was an ambitious king who attempted to continue Jungjong's failed reforms but was poisoned by his stepmother and was succeeded by his half-brother who became King Myeongjong in 1545.

Myeongjong's reign was marked by a power struggle between his mom Queen Munjeong and his uncle Yun Won-hyung along with rebellions and invasion from Japanese pirates. Myeongjong died in 1567 without a male heir and was succeeded by his half-nephew Yi Yeon as Seonjo of Joseon. Seonjo focused on improving the lives of the common people and introduced various political and economic reforms and his early reign was marked by growth and prosperity. The Royal Court believed that the current peace and prosperity experienced would continue and some officials talked of easing military burden on the populace. That changed when Joseon was invaded in 1592 by Japan. Although Joseon forces fought valiantly with their cannons, handguns, and archery; they were outgunned by muskets operated by the Japanese and the Royal Court fled to Pyongyang when Japanese troops were close to Hanseong. The Royal Court sent envoys to Ming to ask for military support. That is not to say that there was no hope for the kingdom; military successes at the seas by Admiral Yi Sun-sin hampered Japanese supply lines and guerilla warfare conducted by informal militias known as the Righteous Army provided morale boosts for the Joseon military. During the war, Joseon engineers, at the support of King Seonjo, managed to develop and incorporate muskets into its ranks. Soon the Joseon-Ming coalition retook captured provinces and inflicted heavy damage on the tired Japanese forces. In 1598, Japan withdrew from the peninsula. While Joseon was spared from initial Japanese imperial ambitions, the country itself was ravaged by seven long years of warfare. Seonjo, devastated by the toll of the war, withdrew from politics and left behind Crown Prince Yi Hon, also known as Prince Gwanghae, to rule in his stead.

Gwanghae focused on rebuilding the devastated kingdom by keeping much of the reforms left by former Prime Minister Yu Seung-ryong to spur market and agricultural growth. He sided with the progressive Northerner faction to carry out reforms as opposed to the moderate Southerners and the conservative Westerners. He also reformed the country's defenses with setting up dedicated gunpowder offices to improve on designs based on gunpowder weapons such as cannons, hwachas, and muskets. Gwanghae was ambitious with his military reforms. Some of his reasons for military expansions were based more on Joseon as a self-reliant power that would be independent from China or Japanese interventions with a potential for Joseon to have an Emperor rather than a king. The Royal Navy was given more attention as Gwanghae saw potential in Joseon as a naval power and started plans of official travels to the Indian Ocean, laying the foundation for future Korean expansion. However, he was a realist and knew that Joseon would not survive on its own if isolated and pushed to open Korea to the world. He continued Korea’s friendly relations with the Ming Dynasty, opened relations with the Manchu Later Jin, and restored diplomatic relations with Japan. Unfortunately, his reign was cut short as conflicts between the Northerners and the Westerners increased. The Westerners, having grown in strength due to the unpopularity of Gwanghae’s policies with some of the scholarly aristocracy, launched a military coup at the royal palace with Gwanghae’s nephew Prince Yi Jong (also known as Neungyang) chosen as the favored king. The coup overpowered the palace guards and Gwanghae was captured and deposed. Gwanghae lived the rest of his life in Jeju Island while the Northerners were removed from office. Gwangae did not receive a temple name after death.

Although Prince Jong was made king, he wielded little authority as powers were vested in the Westerner officials who launched the coup. At the beginning of his reign, the country was hit by a rebellion led by General Yi Gwal who felt that he was treated unfairly and given too little of a reward despite his contribution to the coup. Yi Gwal’s army defeated the regular army up north and surrounded the capital with the intention of placing Prince Heungan as the next King of Joseon. King Jong was forced to flee the capital and had to wait until reinforcements arrived. General Yi Gwal was assassinated by his guards when the tides turned against him. The Yi Gwal Rebellion deprived Korea of an abled general, showcased the weakness of the monarchy, grew the powers of the aristocracy, and undone a significant amount of reconstruction spearheaded by Injo’s predecessor. Jong’s reign saw two Manchu invasions of Korea, first in 1627 by Jin and later in 1636 by the newly established Qing to bring Korea in as its tributary kingdom. Despite efforts put in place by Neungyang to improve on the defenses and with the Koreans fighting valiantly, both wars ended in defeat. King Neungyang in the aftermath of the Qing invasion was forced to bow down to Hong Taiji nine times. Crown Prince Sohyeon was taken to China as a hostage. Residing in Beijing, Sohyeon met with Jesuit missionaries such as Johann Adam Schall von Bell. Interested in the messages of the Christian faith and the technology of the West, he saw meaningful hope in Korea adopting the west as a foundation for Korea to break free from Qing’s tributary system and for Korea to be a power. He even converted to Catholicism and received the baptismal name of Nicholas. He kept his thoughts secret to himself as the conservative court and his father already viewed his conduct as being Pro-Qing.

Jong passed away in 1649 with the temple name of Injo and Crown Prince Sohyeon ascended to the Phoenix Throne. Sohyeon continued his father and Gwanghae’s reconstruction efforts, now made more difficult after a rebellion and two invasions. With liberal factions gaining power, opportunities were presented to King Sohyeon for a chance at reforms. He was able to get the courts to agree to allowing a limited presence of Jesuit missionaries and French merchants in Incheon, thus allowing Korea to be somewhat up to date with international happenings. Catholicism in Korea came through China as most missionaries were Chinese converts and Korean diplomats carrying books from missionaries in China. Western texts were translated to classical Chinese for the aristocrats and in Hangul for the common people. Sohyeon’s reign was cut short and he died without an heir in 1653, he received the temple name of Imjong. The Phoenix throne was then passed to his younger brother Crown Prince Bongrim.

Although Bongrim had presented himself publicly as a conservative figure, one who is cautious of Sohyeon’s far-reaching reforms, he had continued his brother’s policies. During his reign, he oversaw improvements to the military as under his reign, the Joseon military adopted flintlock muskets into its ranks. Bongrim had plans with anti-Qing officials for the country to invade Manchuria, although such a plan was abandoned after his death and when the Qing dynasty flourished and treated Joseon as a close ally. The Korean military was tested in battle while supporting Qing forces against barbarian invaders over border conflicts at the Amur River. The Korean musketeers distinguished themselves in battle and returned home with the public celebrating their victories. He passed away in 1659 with the temple name of Hyojong and was replaced by his son Yi Yeon. Yeon continued his father’s reforms but his reign was marked by political fighting between court officials over funeral issues and passed away as a relatively unremarkable ruler, neither a great king like Sejong and Imjong nor a despot like Yeonsangun. He received the temple name of Hyeonjong. He was succeeded by his son Yi Sun in 1674. Sun's reign saw frequent fights between political parties. He regularly switched parties in power and grew the power of the royal authority. Ironically, the intense political battles between factions ensured that political corruption was very low as parties were quick to denounce any nonkosher acts as a sign of corruption and incompetence. The political fights also didn't affect the public and Sun's reign was considered to be one of the most prosperous in history with vast agricultural and cultural developments. Trading companies were also set up and, with backings from royal ships, made headway into Southeast Asia. He received the temple name Sukjong and was replaced by his son Yi Yun (Gyeongjong) in 1720.

King Yun reigned for four years before abdicating the throne (either voluntarily or by force) in 1724 in favor of his half-brother Yi Geum. Geum's reign was marked by various economic and political reforms with a growth of merchant activities and reforms in the country's tax codes, including taxing the aristocratic yangban class which was met with heavy opposition from the aristocrats. Geum set forth a policy of ending factional fighting under the policy of Tangpyeong He sponsored the creation of agencies that would root out corruption in the court and sought opinions of the public from peasants to local officials. Korean presence in the East Indies was also strengthened with support from the Joseon Royal navy, often bringing into conflict with European empires. Outposts were also set up in Ceylon, Aden, and Mombasa, bringing Korea closer to bringing trades to Europe (at least for the Roman Empire). Domestically, controversies were made when Geum ordered the death of his son, Crown Prince Sado over accusation of many crimes. Geum passed away in 1776 and was succeeded by his grandson Yi San. Geum received the temple name of Yeongjo.

Yi San, while an ambitious ruler on his own, continued his father's policies of economic and political reforms to improve the lives of the common people, coinciding with the second rise of reform minded scholars belonging to the Silhak and Seohak schools of thoughts. He established the Kyujanggak, the royal library, and allowed more classes of people barred from civil service to apply for government positions. Korea’s imperial endeavours continued with continual clashes with local kingdoms and rival powers. He had attempted to abolish slavery, however could only manage to emancipate state owned slaves. Small-scale industrialization took place in Korea through the textile industry and the mass production of silk and started in northern Korea in 1805 but started to grow a decade later when San’s court aligned with the industrialists. Factories soon dotted all over the resource rich northern half of Korea while a few appeared in the agrarian dominated southern half. The growth of these factories created wealthy northern industrialists who took advantage of its wealth in joining liberal scholars, missionaries, and merchants in calling for more political reforms with the establishment of a constitutional monarchy, universal male suffrage, and a national legislature. It was later when San agreed to some of the demands and established the bicameral Junghoe (Central Assembly) in 1819, consisting of the upper chamber House of Peers and the lower chamber House of Delegates. Suffrage, however, was limited to men of education, disenfranchising the majority of the adult population. Silhak scholar Gim Jeong-hui was elected as the first Prime Minister of the Junghoe. Yi San passed away in 1825 and was given the temple name Jeongjo. His son, Yi Gong took the throne but grew ill in 1827. During his recovery, the Central Assembly approved of Gong’s son, Yi Yeong or Crown Prince Hyomyeong, to serve as Prince Regent. The House of Delegates, controlled by the liberal Enlightenment Party, sided with Prince Regent Hyomyeong to push for market policies and further industrializations. Yi Gong passed away in 1834 and received the temple name of Sunjo and Prince Hyomyeong ascended the throne.

King Hyomyeong and the Enlightenment controlled Central Assembly continued policies in favor of industrialization but faced strong opposition from conservative and reactionary Assemblymen who bemoaned the growing dominance of industrialists and merchants over the gentry class. Hyomyeong also introduced reforms to the country’s justice system, abolishing the guilt by association system and establishing the legal principle of presumption of innocence. 1845 saw a watershed moment in Korea’s history when King Hyomyeong declared Joseon to be free from China’s sovereignty and proclaimed the Corean Empire or the Great Han Empire (Han coming from the Samhan or Three Kingdoms of Korea period) with him as the Cheonhae Emperor. The Qing Empire reacted negatively to Hyomyeong’s act of rebellion and war was declared between the two countries. The newly christened Imperial military of Korea held strong defending the northern provinces and inflicted heavy losses onto Qing forces, although some border forces had reported being overwhelmed by the Chinese in a few engagements. The Imperial Navy of Korea readily defeated the fleets of Qing and seized Yeosun City at the extreme tip of the Liaodong Peninsula from Qing. The Korean Imperial Navy maintained naval dominance in the Yellow Sea throughout the war, using the Korean East Indies to supply the fleet in blockading or seizing Chinese ports. After two years of fighting, China formally acknowledged Korea's independence from Qing’s sphere of influence, ceded Yeosun to Korea, and recognized Corea as an equal. Bolstered by the victory, the Cheonhae Emperor declared hangul, the writing alphabet of Korea developed under the reign of Sejong the Great but not used ever since, to be the written language and decreed current and future laws to be written in hangul rather than in hanja, the Korean reading of Chinese letters. Emperor Hyomyeong passed away in 1848. He received the temple name of Munjo. His son, Yi Hwan, succeeded him as the Yeongseon Emperor in the same year.

Unfortunately, Hwan passed away in 1850 due to complications regarding his health before he was able to birth a suitable male heir. He received the temple name of Heonjong. This left the country in a brief succession crisis and the Central Assembly tasked officials in finding a suitable heir. Heonjong’s second cousin, Yi Won-beom, ascended the throne as the Geonyang Emperor. The Geonyang Emperor promoted some liberal reforms to increase political participation in government. Under Jeongjo’s reforms, suffrage was limited to men educated in Confucian classics and hanja, meaning that elections were limited to a percentage of the country. Under the reforms of the Geongyang Emperor, adult men who own at least a private property to his name can now vote in or run for an elected office, opening the process to more people. Due to the Geonyang Emperor unable to produce any suitable child, he formally adopted and declared his half-brother’s son’s Yi Myeong-bok as his successor. Korea officially declared neutrality at the start of the Taiping Rebellion, sending ships to China in order to safeguard Korean nationals in the country. Initially, a few progressive members in the Assembly favored Taiping and welcomed a new Chinese Christendom. More conservative members of the Assembly saw Taiping as a radical force of destabilization and as the war grew, many Christians were disturbed by the violence committed by the Taiping and a few deemed them as heretics. As fears mounted of a powerful and modernized Taiping that could challenge Korea, the Emperor’s cabinet had contemplated sending troops in support of Qing but only gone as far as bolstering troop presence in Yeosun and the Sino-Korean border while the Imperial Navy based in Luzon was kept in high alert. Troops were eventually sent to China, alongside with forces from France and Japan, in favor of keeping what remains of Qing's territorial integrity intact and to prevent a massive and fanatical empire at the Yalu River.

In 1873, the Geonyang Emperor passed away and his successor, Yi Myeong-bok took the throne as the Gwangmu Emperor. The Geonyang Emperor received the temple name Cheoljong. The Gwangmu Emperor proposed various reforms to increase living standards in the country in a period of ambitious initiatives known as the Gwangmu Reforms. With support from the ruling Justice Party, a Christian democratic party that split from the Enlightenment Party, he abolish the status system and slavery, established public primary schools to increase literacy among the country, promoted universal male suffrage, and a public healthcare system dedicated to improving public health such as vaccination and sanitation. As the country reaches the 20th century, demands for better working conditions and labor unions were formed with workers strikes being commonplace. Prime Minister Yu Gil-jun of the Centre Party passed laws in support of welfare, abolition of child labor, and better working conditions to appease the demands of the working class. Korea maintains support for the Qing as a buffer against Taiping. Since 1901, it has had influence and fundings in the Manchuria-based Fengtian Clique although the country has started to favor the League of Eight Provinces.

RP Sample:
- Fantasy Sword Throwing (A Dance of Chaos)
- Alternate history gone mad in 1812 (Alternate Divergence 1812)
- It's like Alternate Divergence but made by the Cobalt Network and has set nations (Tales of Two Horizons II)
- War, what is it good for? (Back to 1935)
- Rednecks and post-apocalyptic America (Fallout: Damn Dirty South)
- NS Red Dawn (Crane Ascendent)
- Generic late 19th century Alt-history RP (Voice of a New Age)
- War, war never changes (Fallout: Republic of Dusts)
- Alternate history taken all the way (1900: Alternate Divergence)
- Anime Vietnam Flashbacks (Operation Gatelord)
- When the Spanish Flu wiped off 50% of the world population (All Quiet on the Front)
#AltDiv (Do not delete this, it is used to keep track of the apps)
Last edited by Intermountain States on Mon Jun 14, 2021 9:45 am, edited 11 times in total.
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Draos
Minister
 
Posts: 2292
Founded: May 25, 2018
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby Draos » Tue Jun 08, 2021 11:08 am


Full Nation Name : The Kingdom of Catalonia (Regne de Catalunya)
Majority/Official Culture : Catalan
Territorial Core : Spain. Portugal, The Azores, Madeira, the Balearic Islands, Mozambique, The Maldives, Equatorial Guinea (Catalan Guinea) Uruguay, Java, Angola, Morocco (Mauretania [North] and Atlantae[south]) and the Canary Islands
Territorial Claim : Borneo, Papua, Sumatra, Bali, Sulawesi, the Moluccas, the Timor and Sunda Islands.
Capital City : Toledo (Toledo Spain)
Population : 70,000,000 (roughly)
Catalonia:27,288,000
Java: 28.000,000
Morocco: 9,000,000
Mozambique: 2,600,000
Angola: 2,400,000
Uruguay: 1,026,000
Catalan Guinea: 178,000

Government Type : Monarchy
Government Ideology/Policies :
Government Focus : The Catalan government is currently focusing on internal growth and development, trying to avoid falling behind other European Powers. But it is currently torn between the more liberal/reformist Monarch and the staunchly conservative nobles of the Corts who see the reforms as a threat to their power and influence.
Head of State : Rei Daniel I Sainz of the House of Sousa (age 25)
Head of Government : Validos Armando Faria (age 56)
https://imgur.com/a/ijDTQII
Government Description : the Kingdom of Catalonia is a constitutional monarchy with a legislative body known as the Corts General. The Corts is made up of two legislative chambers: the Congress of Deputies which are elected by the people and the Senate which consists largely of the nobility.

Majority/State Religion : Catholic
Religious Description :

Economic Ideologies : Capitalist
Major Production : shipbuilding, textiles, metals, agriculture
Economic Description : A largely rural country Catalonia has been attempting to modernize since the 1750s after defeats in several key skirmishes led to an economic recession. to keep up with the rest of the continent. Despite it's mostly agricultural nature the Catalans are renowned on the continent as some of the finest shipbuilders due to both their durability and design. Along with their homelands their colonies had a vast array of natural resources such as mining in Angola and Cash crops in Mozambique like Tea Sugar and Cotton.

Development: Semi-Industrialized
Development Description : large scale industrialization in major regions like Roussillon Vascones (the Basque country) and Alentejo with smaller scale in Galicia Leon and Mauretania that was brought on following a string of embarrassing defeats against their French rivals over the territory of Andorra.

Army Description : The Exèrcit de Terra is a professional standing conscript army of approximately 163,000 men armed whose composition varies depending on where it is stationed, Units stationed in the home country are almost exclusively European. while colonial units are a mixture of European and native soldiers lead by European officers . The army is equipped with the Mauser m1893 also known as the Catalan Mauser while wearing light grey uniforms. The best of the best soldiers join the Guàrdia Reial (Royal Guard) to protect the rightful monarchs of the Kingdom. A renowned unit of the army is the Cos Maruetaniai) a force of around 20,000 men recruited from loyal Berber tribes in Mauretania to maintain Catalan rule and protect the region allowing standard forces to be more deployable. The rest of the army is split around the empire with the largest concentrations in Catalonia numbering 95,000 , Java numbering 20,000 , Mozambique numbering 10,000 , Angola numbering 10,000 , Uruguay numbering 5,000 , and Guinea numbering 2,500
Army Weakness : . The problem of noble officers and those who were promoted based on favor is still a nagging problem in the Catalan ranks.
Naval Description : The Catalan People have a long-standing Naval tradition due to their large coastline and the constant need to fight off pirates and other regional rivals attempting to suppress the Catalan colonial empire. In order to prevent this they have built a sizable fleet to protect their holdings and discourage other nations from attempting to expand at Catalonia's expense, The Corts has begun the construction of 2 new battleships, 8 cruisers, and 15 gunships and torpedo boats to increase the size of the fleet. The Marina Reial is Flagshipped by the Pelayo, a Barbette Battleship. The rest of the fleet consists of 4 Broadside Ironclad battleships,8 Velasco class cruisers,3 Aragon class cruisers,2 Isla de Majorca cruisers,1 Regina Regente cruiser, eight screw frigates, three corvettes,20 gunboats, and 14 torpedo boats. Headquartered in the city of Gibraltar, blocking the Sea of Gibraltar and dominating what comes into the western half of the Mediterranean. The Royal Navy also has depots in Lisbon, Palma, Rabat, the Maldives, and the Azores. The latter two being significantly less protected, only having one cruiser and three gunboats each due to their remote locations. Current Admiral of the Navy: Julio Ferrón.
Naval Weakness : Due to the need to continually ship resources to and from the Homeland the Catalan navy is largely composed of cruisers and destroyers with very little in the terms of heavy tonnage ships like battleships due to the Catalan doctrine of single cruiser patrols. The Catalan navy is also extremely over stretched and would need time to muster a major fighting force
Further Military Description :
National Goals : Preservation of the Catalan state. Continuation of Economic Growth, Continued industrialization to catch up to the great powers
National Issues : Discontent among the nobility, Surrounded by hostile powers ,Lack of Meaningful allies,
National Figures of Interest :
National Ambition/Aspirations :

History : The Visigoths were a Germanic tribe that originated from northern Europe before migrating to what is now Poland, that was pushed westwards by the Huns, bringing them into conflict with the Roman Empires. Aiding and opposing the Romans at various points in their history until the fateful sack of Rome in 410. Moving even further, they eventually conquered the Roman province of Hispania into their own personal Kingdom. After nearly thirty years of Visigothic rule over the entire Peninsula they established a set of laws known as the Visigothic code. This code abolished separate laws for the Visigoths and their Roman subjects and formed one law to be applied to all. Establishing their capital at the city of Toledo following the loss of Septimania to the Franks the Visigoths set about solidifying their hold on their lands.

In the sixth century the Byzantines invaded the southern part of the peninsula which started with their conquest of the Balearic islands, following the decimation of the garrison on the main island of Majorca and the city of Septem (Ceuta) . Scrambling to deal with this threat the Goths raised a fleet of about 60 ships to retake the islands, which was soundly crushed at the battle of Majorca by the Byzantine navy. Taking advantage of the serious blow they just dealt to their adversaries the Byzantines seized most of Baetica, after landing at Malaga in 552 while fending of a Gothic attempt at their removal under Athanagild in 555. For seventy years Spania survived under successive Gothic attempts to recapture until it fell in 624 by forces led by the Gothic King, Suinthila whose predecessors had whittled the province to but a handful of towns and even they soon fell.

As the Goths continued to expand their influence and power to their realm a major threat was forming in their soft underbelly the Vandals, a age old foe looking to recapture old lands the Goths had driven them out of. Seizing upon a growing rift between rival claimants to the Visigothic throne they invaded in 711 facing a force of about 2500 Goths compared to the 1900 or so Vandals the sides readied for battle. Under the leadership of Roderic the goths understood the threat these invaders posed to their realm and fought fiercely against their foes as swords met shield and flesh the great battle raged from dawn to dusk until finally the invaders retreated in the cover of the night to prevent Gothic cavalry from pursuing them. Though his reign in the south west would not last as Achilla II his rival in the north chose to capitalize on the heavy casualties sustained by his foe and forced him to fight at his capital of Toledo which would end in Achilla reuniting the Visigothic kingdom under his banner.

Achilla's descendants would continue to rule the peninsula for centuries to come eventually forming the house of Toledo, as the Goths slowly merged with their Roman subjects as centuries of interbreeding formed a distinct new culture, the Catalan that would help shape the European continent for centuries to come. Though problems arose in the 11th century when King Sancho I divided the realm amongst his 8 sons upon his death, who while still pledging loyalty to Toledo were still largely independent and fought amongst each other and the crown for territory and power. These divisions even affected the conquered territories in Mauretania with families loyal to the reigning monarch upon the seizure of Sus King Ernesto to avoid the power plays of the 8 Great lords and prevent any one of them from becoming too powerful. At this point the power of the monarch was tied to the whims and ambitions of the great lords, so every action was a chess move and Catalan kings had to be cunning to outwit and manipulate and to avoid being manipulated themselves.

Following the reconsolidation of the realm the conflict with the Vandals continued though as the Visigoths prepared for a counter invasion, until another civil war occurred delaying the inevitable conquest for nearly five centuries as they were forgotten amongst conflicts with the Franks/French and other European rivals. Until 1244 when local Berber kings began a civil war, seizing upon the internal conflict the Catalan King Raul III invaded with a force of thirty five thousand men landing in the city of Ceuta and making it his headquarters as over the next few years he conquered a sizable portion of northern Mauretanian measuring about fifteen thousand square kilometers. Allying briefly with the Berber kingdom of Sus to invade it’s rival of Fez, in 1381 the Catalans captured the former’s capital after a prolonged 2 year siege though that war lasted another 5 year which in the resulting peace left Catalonia in firm control of the northern half of the country either, directly or indirectly through bullying the rulers of the Berber states to comply with Catalan whims. With the backing of the pope Rei Carlos II invaded and conquered the last Muslim holdout following the 1469 siege of Sus the Catalans now put it’s attention to squashing future attempts at rebellion by dividing it into two separate Regions Maruetania in the north and Atlantae in the south and by recruiting loyal tribes into the Cos Mauretaniai.

Frustrated by heavy taxes by the heathen Mamluks the Catalan crown moved to hire a Genoese captain named Cristobol Colon in 1491 to find a way to reach India through the uncharted Atlantic ocean. Though failing in this task he discovered something largely unknown to the wider European world: a new continent. Upgrading their fleet with thicker hulls and more cannons such as the Carrack or Galleon, as well as smaller, faster but lightly armed craft as best exemplified by the Nau, to deal with Pirates attacking their ships traversing the waters of the new world. Jumping upon this new discovery the Catalans attempted to land in the Aztec lands but were driven off swiftly. Deciding that the northern half wasn’t worth their time they turned their attention to the south colonizing Riu de Janeiro in 1510 as their first permanent settlement in the new world. Expanding upon this tiny settlement over the course of the next 300 years until the Catalonian flag flew over a large chunk of the Southern Americas (Uruguay and Brazil) collectively known as the viceroyalty of Brasil, despite the size of the colony compared to the home country the Catalans maintained a firm grip until 1827, when the war of the Catalan succession started at home weakening the control Toledo had held. Seizing their chance. Most of the colony’s subregions united in declaring independence from Catalonia as the empire of Brasil citing the motherlands inability to maintain order, and provide protection with only Uruguay remaining loyal. The local garrisons were quickly defeated and pushed back by the more numerous Brasilian forces under general Jose de San Martin who crushed a Catalan force at the battle of San Lorenzo ending the hope of the Catalans to regain control of the rebelling territories and most of the Catalan troops retreated to Uruguay to defend it from rebel attacks. Finally in 1835 after the civil war had wrapped up the Catalans signed the treaty of Valencia, that granted Brasilian independence and guaranteed Catalan control of Uruguay due to their victory at the battle of Banda Oriental in 1832 .

While the Catalans had been busy in the new world it was not their only colonial focus. During the late 15th and early 16th century they had been building trading outposts down the coast of Africa as replenishment areas on the way to Asia and Brasil and from these areas back to Europe mainly in the areas now known as the colonies of Guinea Equatorial, Angola, and Mozambique which they consolidated over the coming centuries. In 1648 the Catalonian ship Real Galicia wrecked on the island of Baros known to the locals as Dhivei though became known to the Catalans as the Maldives. Upon their return they spread word of their discovery and within 25 years the archipelago was completely conquered. Moving on from the Maldives King Ernesto II set his eyes on the Isle of Java which was ruled largely by the Kingdom of Sunda. Signing the Treaty of Kawali the Sunda granted the Catalan East India Company (the CIO/Companyia Catalunya de les Indies Orientales) the city of Serang as a trade outpost on the island. The CIO began increasing its influence on the island and manipulating the weak Sunda rulers into mere figureheads. Finally in 1742 the CIO fully annexed Sunda and began exploiting the internal divisions of the Javanese sultans in the interior to prevent them from uniting against the company’s interests, which now included the complete control of Java. Slowly taking out the interior warlords one by one until they defeated a coalition of the remainders in a final stand at the battle of Parukan, ending formal Javanese resistance in 1800.

King Alphonse VII died in 1827 without an heir leading to the end of the house of Cordoba, a cadet branch of the house of Jimenez who itself was a cadet branch of the house of Toledo who had disbanded in 1136 following the extinction of the male line. who had a fierce rivalry between two noble houses. The sides the House of Trastamara The great lords of Roussillon, backed by the great lords of Aragon, Vasconia, Eastern Atlantae, and Andalusia based in Barcelona, and the House of Sousa backed by the great lords of Maduras ,Galicia, Mauretania, and Asturias, based in Lisboa as the great lord of Alentejo. After building up support with foreign powers both sides began preparing for war to claim the throne of Hispania. The brewing storm finally occurred on June 9th 1828 when the great lord of Asturias was assassinated, with the first battle taking place near the city of Bilbao in October which was won by the forces loyal to the Trastamara house. For the next five years the country was torn apart by the brutality of the conflict with widespread devastation and looting by the opposing factions, until finally on August 25th 1833 Barcelona was captured by forces loyal to Sousa finally ending the war as the kingdom would take nearly thirty years to recover from the conflict, losing ground in the race for the new world. To prevent another devastating civil war like that from occurring King Phillip passed the Cortes act promoting the Cortes of Toledo made up of leading nobles to an official legislative body.

In 1895 after 60 years of peace the Catalan realm again broke out into civil war as the nobles attempted to halt modernization reforms, by the new King after the death of King Michael the year prior. In response to the Corts attempting to halt the reforms a popular uprising began by many city dwellers and even some farmers who wanted more of a say in the government and to protect the reforms. Fighting broke out intermittently in September in the region of Galicia near the city of Ferrol between the Reformer and Traditionalist factions which quickly spread across the kingdom as brother fought brother. The war ended in 1896 with the leading nobles being defeated at the battle of Bilbao forcing them concede to the implementation of a lower house known as the congress of Deputies which is to be elected from the commoners in return for some monetary compensation but this was the beginning of the end of the nobility having a large say in the of the running of state.

RP Sample:
[spoiler]Madrid Palace of Zarzuela
Rey Daniel the First, King of the Iberians sat in his office after ensuring that his diplomat had arrived in England he turned his attention to other issues of his realm notably his upcoming marriage to Camila Pioli Udina a cousin of the Empress of the Holy Roman Empire. Sighing as he stressed over every minor detail regardless of his love for Camila he knew the political ramifications of this marriage were more important. Both sides needed this alliance to counterbalance that of the French and British Republics who were forming massive Global Empires and posed a massive threat to both of their realms. Staying up late once again he began making all the preparations he needed to bring her to Marivent Palace in Palma de Mallorca in the Balearic Islands to hold the wedding.

Once the Preparations were complete he sent a telegram to Rome to announce his imminent departure to pick up his bride from her home in Venice. Making his way to the city of Valencia where his personal yacht El salvador was docked and being readied for its trip. Boarding the yacht he set sail watching the calm waters of the Mediterranean his stomach-turning is this an ill omen or just nerves he wondered. The Mediterranean was a notoriously fickle body of water to travel from sudden and strong winds such as the Mistral from Southern France and Scirocco from the Sahara desert with strong currents also being prevalent due to the rivers not being able to refill the sea faster than it evaporates.

Braving the potentially treacherous waters for the better part of a day and a half Daniel arrived in the city known as the Queen of the Adriatic. Upon Docking members of his Guardia security detail immediately disembarked and searched the immediate area for threats working with local Venetian police as part of the preparations were setting up a police escort for him and his future queen. Though before he could get off the boat he could hear a woman shouting in Italian at the police a very familiar and dear voice to him walking over to the commotion he saw Camila the love of his life and promptly ordered the Guardia members to let her through. Kissing her hand practically giddy at the thought of marrying his childhood sweetheart he had met during an informal meeting between his father Felipe and the previous Ceaser Junius on the Island of Sardinia though she was two years younger than him at the age of ten at the time he was attracted to the sweet but shy bookworm spending several years trying to gain her attention with his father's approval realizing how such an arrangement could benefit both kingdoms. This continued till one day when he was eighteen and she was sixteen they went on a walk by a lake and he confessed to her his undying love to her and she replied she felt the same. Despite the distance and hardships when she agreed to be his bride two years ago was the happiest of his life.

Staying in the City of Bridges for another week and a half as he greeted and spent time with Camilia's family the last time she would see them for a while. Wiping the tears off her face he smiled at her being so bold as to hold her hand they sailed to Palma de Mallorca with her getting seasick due to the rough waves at one point. Finally returning to Iberian soil he readied himself the butterflies in his stomach growing ever more intense as the days till the wedding faded away. Arriving at the Church early in the morning entering first with his best man he watched nervously straightening his tuxedo anxiously as the processional continued. He tried desperately to calm down during the mass as the liturgy of the word he watched as the rest of the wedding continued smiling as he and Camila read their vows and exchanged rings. At last, the part that had been eating at him this whole time approached the first kiss between Bride and Groom as it would be their first. Swallowing his angst he kissed his beloved who whispered to him to calm him down before the saying of the lord's prayer and the holy communion. With the recessional now complete he let out a hardy sigh of relief as that was the most stressful thing he had ever done.



#AltDiv (Do not delete this, it is used to keep track of the apps)
Last edited by Draos on Mon Jun 14, 2021 12:36 pm, edited 10 times in total.
Prime Minister and former Foreign Minister of Union of Free Nations
Draosians are a species of Gigantic Reptilian extra-terrestrials resembling Bipedal monitor lizards standing at an average of 8 feet tall and weighing around 450 pounds

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Novacom
Minister
 
Posts: 2081
Founded: Feb 24, 2005
Democratic Socialists

Postby Novacom » Tue Jun 08, 2021 11:09 am

Full Nation Name : Aztek Ascendancy
Majority/Official Culture : Aztek/Nahua
Capital City : Tenochtitlan
Population : 89.6 Million

Government Type : Syndicalist Republic
Government Ideology/Policies : Somewhat Imperialist with a focus on Stability.
Government Focus : The Government of the Ascendancy has various focuses, most of them on the home front, expansion is low down on the list of priorities while the main focus is on security and the economy, naturally of course there is a healthy focus on the public good which is the main thrust of the reasoning of said focuses.
Additionally the Government is still in something of a transition, even if this began over 30 years ago, from a more loosely monarchist system to the quasi republican system it now utilises, something which is considered a natural evolution of the system it utilised, this has come at a cost, which both the government and people have been willing to pay.
Head of State : Chairman Xiya Tzompantli
Head of Government : Speaker Iutil Catlza
Government Description : The Aztek system is complicated on the surface yet fundamentally simple, On a local level there exists various bodies that function to enable direct democracy, be it by worker, artist, or elderly and infirm, these bodies elect one of their number to act as representative to a regional union discussing their specific concerns and serving to provide guidance and assistance on a local level, these unions in turn elect representative's to a regional body that gives input to regional government and in turn also elects a representative or more commonly referred to as a delegate to the national level.

Each Region's boundaries were initially defined by geography, however these lines have been redrawn in line to ensure each representative and delegate is more evenly weighted population wise, in the situations where this is not the case, votes of delegates and representative's with larger populations are weighted appropriately. At all levels these delegates and representative's are subject to recall and the system offers considerable stability so that the recall of a single Delegate would not by itself cause for a wholesale re-election of the entire body, with accountability being a priority.

At the national level these representative's form the basis of the government, electing one of their number to serve as speaker, a role charged with keeping order and ensuring the following of procedure, additionally at a regional level typically, though in some areas this can extend to a local level exist the Platforms, the closest the Aztek system has to parties, groupings based on an ideology, or at least an ideological interpretation, these comprise, but are not restricted to, groups such as the Flaxen Communalists, Jade Syndicalists and Iron Totalists.

Nationally, these platforms form blocs in the National Assembly, these platforms agree a series of policy outlines to put forward to the assembly when it comes to deciding which platform should oversee the various commissaries, entities roughly analogous to ministries. It is required for each platform to set out short and long term goals and the methods and policies they seek to utilise to reach those, the Assembly then votes on which Platform is best suited for which Commissary, votes are then held until each and every Commissary is assigned with the platform that controls the majority being able to appoint the Chairman who acts as head of state for the session.

Each Commissary has it's headquarters in Tenochtitlan itself with their main buildings being set in their own large complexes housed in Pyramids set upon lone islands in lake Texcoco for maximum security with travel to and from them being strictly limited and recorded, more in the interests of security than anything else. While the National assembly itself and the delegates are housed in the old Imperial palace and it's adjoining buildings which have over the years been adapted for such uses in a manner that respects and compliments the architecture.

Majority/State Religion : Aztek Religion

Economic Ideologies : Capitalist with Socialist aspects, I.E. Syndicalism
Major Production : Iron, Gas, Oil, Weapons, Clothing, Various Livestock, Ivory Various Industrial Products, Motor Vehicles, Coffee, Spices, Various Agricultural produce, Wines, Weapons and other various products which are not exported, or only exported in limited quantities.
Economic Description : The Aztek Ascendancy is highly industrialised, with the frontier regions the subject of heavy efforts to bring them up to a similar level to the more central regions, this is all networked together via an ever expanding network of roads in the Jade Highways and rail in the form of the Obsidian Way. The Economy is highly diversified in terms of Agriculture, Mining and Various forms of Industry, of important note is the heavy focus on sustainable development and worker welfare, given that the economy is directed by the Achcauhtlitleco a catch all term for the Trade Unions, Commissary’s and Regional Assemblies. These interconnected bodies lean towards guiding the economy towards a goal, more than intervening directly, although it has done during times of need or predicted instability, and in doing so combines elements of a centrally planned economy and organic industrial growth as it were.

Industries are ran to be mutually co-operative so that established industries are sustainable both in terms of the local community and the environment as the traditions of the Aztek’s have encouraged the people to try and strike a balance and preserve the beauty and splendour of their homeland. Each region is economically self sufficient yet also interdependent on it’s neighbours allowing for a fairly resilient yet effective economy, competition is encouraged but not to the point where it adversely harms or damages efforts regionally or nationally.

The Ascendancy’s economy is at present undergoing a massive boom as recent policies have recently expanded trade with the rest of the world. The economy is also recovering from some of the pressures placed on it by the constructing of the Canal with the new stream of profits being deployed to allow for a more equal development of the Northern and Southern regions in comparison to the central regions.

Development: Modern
Development Description : The Aztek's have long since practised extensive urban planning on even the smallest of scales, as such the Ascendancy's development is in some regards something all other nations aspire to with even the smallest of settlements being well organised and possessing all needed utilities such as health, sanitation and education, which are traditional Aztek priorities leading back to before the discovery of their lands by outsiders.

The Aztek's maintain such development and link it together via a large and well planned out transport network so that even if certain elements are wasteful in smaller villages, they can be accessed in nearby larger towns or cities, and are easy to find via public records, which are extremely extensive and maintained as a matter of necessity, thanks to lessons learned centuries ago when combatting European Plagues.

The government no matter what it's composition has long strived to minimise social unrest through ensuring unfettered access to recreational activities with organised sporting leagues and public entertainment with arenas and designated areas for the practise of both performative arts and sport which themselves are overseen by an element of the government and possess a Union of their own.

Army Description : The Ascendancy’s military is an altogether smaller force, the main force of the Regular Army is supported by the various Prides, warrior orders who idealise certain military traditions and function as effective support units, these include entities such as the Panther Pride which are the closest body in the world to modern day commandos, the Jaguar Pride which embody the idea of elite close range shock troops and the Eagle Pride who specialise in covert reconnaissance to name but a few. The army itself operates on the principle of small unit tactics with marksmanship and utilising the terrain as modus operandii. initiative and forward thinking are prized qualities for an officer in the Ascendancy’s army with movement through ranks being a common occurrence as incompetence is ill tolerated, in times of war the army can be rapidly expanded by calling up the reserves.

It is customary for all Aztek Males to undergo a year of low level military training before they enter third tier education at the age of 14 during which discipline is drilled into the youths, which is later reinforced three years later at the conclusion of third tier education and is required for an Aztek Male to be considered an adult, likewise Aztek Females undergo their own version of such training, at similar stages, the intention for this for both sexes is to help instil early discipline and purpose, while also allowing for educational gaps in which some real world experience outside of familial environments to be imparted upon the citizenry.

The Armed forces are highly motivated and consider themselves to be an elite, able to call back on a military heritage that has known not defeat, however this is tempered by the simple fact that the Ascendancy has not needed to utilise it’s army against a conventional foe in a regular conflict for many years. This does not mean however that military endeavours do not enter the equation when it comes to Tenochtitlan’s considerations, in addition what conflicts the Ascendancy has been engaged in have allowed those with natural skill to lead to rise towards the top and the army has in it’s upper echelons several notable military thinkers.
Army Weakness : As mentioned above the Ascendancy has not needed to wage war for many a year and as a result actual combat experience is now somewhat rare apart from military exercises. Through several means the Azteks have managed to send observers abroad to observe conflicts about the world, however the information gleaned is incomplete and fragmentary as a result there are some points of dispute about what lessons could be learned something which has not stopped them from trying. Furthermore there is some factionalism within the military with the more radical shift of the Iron Totalists in the past few years which has only sharpened the divide in opinion, this has not yet reached dangerous levels, and in some cases it is beginning to subside.

Additionally, the Aztek Armed forces lack much in the way of Cavalry, a weakness that seems to becoming very much less of an issue than it used to be, with motorised vehicles starting to emerge, with the idea that these could represent a new future in military thinking is a popular idea among military leaders. Much thought is given to such an idea however this is also tempered by the acceptance that practical and effective use of such things is an idea for the future, this has not stopped however efforts at trying to make such thoughts a practical reality, an effort described as almost wasteful by some.

Finally the Army while it has been experimenting with Naval Landings at present lacks much in the way of practical experience outside of some of the Prides, and overall confidence in the competence of the Navy is something of a concern in the ranks. This is despite extensive efforts in developing that force which has bred a small degree of resentment due to what those resources could have done for the Army, a baseless sentiment in reality as funding for one force has not been to the detriment of the other.
Naval Description : The Aztek Navy is a steadily growing and highly modern if somewhat untested force, extensive efforts have been made over the centuries to cultivate a naval spirit as due to circumstances the Azteks were not originally a natural naval power. In time however the Azteks have managed to develop a steadily growing Naval Cadre, something which is considered to be of primary importance given the spread out nature of the Ascendancy and the importance of trade to it's economy.

A key part of the Aztek Navy has been in keeping free lines of trade between the Ascendancy and both the Imperial States of Korea and the Chuk Jae-Do, their primary trading partners and many of the lessons and doctrines developed have been as a result of operating over such extensive areas, key experience was gained during the prolonged conflict against the Pirate Kings, and although such knowledge is now likely out of date, it provided a great deal of impetus after the initial efforts began during the difficult first contact with the Europeans.

The Aztek Navy has been greatly expanded in the last century with several major shipyards working tirelessly to provide the fleets with the most advanced vessels possible, these efforts have been redoubled with the impending completion of the canal to ensure it’s security. Like many other areas the Aztek’s have applied their own brand of ingenuity and inventiveness to the field of Naval Technology and Theory yet like much of the Aztek Military although much of the idea is sound the application is as of yet untested.
Naval Weakness : The Azteks were not originally naturally navally inclined, it is only through much effort that a Navy has been cultivated, and it is decidedly untested, with little in the way of traditions to depend upon. It is possessed of it’s own versions of Prides, these are however based upon theory exercise and idea and has yet to be seen how they would work, however the Admiralty and the government in Tenochtitlan is cautiously optimistic about it’s overall effectiveness.

Not only do the Aztek’s find themselves with a large operational area to keep secure with what assets they have and the constant press and need for more vessels is something of a source of friction between themselves and the land forces, although in recent years much of this friction has faded away due to better cooperation and understanding there remains something of a rivalry between the two services.
Further Military Description : The Ascendancy utilises various unique and unusual tactics, strategies and methods for the era, chief amongst which is utilising Obsidian, albeit the era of hand to hand combat is very much in the past, the Aztek's have kept experimenting with this material, chiefly as of late, in the area of Artillery Shells...

National Goals :
  • Complete Security of the Homefront, with an eye towards securing the Gulf and Sea of Aztlan (The Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea)
  • Completing the Industrial Programs in the North and South to ensure an equal development in the frontier territories.
  • Ensuring Stability and security in the Americas with an eye to seeing the Americas for the Americans
  • Secure like-minded partners and Allies in an increasingly polarised world
National Issues : The nation is only now just beginning to open up to the outside world, viewing foreigners as outsiders both figuratively and literally, as a result the nation has scant few trading links but those that do exist are somewhat extensive, as time goes on expanding this trade will have possible side effects. In addition the Iron Totalists are a highly militant and radical Ideological platform within the body politic whose brand of Syndicalism has been growing slowly in popularity however a healthy portion of it's members are growing decidedly uncomfortable with the degree of radicalism and the goals espoused.

History :

General Time Period: 1350-1500
Description:
In the wake of the victory of Tenochtitlan over it's former overlord of Azcapotzalco, it found an increasing common cause with it's neighbouring cities of Texcoco, and Tlacopan, with each acting in a manner complimentary to the other, Tenochtitlan preeminent in military affairs, Texcoco was home to many of the great thinkers and inventors of the age, and Tlacopan while initially a lesser member made efforts to position itself as the economic powerhouse of the three.

In the ensuing years the Alliance sought initially to expand it's influence to encompass the area surrounding Lake Texcoco, between the exertion of both hard and soft power the various cities and settlements initially establishing them as tributaries, coming into frequent conflict with the Tlaxcala and other nations. Despite the conflicts with Tlaxcala remaining mostly in a stalemate, efforts elsewhere began to bear fruit and would eventually reach the coast and before where some trade had occurred between the mainland and the Caribbean islands, efforts were made to increase it as well as the idea that these lands could be a potential future prize.

During this time reports began to circulate of strange men, in even stranger ships being sighted, this piquing the interest of many ensured that territories closest to the coast had scouting teams close to hand should the opportunity would arise. Which in time it did, what the scouting teams encountered disembarking from their unusual ships were men half mad from dehydration and exposure who attacked the scouts on sight, several of the crew were butchered on the spot, while the rest were brought back for interrogation, and their arms and armour were sent back to Texcoco, with several of their thinkers set out to study their vessels.
Major Events:
  • The Triple Alliance, the basis for the future Aztek Ascendancy is formed
  • The Alliance expands extensively through various means such as political, economic, diplomatic and militarily creating a system of tributaries and lesser alliances.
  • The three cities clearly delineate areas of expertise amongst them, with Tenochtitlan being foremost in military affairs, Texcoco, foremost in Scientific affairs and Tlacopan rising to become foremost in economic affairs.
  • Intermittent conflicts yet inconclusive conflicts with Tlaxcala prevent much in the way of southern expansion, despite this expansion both north, east and west continue apace until the coast is reached.
  • The Thinkers at Texcoco experiment with seagoing vessels using their experience in constructing lake going boats.
  • Europeans arrive only to attack the scouting parties with several prisoners being taken to nearby settlements which subsequently report outbreaks of strange new diseases, while their accoutrements and vessels are studied and useful ideas are incorporated and utilised in future developments.
Persons of Note:
  • Huey Tlataoni Itzcoatl , the great speaker or King of Tenochtitlan, it was he who in the aftermath of the conflicts with Azcapotzalco and the subsequent freeing from their yoke, he oversaw the negotiations with the leader of Texcoco, Nezahualcoyotl and the leader of Tlacopan, Totoquilhuaztli
  • Nezahualcoyotl , the great speaker or King of Texcoco, he was a noted thinker of the age and helped shape his city into a place of learning and free thought and many of the subsequent innovations of the Aztek would hail from this city, or have it’s roots there, be it from one of the cities many places of study or it’s libraries.
  • Totoquilhuaztli , the great speaker or King of Tlacopan, he realised that his city in it’s current state would remain little more than a junior party in the Triple Alliance in light of Tenochtitlan’s military contributions and Texcoco’s technological contributions, sought to elevate Tlacopan and laid down the foundations for the city as the major economic contributor of the alliance.
  • Huey Tlataoni Moctezuma Xocoyotzin II , the Great Speaker, or King of Tenochtitlan who gave the order for scouting parties to meet any outsiders, and is long since credited in hindsight, though he could not have known at the time, for protecting the Aztek’s from the ravages of hostile avaricious Europeans.



General Time Period: 1500-1580
Description:
A Series of Plagues begin to spread out from the city where the survivors were taken, the spread is limited by distance and measures are taken to keep the infections under control with it being quickly realised that preventing travel severely restricted the spread, during this period a notable grouping of priests declare this to be an omen that yet more sacrifices are needed however before such a sacrifice can begin the priests are struck by lightning with onlookers quick to declare that the gods wish no more sacrifices. This prospect is resisted by several leading members of the priesthood who protected by their protestors ascend the grand Pyramid in Tenochtitlan to perform a great sacrifice, only for the city to be rocked by an earthquake causing the priests to tumble to their deaths down the steps, in the aftermath of this Human Sacrifices came to a swift end.

As the times of plague came to an end a swift military campaign was launched against the Tlaxcala seeking revenge for opportunism during the plagues, which by now was also suffering through outbreaks of such disease leaving their forces weakened and thus making them easier prey, leading to the eventual conquest and allowing the Triple Alliance to continue moving southwards, albeit more slowly as the various cities and nations begin to recover to a degree from several years of rolling disease. During this period the first forays on experimental new boats into what some were starting to call the Aztlan Sea, in honour of their ancestral homeland, making landfall on Cuba and through negotiation bring several settlements into the fold from which Tlacopan begins to exert a small but noticeable measure of economic influence.
Major Events:
  • A series of plagues and diseases affect much of the cities with valuable insights gained into how to manage and control outbreaks with leeway given to the thinkers of Texcoco who posit numerous ideas and are given free reign to pursue their theories and ideas particularly in the fields of dissection and medicinal herbs cultivated in their famous gardens.
  • The Icnopiltlan system, a state sponsored Orphanage system first utilised for war orphans is greatly expanded in the wake of the newly orphaned children during the plagues, and incentives are given to encourage a population boom, with families finding themselves unable to support additional children able to anonymously give their children over to the Icnopiltlan, this would serve to compensate for a loss of population to disease, this would however take much time to bear fruit, and would require much expansion due to the extent of requirement.
  • Tlaxcala finally falls allowing for southern expansion, however by this point the Triple Alliance is still exhausted thanks to the plagues and progress slows from it’s previous rampant pace
  • Experimental watercraft allow the alliance to extend their reach across the sea to Cuba.



General Time Period: 1580-1620
Description:
During the times of recovery discussions were held between the three principle cities of the Alliance to something more permanent, in the end an agreement is reached, and the three cities pool their resources forming a more formal nation, with each city to be equal, with the capital at Tenochtitlan which had long been realised as first among equals. In the wake of this efforts are made to exert more direct control over the tributaries beginning a slow but steady process of integration, progress is not universally successful, but between various means of pressure it manages to achieve results, usually by virtue of acceptance of the direction of travel.

Tt was during this period the Caribbean is fully brought under the Auspices of the Azteks and settlement and intermingling with the natives begins, incursions by outsiders would start to occur, many of which would be met with lethal force in no small part due to hostile intent on the part of the outsiders and also owing to the distrust on the part of the Aztek's and the general populace. In light of both this and the need for swifter and easier travel between the Islands and the mainland a renewed impetus would be put on the development of Naval vessels suitable for the high seas opposed to lakes and rivers as was previously done.

Despite early successes it is accepted that the process will take time, even as it will take time for the three cities themselves to adapt to the new normal, however successes further afield would help distract somewhat in addition to news of more outsiders, this time from the opposite direction in radically different looking ships, again scouting parties, of a distinctly different makeup are assembled, being more militarily minded than the previous ones all those years ago.

This time however rather than encountering dehydrated lunatics driven mad by numerous privations, instead are visibly different from the previous outsiders both in dress and appearance. After some difficulty the two parties manage to achieve some measure of understanding and they are directed to something of a new creation for the Aztek’s a port city on the coast, home to a handful of experimental vessels that had begun exploring the seas tentatively. The strange vessel causes no small amount of trepidation and the presence of outsiders, even more so considering the effects of the last group.

In the end the initial meetings are inconclusive but do end on a positive note, and in themselves spur on an explorative spirit, over the next few years explorers would begin sailing west.
Major Events:
  • Outsiders make landfall however little of note amounts from this.
  • The Caribbean is brought fully into the fold helping to contribute greatly to the pressure and impetus to swiftly develop a reliable ocean going naval capability.
  • Explorations westward begin with a small handful of waystations established on various islands to allow for further exploration and trade, this does not go smoothly as the relative newness of the Azteks to the sea are ruthlessly demonstrated, despite this efforts are made to learn from and correct these problems, however each loss is painful as even the small amount of experience the lost sailors has is a painful and priceless loss.
  • The Triple Alliance reforms into a unified nation state with it’s capital at Tenochtitlan with the cities of Texcoco and Tlacopan remaining important centre’s of the nation, in light of this phases of integration begin with the tributaries starting with the longest held before steadily moving out.
  • A series of uprisings in Tlaxcala are ruthlessly put down however each uprising is drastically less supported as the local population deals with the aftermath of the plagues.
  • Experiments in creating gunpowder of their own at Texcoco are finally successful after several long years of duplicating what the mad foreigners had brought with them, it will be some time however before it’s practical utilisation can be realised, however this does not deter the thinkers of Texcoco.
  • Expansion reaches as far south as the Maya people's, whose fall from grace is a subject of fascination in the three centre's as a result extensive efforts are made to pacify the region as gently as possible to study the histories and learn from it and the techniques of the Mayans.



General Time Period: 1620-1700
Description:
Expansion continues a pace with the prevailing narrative being to protect both the Ascendancy and the Americas from dangerous outsiders, a catagory which conviently includes all foreigners who are not Korean, various nations who have themselves suffered from predations of these would be settlers and their attendant plagues join freely, while others require further means of persuasion, and even when events come to blows benevolence is shown in the aftermath and extensive efforts at pacification and integration are made, no matter the differences they are Aztek citizens first. During this period several nascent European Settlements are discovered, which are wholesale put to the torch with the itent being to prevent further outbreaks of plague, despite these efforts the Ascendancy would continue to deal with rolling outbreaks, which are kept under rigid if somewhat imperfect control.

During this time scientific endeavours continue, in regards to the understanding of the methods of the Europeans as well as the Aztek's own knowledge in general, with one inspiring the other and spurring on discoveries, with the Aztek's utlising knowledge they had long possessed but had little need or use for in new ways, with their own firearms being developed. Which initially see a small uptake in specialised units due to their initial shortcommings with a mix bow bow and bullet remaining the standard throughout this period, with the reality steadily tilting in the direction of the bullet, despite this the practicalities of the bow would remain a key consideration well into later periods with development and innovation.

Aside from small scale conflicts, barely deserving the title of war, this was considered a time of peace, with an ever expanding integration effort with many of the early tributaries considering themselves Aztek, and a steadily growing and developing string of waystation outpost colonies in the pacific to support trade, this was considered something of a a peaceful time almost akin to a renaissance.
Major Events:
  • The Caribbean becomes a vital part of the Ascendancy owing in equal parts to the maturing Aztek naval capability and the rich bounty of the various islands.
  • Outpost colonies are established across the pacific in short jumps allowing for further explorations.
  • As a result of the trade chain in the process of being established, initial designs proved less than ideal for plying the seas and a steady stream of newer and improved designs emerged, with each being more effective than the last, these efforts would also serve to expand the small initial pool of sailors the Aztek's had as more vessels allowed for the limited pool of experience to expand and grow.
  • Despite the amount of local powers able to pose a threat to the growing nation, technological development increases at a previously unseen pace, with the threat of a second wave or worse as one reason, a desire to keep foreigners at bay and to never be outmatched not to mention the long held Aztek simple desire to forever be the best and the purity of knowledge.
  • The Schooling system is overhauled, along more meritocratic lines due in no small part to many recent thinkers and scholars having emerged in Texcoco from outside the more noble families, the changes although relativley minor are signifigant in that the schooling of both sexes are brought closer in line with one another.
  • Rolling plagues would continue to be a concern, though with each new outbreak the effect is lessened, this is for the most part attributed to methods of managing such outbreaks and a medical understanding, however later scholars would put forward the idea that the native populace had instead built up a resistance to such diseases, with others instead saying that a combination of the two being more likely.
  • Various reforms in the ruling and running of the steadily more integrated nation begin to take further shape, with the Lake Texcoco area in effect being a single unified entity with similar processes now being undertaken radiating outwards, the process is done with an almost deliberate slowness with groundwork being laid to ensure that it is seen as building a nation of equals not of overlords and subjects.
  • Reforms are undertaken in the caste system the Aztek's operated similar in line with schooling to be more meritocratic and opened up in general, especially in light of the heavy expansion of the Icnopiltlan system, with many families, donating their children as it were to the system annonymously, in no small part due to the extremely high birth rate of the era, this concides with numerous works establishing new settlements farms, mines and chinampas.


General Time Period: 1620-1700
Description:
Pirates fleeing or perhaps in search of a safe haven or even in search of fresh plunder came to the island of Hispaniola and after a few years became a steady scourge to the Aztek's but thus far the Aztek's had scant experience in terms of Naval combat and their vessels, tactics and ideas for a war at sea were sorely outmatched, with only complete disaster being averted by the sheer ferocity of the defence on land. What resulted was a long drawn out conflict of cat and mouse with what remained of the Aztek Eastern Fleet, with great pains being taken to keep the pirate's away from the coast of the mainland, a game which lasted several years with each subsequent generation of Aztek warships being more effective but still outmatched, during this time the Pirate's through blockade managed to seize the eastern half of Cuba.

The breaking point of the Pirate's would be reached after a string of battle's the result of which was an uneasy stalemate, with the Aztek's seeking to expand their navy as swiftly as possible while the Pirate's sought to repair what remained of their ruined fleets, it was during this period that the latest in a line of Pirate Kings, Blood Beard, went missing, resulting in a power vacuum, which was formed by the infamous and ruthless Pirate Lord Iron Chin, who set to a frenzy of activity seeking to throw the Aztek's off balance, even going so far to launch invasions of the Aztek mainland.

His strategy bore early fruit before this served to enrage the Aztek's who with a will destroyed the invasion forces and their supporting fleet forever changing the balance, it was however during this period that elements of the Pirate's who were not so sympathetic to Iron Chin, shifted their allegiance, shifting outright to the Aztek's causing something of a schism in the previously united Pirate front. As a result of this a healthy portion of the Pirates hoisted the flag of their former foe and took up arms against their would be lord, under the banner of Bloody Mary, Daughter of Blood Beard who sought to call to her side her father's lieutenant's, Lemon Coat, Teary Eye's and the Witchdoctor, out of three only one would answer the call requiring to be herself freed from her "position" as Iron Chin's new tactician and first mate, while Lemon Coat had passed away from Scurvy and the Witchdoctor having vanished into the ether never to be seen or heard from again.

After less than a year the Aztek's had bested the pirate's with many seeing which way the wind was blowing laid down their arms and surrendered, of Iron Chin however, there was no trace, having set sail to the far west, vowing to return one day and lay claim to the world's plunder, in the aftermath of this the Aztek's had managed to an extent to cultivate a naval tradition and the influx of pirate's further boosted and augmented this despite it's more than dubious origins. While this was ongoing expansion both north and south had not abated and integrations efforts continued apace, with an overwhelming success with most brought into the fold willingly having experienced a far better life under this new regime.


Major Events:
  • Parts of the Caribbean become contested by a Pirate group, in the ensuing wars the Aztek's manage to bring their naval technologies, designs, tactics and technique's up to parity with that of the rest of the world through sheer necessity.
  • The Aztek's solidify their hold over the southern pacific with the trading outposts flourishing into fully self sufficient holdings ruled from Tenchtitlan.
  • Reforms of the government are undertaken as the primary needs of the nation begin to turn from war to prosperity.
  • The various ball games of the Aztek's are formalised and codified into coherent sports.
  • Overtures are made to various foreign nations through intermediaries for seeds and plantings of all types for the botanical gardens overlooking Texcoco.
  • Tlacopan initiates wide ranging economic reforms with the official establishment of a central bank, with it's main body located within the city itself.
Persons of Note:
  • Blood Mary, a former pirate who joined the Aztek's after a Jaguar Pride rescued her family from Iron Chins dungeons, her influence over the Pirate's caused several to wholesale join the Aztek's, she would later serve as an Admiral to the Aztek's and use her experience and influence with her comrades to greatly aid the Aztek Navy
  • Xuxa "Teary Eyes", former first mate of Blood Beard, she was very much a fixer and tactician and brought her knowledge of European style tactics and methods with her when she joined at Bloody Mary's call.



General Time Period: 1700-1850
Description:
In the aftermath of the Pirate upheavels the government in Tenochtitlan sought a period of calm and stability, with the northern and southern expansions reaching their natural limits, with the main concern to the North being the predations of the inevitable, the Europeans having found the Aztek's a difficult barrier to breach, instead tried much further north and appeared to have made significant inroads, debate raged for weeks about the correct course of action, with the final decision being to continue the expansion but with an eye now for an eventual border with whatever nation they would encounter. During this period they encountered the various native's of the land, many of whom had suffered greatly at the predations of the Europeans through displacement and clearly hollow words and broken treaties and promises, the Aztek's themselves offered words and actions, inviting them to move south, to join the Aztek Ascendancy and know safety, a small handful took them up on this offer, most refused and were eventually either wiped out by Europeans or finally acquiesced to the Aztek offer in a much reduced state. Those who did found the only caveats being they would be under Aztek law, and while their culture and customs would be allowed to continue, their children must submit to the same education as other Aztek's or they themselves must provide an equivalent which like the Aztek's own be regularly checked and verified, over the years there would be some friction with several peoples slowly integrating and others dispersing out across the nation.

Eventually the Aztek's would clash more violently with their new neighbours, or rather their new neighbours would do so, while the Aztek's had managed to exercise all due restraint, the ensuing conflict saw the Aztek's fiercely hold their lines utilising new tactics and arms while retaining their old methods and ferocity, After several years with Aztek casualties light in comparison and European casualties considerably higher peace was achieved, with the only blemishes on Aztek Pride involving European usage of Cavalry to which the Aztek's had few ways to respond, in the end the Aztek's had their border and an extreme level of friction with European settlers being forced back by force of arms and an extreme amount of restraint to not pursue any further.

During this time a new revolution began, an Industrial revolution as technology had advanced yet further, beginning slowly in Texcoco, and swiftly adopted and refined by Tlacopan, who sought to spread this new engine of prosperity far and wide, the process was slow as Aztek society itself had to shift and adapt which it was swift to do so, with new groupings created societally to relay their thoughts and concerns to power.


Major Events:
  • The Northern Aztek Borders reach their modern limits which are eventually recognised by colonial powers after a masterfully fought defensive war on the Aztek's part, during this war a heavy toll is reaped upon the aggressors by the Aztek's tactics, which are unfamiliar to the Colonials, between that and their different methods and technologies the Aztek's could have pushed past their lines, but were restrained from doing so by the political leadership, wishing to avoid overstretch.
  • The Industrial Revolution begins in the Ascendancy with the three centre's working in harmony in accordance with their long established spheres and it begins to radiate out throughout the nation.
  • The emergence of proto workers unions begins as a natural evolution of the guilds of old which had likewise been reformed and reorganised.
  • Lake Texcoco is further dredged and the areas of brackish water reduced, with likewise efforts at lake and water management undertaken throughout the nation.
  • Studies are made of methods to connect the two seas of the Ascendancy.
Persons of Note:



    General Time Period: 1830-1905
    Description:
    During this time Aztek Society and it's politics would reach the next stage in the long direction of travel, ideas that had been previously discussed are now formalised and explored in the writings of various luminaries, foremost amongst them the young political thinker Pilne Ilan'zō, whose ideas are formalised under the banner of Syndicalism, with all aspects of Aztek life which had steadily transitioined close to what Pilne espoused were further reformed closer to his ideas, with the final change being something of a suprise to most. the last Huey Tlatoani, decreed that the next, would be a true speaker for the people, and ordered the reform and implementation of the last remaining steps towards a new future.

    Coupled with this new order the Aztek's drew inwards to an extent, dealing with the rest of the world only minimally, aside from trade and the inevitable friction on the walled section of the northern border, this was complicated to some extent when the Canal project undertaken over the course of several years was completed and began the process of paying for itself. During this time of peace and lack of concern for issues external Aztek society was able to complete it's latest reconfiguration and adapt to the new normal.

    Major Events:
    • The Aztek's enter a period of reformation with their society having long been of distinctly socialist leanings by most metrics, this reconfiguration was less about radical change and more about refining and streamlining what already existed, with informal bodies and structures clearly defined and empowered.
    • The Canal opens
    • The Aztek's enter semi-Isolation which would last most of this period.
    • Aztek Industrialisation continues a pace with most of the nation enjoying the fruits of this venture.
    Persons of Note: [list]
    [*]Pilne Ilan'zō, the first socialist ideologue whose published works before this period were increasingly favoured by the political movers and shakers in Tenochtitlan, between his works and the society the Aztek's had, his works would serve as a base for the reform of Aztek Society.

    RP Sample: #See.Novacom

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    Sao Nova Europa
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    Civil Rights Lovefest

    Postby Sao Nova Europa » Tue Jun 08, 2021 11:59 am

    Full Nation Name : Βασίλειο της Ασίας (Empire of Asia)

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    Majority/Official Culture : Greek

    Greek language has become the dominant language of the peoples of the Empire. While initially it was confined to the elites – Greek and native –, in the following centuries it began to spread to cities and towns and, after more than 2200 years of Hellenistic rule, it came to dominate even the rural areas. This was aided by the ‘National School System’ instituted in 1857: the centralized public education system promoted the Greek language of the Imperial Court to children in order to solidify ‘national unity’ and promote ‘the national spirit’.

    The Greek language has not remained unchanged though. Nationally, it has multiple loanwords from Persian. Persian has also influenced the syntax and grammar of the language. On the regional level, while local languages have mostly been sidelined, they have impacted greatly the local Greek dialects with loanwords, causing significant differentiations between the Greek of each region.

    This means that while a Greek-speaker from the Empire and a Greek-speaker from Byzantium would be able to more or less understand each other, they would often have difficulty in understanding the precise meaning of certain words due to the number of loanwords.

    Territorial Core : Shown in map
    Territorial Claim : None
    Capital City : Persepolis
    Population : 40 million

    Government Type : Constitutional Monarchy
    Government Ideology/Policies : Developmentalism
    Government Focus :

    Unity: The Empire has survived for centuries; sometimes through military means and sometimes by assimilating its barbarian conquerors. This long unity, which has created a true civilizational state, has always been the number one priority of Imperial politicians. The Empire must remain united, as it has always been.

    Nationalism: Under the influence of the charismatic Charilaos Trikoupis, the political, military and cultural elites of the Empire have undertaken the project of forging a modern nation-state. The promotion of a national Greek culture and Asian identity to supersede regional dialects and local identities has been the focus of successive Asian governments.

    Head of State : Basileus Alexander XXVIII

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    Head of Government : Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos

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    Government Description :

    The Empire is a constitutional monarchy. The Basileus is the head of state and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. He appoints as Prime Minister the politician whom he believes can gain a vote of confidence in the National Assembly. The 400-members strong National Assembly is elected by universal male suffrage every four years, but the Basileus can dissolve it and call for snap elections if he deems that no government can be formed. The Prime Minister is the head of government and leads a Cabinet. He directs domestic and foreign policy, though for legislation to come into law it must pass through the National Assembly.

    Below the national government are the Satrapies. Each Satrapy is led by a Satrap, appointed by the Basileus on the consultation of the Prime Minister for a fixed term of five years. Satrapal elections take place every two years to elect a Satrapal Council, the legislative body of the Satrapy. In order for a Satrap to implement his agenda, he must pass it through the Satrapal Council. Satrapies tend to have limited autonomy, mostly on fiscal, infrastructure and policing issues with the central government maintaining a tight grip on the economical, educational and cultural affairs of Satrapies.

    The two major parties of the Empire are:

    • Nationalist Party: Led by Eleftherios Venizelos, it follows the ideology of Trikoupism (political philosophy of Charilaos Trikoupis). Trikoupism promotes Greek nationalism, social conservatism, political centralization, developmentalism, state intervention to finance large-scale infrastructure projects and strengthening the military.
    • New Party: Led by Theodoros Diligiannis. It follows the ideology of Diligiannism (named after the leader of the party). Diligiannism promotes economic and social liberalism, lessening the tax burden, reducing the imprint of the state in the economy, attracting foreign private capital, and delegating governmental authority to the Satrapies. It also tends to be more populist in tone.

    Majority/State Religion : Alexandrian Islam
    Religious Description :

    Alexandrian Islam is a sect of Islam that alleges that al-Lah (God) is Alexander the Great. It is a syncretism of Islam and the Cult of Alexander, which had deified Alexander the Great. The argument was made on the basis of a clever wordplay by Imperial theologians. The Arabic name for God is al-Lah and the Arabic name for Alexander Iskander. al-Lah Iskander (God Alexander) phonetically sounds like Alexander, so the Greek name Alexander was reinterpreted as God-Iskander. This allowed the Imperial Court to claim Alexander the Great as the God.

    Economic Ideologies : Capitalism (Mixed Economy)
    Major Production : Oil, textiles (cotton and silk), carpets, opium, agricultural products
    Economic Description :

    The major export of the Empire is oil. While oil has been found in Persia itself, the major supplier of oil are the oilfields of Baku. By 1901, half of the world's oil was produced from the 1900 wells of Baku, located within 6 square miles: 11 million tons or 212,000 barrels (33,700 m3) of oil per day. The oil industry is a state monopoly under the control of the ‘National Petroleum Corporation’ (founded in 1879) and contributes greatly to state budget.

    Beyond oil, the Empire has a number of textile (cotton and silk), carpet and manufacturing industries. Asia mainly exports textile and carpet products, both highly-valued due to their quality. Opium is also cultivated in Persia and Bactria but it is mainly exported rather than sold domestically.

    Commercial activity (both internal and external) has benefited from a wide-ranging infrastructure development program initiated by the government of Charilaos Trikoupis. A large number of railways were constructed, thus connecting the Satrapies of the Empire. Paved roads were constructed and expanded, allowing greater connectivity between urban centers. Ports were expanded to accommodate the increased volume of foreign trade.

    Despite the industrialization and commercialization of the economy, the majority of the population remains agrarian and agriculture remains the most important economic activity for many. However increased integration in the global economy has meant that there has been increased commercialization of the agricultural economy and an expansion of the big landowners’ class who have expanded their holdings.

    Development: Semi-Industrialized
    Development Description :

    Asia has been industrializing with textile, carpet and manufacturing plants created in major urban centers and coastal towns. The oil industry is booming, primarily in the oilfields of Baku. A large network of railways, paved roads and expanded ports facilitates increased trade. However the agrarian countryside remains only partially modernized (at best) or is premodern. This is especially true for hilly regions such as Bactria, which remains underdeveloped and premodern.

    Army Description :

    The Asian military is comprised of 180,000 soldiers, under the control of the central government. While nominally under the command of Basileus, in practice the military is headed by the Chief of General Staff (who also holds the rank of Generalissimo). As a result of an extensive modernization program initiated by the Trikoupis government (1876 - 1889), military equipment was modernized (with large-scale foreign purchases replacing outdated weapons) and foreign military advisors trained Asian officers and supervised the modernization of the military structure. As a result, the Asian military is no longer outdated and is comparable to that of other major industrial powers.

    Army Weakness :

    The focus of the military has been placed on defense rather than offense. Military officers have been trained to pursue defensive strategies and the military doctrine is focused on defense. This means that the Asian military is not well suited for offensive operations. This was shown in the 1896-7 war with Rome; while the Empire could defend itself, it chose not to pursue an offensive as it was ill-suited to do so.

    Naval Description :

    The Asian Navy is comprised of a few (pre-dreadnought) battleships and a small number of frigates and steam vessels. The navy - of middle size (greater than that of minor powers but smaller than navies of great industrialized powers) - is mainly tasked with protecting trade in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. It has mostly defensive capabilities. It is manned by about 18,000 sailors.

    Naval Weakness :

    As the vast majority of government funds went in the direction of modernizing the land forces, the navy was underfunded. While some arms purchases were made, the government did not invest significantly in the navy. Much like the army, the Asian navy lacks offensive capabilities and is meant to be a defensive force to safeguard naval commerce and defend the coasts of the Empire.

    Further Military Description :

    The military has intervened more than once in domestic politics, with military officers having launched a number of coups. The military is currently dominated by the ideology of Trikoupism and views itself as its guardian. It will thus react in a volatile manner if Trikoupism is challenged.

    National Goals : Safeguard national borders, forge a modern nation-state, develop local industries
    National Issues :

    While Asia has seen a rapid industrialization of its economy in the past decades, it has still not reached the industrial capacity some of the other major powers. Asia also faces political uncertainty due to short-lived governments and a military that has no qualms intervening in domestic affairs.

    National Figures of Interest :

    The legacy of Charialos Trikoupis (Prime Minister: 1876 - 1889) looms large in the Empire. His ideology is the dominant political doctrine in the Empire and has greatly influenced both the political and the military elites of the Empire while his Cult of Personality earned him popular adoration. His nationalist, statist and centralist ideology had the twin goal of forging a nation-state and industrializing the Empire. His political successors aim to fulfil those aspirations.

    National Ambition/Aspirations : Industrialization, nationalism, status quo in foreign affairs

    History :

    Alexander's Empire (334 - 143 BC)
    In 334 BC, Alexander of Macedon invaded the Achaemenid Empire (Persian Empire) and began a series of campaigns that lasted 10 years. Following his conquest of Asia Minor, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, including those at Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety. At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River. Alexander endeavored to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea" and invaded India in 326, achieving an important victory over King Porus at the Battle of the Hydaspes. He eventually turned back at the Beas River due to the demand of his homesick troops.

    Once he returned in Babylon, the task of governing the vast Empire he had created meant that he could no longer afford to wage any more wars of expansion. Alexander in the next few years instituted a series of important administrative reforms. He standardized the monetary system of Empire: the unified silver coinage boosted trade. He enforced Persian Court etiquette on all his subjects, including the Greeks who had previously remained exempt. He adopted the Persian administrative structure of the Satrapies, appointing loyal commanders and aristocrats as Satraps of the various regions of his grand empire.

    Alexander also promoted a cult of personality. He had for years promoted the story that he was the son of Zeus-Ammon, and he officially declared himself a God in 315. This Cult of Alexander became even more prominent under his successors, who built grand temples in honor of Alexander and placed him above all other traditional Greek Gods, in order to strengthen their hold on power.

    When Alexander died in 303, the Empire was stable and prosperous. Alexander IV, son of Alexander the Great and Princess Roxana, ascended smoothly in the Imperial Throne at the age of 20. Alexander IV promoted trade and commerce. He also crushed a number of Satrap revolts against the central government, further stabilizing the realm. He expelled nomadic raiders from Central Asia, restored ravaged cities, rebuild the citadel of Marv and constructed a rampant of beaten earth and brick (20 meters high and 270 km long) in Marv oasis. In 275 he defeated the Gauls, who raided Minor Asia, with the use of elephants.

    Between 270 (when Alexander IV died) and 220, the realm prospered under the guide of three Basileis. Agriculture and commerce were encouraged by the Basileis. They granted hereditary possession of land to farmers who planted on that land. They also undertook public projects of improving roads and harbors and canalized the river Eulaios (Karun), thus establishing a route between Susa and the Persian Gulf. Land was divided into three categories: royal land, which was owned by the Basileus and sometimes granted to farmers, land which belonged to the citizens of the Greek cities, which was allotted to them in exchange for military service, and land allotted to holy temples. The countryside of was dominated by villages where the native peoples (Babylonians, Iranians, Sogdians, etch) lived and were the main fiscal and economic unit. Underground irrigation canals (qanats) played a major role in the economy and agriculture. The native chieftains continued the exploitation of peasants as they had done before the Greeks came.

    The native aristocrats were charmed by Greek civilization and accepted nudity in male statues, Greek plays and learned the Greek language. Gradually, the native peoples in the villages also began to learn Greek as the language became essential to taxation and administration, and because their cultural elites had been Hellenized. This spread of the Greek language was gradual would take many centuries.

    However, while the Empire prospered economically and culturally, it suffered a number of setbacks too. Pergamon became an independent power under its ambitious Satrap Eumenes while imperial influence in the Greek mainland also waned.

    Nikonas II (220 – 187) followed a more active foreign policy, not content with simply ruling his realm. He began to discreetly aid Hannibal, leading to a war with Rome in 214. Roman maniples (aided by allies from the Aetolian League and Pergamon after 211) did little more than skirmish with imperial forces and seize minor territory along the Adriatic coastline in order to "combat piracy". Rome's interest was not in conquest, but in keeping the Empire busy while Rome was fighting Hannibal. The war ended indecisively in 205 with the Treaty of Phoenice. Nikonas opened the bazaars of India to Greek merchants thanks to his military campaigns in the East (205 – 201) and launched an expedition against the Gerrhaens in Arabia to divert spice trade routes from Arabia to Sousa. Spice from Arabia and India came to Susa and proceeded to the West while western merchandise proceeded from Susa to the East.

    Nikonas then turned his gaze on from Pergamon and Rhodes. The two Greek states asked Rome to intervene on their behalf. Roman troops led by then consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus reached the plain of Thessaly by 198. In 197 the Romans decisively defeated Nikonas at the Battle of Cynoscephalae, and he sued for peace. The result was the Treaty of Tempea of 196.

    While Nikonas had to cease interfering in the Greek mainland as a result of that treaty, he violated its terms leading to renewed war with Rome in 192. A major Roman-Greek force was mobilized under the command of the great hero of the Second Punic War, Scipio Africanus, and set out for Greece. After initial fighting that revealed serious Imperial weaknesses, Nikonas tried to turn the Roman strength against them at the Battle of Thermopylae but he was defeated and forced to evacuate Greece. The Romans pursued the Imperials by crossing the Hellespont, which marked the first time a Roman army had ever entered Asia. The decisive engagement was fought at the Battle of Magnesia, resulting in a complete Roman victory. Nikonas was forced to hand over Macedonia and Western Asia Minor to the Romans in 188.

    Nikonas’ death in 186 left the Empire weakened and humiliated, as it had suffered multiple defeats and loss of land at the hands of the Romans. Nikonas’ two sons, Alexander VI and Nikonas III, fought a destructive civil war between 186 and 181 for the succession of the Empire. This allowed Egypt, under the rule of the ambitious Satrap Ptolemy VI, to declare independence. The loss of Egypt meant the loss of valuable revenue and manpower that further weakened the Empire.

    The Parthian King Mithridates I (171–139/8) took control of Bactria from the Empire, exploiting the weakness of the Empire. He then expanded westwards, conquering Media and invading Mesopotamia. Basileus Philip V, in order to save the Empire, had to legitimize Mithridates’ conquests by granting him the office of ‘Strategos-Autokrator’ (Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces) in 143.


    Parthian and Kushan Domination (143 BC - 654 AD)
    In 141, Mithridates launched the 21 August Coup, which allowed him to become the real ruler of the Empire. Philip V was confined to being a ceremonial figurehead. He was still accepted as Basileus, he was still paid respect by Mithridates, and orders were still given in his name, but it was Mithridates that governed in practice as a military dictator. Mithridates had chosen this approach because it would legitimize his rule and unify his vast Empire, especially since the Cult of Alexander had gained wide prominence and had turned the Argead Dynasty into a symbol of Divinity.

    The Parthians adopted Greek language in court and administration, wrote their edicts in Greek and had their children be educated by Greek scholars. Thus, while the Greeks were no longer the ruling caste, Greek language and culture remained dominant among the governing elites. The Parthians also adopted Greek clothing and way of life, moving away from their nomadic roots.

    Arsaces III, successor of Mithridates in the office of Strategos-Autokrator, came into conflict with the Romans over Armenia. In the first Roman-Parthian War of 124 – 121, Roman legions invaded Imperial Syria and Palestine and conquered them in a blow to the Parthian regime. Arsaces spent his next years in office putting down revolts and strengthening the Parthian military in hopes of getting revenge. While he himself would not be able to do so, his successors would. Arsaces also made Ctesiphon the real capital of the Empire. While the Basileus and the Imperial Court would be in Babylon, Arsaces would maintain his own Court in Ctesiphon. This allowed Arsaces to further solidify the Parthian regime.

    The Parthians destroyed the army of Marcus Licinius Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae in 53, and in 40–39, Parthian forces captured the whole of the Levant except Tyre from the Romans. However, Mark Antony led a counterattack against the Empire, although his successes were generally achieved in his absence, under the leadership of his lieutenant Ventidius.

    For the next decades, peace reigned between the Romans and the Empire. While the Western borders were secured, in the East the Empire faced new challenges. The Kushans, one of the five branches of the nomadic Yuezhi people, migrated from Xinjiang westwards into Bactria. Under their King Kujula Kadphises, between 30 and 67 AD the Kushans inflicted one defeat after the other upon the Imperials. The Strategos-Autokrator Vonones II had to grant Kujula the Satrapy of Bactria officially, thus legitimizing the Kushan conquests but also incorporating the Kushans into the Empire as a subject people. The Kushans, in firm control of the Imperial East, repulsed the Alan invasions.

    Hostilities between Rome and the Empire were renewed when Strategos-Autokrator Osroes I deposed the Armenian king Sanatruk and replaced him with Axidares, without consulting Rome. The Roman emperor Trajan had the next Parthian nominee for the throne, Parthamasiris, killed in 114, instead making Armenia a Roman province. His forces, led by Lusius Quietus, also captured Nisibis; its occupation was essential to securing all the major routes across the northern Mesopotamian plain. The following year, Trajan invaded Mesopotamia and met little resistance. Trajan spent the winter of 115–116 at Antioch, but resumed his campaign in the spring. Marching down the Euphrates, he captured Dura-Europos, Ctesiphon, and even subjugated Characene. In the last months of 116, Trajan captured Susa. On Trajan's return north, the Babylonian settlements revolted against the Roman garrisons. Trajan was forced to retreat from Mesopotamia in 117, overseeing a failed siege of Hatra during his withdrawal.

    The Empire fought another war against the Romans in 161–166, which began when the Strategos-Autokrator Vologases invaded Armenia and Syria, retaking Edessa. Marcus Aurelius had co-ruler Lucius Verus guard Syria while Marcus Statius Priscus invaded Armenia in 163, followed by the invasion of Mesopotamia by Avidius Cassius in 164. The Romans captured and burnt Ctesiphon to the ground, yet they were forced to retreat once the Roman soldiers contracted a deadly disease (possibly smallpox) that soon ravaged the Roman world.

    In 167, Huvishka (the Kushan Satrap of Bactria), revolted against the Strategos-Autokrator. The weakened Parthians could offer little resistance and in 171 the Kushans entered Ctesiphon and Babylon. The Basileus Strato III had to name Huvishka as the new Strategos-Autokrator, ending the Parthian period and beginning the Kushan one. In return, the Kushan Satrap respected Strato III as his nominal ruler and paid respects to him, much like the Parthian rulers before him.

    The Kushan period lasted until 681. During this period, the Kushans fought a series of wars against the Romans (337 – 363, 421 – 422, 440, 502 – 506, 526 – 532, 541 – 562, 572 – 591 and 602 – 628). In the 570s, the Empire also fought a series of wars with the Aksumites over the the Himyarite Kingdom in Yemen. Despite some initial victories, Imperial forces were defeated and driven off Yemen by the Aksumites

    Under Kanishka I the Great (590 – 628), the Kushans captured much of the Roman Empire's territories, earning the Strategos-Autokrator the epithet "the Victorious". However, Kanisha was deposed by his own son when the Romans, under the brilliant leadership of Heraclius, invaded the Imperial heartland.

    Kanishka II (628 – 651) was an equally brilliant leader. He put down revolts against his rule and incorporated White Hun nomads into his army to make up for the losses in manpower of the last years. Despite his efforts, though, the Empire was too weak to defend Mesopotamia against the Arab invaders in 633. Khalid ibn al-Walid conquered Babylon in 636, forcing the Basileus and the Imperial Court to abandon the ancient Imperial Capital and follow the Strategos-Autokrator in Susa, Persia. In the Battle of Susa, 639, Kanishka defeated the Arabs and so prevented an Arab conquest of Persia. In 640 both sides agreed to a truce.

    Kanishka spent his remaining years rebuilding Imperial power in Persia and defending the Imperial possessions in Central Asia from nomadic raiders. In 652, Basileus Timotheos II married Princess Atikah bint Yazid, granddaughter of Caliph Mu'awiya I. Timotheos died in 654, leaving Atikah as the Basilometor (Βασιλομήτωρ – Empress Dowager) of their son, Basileus Ioannes II.


    Imperial Restoration and Seljuk Domination (654 - 1219)
    Ioannes II was educated as a Muslim. Many Imperial courtiers too embraced Islam, under the influence of the Empress Dowager. When Ioannes became eighteen years of age in 670, he wanted to both reform the religion of the Empire and restore Imperial direct rule. In his quest, he was aided by the fact that the turmoil of the last decades had caused religious uncertainty and the rise of various religious sects, undermining the traditional religion.

    Ioannes promoted a form of Islam which, through a clever wordplay, alleged that al-Lah was Alexander the Great. This would both make conversion easier (as it would align with the Cult of Alexander and the traditional faith of the Empire) and retain the divine status of the Argead Dynasty.

    Ioannes’ reforms though did not pass unchallenged. The Strategos-Autokrator Kipunada attempted to depose the Basileus in 671, but with the defeats that the Empire had suffered under Kushan rule, the Strategos had lost much of his prestige many generals sided with the Basileus. Kipunada was captured and beheaded, and direct rule by the Basileus was restored.

    In 674, with the Umayyads besieging Constantinople, Ioannes led an Imperial army into Mesopotamia. The Arabs were unprepared to fight a war on two fronts and Ioannes recaptured the lost Imperial lands of Mesopotamia. In 677 the two sides agreed on a truce. This victory by Ioannes allowed him to solidify both his rule and his religious reforms, as he could claim divine favor. He funded the training of a native Islamic clergy that propagated the Alexandrian version of Islam and built a number of impressive Mosques.

    Ioannes ushered a period knows as the ‘Imperial Restoration’ lasting from 671 to 981. During that time period the Basileus was once again the real ruler of the Empire. Centralized control was strengthened further by the reforms of Basileus Alexios II (701 – 745) who stripped Satraps of their military power; instead the provincial military would be under the command of a Merarchos. This weakened provincial autonomy.

    This period was also a Golden Age in the economy and culture. In the field of the economy, it saw expansion of agricultural production, flourishing of cities with increased urbanization, and trade with both the West and the East. On culture, it saw the construction of thousands of mosques, a flourishing of Greek literature and plays, a revival of Greek philosophy, important works on mathematics and geometry and the establishment of the House of Wisdom, a grand public library and intellectual center in Babylon.

    This period also saw Hellenization completely prevail in Persia. In the past the efforts at Hellenization had been successful at Hellenizing the native elites and also many cities and villages, but parts of the countryside had resisted that process. But with the center of the empire having been moved in Persia – with Susa as imperial capital –, Hellenization in Persia intensified and prevailed completely.

    In the ninth century the decline of the Empire began. Court factionalism and a series of incompetent Basileis with little interest in ruling meant that the influence of the central government waned once more. The Merarchoi, the leaders of military units in the Satrapies, saw their influence grow. One such Merarchos, Theodoros of Mosul, rose in open revolt against the Imperial Court in 981 and captured Susa. The Basileus had to name Theodoros Strategos-Autokrator; the era of direct rule by the Basileis was over.

    From 981 to 1037, the dynasty of Theodoros ruled as Strategoi-Autokratores. They restored centralized control but they also lost a number of cities in Central Asia to Turkic nomadic tribesmen. They also failed to check corruption in government. The Seljuk Turks, led by Tughril Beg, abandoned their homeland near the Aral Sea and descended on Persia through Central Asia. They defeated the Imperial armies. With the Empire facing the prospect of annihilation, Basileus Alexios IV deposed the Strategos-Autokrator Nikolaos and offered the title to Tughril Beg. Tughril, who had converted to Islam, accepted the title as it would offer him control of the entire Empire and legitimize his rule.

    Seljuk warriors invaded Anatolia and defeated the Romans at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. Turkish warriors flooded Anatolia in the aftermath of the battle, establishing semi-autonomous Emirates in Central Anatolia but they did not survive long as they were stuck fighting the locals and in the following decades the Romans mopped them up, despite reinforcements sent from the Empire. For the next decades, Roman and Imperial forces fought a series of conflicts in Armenia, which eventually forced the Empire to give ups its aspirations in the Caucasus.


    Mongol Domination (1219 - 1658)
    Under Seljuk domination, the Empire initially experienced a period of renewed prosperity and martial prowess, managing to fend off Arab incursions. But this was not to last. Strategos-Autokrator Toghrul III refused to submit, so Genghis Khan declared war in 1219. The Mongols overran much of the eastern part of the empire, occupying many major cities and population centers between 1219 and 1221. Eastern Persia was ravaged by the Mongol detachment under Jebe and Subutai, who left the area in ruin. With Toghrul III dead, the Imperial armies rallied behind the leadership of Basileus Alexander XVI. Alexander repulsed the first Mongol attempt to take Central Persia. However, Alexander was overwhelmed and crushed by Chormaqan's army sent by the Great Khan Ögedei in 1231. The whole of Persia came under Mongol rule and Alexander had to retreat with the Imperial Court to Babylon, in Mesopotamia.

    In 1244, the Mongols stopped raising of revenue from districts in Persia and offered tax exemptions to others. Möngke Khan prohibited ortog-merchants (Mongol-contracted Muslim traders) and nobles from abusing relay stations and civilians in 1251. He ordered a new census and decreed that each man in the Mongol-ruled Middle East must pay in proportion to his property.

    Hulagu Khan, third son of Tolui, grandson of Genghis Khan, and brother of both Möngke Khan and Kublai Khan, was an ambitious man. Immediately after his brother Möngke's accession as Great Khan in 1251, Hulagu was appointed as administrator of Mongol Persia and was given a fifth of the entire Mongol army. In 1258 he besieged Babylon, intent on conquering the whole of the Greek Empire.

    After months of siege, Hulagu captured the Imperial Capital. While it was common practice for Mongols to sack cities that resisted them, Hulagu restrained his men. He spared the city and had Basileus Markos II brought before him. Hulagu was not content with being a vassal for the Great Khan and knew that in order to become independent he needed some justification: his Muslim Persian advisors had counselled him to seek the office of Strategos-Autokrator. This would legitimize his rule and pacify the population, which was still hostile to Mongol rule. It would also mean that Hulagu would no longer be a vassal of the Great Khan. Hulagu heeded their advice and accepted Basileus Markos as his nominal sovereign while he got the title of Strategos-Autokrator. With the Great Khan too busy with the Song Dynasty of Southern China and internal troubles, Hulagu’s move went unchallenged.

    So the Empire was once more unified, under Mongol domination. Hulagu’s first moves were to reorganize the administration of the Persia, by adopting the traditional Satrapal administrative structure of the Empire. He also employed a number of Muslim Persian advisers. His court and administration adopted Greek language. The realm was stabilized after decades of warfare. Hulagu fell ill in February 1265 after several days of banquets and hunting. He died on 8 February and his son Abaqa succeeded him in the summer.

    Abaqa converted to the Alexandrian form of Islam, and so did most of the Mongols. This further reinforced Mongol rule over the Empire. Abaqa and his successors issued new coinage, reformed the tax system to make it more efficient and fair, undertook a number of irrigation projects and reconstructed the cities ravaged by the Mongol invasions. The Empire was once more prosperous as commerce and trade flourished while agricultural production returned to pre-conquest levels. The population in turn grew too.

    In the 1330s, the Empire was ravaged by the Black Death. This caused a new period of instability known as the Times of Trouble (1331 – 1367), during which a number of Strategoi-Autokratores succeeded each other in rapid succession, often by murder and our coup. In 1367, Bahador launched a successful coup against his brother and became the new Strategos-Autokrator. He spent the next two decades putting down revolts and reimposing centralized control while also keeping foreign enemies at bay.

    This ushered a new era of reconstruction. Commerce once again flourished and the Strategoi-Autokratores patronized arts and culture. New roads were paved while the monetary system was stabilized once more. The era of increased prosperity, though, also saw increased decadence in the Court. In the latter half of the 15th century, Satrapies became semi-independent. One ambitious Satrap was Jenkshi, a man of Mongol origins and Satrap of Fars. He revolted against the Strategos-Autokrator and in 1501 captured Susa. The Basileus in Babylon recognized Jenkshi as the new Strategos-Autokrator of the Empire.

    Jenkshi moved the capital of the Strategos-Autokrator from Susa to the ancient city of Persepolis, which he reconstructed grander than ever with the loot he had captured during the conquest of Susa. He also reformed the administrative system of the Empire. Provincial administration would now be fourfold: a Satrap as a political overseer, a Merarchos as military commander, a Dikastes as High Judge and in charge of the judicial system and an Oikonomikos responsible for tax collection. Unlike in the past, those offices would not be hereditary and would be appointed by the central government. Tenure in those offices would also be restricted to a maximum of ten years, to prevent someone from building up a local power base. This reform centralized administration in a way that had never been done before. Jenkshi and his successors promoted a system of meritocracy. Whereas in the past aristocrats were guaranteed administrative positions, now they had to prove themselves worthy of the position. This fostered a professionalism in administration and reduced corruption.

    The period between 1501 and 1658 is known as a ‘Golden Age’. Economic growth was fueled by the renewed political stability, which allowed the agriculture to thrive as well as trade to flourish as the Empire’s geographical position meant many goods passing from East to West and vice versa moved through the Empire. Good roads were constructed by the Strategoi-Autokratores to support the expanded international commerce.

    During this time period, the Empire also fought a series of wars against the Romans. In 1514, the Romans managed to successfully conquer Western Armenia and Eastern Anatolia from the Empire as the ruling Strategos-Autokrator had to face a revolt in Sindh. From 1532 to 1555 the Asians and Romans waged a low-intensity conflict in Mesopotamia that resulted in no border border changes. In the 1578–1590 War, the Romans defeated the Asian military and conquered large parts of Caucasus and Mesopotamia. This defeat was overturned by General Hasan-Ali Khan Daghestani who in a series of brilliant military victories between 1603 and 1618 recovered the lost lands of the Empire.


    Early Modern Empire (1658 - 1853)
    1658 was the year when Suleiman died. His successors were weak-minded and unable to enforce the centralized control of past Strategoi-Autokratores, leading to a number of revolts and coup attempts by ambitious provincial leaders and military commanders. In 1691, the Strategos-Autokrator Toggontomor was successfully deposed by General Andragoras who took the office for himself. But Andragoras faced a coalition generals who opposed his coup in civil war that lasted ten bloody years and saw widespread massacres and destruction. While Andragoras prevailed, the Empire was but a shadow of its former self.

    So when Pashtun tribesmen in the Satrapy of Bactria rose up in revolt under the leadership of the brilliant and ambitious Nader Afshar, the Strategos-Autokrator Andragoras II had to recognize their rule over Bactria. But Nader was not content with being the ruler of Bactria. In 1724 he declared himself the rightful Strategos-Autokrator. In a series of campaigns lasting up to 1736, Nader defeated both the armies of Andragoras II and a number of provincial rival military and political leaders. So when his army entered Persepolis in 1736, the Empire was completely his. Basileus Manuel II recognized him as Strategos-Autokrator and centralized control over the Satrapies was restored.

    Nader launched an invasion of the Roman Empire in 1737. His ingenious military tactics allowed him to defeat the Roman military and in the Treaty of 1741, Armenia was recognized as Asian territory. As a result of his brilliant military campaigns, Nader was given the nickname ‘Second Alexander’ though some balked at his comparison with the God. Nader’s increasingly tyrannical behavior, arbitrary executions and comparison with the God led to his assassination in 1747 by disgruntled courtiers.

    His nephew, Adel, tried to maintain control but he was overthrown in 1756 by general Anastasios. Anastasios, now Strategos-Autokrator, would prove a competent administrator. Unlike Nader who enforced centralization through military campaigns, Anastasios preferred to coopt local elites by offering tax exemptions and government offices until he could become powerful enough to gradually strip them of those benefits. This gradual approach worked better at enforcing the control of the imperial center over the Satrapies.

    From 1756 to 1853 Anastasios’ successor ruled over the Empire. They oversaw a period of renewed economic growth as the Empire began to recover from the chaos of the past few decades. They also sponsored a number of Greek plays, the construction of hundreds of new Mosques and saw a boom in painting and poetry. Domestically, they kept the Satrapies under strict centralized supervision while in foreign affairs they followed a policy of isolationism which safeguarded the borders of the Empire but also meant that it began to fall behind technologically compared to other powers in the West and East. This was showcased in the 1821 War with Rome. A minor border dispute in the Caucasus border escalated to a full-scale war during which the Imperial army was crushed by the Roman forces. Armenia, which had been conquered by Nader, had to be ceded to the Roman Empire. The Romans also imposed restrictions on the fortification of the Asian border.


    Modern History (1853 onwards)
    The increased isolation, technological fallback and military defeats of the Empire caused unease at a group of military officers, who formed the ‘Society of Progress’, a secret organization for military officers who believed the Empire was stagnating under the current regime. Many of them had been inspired by the ‘Democratic Movement’, an intellectual movement that studied and idolized Ancient Athens and its democracy.

    In 1853, with a well-organized military coup, they overthrew the Strategos-Autokrator and abolished the post. They also forced Basileus Georgios II to grant a permission for a National Assembly. Property-owning, tax-paying adult males of thirty years of age would vote in each Satrapy for a Satrapal Assembly. In turn, the Satrapal Assemblies would elect ten members to represent the Satrapy in the National Assembly.

    The National Assembly of 1854 drafted the first Constitution of the Empire. Empire-wide parliamentary elections would take place every four years to elect a National Assembly. The political leader who could command a majority in the Assembly would be appointed by the Basileus to lead the government as Prime Minister.

    In theory liberalism and democracy won. In practice though the lack of democratic political traditions meant that political parties were centered around either a charismatic personality or in support of regional interests rather than an ideology. Parties would gain and expand their support by offering to their supporters various benefits including tax exemptions for certain Satrapies and appointment to local and national offices. Elections became competition for the ‘spoils’ of the state rather than debate between policies/ideas.

    Unsurprisingly, this caused disillusionment among the populace. So when the military intervened in 1875 and suspended constitutional rule, there was little opposition. The military intervention of 1875 was led by a group of colonels called ‘National Salvation League’. The ‘National Salvation League’ was a nationalist organization that promoted the values of Greek ultranationalism, undying devotion to the Basileus, Islamic piety, strengthening of the military and political centralism.

    The leader of the coup, Colonel Charilaos Trikoupis, led the country in the rigged elections of 1876. The ‘National Salvation League’, reorganized as a political party, won an overwhelming majority. Charilaos became Prime Minister and in 4th August of the same year suspended the Constitution. Henceforth, he would rule as a dictator.

    Charilaos financed the construction of a number of railways running throughout the Empire, thus facilitating commerce and economic growth. He founded the ‘National Petroleum Corporation’ to develop the oil industry in the Empire. The increase in oil exports financed his military modernization efforts. He sent military officers to study abroad while also calling foreign military officers to train the Imperial military. A good part of the budget went towards modernizing the military equipment and bringing the Imperial military up to the standards of other major powers. The efforts of Charilaos to attract private capital though had rather mixed results.

    Charilaos also increased funding for the ‘National School System’, which had been founded in 1857. It was the first centralized public education system, with the twin goal of increasing literacy rates and promoting Greek nationalism. Schools would have lessons taught in the Greek language of the Imperial Court and intensified the Hellenization efforts that had been gradual and ‘natural’ in the past centuries. Under Charilaos, the increased funding meant that more schools than ever were constructed and more teachers were hired, allowing the government’s nationalist influence to spread even in the most outlying rural regions. This was accompanied by the funding of ‘Cultural Festivities’, which promoted Greek cultural activities, and the ‘Summer Camps’ in which children in urban centers (and even some rural centers) would spend their summer in government-managed camps where they would be indoctrinated in the values of Greek nationalism.

    In 1889 Charilaos died. After a few months of uncertainty it was decided that the Constitution of 1854 would be reinstated. The ‘National Salvation League’ fragmented into a number of factions. A number of democratic governments governed between 1889 and 1895. Those governments were short-lived, as Assemblymen would constantly switch their partisan allegiance to the political leader who would promise them the greatest rewards. The increased corruption and gridlock meant that calls for a return to military rule became more popular.

    In 1895 Theodoros Diligiannis, an ambitious politician who had served as Satrap of Fars, became Prime Minister. His party, the ‘New Party’, promoted an ideology of economic and political liberalism, government decentralization and social enfranchisement. Theodoros became popular with the masses thanks to his populist persona and reputation for incorruptibility. Theodoros reduced the overall tax burden and tried to delegate some state authority from the central government to the Satrapies.

    In 1896, war broke out between the Empire and the Romans over the refortification of the Asian border. Theodoros, wanting to bolster popular support and sideline Trikoupist influence in the military, refortified the borders of the Empire with Rome in violation of the 1821 Treaty. The Romans in turn declared war on Asia. Theodoros settled on a defensive strategy. The Asian military, modernized thanks to the reforms of Trikoupis, managed to hold the line and repulsed the Roman attack, albeit with thousands of casualties. Theodoros understood very well that while the Asian military could hold the line against a Roman invasion, it could not invade Rome itself as it had minimal offensive capabilities and had already suffered great losses. So he entered into negotiations with the Romans and accepted the 1897 Peace Treaty.

    This angered Trikoupist military officers, who believed that Asia could have won the war if it had chosen to invade the Roman Empire. In 1898 a group of Trikoupist officers launched a military coup and toppled the government. Theodoros was imprisoned and the parliament dissolved. The military officers imposed a military junta. One of their first acts was to form a ‘National Youth Organization’, as an expansion of the ‘Summer Camps’ program, in which all school children would have to participate. After school activities would involve gymnastics to strengthen the body and extra lessons to promote Greek nationalism. Students would also be instructed to report on their parents if they heard them harboring non-patriotic views.

    As the Junta was becoming increasingly more radical and nationalistic, in 1901 a number of moderate Trikoupist officers toppled the dictatorship and established their own Junta. The dictators relaxed some of the most repressive measures of the previous regime. In 1903, recognizing their inexperience in politics and inadequacy at governance, the Junta called upon the moderate conservative politician Eleftherios Venizelos to assume the government. Venizelos became Prime Minister and formed the ‘Nationalist Party’ as a successor to the ‘National Salvation League'.

    Venizelos ended censorship of the press, released political prisoners (including Theodoros Diligiannis) and proclaimed elections. In the 1904 elections, the ‘Nationalist Party’ won 310 of the 400 seats in the National Assembly. The opposition ‘New Party’, led by Theodoros, won the rest 90 seats. The elections were for the most part free and fair, though there were some irregularities in certain rural regions in favor of the government.

    Venizelos now faces the task of moving the country forward. Among his challenges is the legacy of Trikoupis, a military that is independent from civilian rule and the populist appeal of Theodoros.


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    Tyranny by Majority

    Postby Greater Redosia » Tue Jun 08, 2021 11:59 am

    Full Nation Name : Kingdom of Vandalusia, Mamlakat Alwandal, مملكة الوندال
    Majority/Official Culture : Vandal (Official Court culture), Germano-Berber (Majority City Culture), Berber (Majority rural culture)
    Territorial Core : Tunisia, Northern Algeria, and Tripilotania
    Territorial Claim : Morocco, Cyrencia, Malta, Sicily, Sardinia, and the Balearic Islands
    Capital City : Carthage/Karthago
    Population : 8,632,000

    Government Type : Absolute Monarchy
    Government Ideology/Policies : Split between Cooperative Peacemakers and Militant Expansionists
    Government Focus : The Government structure of the Vandalic Kingdom focuses greatly on the centers of trade that are found within the nation’s borders. Cathago, Algiers, and Tripoli as the Cultural and Economic Trifecta of the Government’s base of power. Aiming at cultural growth and economic expansion from the cities to bleed out into the countryside.
    Head of State : King Hilderic IV ibn Markus al-Karthago
    Head of Government : The Triumvirate of the Kingdom
    Government Description : The Vandalic Kingdom, although underneath an Absolute Monarchy, is not entirely under the control of its King. Below the King is the Triumvirate of the Kingdom led by the Governors of Carthage, Algiers, and Tripoli. The Triumvirate runs the general nation as a whole. Underneath the Triumvirate is the Council of Elders who are elected representatives from the populace, they decide the laws and general operations of the Government and all laws are to be approved by the King of the Vandalic Kingdom. Though lately the Triumvirate has been consolidating power in the Council of Elders and in the King's court.

    Majority/State Religion : Arian Christianity

    Economic Ideologies : Guild-Centered Capitalistic System
    Major Production : Agricultural Goods, Handcrafted Finished Goods, Fishing, and Naval Industries
    Economic Description : The Kingdom of Vandalia prides itself in its ability to produce major handcrafted goods throughout the centuries, allowing its culture to formulate around guilds. These guilds dominated the economies of the city centers and rural countryside, helping ensure an economy of exports with its prime position in the Mediterranean. This however has started to come into conflict with the growing capitalist elements which focus on greater industrialization and mass production of goods against handcrafted perfection the guilds can do. With this industrialization slowly pushing the guilds into the small towns and countryside and creating a split system where the state manages the industries in the cities and the private guilds continue producing their wares.

    Development: Semi-Industrial
    Development Description : While it is true that Vandalia has managed to expand industrial horizons greatly in the central cities of Carthage, Algiers, and Tripoli as well as other coastal cities albeit much minor, a majority of the nation is left rural and without any true access to electricity and other vices of the industrial revolution. Although ports are great, they are few and far between, with main railways and road systems focusing greatly between the cities of the North African Kingdom and only extend in their dirt and gravel counterparts to the more rural portions.
    Army Description : The Vandalusian Army is seen as the current lovechild of the administration, mostly concerning the three Governors who run most of the nation. With 60,000 current soldiers active in the army, they are trained mostly in regards to the location they are in. Desert and mountains making up the majority of it, units are not commanded at one time by anything more than regiments. With three separate armies of 20,000 to defend each region: One in Algeria to defend the west, one in Tripolitania to defend the east, and one in Carthage to defend the heartland and act as the last line of defense against the enemies of the nation.

    Army Weakness : Limited in size due to terrain and resources. Many are made up from current and former berber tribes and so loyalties may be seen as divided within the forces. As well as not having a very large military or skill with larger military forces.

    Naval Description : The Vandalusian navy, once a pride of the nation, has seen better days. With limited industrial capacity in the cities where naval dockyards are, there had not been much modern growth for the navy. But she is crewed by skilled seamen and Vandalusia’s naval engineers are one of the best.
    1 Pre-dreadnought Battleship
    2 Armored cruisers
    5 protected cruisers
    8 unprotected cruisers
    12 Torpedo boat destroyers
    Naval Weakness : Limited number of ships available for the Vandalusian navy, limited resources for a long war. Only three major dockyards to service and build ships.
    Further Military Description : Berbers are regularly hired as rural guards and mercenaries to defend from rebels and act as a scouting company for the military.

    National Goals : Securing Northern Africa for Vandalusia, achieving dominance of the Mediterranean, and finishing the industrialization of the nation.
    National Issues : Lack of large scale industrialization, unrest between urban populations and rural populations, gap of development between the cities and the rural portions of the country.
    National Figures of Interest : Emir Yemsel ibn Abdelkader the ruler of the main Berber confederation
    National Ambition/Aspirations : Being an active member in the Mediterranean, being the most dominant power on the African continent.

    History :

    Flight from Hispania 417 - 429: Having been given land from the Western Roman Empire, it was expected that perhaps finally the Vandalic people could finally live in peace. In what was Gallecia, the Alans, Hasdingi, and Siling tribes were given land in these areas along with the Suebei. However, this would not last as the Western Roman Empire gave orders for the Visigoths to invade Hispania and their neighbors, the Suebi, ultimately betrayed them in the hopes for a greater gain in Hispania. In 417, the Siling tribe faced against the Visigothic invaders and managed to barely survive absolute destruction as they fled southwest to their brethren, the Hasdingi.
    When the Alans were attacked by the Visigoths in 418 their King, Atticus, was slain, leaving the Alan tribe without a ruling head. They appealed to the Hisdingi Vandal King Gunderic to become their ruler alongside the Siling. Taking the crown with a heavy heart, Gunderic claimed himself King of the Vandals and Alans and prepared to bring his people to safety. A year later, he had successfully surrounded an army of Suebi at the Nervasos Mountains, but due to the position of the armies which although his was larger, the Romans were not far behind those they called allies. Gunderic made the decision to withdraw his army under the cover of the night, leaving lit campfires to deceive the Suebei army which after the fact, scouts reported a Roman army had come to relieve their enemies, which many had claimed the great capabilities of the Vandal King for seeing the future.
    With his force now fleeing south to Baetica, Gunderic wreaked havoc across Hispania and managed to defeat a Coalition of Romans and their Barbarian allies in the Battle of Tarraco in 422 and managed to inflate their numbers with defections from other Germanic brethren. He proceeded for the next six years. Raiding the entirety of the Western Mediterranean but ultimately Gunderic died in the second siege of Hispalis. His half-brother Genseric then took the throne and led the Vandalic people from Southern Hispania with a large force of Vandals, Alans, other Germanics, and slaves to Northern Africa numbering between 100,000 to 120,000.

    The Establishment of a Kingdom 429 - 455: When the Vandals arrived into Africa, they were contacted by an agent of the Roman Governor Bonifacius, aiming to secure the help of the Vandal army to support his claim of an independent Africa so he may take the Empire as a whole. Sadly, in the June of 430 the talks broke down and together with his army, King Genseric soundly defeated the Roman Army and forced them eastward to Hippo Regius where the Vandals laid siege to the city, resulting in the death of the now Saint Augustine. A year later, Genseric was forced to lift the siege as he was unable to break the Roman garrison, giving the chance for Bonifacius to flee the city and eventually allow the Vandal army to defeat the smaller garrison and led his people to conquer the city where he proclaimed it the capital of the Vandals. Bonifacius sent a message to the Eastern Roman Empire, pleading for support. But his pleas fell on deaf ears. In an attempt to repel the Migratory invaders, the two armies met on the way to Cathago where King Genseric annihilated the Roman Army, capturing the Governor and taking the prisoners eastward. At the sight of the captured Governor and the Legion that attempted to stop the Vandals, the gates were opened to the King of the Vandals and the Alans, where they marched down the streets in triumph. The people watched the Germanics wearing a mixture of Roman armor and what they brought with them, as the King took a small squad of soldiers to the Governor’s mansion where he proclaimed the establishment of his Kingdom. Where he, King of the Vandals and the Alans, shall rule from Carthago in the year 433.
    With a new Kingdom in his possession, as well as the integration of the African fleet to his arsenal, King Genseric sent forces to occupy Sardinia, Corisa, the Balearic Islands, and the Western portions of Sicily. Following this, he took the lands from the Roman elites who owned them, then divided it up among his followers and family. He made sure not to enact reprisals against the berbers and the poor who worked the farms, but what was his target was the people of the cities who he conquered. Having de facto independence for years, as well as repelling many attempts to put down the Vandals by the Western Romans, six years later they reached a peace treaty where the Kingdom of the Vandals was recognized as an independent state.

    Now with peace secured, it was time to consolidate. King Genseric went on a long brutal campaign against the Catholics and other Tritarians, exiling bishops from their churches and replacing them with Arian ones, forbidding Vandals, Romans, and Berbers from being baptised by Catholic bishops, and slaughtering many to ensure the dominance of the Arian religion in Northern Africa. This went on for 4 years, where the Vandals took the remaining Roman territories in Algeria and left themselves to consolidate for the next 12 years. When the fateful year of 455 came around.

    Sacking of Rome 455: With wars dying down, the Western Roman Empire turned back to the Vandals. The Emperor offered his daughter’s hand in marriage to King Genseric’s son, which was accepted. But when Petronius Maximus killed the Emperor, the Empress begged the Vandals to help them. As such, a large vandal fleet sailed from Carthage to Rome. Where the Emperor allowed them to pillage the city but not to kill or burn. This was accepted and the Vandals went across Rome for fourteen days and sacked it, taking many valuables, slaves, and of course the Empress Eudocia and her daughter Placida.

    Consolidation of the Kingdom 455 - 530: What came after, was a long history of peace and security. After successfully securing a perpetual peace with the Eastern Romans in 456, Genseric continued his reign and brought prosperity to Africa during a time of turmoil. While his people continued to raid the coastline of Italy, taking wealth from the Western Romans as they slowly fell to the growing barbarian hordes, back in the Kingdom a growth of culture and the economy brought a boon no one could’ve predicted. With King Genseric’s fame running through the ranks, he created a Kingdom that could sustain itself. Industry grew in Carthage and in the other cities of the Kingdom, roads were built connecting them and stations along them were made to protect the caravans from bandits and raiders. And securing a position for his eldest son, the life of Genseric was a great one, seen as the greatest of all rulers.
    Until the year 477, where he died peacefully with a smile on his face in bed, surrounded by his family and the descendents of his original companions. A week-long time of mourning was carried out throughout the Empire, and on the eighth day, Huneric who was the eldest son of Genseric was made King of the Vandal Kingdom. Where he settled into the role of ruler of a realm and focused greatly on the internal growth of the Kingdom. While he aimed at treating the Roman citizens with kindness, as well as allowing Catholics access to rights within the nation, he knew that power needed to be controlled over them. While he allowed a council to choose a new head bishop for the region, during the ceremony he banished the Bishop from being allowed in Carthage and instead sent them to the ruins of Hadrumetum. Many Catholics were disheartened by this, but followed the words. The bishop of Carthage left the city walls and in tow many hundreds of catholics as they marched southward to their new homes. The main church in Carthage was then converted to an Arian church where Huneric declared a new beginning. He, along with several priests of the Arian faith gathered together to proclaim the church shall become organized and shall rival the Pontiff in Rome. The Grand Presbyter of Carthage, was made and they quickly elected one of their own to take the post. Which would guarantee the survival of the Arian religion in Northern Africa.

    With power now concentrated in the growing hands of the Arians and peace succeeding, Huneric’s reign would be seen as, although not as flashing as his father’s, a stable reign. Though a small Berber uprising rose up in the western territories, it was easily crushed and peace reigned until Huneric’s death in 484. In which, Gunthamund the cousin of Huneric rose to the throne and continued the policy of peace his predecessor established. Easing on the persecution of Catholics, he sent food and supplies to the people of Hadrumetum which in return a physician was sent to help the new King. Who discovered that he was suffering from an underlying illness that required treatment. Though what it was, is not known but with greater exercise and a more balanced diet on the orders of the medical expert, the health of King Gunthamund improved and in return he gave rights to many of the Catholics to own businesses and farms. Improving the Kingdom’s economy and restoring relations with the East. When King Gunthamund died in the year 502, his brother Thrasamund took the throne of a rather successful Kingdom thanks to his predecessor. Using the growth of the economy and well-being, he continued to end persecution against the Catholics and instead built a bridge of trust between Arian christians and Catholic Christians to create a more united church. Which was ultimately dominated by the former, making the North African Catholics a branch of their faith. It was thanks to this stability, that when the Berbers rose up in 523 and marched on Leptis Magna, a united army of Roman militias and Vandalic armies crushed the unusual tactics that the Berbers employed. After this battle, Thrasamund ultimately died and allowed his cousin Hilderic to take the throne, the eldest son of Huneric.

    Huneric, now in his 50s, was not interested in military matters and left it to his nephew Hoamer. Gelimer was concerned with this and decided to go with Hoamer to pounce on the chance to destroy the reign of Huneric, as he was bringing equality to Catholics and Arians in society. Ultimately though, his plot would be brought to a quick end as he got hit by an arrow from a Berber horse-archer and died on the battlefield. By word of Hoamer he died a graceful death and allowed his armies to defeat the Moors who tried to repel them from their western territories. This showed stability that convinced Justinian’s conquest not to target the Vandals. In the end, Huneric made strategic decisions to evacuate their island territories in the Mediterranean, bringing all forces and ships back to Africa and leaving them to their fates. Although the Kingdom shrunk under his rule, peace reigned and allowed greatness as their fellow Germanic brothers faltered.


    Golden Age 530 - 639: With the reign of Hilderic being seen as a time for cultural growth, a golden age grew from his reign as he made close friendships with the ERE for the remaining 10 years of his reign. During these 10 years, he changed the laws of succession where instead of the eldest member of the family taking control of the nation, it is the eldest descendent of the ruling King. Which happened to be Hoamer, the nephew who put down the great Moor rebellion.
    Under Hoamer, security was increased across the Empire and a code of laws was established alongside Roman common law. Known as the “Code of Equality and Dignity”, it was meant to create a formalized set of rights that non-vandals and non-arians could enjoy. Although the rights were much less limited if you were not of the correct faith or culture group, it helped ease the tension within the Kingdom and allowed the golden age to grow. Peace, prosperity, and the encouragement of culture made the Vandals a regional power in the Western Mediterranean. For one hundred years this peace was undisturbed despite the wars ongoing in Europe, it wasn’t until the growth of a new people from the east, did they find a new purpose.

    Muslim Conquests 640 - 646: When the rumors of conquest happening in Egypt, King Genseric the Second was not sure of what could it be. With refugees coming from Egypt, he gathered his armies east and began to set up outposts and build castles in Tripolitania to prepare for the enemy. After a few years, they had finally encountered traders and people from Arabia, who spoke a language they had never interacted with before, as well as a religion which didn’t really interest King Genseric the Second at all. Slowly traders turned into scouts, which then turned into an army. When the Vandals stood across from the Muslims, the two clashed in epic battles across Tripolitania, where castles which had been formed from the knowledge from previous sieges and raids held off the Muslim advance, as well as the Vandals knowing the tactics from their battles with the Berbers. At sea, the Vandal naval traditions clashed with the hastily built ships of the Muslims and ruled the Central Mediterranean during the war. Ultimately, the Muslim conquests stopped at Cyrincia. The Vandal Kingdom held off the Muslim Conquests and secured Africa for both themselves and even their Visigothic brothers out west, a treaty was signed that allowed trade and those who wish to travel through their lands for their religion, but ultimately gave victory to the Vandals. King Genseric the Second returned to Carthage in triumph, with prisoners in tow and wealth he gained from the peace with the Muslims.

    Interbellum 650 - 710: Following the end of the attempted Muslim conquest of the Vandal Kingdom, the growing trade from the east could not be ignored. Slowly, with the introduction of more Arab merchants, also led to the growth of Arabic in the cities, then eventually into the rural countryside. As the years went on, Arabic soon became the dominant language of the Vandalic Kingdom in the year 670. With growing pressure, the Aristocracy adopted the language as well. Soon, Germanic rulers started adopting Arabic stylized names as well as beginning to speak it. This ultimately started a growth of cooperation between the Vandals and the Caliphate to their east. As part of an agreement, the Vandals supported their war against the Eastern Roman Empire unofficially and when the Vandals returned to Sardinia and Baelaric Islands, it was under the pretense of “protection” from the Muslim forces. With this reconquest of territory, the irredentism slowly brewed when looking westward. Bringing back a long deep hatred for those who pushed them out of the rich lands of Hispania to begin with. Which brew greatly to a boiling point to the year 710. When the peace was shattered in the West.

    First Vandal-Visigothic War 710-715: Vandals invade Southern Hispania, despite making gains in the region, they are ultimately pushed off the European continent back to Africa. King of the Vandals is wounded and ultimately is never able to wage another campaign.

    Second Golden Age 715 - 1200: The growth of the Arabic language and peace brought to the Kingdom ultimately brings another growth of culture and technological growth. The Kingdom officially adopts Vandalusia as their name and continues working closely with the Muslims to the east for trade. Ultimately this was also the beginning of a series of adjustments and repealing of the Code of Equality and Dignity which took away the rights of the Roman citizens in the region. Instead aiming at finally taking their Kingdom back from the people who betrayed them during the growth of Vandalic irredentism, Berber tribes were given encouragement with money and promises of power to begin supporting the Kingdom's efforts to expel the population from Carthage and other cities in Vandalusia, Sending them eastward on ships to the Eastern Roman Empire and generally waging massacres on the general population akin to those during the early Vandal Kingdom. When the Code of Equality and Dignity was reinstated, the Roman populace and many elements of Latin influence was destroyed and turned to ash in the sea of time. Berbers now entering the cities to inhabit the empty homes, they began to culturally diffuse with the Vandal population which went on to create a syncretic culture and many have begun applying this code to rural Berbers and the remaining remnants of the Roman population in Hadrumentum who were spared.

    Stagnation 1200 - 1647: Following the golden age, ultimately due to religious differences it leads to a decrease of trade when Muslim wars against the ERE and their allies disrupting trade, and the previous retribution against the Roman populace. As well as the limited ability to trade with the Catholic powers during the Thirty Years War between them and their Protestant rivals. Italian forces also invade Sardinia however due to economic reasons, the war does not last long and results in a Vandalusian defeat. This results in a small civil war between brothers which ends in the victory of the younger of the two.

    Second Interbellum 1647 - 1800: Following the end of Vandalusia’s Mediterranean Empire, it focused greatly on internal consolidation. Waging war against Berber and Moorish powers that threatened the stability of the nation. Ultimately, during this period the Kingdom accepted refugees from Egypt as they fled west to escape prosecution for being Islamic, bringing their ideas and wealth with them.

    Industrial Revolution 1800 - 1880: With the growth of industrial forces and innovations, the ideas were denied growth at first, mostly due to the Grand Presbyter forcing the nation against the Catholics. But when the next one was chosen, the idea of opening up the nation was accepted. Bringing the growth of mechanical farming and tools for weaving, then ultimately the growth of steam power. However, not all are satisfied with the growth of a new class of people in the Kingdom, the guilds that were present during the golden ages begin resisting the growth industries in the cities, then ultimately moving their skills outside into the rural countryside.

    Present Day 1880 - 1905: The growth of industry continues though many are unsure, especially with the ascension of King Hilderic the Fourth, the growing tensions in the region and speed that they could grow miniscule compared to their neighbors. Warhawks prepare for their chance to truly create an Empire that could rival the greatness of the first King, while the doves foresee a future as the lesser partner if things do not change soon.

    RP Sample:
    Tale of Two Horizons 1.4 as American Federation
    2024: Age of Superpowers as Morocco
    Tales of Two Horizons II as The Papal States

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    Liberal Democratic Socialists

    Postby Flowerdell » Tue Jun 08, 2021 2:24 pm

    Reservation

    Nation Name: The Kingdom of America
    Territory: All open lands east of the Mississippi River, running from modern day Minnesota to Louisiana
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    Speyland
    Chargé d'Affaires
     
    Posts: 427
    Founded: May 19, 2018
    Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

    Postby Speyland » Tue Jun 08, 2021 2:27 pm

    Full Nation Name : Ha Emirate (ها إمارة)
    Majority/Official Culture : Ha (Bantu)
    Territorial Core : This.
    Territorial Claim : And this.
    Capital City : Alim (OTL Dodoma)
    Population : 560,400

    Government Type : Absolute monarchy
    Government Ideology/Policies : Tribalism, autocratism, absolutism
    Government Focus : The Ha Emirate is currently focusing on fighting against colonialism and improving diplomatic relations with them at the same time while regaining their lands if reasonable. After all, they also have to preserve their tradition in the name of Islam.
    Head of State : Emir Moussa Suluhu II
    Head of Government : Emir Moussa Suluhu II
    Government Description : The Ha Emirate is an absolute monarchy ruled by an emir, but it also functions as a tribe with a centralized government. The emir is both head of state and head of government. Before the title of an emir, it was formerly an elective monarchy led by a chieftain until a successful coup attempt by a military commander abolished that government. Overall, their government is autocratic. The ruling family is the Suluhu dynasty.

    Majority/State Religion : Islam
    Religious Description : N/A

    Economic Ideologies : Mercantilism
    Major Production : Agricultural products, grazing livestock, iron, minerals, clothing, textiles, weaponry, salt
    Economic Description : Since the Ha Emirate is a partially isolated nation, its economy is fairly poor, and the industry is only limited to agriculture. On the bright side, they have access to plentiful natural resources but not highly industrial ones. As a result, trade is somewhat cramped as well.

    Development: Primitive
    Development Description : The nation is underdeveloped as it only contains huts and the like but gained knowledge from Muslim travelers in the past. However, they're barely in good shape in terms of technology and the military. For instance, their army is limited to spears, shields, swords, and bows.

    Army Description : The Ha Emirate's army is split into five groups; swordsmen, spearmen, archers, cavalrymen, and guards. Otherwise, their number consists of 1,000 active personnel and 700 auxiliaries.
    Army Weakness : As stated before, the army is limited to the use of spears, shields, swords, and bows. Because of this, they're vulnerable against armies of superior technology.
    Naval Description : The Ha Emirate has no navy as of late. However, a possible coastal invasion against the colonizers is yet to be determined, but they still consider it part of the Ha Emirate's claim.
    Naval Weakness : As stated before, the Ha Emirate has no navy as of late.
    Further Military Description : N/A

    National Goals : To carry on the tradition of Ha culture and embrace Islam; to defends its nation against colonialism; to have a powerful army, improve one's economy, and access better technology.
    National Issues : To manage Bantu tribes vying for freedom and assimilate into Ha culture; to deal with the presence of colonizers gaining control of their claim; to deal with the curtailment of trade and revenue.
    National Figures of Interest : N/A
    National Ambition/Aspirations : N/A

    History :

    c. 1449 CE: The Ha people, a Bantu ethnic group found in Kigoma Region in northwestern Tanzania bordering Lake Tanganyika, conquered several nearby Bantu tribes. Afterward, Buha was formed, and a chieftain led it but also functioned as an elective monarchy. However, the conquered Bantu peoples weren't assimilated into Ha culture before then.

    1503 CE: Traveling Muslim scholars and merchants arrived at Buha, introducing Islam and horses to them. Technology was introduced by traveling Muslims and, in the case of iron working but not to a greater extent. And finally, Arabic became standard there. However, due to Buha's poor environmental condition, they left the nation afterward. This leaves Buha being isolated again.

    1600 CE: The capital city of Alim was established, and it became the largest city ever. Oddly enough, it's a city of huts.

    1777 CE: A famine and epidemic occurred throughout Buha, leaving hundreds dead. The famine and epidemic only lasted for two months. However, it also marks the beginning of Buha's eventual decline.

    1790 CE: A successful coup attempt occurred in Buha led by Moussa Suluhu, a 30-year-old military commander loyal to the chieftain. The cause of the coup was Adnan's intention to form an efficient government without boundaries, and he wants to correct that. The then chieftain was executed upon Adnan's order, and the Ha Emirate was officially established. Adnan became the first emir of the Ha Emirate, and the Suluhu dynasty exists. It was no longer an elective monarchy and instead became an absolute monarchy.

    1831 CE: Emir Moussa died at the age of 71 from food poisoning and was succeeded by his cousin, Guda, aged 19 at the time. Emir Moussa had no children at the time of his death.

    1863-1905 CE: The presence of foreigners (or colonizers) has become apparent for the Ha government as they consider them a threat to their territory. However, Emir Guda established friendly diplomatic relations with the Mughal Empire since they're also a Muslim nation. Something he had in mind in terms of forming a possible military alliance with them in the future. On the other hand, Albion and Egypt weren't as friendly as Emir Guda would view them. The Ha Emirate's relationship with three foreign nations continued to the present day.

    1897-1905 CE: In 1897, Emir Guda died at the age of 85 from natural causes and was succeeded by his grandson, Moussa II, aged 17 at the time. Emir Guda reigned for 66 years, making him the longest-reigning monarch in the nation's history. Emir Moussa II continued his grandfather's legacy, marking the Ha Emirate's current state.

    RP Sample: https://forum.nationstates.net/viewtopic.php?f=31&t=490228&p=37775475#p37775475

    #AltDiv (Do not delete this, it is used to keep track of the apps)
    Last edited by Speyland on Sun Jun 13, 2021 11:39 am, edited 1 time in total.

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    Benuty
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    Founded: Jan 21, 2013
    Corrupt Dictatorship

    Postby Benuty » Tue Jun 08, 2021 8:49 pm

    Reservation

    Nation Name: The Khazarian Khaganate
    Territory: Western Russia up to the urals, and the Caucasus.
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    Last edited by Hashem 13.8 billion years ago
    King of Madness in the Right Wing Discussion Thread. Winner of 2016 Posters Award for Insanity.
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    Northern Socialist Council Republics
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    Posts: 1156
    Founded: Dec 13, 2020
    Left-wing Utopia

    Postby Northern Socialist Council Republics » Tue Jun 08, 2021 9:08 pm

    Benuty wrote:Territory: Western Russia up to the urals, and the Caucasus.

    That include the Baltics?

    I’d like Estonia and Livonia as Northern client states, but the OP has declined to either confirm or deny my claim over that region until I can talk over the Baltic situation with a Russian player.
    Call me "Russ" if you're referring to me the out-of-character poster or "NSRS" if you're referring to me the in-character nation.
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    Benuty
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    Posts: 36522
    Founded: Jan 21, 2013
    Corrupt Dictatorship

    Postby Benuty » Tue Jun 08, 2021 9:29 pm

    Northern Socialist Council Republics wrote:
    Benuty wrote:Territory: Western Russia up to the urals, and the Caucasus.

    That include the Baltics?

    I’d like Estonia and Livonia as Northern client states, but the OP has declined to either confirm or deny my claim over that region until I can talk over the Baltic situation with a Russian player.

    I think I'll keep out of the baltics as this isnt a typical Russian Orthodox nation, but a polyglot identity (imagine shamanistic Jewish heretics with Norse blots, and Tengrism). So Russia's need to the control the baltics won't be my issue.
    Last edited by Benuty on Tue Jun 08, 2021 9:31 pm, edited 1 time in total.
    Last edited by Hashem 13.8 billion years ago
    King of Madness in the Right Wing Discussion Thread. Winner of 2016 Posters Award for Insanity.
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    Northern Socialist Council Republics
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    Founded: Dec 13, 2020
    Left-wing Utopia

    Postby Northern Socialist Council Republics » Tue Jun 08, 2021 9:34 pm

    Benuty wrote:So Russia's need to the control the baltics won't be my issue.

    Perfect. :)
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    Guuj Xaat Kil
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    Posts: 676
    Founded: May 25, 2019
    Father Knows Best State

    WIP

    Postby Guuj Xaat Kil » Tue Jun 08, 2021 9:36 pm

    Image

    Full Nation Name : Empire of Lothharingia / Kaisertum Lotharingien / Lotharingisch Rijk / Empire de Lotharingie
    Majority/Official Culture : There have been attempts at the creation of a united "Lotharingian" culture based on the old Carolingian Kingdom of Lotharingia, but this is still in its infancy, even then, there have been promising results. However, there still are those who profess as part of a French, German, or Dutch culture.
    Territorial Core :
    Image

    Territorial Claim :
    Image

    Capital City : Aachen (Aachen, Germany)
    Population : 42,158,845 total (40,133,917 in Lotharingia / 2,024,928 in colonies)

    Government Type : Semi-Absolute Elective Monarchy
    Government Ideology/Policies : Mostly divided between Conservatives and Liberals, with radicals on both sides. The majorities are all in favor for keeping Lotharingia though.
    Government Focus : Disparate cultural identities within Lotharingia, nations of those identities surrounding Lotharingia, a guaranteed hostile neighbor to the west, an importer of troublesome ideologies to the north, a potential rival for the German Imperial mantle to the east, and distant colonies in the south in need of protection. And to think this is simply the tip of the iceberg for the Lotharingian government; in fact, each of those are icebergs themselves, with all the underlying troubles and obstacles that come with them.

    With a beligerent France and a problematic Scandinavia, not to mention the enigmatic Prussians and Austrians to the east with their unknown goals for the Germans; needless to say, that the goverment has to focus on the military, to ensure the Empire's security against its enemies; the economy, to pay for that security; its diplomacy, as to gain allies and dissuade any hostile powers; and surprisingly enough, the culture of the Empire.

    There is a cultural focus thanks to Lotharingia's attempts at sewing together the French, German, and Dutch identities into a unified Lotharingian identity. This can and will be threatened by its neighbors. From Prussia and Austria if a German Unification is to happen, as it must be on Lotharingian terms; from France due to the French minorities within the empire; and from the Dutch, still the stubborn Protestants they are. And adding to the lattermost, there is a culture struggle between the Protestant and Catholic groups of the empire; between the Protestant, liberal-leaning north and the Catholic conservatism of the south. The Emperor and his government has to balance between these two groups. And then there is the looming shadow of the Scandinavian pagans up north and their strange and troublesome ideas...

    Militarily, the Empire has to take into account both its colonial holdings and homeland, and balance their military focuses accordingly. A good navy is required to protect the colonies and the trade routes, but that has to be counterbalanced by the needs of the army, which are needed for the defense of the homeland against potential beligerent neighbors. This is where diplomatics comes into play to ease the military needs, as pursuing alliances, or at least, non-aggression pacts with neighboring powers will ensure that some stresses on the budget- militarily and as a whole- will be relieved.
    Head of State : Emperor Heinrich II Welf
    Head of Government : ^
    Government Description : Starting from the bottom (universal suffrage for all men aged 20+), elections for the Reichstag are done, with the latter having 350 members, 50 from each of the seven Staat. These 50 then elect their representative for the Wahlkollegium, which results in seven Wähler. These seven along with the current Emperor ( making it 8 ), then elect the Kronprinz (successor). Should the Kronprinz be deemed unfit by three Wähler (the Emperor is considered a Wähler in this case), the Wahlkollegium will convene for another election, this time to either remove or keep the current Kronprinz. Another election for another Kronprinz is then held shortly afterward. When the reigning Emperor dies, the Kronprinz is sent to Aachen to be coronated as Emperor of Lotharingia and King of the Germans.

    As for the duties and powers of each, these are from top to bottom: The Emperor, who may veto anything from the Reichstag alone, except for legislation from the Reichstag passed to the Wahlkollegium; and if the Reichstag gains the approval of the Wahlkollegium, the Emperor may veto with the support of at least one Wähler. Impeachment of the Emperor may only occur via the unanimous vote of the Wahlkollegium and near-unanimous vote of the Reichstag, and can only proceed if an near-unanimous vote calling for for impeachment from the Reichstag is gained. The Emperor may not declare or create peace treaties, only give his assent when the Wahlkollegium has a declaration of war or a peace treaty to give, even then, he may veto this.

    The Wahlkollegium elects successors; dictates taxation, the constitution, and justice; begins declarations of war and drafts peace treaties (with the assent of the Emperor and can be vetoed by); ratifies budgets (may be vetoed by the emperor unless unanimous vote); and advises the emperor. As for the Reichstag, they deal with matters regarding but not limited to: business activity, ,atters concerning natives of one state who were resident in another, citizenship, surveillance of foreign individuals and businesses, the issuing of passports, insurance business, colonial activity, emigration, administration of imperial revenue, regulation of weights and measures, coinage and the issuing of paper money, banking, intellectual property, protection of Lotharingian trade and shipping outside of the country, consular representation abroad, railways, road and canal construction for means of national defence, management of inter-state shipping, post and telegraphic services, authentication of public documents, civil law and its administration, criminal law and its administration, the Imperial Army and Navy, supervision of the medical and veterinary professions, press, and trade unions.
    Image
    The seven states of Lotharingia: Bayern, Baden-Württemberg, Rheinland, Westfalen, Gelre, Holland, and Flandern. And the Capital State of Aachen.


    Majority/State Religion : Catholicism
    Religious Description : As referenced before, the Empire of Lotharingia is mostly divided between the Catholic south and the Protestant north, with a more definite boundary being the division of the states between Protestant (Flandern, Holland, Gelre) and Catholic (Rheinland, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern) lines. Due to these, and the underlying cultural and ideological divisions that come with them, that a culture struggle or Kulturkampf is occurring. Neither side must be alienated, but they shouldn't be overly favored either. There's also a sizable Jewish minority scattered throughout the empire.

    Economic Ideologies : Capitalist
    Major Production : Steel, coal, civilian industrial products, chemicals, naval industrial products, small weapons
    Economic Description : The Empire prides itself as one of the foremost, if not the greatest power in terms of industry within Europe, with its immense production capacity fueling both civilian and military industries. Its industrial production is mostly focused around the two industrial heartlands of the Empire, those being the Sillon industriel and the Ruhr, the former of being the first fully industrialized area in continental Europe, and the latter being one of the largest and most productive. Though it may seem as if Lotharingia only has its industrial output going for it, its agricultural strides in the Lowlands are not to be scoffed at either.

    Development: Modern
    Development Description : Lotharingia's industrialization was able to start early thanks to its imports of technologies (such as the steam engine) from allied nations and applying these to their territories, especially in the aforementioned Sillon industriel or "industrial furrow" in Wallonia. Once more small industrial regions began to form there, in the Ruhr, and to a limited extent, elsewhere, economically minded Emperors quickly focused the state towards further industrialization and improvement, resulting in an explosion of growth. Advancements in industrial tech were applied to agricultural sectors whenever possible as well.

    Army Description : There are two parts to Lotharingia's armies, its armies for the homeland, and its armies for the colonies. Starting with the latter which is 300,975 men strong and divided into 3 field armies, two are stationed upon the border with France, while one is left to guard Lotharingia's eastern flank. Armed primarily with a Gewher 98 and a Masuer C96, they are mostly planned with defensive wars in mind, with the obvious exception being the French; as seen in various Franco-Lotharingian wars, the 1st and 2nd Armies have been instructed to take the initiative before and advance, the 3rd Army on the other hand has mostly been supplied with the intention of making them hold the line as long as possible. Railways have turned into a strategic pipeline for the military, as they have allowed rapid movement between the Empire's different states.

    Its a different story in the colonies however, as the 20,250 strong Colonial Army, already stretched thin, with little infrastructure to move on, and having to deal with the disparate climates of the colonies, a large force driving them to adapt has been present. Armed mostly with whatever's been freshly phased out from the army, they have compensated for their various shortcomings in equipment through increased training and tactical ingenuity. It is good that their artillery is on par with that of their home-based brothers.
    Army Weakness : The Lotharingian army has a small to near-nonexistent cavalry force, mostly relegated to scouting for the much better funded infantry and artillery divisions. There also seems to be a strange amount- or rather the lack- of offensive planning in the eastward direction, much of the structuring on the eastern borders have been primarily defensive and static, and many issues will likely crop up if an offensive war is undertaken in that particular front. There is also the linguistics of the Lotharingian Army, mostly with the Dutch-French plurality.
    Naval Description : Lotharingia's navy has been built up with three principles in mind, and they are, from the greatest to the least: to contain France, to maintain the colonies and trade routes, and to pressure primitive nations. With these three combined, Lotharingian power projection is attained. And as such, the Lotharingian navy is built for numbers, speed, and firepower.
    Currently contains:
    • 12 pre-dreadnought battleships (3 Aachen-class - 1890-1894, 3 Gelre-class - 1895-1898, 3 Westfalen-class - 1899-1902, and 3 Rheinland-class - 1901-1904)
    Naval Weakness : "What exactly should we focus on?" Is the question that usually crops up with Lotharingia's focus on their three naval principles, numbers had been mostly sorted out, but what of the other two? The Aachen and Gelre-class battleships just barely had enough armor to be classified as battleships, the Westfalen had the armor and firepower, but lacked speed. The latest Rheinland-class seems to have barely found a balance with firepower and speed, with what was left to spare being used in its mediocre armor. It is also spread thinly, with the latest ships being stationed at home, and the older ones at the colonies. Also has the same language problems as the army, though not to the same extent, as most if not all men of the navy are either Dutch or Germany.
    Further Military Description : [STRENG GEHEIM] is used in the military, how cool is that?

    National Goals : Secure the borders, secure the colonies, secure the people, secure the economy, ready a military capable of fighting two enemies on one front, make alliances with nations other than Albion, diplomatically isolate France.
    National Issues : Few diplomatic ties (only real allies are Albion), growing socialist strength, the Kulturkampf, France, the idea of German Unification, Prussia and Austria
    National Figures of Interest : TBD
    National Ambition/Aspirations : Unite Germany, Cripple France

    History :
    With the death of Lothair III in 1137, Henry X of Bavaria and Saxony would be elected and crowned as Emperor Henry VI, just barely surpassing his main opponent in the elections: Conrad von Hohenstaufen. This would lead to nearly a century of strife between the two houses, more bloody than IOTL and resulting in less territorial changes; the Hohenstaufens would remain a thorn in the Welf's side for many years to come it seemed. Henry VII (of the HRE)- now being called "the Wise" due to his good administration of the empire and his successes in its conflicts- would be able to bridge his duchies of Bavaria and Saxony through Thuringia, creating an uninterrupted realm stretching from the North Sea to the Alps thanks to the acquisition of Vogtland and some of Meissen. His last years would be spent mostly to ensure the election and succession of his son- also Henry- to the throne. He died in 1187. He would have an additional child- Matilda.

    Henry XI of Bavaria and Saxony- who would be called "the Lion" due to his bravery, skill at arms, and prowess as a commander (all proven with his conquests of East Frisia)- would then be elected and crowned as Henry VII. Through the pacification of the Marches by granting Meissen to Brandenburg, an appeasement of the princes by granting some of his land in Mecklenburg to his 2nd son Otto, and the marriage of his sister to the Duke of Bohemia, he would be able to pursue a policy of further consolidating his lands and weaken the Hohenstaufens as much as possible, as well as to ensure the successful succession of his eldest to the Imperial throne. He would succeed somewhat at this, further widening the Bavaria-Saxony bridge through the acquisition of much of Thuringia. Amassing this much centralized power however, caused many to despise the emperor, and see him as a threat to their rights and liberties. Thankfully, this coalition would not agitate militarily, but perhaps that was for the worse, as they would instead begin influencing his son and heir, also Henry.

    There was a brief period between Henry VII and Henry VIII's reigns that was mostly the latter being threatened with war if he did not split his northern lands with his southern ones, he was cleverer than they expected however, and was able to secure some of his northern lands from being split. The rest of the land however, was split between his younger brother Duke Otto of Mecklenburg, now Duke Otto of Mecklenburg and Saxony; and his youngest brother, William/Wilhelm, now Duke of Thuringia. Henry VIII- called "the Elder" as to distinguish him from his son, also Henry- and his wiliness did not end there, as though he was being carefully watched by the princes, he would be able to gain the title of Count-Palatine of the Rhine, as well as turning everything in Aachen but the chapel into hereditary Welf land. Unlike his predecessors, Henry VIII was unable to secure the Imperial title for his son, but was able to ensure that it stayed within the family. And with his death in 1213, it would pass instead to the Mecklenburger Welfs under Otto, now Emperor Otto IV (1213-1215), his reign was brief however, lasting only two years, and all he managed to do was ensure the election of his brother William/Wilhelm from Thuringia, now Emperor Wilhelm I (1215-1220). William was a weak ruler and a breif one at that, and would see the loss of much of Mecklenburg and Holstein to the princes and Scandinavians respectively. His death in 1220 would usher in an Interregnum and the subsequent Interregnum War.

    As the princes did not want any competent Welf hijacking the elections, they instead elected someone from the Welf's rivals, and that someone was Frederick von Hohenstaufen, now Emperor Frederick I. He would be contested by the three branches of Welf and their allies though, and the resulting 6 years of war brought much destruction. Though Henry XIII "the Younger", Duke of Bavaria was able to gain much for the Mecklenburger Welfs and for his own branch (gains in Gelre and Franconia), much of these were lost in the mismanagement of Henry XIII's son, Duke Otto III "the Unready" in another war with the Hohenstaufens. There were even territorial losses in their main Bavarian holdings. These would not be reversed even under Duke Otto III's grandson and great grandson Emperor and Saint Conrad III (1267-1281), who distinguished himself in conflicts against the northern heathens, as well as persecuting minorities such as the Jews; and Emperor Otto V (1281-1313), who would consolidate what was left and ensure no more territory would leave Welf hands, though sometimes at the expense of imperial authority.

    Not much of note occurred afterwards other than Henry/Heinrich XVI (1347-1361) ensuring the Welfs would be prince-electors under the Golden Bull of 1356, and lessening Jewish persecution by relaxing some of the laws. It would be under his grandson Wilhelm II "the Old" (1381-1433) however, that the Welfs would once again rebound to a position of power, starting with his election and coronation as Holy Roman Emperor. His strong and reformist rule (with the help of loyal estate-members such as Archbishop Berthold von Henneberg), rapid response to the Hussites, and shrewd diplomacy would see him lay a foundation for a hereditary Holy Roman Empire and the precedent that his descendants would develop. Most his time however, was spent on keeping the Habsburgs busy and if not, down as much as possible, preventing them from gaining the Imperial title as much as was needed. His son and successor Wilhelm III would maintain the peace his father made and his reign was generally one of prosperity, earning him the moniker of "the Peaceful". His son and heir Henry however, would be the one that set the foundations of modern Lotharingia. Once Henry was crowned Henry/Heinrich IX (1490-1519), he would focus on keeping the lands of his spouse under her control as much as possible, assisting her whenever she had an opportunity to centralize her lands further, much to the ire of the native Dutchmen.

    Emperor Henry IX was a family man at heart, famously known for having a rather successful marriage with Mary of Burgundy. He is also known for being quite controlling, preventing her from doing her hobbies (such as riding) most of the time. She would outlast her husband as their son, also Henry, would inherit the Imperial title. It was truely unfortunate that she would die of a fever in 1521. Her rich lands would then fall to Emperor Henry X (1519-1538), who for the most part, spent his reign trampling any rebellious Dutch underfoot and rewarding those who he deemed truly loyal. This action, as well as many more- most infamous being the burning of Martin Luther at the stake in 1521- would set off a chain of events that would see the downfall of the Holy Roman Empire, the loss of much of Burgundian lands to France, and the rise of the Lotharingian Empire in the HRE's place. As merely 4 years after the poor showing at the Diet of Worms, Central Europe erupted, setting off the 30 Years War (1525-1556).

    It depopulated the Holy Roman Empire, shook it to the core, and resulted in its abolition. In what is now known as the Miracle of House Welf, the Welfs would be able to win in the territorial sense, acquiring lands connecting its territories further and acquiring new vassals as well, they were all ruined lands however, with farms long since torched, infrastructure uprooted, and laborers absent; the Welf emperors had no choice but to counteract this by loosening discrimination and persecution of Protestants and the like, as well as one particular attempt from a Lotharingian Emperor to incorporate the so-called "Protestant work ethic" with the Catholics. In the abolished HRE's place rose the Empire of Lotharingia in late 1556 (the result of the Peace of Westphalia), an empire consisting of House Welf's disparate territories and vassals alongside other, nominally independent states; with the same electoral traditions except for a new addition, only a Welf would hold the throne. As for the rest of the war's end, the Peace of Westphalia confirmed many things, such as "Cuius regio, eius religio" and the so called "Westphalian sovereignty". It also would begin a trend of secularization in the new Lotharingia, both disillusionment with the Pope, a lack of keeping the farce up as there was no longer a "Holy Roman" appearance to keep up, and other factors contributing to this.

    The following decades were ones ruled by more economically minded Emperors, who made sure to invest in the development of their lands and ensuring their economic growth. Particular investment, development, and appeasement in the Netherlands ensured a rapidly growing economy based on trade, shipping, and finance there, instead of one based on agriculture and/or manufacturing. In hindsight, perhaps the loss of the loose Holy Roman Empire and its replacement by the somewhat more centralized Lotharingian Empire was a godsend in terms of mending the economic rupture between it and the Lowlands.

    RP Sample: Do you know me? I think you know me.

    #AltDiv (Do not delete this, it is used to keep track of the apps)
    Last edited by Guuj Xaat Kil on Wed Jun 16, 2021 4:54 am, edited 6 times in total.
    Former Foreign Minister of the Federation of Allies.
    Formerly [REDACTED] and [REDACTED], 8000 combined what the heck.

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    The Imperial Warglorian Empire
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    Posts: 7744
    Founded: Oct 10, 2015
    Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

    Postby The Imperial Warglorian Empire » Wed Jun 09, 2021 1:11 am

    Could I add Riga to my list of reservations, since the Russian player apparently isn’t gonna be there?
    [_★_]_[' ]_
    ( -_-) (-_Q) If you understand that both Capitalism and Socialism have ideas that deserve merit, put this in your signature.
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    Auf Wiedersehen, mein Führer, Deutschland über alles...

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    Yeah, u do that and I’m gonna have to force u to pull a France, and then a Vichy-Wargloria, after one of his allies proposed pulling an Italy

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    Tracian Empire
    Postmaster of the Fleet
     
    Posts: 25014
    Founded: Mar 01, 2014
    Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

    Postby Tracian Empire » Wed Jun 09, 2021 1:19 am

    Flowerdell wrote:
    Reservation

    Nation Name: The Kingdom of America
    Territory: All open lands east of the Mississippi River, running from modern day Minnesota to Louisiana
    #AltDiv (Do not delete this, it is used to keep track of the apps)

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    Benuty wrote:
    Reservation

    Nation Name: The Khazarian Khaganate
    Territory: Western Russia up to the urals, and the Caucasus.
    #AltDiv (Do not delete this, it is used to keep track of the apps)

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    Northern Socialist Council Republics
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    Founded: Dec 13, 2020
    Left-wing Utopia

    Postby Northern Socialist Council Republics » Wed Jun 09, 2021 1:33 am

    Application is written.

    Full Nation Name: The official name of the country is Norðurlands sósíalískra ráðslýðvelda sambandsríkið (Insular Scandinavian), abbreviated NSRS, which translates to the Commonwealth of Northern Socialist Council Republics. In English-language discourse the country usually presents itself as the Northern Commonwealth, although in informal discourse many simply call it Scandinavia. In the Greek- and Latin-speaking spheres, Υπερβορεία, or Hyperborea, is common.

    Majority/Official Culture: Linguistically, Norden Proper is 77% Scandinavian (29% Swedish, 27% Danish, 20% Norwegian, and 1% Insular) and 20% Finnic (16% Finnish, 4% Karelian, and 1% Sami). The primary language of governance is Insular Scandinavian, but in high commerce the Swedish, Danish, or Norwegian variants of Scandinavian are more common. Both of these languages and their listed variants are officially recognised as legal national languages and their speakers mostly have a civic-national Northern identity unrelated to their language. The remaining 3% of the population are unrecognised cultural minorities discriminated against to various degrees, most prominently the nearly two hundred thousand Low Saxon speakers in South Jutland.

    Outside of Norden Proper, Danish is the majority and official language of Vinland and Markland, Norwegian is the majority and official language in Helluland although the colony has a significant Native American minority, and Insular Scandinavian is the official language of Greenland despite four-fifths of the Greenlandic population being Inuit. The Concessionary Ports in Africa and Asia are all nominally governed in Danish Scandinavian, but their populations are culturally diverse, with Scandinavian, Finnic, Cantonese, the native languages of Africa and South Asia, and various creoles mixing some or all of these being spoken throughout the Concessionary Ports. Holstein is majority and officially Saxon German, although Danish is sometimes spoken among the duchy's aristocratic elite.

    In the Baltic client states, Latvian is the official language in Livonia despite the country having a large Estonian minority and Estonian is the majority and official language in Estonia.

    Territorial Core: The Northern Commonwealth is based in Norden Proper, which consists of Denmark (including South Jutland up to the Eider River), Sweden, Norway (including the Northern Isles and Iceland), and Finland (in its real-life Grand Duchy borders). Its sovereignty also extends over Vinland (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edwards Island), Markland (Newfoundland and Labrador), and Helluland (Rupert's Land and Manitoba) as self-governing colonies. The Scandinavian East India Company (da: Ostindisk Kompagni), also under the control of the Northern Commonwealth, owns the Gold Coast, the Zanzibar Archipelago, Tranquebar, Serampore, the Nicobar Islands, and Macao as Concessionary Ports.

    Although they are nominally independent states and the Commonwealth officially considers them to be such, the Northern Commonwealth nonetheless has de-facto control over the puppet governments of Livonia and Estonia, her client states. Similarly, although the Duchy of Holstein is nominally a part of Prussia, it is governed by a Regency Council appointed by the Danish Republic.

    Territorial Claim: The official stance of the Northern Commonwealth is that it has no territorial ambitions in Europe. However, revanchist elements in the People's Council advocate for seizing Riga back from the Polish-Lithuanians while nationalist minority elements sometimes dream of carving Northern client states out of the Karelian- and Sami-speaking regions of Khazaria.

    Capital City: The Northern Commonwealth has no legally designated capital city and considers the capitals of all four of its constituent Republics, Copenhagen, Stockholm, Oslo, and Turku, to be of equal status. However, the de-facto centre of governance is Copenhagen (is: Kaupmannahafn, da: København), the capital of the Danish Republic.

    Population: A total of 15.15 million inhabitants live within the nominal borders of the Northern Commonwealth: in Norden proper 13.56 millions (of which Denmark 3.96, Sweden 3.87, Norway 2.93, Finland 2.80), in Vinland 1.22, in Markland 0.25, in Helluland 0.11, and in Greenland 0.01.

    In addition to this, another 8.69 millions live in the Concessionary Ports of the Scandinavian East Indies Company (of which Serampore 6.33, Tranquebar 1.89, Zanzibar 0.21, Gold Coast 0.17, Macau 0.08, and the Nicobar Islands 0.01), 1.43 millions live in the Baltic client states (in Livonia 1.02 and Estonia 0.41) and 0.68 millions live in the Duchy of Holstein. Thus, there are a total of 25.87 million inhabitants in territory to some extent governed by the Northern Commonwealth.

    Government Type: The Northern Commonwealth styles itself, as the name implies, a Commonwealth: at its core is a devolutionary union of four Republics, although the existence of self-governing colonies, Concessionary Ports, and feudal overlordship over the Duchy of Holstein makes the otherwise simple government structure difficult.

    Government Ideology/Policies: The sitting administration in the Northern Commonwealth as of 1905 consists of the Autonomists and the Agrarians, which together govern in accordance to a broadly libertarian-syndicalist set of ideals.

    Government Focus: The current government in the Northern Commonwealth is interested in regional wealth inequality and has been promoting the development of the country's more impoverished northern and eastern regions as well as spreading industrial living standards from the cities to the countryside.

    Head of State: The nominal head of state of the Northern Commonwealth is Bjørn Janssen, First Speaker of the Commonwealth. An 83-year-old elder from Narvik, he has served at this position since his predecessor died of a heart attack in 1899.

    Head of Government: The day-to-day administration of the Northern Commonwealth is carried out by Dag Asbjørnsen, State Minister in Norden. Having put together successful governments after the 1900 and 1904 elections, the Nationalists leaving this coalition in the run-up to the 1904 election seems to be making Dag's second government less steadfast than his first.

    Government Description: The Northern Commonwealth is a decentralised, syndicalist, and broadly democratic commonwealth based on the 1870 Socialist Constitution.

    The structure of the government is, at least in theory, simple. The Commonwealth is a union of four Republics, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Finland, collectively known as Norden Proper and each of which oversees regional administrations and administrations of interest groups like trade associations and religious organisations. Although each Republic has its own legislature, supreme authority in the Commonwealth is invested in the National Assembly, a bicameral legislature composed of the High Assembly and the People’s Assembly. The 221 members of the People’s Assembly are elected by direct elections held under universal suffrage and open-list proportional representation. The four self-governing colonies are also entitled to send two observing members each to the People’s Assembly, for 229 members in the Chamber total, but these members may only vote on matters of foreign policy. Members of the High Assembly are elected by various interest groups which are entitled to seats in that Assembly. While the system was originally envisioned as two Assemblies of roughly equal stature, over time the increasing authority of the People’s Assembly have largely reduced the High Assembly to a ceremonial institution.

    The longest-serving member of the National Assembly, in either chamber, is named the First Speaker, who is considered the head of state of the Northern Commonwealth. As the name implies, the First Speaker has the privilege of speaking first in any debate held in his chamber of the National Assembly. The head of government of the Commonwealth, who manages the day-to-day administration of the government, is the State Minister. The State Minister is elected by a simple majority confidence vote in the People’s Assembly.

    By 1905, the allegiances of members in the People’s Assembly had settled down a largely stable five-party system. From left to right in the Assembly Chamber, the factions are: 1. the Futurists, a radically social-progressive, anti-religious party with strong interests in the rights of women, 2. the Autonomists, believing in devolved governance and the strengthening of local communities, 3. the Agrarians, a socially conservative rural-interest party with an interest in resolving regional wealth inequalities, 4. the Revolutionaries, a social-progressive advocate for strong welfare programmes, industrial regulation, and the exporting of the revolution to the Commonwealth’s European neighbours, and finally 5. the Isolationists, a more authoritarian, social-conservative party that desires a withdrawal from European affairs in favour of a greater focus on overseas colonialism.

    The neat and simple structure of the Commonwealth’s administration is broken by what are colloquially called the Outer Territories of the Commonwealth: her self-governing colonies, the territories of the Scandinavian East Indies Company, the Duchy of Holstein, and the Baltic client states.

    In terms of their theoretical administrative ties to the Commonwealth, the Baltic States are the simplest. They are nominally fully independent states with no official ties to the Northern Commonwealth. However, the economic importance of Northern private investors, the common market agreement between the polities, the considerable stake held by the Commonwealth’s state-owned enterprises in their infrastructure, the close military cooperation between the Baltic States and the Commonwealth under their defensive alliance, as well as ideological similarity between the states involved all mean that the Northern Commonwealth exerts hegemonic influence over the governments of the Baltic States, especially with regards to their foreign and trade policy.

    The Duchy of Holstein is also, legally, a subdivision of the Kingdom of Prussia that owes no allegiance to the Northern Commonwealth. However, until 1848 a personal union existed between Denmark and Holstein, with their holder both being an independent ruler as the King of Denmark and a feudal vassal of Germany as the Duke of Holstein. Although Denmark has been a republic since 1848 and thus no longer has a king, the official Northern interpretation of the situation is that the Danish Crown and the Holsteinian duchy were, and in the absence of any action to the contrary still remain, the same legal entity. The office of the Seneschal of Denmark having inherited the powers and duties of the Danish Crown upon its dissolution after the 1848 abdication, the Seneschal is now entitled to the powers and duties of the Holsteinian duchy until and unless a new Duke of Holstein is appointed, something that will never happen as that title is now bound to a republic. While legal scholars generally agree that this is a somewhat tenuous interpretation, so far nobody has been willing to force the point. The Danish Republic continues to determine the composition of Holstein’s ruling Regency Council, although the Duchy does continue to fulfill its taxation and conscription obligations to the Prussian state.

    The territories of the Scandinavian East Indies Company are legally considered territory governed by, rather than territory of, the Northern Commonwealth. Although in some ways this is a largely theoretical distinction, since Commonwealth law applies in these territories and their administrations are subject to oversight by the Commonwealth, this also has some important implications. The two most notable of these implications are, first, that jus soli citizenship does not apply and residents born in these territories are not considered citizens of the Commonwealth unless their parents were or they have been naturalised, and second, that Commonwealth tariffs apply to goods transported between Norden Proper and the territories, but not to goods transported between the territories and other countries.

    To the west of Norden Proper lies the four self-governing colonies of Vinland, Markland, Helluland, and Greenland. These self-governing colonies are considered to be dependent states in free association in the Commonwealth: territory of, but not governed by, the Northern Commonwealth. People born in the self-governing colonies are citizens of the Commonwealth and thus have the right to freely move to and work in Norden Proper but, immigration being considered an internal affair of these self-governing colonies, the reverse is not true. A common market policy of no internal tariffs and common external tariffs is enforced across the self-governing colonies and Norden Proper and the self-governing colonies are subject to a common foreign and trade policy determined by the Northern Commonwealth. In exchange, the Commonwealth is responsible for the defence of the self-governing colonies and the self-governing colonies are entitled to appoint observing members to the People’s Assembly.

    Majority/State Religion: The Northern Commonwealth is officially secular, endorsing no religion above another, and if anything the government has a slight anti-clerical inclination. Nonetheless, Northern society is still heavily religious, if not as devoutly so as a century ago. The majority religion is Scandinavian polytheism, followed by some three-fourths of the population. Some one-fifth follows Finnic polytheism, broadly reflecting the linguistic divide between Scandinavians and Finns. The remainder is split between Protestant Christians, freethinkers, and other smaller religious minorities.

    Religious Description: Although Scandinavian and Finnic polytheists alike claim to be the continuation of a proud thousand-year religious tradition, the truth is that Northern polytheism as practiced in the early 20th Century shares very little with the faiths of the early medieval age. Heavy influences from Christianity as well as from each other largely moderated some of the more unique practices of both faiths over the centuries. Scandinavian polytheism is today a faith based on a somewhat violent and fatalistic cosmology, promoting individual honour, ambition, and the fulfillment of obligations as virtues. In the countryside, Scandinavian polytheism functions as a social-conservative force, helping maintain the rural patronage system where autonomous local communities organise under the direction of their most capable members, while in the cities, devout temples serve as a breeding ground for the Positive Heroism movement that glorifies achievement in the face of adversity, usually allying themselves to the Isolationists. Finnic polytheism has a considerably more communal bent, with a strong respect for nature and the interrelatedness of life.

    Economic Ideologies: Three clearly distinct socio-economic models exist alongside each other in the Northern Commonwealth. In the urban centres of Norden Proper, a syndicalist model of society dominates; while private enterprise still exists, most capital and infrastructure are collectively owned under trade unions, collectives, and other such associations or publicly owned by the state, all of them often hierarchically organised into collective-interest organisations of Commonwealth scope. In the countryside, the village is still the dominant unit of social organisation, with the village holding considerable land in common on which the residents have a right to paid work; here, centralised government holds relatively little sway with communities largely organising autonomously under the leadership of village chiefs, the most respected member of the community. In the self-governing colonies, a more individualistic socioeconomic model has developed, with free farmers owning and farming their own land, or a stretch of forest as the case may be, in a relatively open economy being the bedrock of colonial society. All of these models coexist underneath a moderately-regulated market economy with considerable internal integration.

    Major Production: In terms of agricultural resources, the Northern Commonwealth has rich fisheries, good cattle land in the south, and large forests. It remains, however, a net caloric importer, due primarily to its poor grain production. The Commonwealth’s territories are also blessed with large if somewhat inaccessible iron reserves in northern Scandinavia and rarer industrial metals in Finland. The Northern Commonwealth has a fairly large and diversified industrial base, but standing out in particular are its steelmaking and shipbuilding industries, the former primarily developed around eastern Sweden while the latter is most heavily developed around the Danish islands and the shores of the Kattegat.

    Economic Description: The Northern Commonwealth has a reasonably well-developed mixed economy. On a foundation of a highly-educated if not particularly large labour force, strong scientific and technological innovation, and a preponderance of small service businesses is founded an industrialised economy that is highly dynamic and adaptable, albeit not particularly large in terms of net production. Strong workers’ rights, as much a result of a large public stake in the economy as it is a result of state regulations, means that economic inequality between social classes is relatively low. However, the large disparity in population density between the more urbanised southwest and the less urbanised northeast of the country led to a disparity in infrastructure and industrialisation as well, leading to a relatively high economic inequality between regions.

    Development: The Northern Commonwealth is a modern state and economy.

    Development Description: Despite the Northern Commonwealth having had a relatively late start to industrialisation, with large manufacturing hubs only starting to develop in the late 1840s and early 1850s, the country’s economy caught up rapidly throughout the latter half of the 19th Century. While development has been heavily uneven and large regional differences still exist, the Commonwealth’s industrial core in eastern Denmark and southern Sweden is no less sophisticated than any other in Western Europe. Further considering that the Northern Commonwealth also has one of the best-educated citizenry in the world and an innovative system of public healthcare, it would be difficult to argue that the Commonwealth lacks modernity in any material or human development sense.

    Army Description: The Northern Commonwealth has a small standing army, preferring to rely more on a national army consisting of a small professional cadre of officers and specialists around which reserves can be mobilised.

    In terms of its standing army, the Commonwealth fields a division of four Ranger Brigades, a division of four Colonial Brigades, and a division of four Border Brigades for a total standing force of 36,000 in paper strength. Both the Ranger Brigades and the Colonial Brigades are fairly light units, primarily a mix of infantry and light artillery with not much in the way of automatic weapons, heavy artillery, or cavalry. The Ranger Brigades are drawn from volunteers from Norden Proper and a small minority from the self-governing colonies. They are specialised towards the defence of the self-governing colonies and the Northern-Russian border and are thus adapted to the terrain and conditions of the same. They excel in thriving on hilly or forested terrain under cold or rainy weather conditions, are trained to move quickly even with poor supply, and generally rely on shock assault and infiltration tactics. For these reasons, despite their light armaments, the Ranger Brigades are often seen as the army’s elite. The Colonial Brigades are recruited from the native populations of the concessionary ports, supplemented by volunteers from Norden Proper where necessary. Compared to the Ranger and Border Brigades they are largely second-rate units designed to defend the concessionary ports against surprise attacks until reinforcements can arrive. The Border Brigades are possibly the army unit in Europe with the densest concentration of heavy weapons, with an ample supply of machine guns, cavalry, heavy artillery, and even small contingents of bicycle infantry for reconnaissance and scouting. The primary role of the Border Brigades is to hold the Danevirke and the Karelian Isthmus against any surprise attacks until reserves can be mobilised, hence their name. Once the reserves have been mobilised, they are also to provide the necessary support for the reserve divisions.

    The reserve force consists of fifty-two Rifle Divisions for a total of 468,000 men in paper strength. Each Rifle Division consists of a regiment of divisional artillery, two battalions of cavalry, two brigades of infantry, and various odds and ends of logistics, communications, engineering, command, et cetera. Broadly speaking Army Command tries to assign men so that each Rifle Division is composed of recruits from a single region, but due to various manpower concerns this is often not the case. In peacetime the Rifle Divisions are maintained at a skeleton strength of approximately one-tenth its nominal wartime size.

    Despite having largely abandoned the idea of a standing professional army, in many ways the Rifle Divisions can still be seen as the inheritors of Swedish Carolean traditions, being a shock-oriented decisive army that relies on the concentration of mobile firepower rather than the weight of the charge to create that shock. The asymmetrical tactics of the Second and Third Scandinavian Revolutionary Wars have given this army a broadly defensive tradition. Some of the expertise of the Ranger Brigades in warfare in poor terrain, climate, or supply have filtered down into the Rifle Divisions although, unlike the Ranger Brigades that rely on their own skill and equipment to operate in such harsh conditions, the Rifle Divisions rely more on a cooperative civilian population and intimate knowledge of the terrain.

    Army Weakness: The heavy focus that Army Command places on well-trained and well-armed infantry and artillery, a logical necessity given the terrain of the country, means that the Commonwealth lacks a strong cavalry presence. Consequently, its ability to fight on open, unfortified terrain is heavily compromised. The strategic reliance of the Rifle Divisions on taking advantage of the terrain and the civilian population may make the Commonwealth Army fearsome on the defensive, but it also largely blunts the Army’s offensive capabilities and its ability to capture and occupy hostile territory.

    Furthermore, a large focus on a reserve army means that it can often take weeks to fully mobilise the army, meaning that the Commonwealth lacks strategic flexibility, and that many of the men thus mobilised would have been out of training for years, somewhat diluting the value of the Commonwealth’s solid training programme. The consequence of these factors means that it can often take weeks if not months for the Northern Commonwealth to prepare for large-scale military action. Preparing only a small standing army in favour of a larger reserve force also means that it is not politically viable for the Commonwealth to commit to large-scale military action except with strong popular support.

    Naval Description: Although the budget of the Commonwealth Navy is modest in comparison to the resources provided to its counterparts in Albion or Columbia, the Northern Commonwealth has nonetheless built a formidable navy by forgoing naval superiority and instead focusing solely on inflicting heavy losses on superior fleets trying to seize exactly that naval superiority.

    In accordance to this strategy of leveraging their enemies’ need to fight for and hold naval superiority on the high seas against them, the Commonwealth Navy has largely given up the option of trying to compete with the Albionic and the Columbians on heavily armoured battleships, instead choosing to organise its navy around two types of capital ships: battlecruisers and coastal defence ships.

    The primary difference between pre-dreadnought battleships and battlecruisers is that battlecruisers carry less armour and are therefore faster. Commonwealth doctrine counts on the fact that no major naval power will be able to keep its navy concentrated; there are trade routes to secure, colonies to defend, and coastal cities to protect from bombardment. Fleets built around battlecruisers can devastate smaller detachments of hostile ships while using its superior mobility to avoid engagements with more substantial capital ships. While this strategy would be unable to clear any particular patch of sea, the Commonwealth Navy hopes that it can inflict steady losses of light ships to hostile navies while avoiding similar losses of its own, thus giving the Northern Commonwealth a critical advantage in terms of longer-term attrition.

    Coastal defence ships are exactly what they sound like: ships to defend the coast. Coastal defence ships are almost the opposite of battlecruisers, being specialised in favour of firepower and armour by sacrificing mobility and range, as well as being designed for operations in the shallow island- and fjord-ridden littoral waters of the Northern Commonwealth. They have the ability to trade fire with a battleship but, thanks to a lack of investment in mobility, are much cheaper and therefore more numerous given the same budget. Coastal defence ships are intended to serve essentially as mobile versions of coastal artillery, protecting coastal installations from hostile fleets in conjunction with ground-based defenses.

    The Commonwealth has also made greater investments into submarines than her primary rivals on the sea, but so far the technology remains too primitive for submarines to become a significant force on the sea in and of themselves.

    Naval Weakness: A lack of investments into general-purpose battleships obviously compromises the ability of the Commonwealth Navy to make a solid stand in a fleet-to-fleet battle in the open seas. The ability of the Commonwealth Navy to project any kind of meaningful naval control away from its own coastline is also essentially negligible. This is very much a Navy built around denying the enemy the advantages of naval superiority, instead of trying to seize those advantages themselves.

    The Northern Commonwealth has few domestic sources of coal. Although the Commonwealth does maintain a considerable stockpile to cover exactly this strategic vulnerability, if an enemy manages to truly cut the Commonwealth off from her trade partners then the naval situation will become quite desperate in a matter of weeks.

    Further Military Description: Because of the strategic vulnerability created by the inability of the Commonwealth Army to fight at its full strength until it undergoes a time-consuming mobilisation of its reserves, the Commonwealth has invested significantly into static fortifications to prevent being quickly defeated by a surprise attack by enemies with larger standing armies. These include concrete forts on the border, such as the defenses of the Danevirke and the Karelian Isthmus, as well as coastal batteries on the shores of the Commonwealth’s major coastal cities.

    National Goals: Externally, the Northern Commonwealth seeks to bring the recent period of militant tensions to an end and create a stable European international order that will permit it to build its visionary society in peace. Internally, the Commonwealth seeks to spread the prosperity and change of the industrial revolution, so far mostly constrained in its industrial cities, into the countryside and into the northern and eastern fringes of the nation.

    National Issues: Externally, as a syndicalist commonwealth and as a polytheist-majority nation the Northern Commonwealth must overcome the inherent distrust its neighbours have for it in order to build the peaceful Northern European international order that it desires. Internally, the Northern Commonwealth is an ideologically and economically divided nation, with the industrial cities, the agrarian countryside, and the nationalists of the eastern forests all having radically different visions of the future society that the Northern Commonwealth seeks to achieve and of the role that the Commonwealth intends to play in the world.

    National Ambition/Aspirations: The Northern Commonwealth is, perhaps more than any other country anywhere in the world, the nation that most fervently embraced the ideals of modernity and of social progress. While the Northern Commonwealth is a divided nation and fierce disagreements are had on what exactly the future utopia that the Commonwealth is building towards will look like, there is no doubt that there is some kind of better tomorrow to be had, radically different from everything that came in the past. The Commonwealth, above all, seeks to build this future society on a foundation of its liberal values, scientific progress, and social trust.

    History: While earlier explorers from other civilisations have made written records about Northern Europe, the written history of what is today the Northern Commonwealth only started to be written in this region itself circa 900 AD, at the height of what is known as the viking age. The viking age, c. 750-1100 AD, was a period of heightened Norse maritime activity during which large numbers of Scandinavians took to the seas for commerce, exploration, settlement, and most famously pillaging. Closer cultural contact between Scandinavia and the Christian world, the strengthening of maritime interests in Scandinavian politics, and the evolution of traditional Germanic customs as political power centralised resulted in the creation of a pluralistic society in Scandinavia, with the political power of elected monarchs finely balanced between aristocratic, mercantile, and peasant interests.

    With the Ostsiedlung and the Christianisation of Eastern Europe in the 11th Century, religious conflict between Scandinavia, which by 1100 consolidated into the three kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway which are the direct predecessors of three of the four Republics in the Commonwealth today, and the Christians of Continental Europe intensified. The earlier part of this period saw the Christians expand across the southern and eastern Baltic coast in the Northern Crusades while the Scandinavian kingdoms, afraid of being surrounded by Christian forces, contested these expansions, with Denmark conquering Estonia, Sweden conquering Finland and Livonia, and the Norwegians expanding into Finnmark and the Kola peninsula. While the claims laid by the Scandinavian kingdoms during this period was vast, stretching all the way to Lake Onega and the White Sea, the Scandinavian kingdoms lacked any means of effectively administering this vast territory and most of its eastern reaches were lost to the Russians in the 1200s and 1300s with no great struggle. With the cultural boundary in the east settling roughly along the Daugava River by 1250, the Germans launched several small-scale holy wars into Scandinavia itself in the late 13th Century, all of which ended in failure.

    These boiling religious tensions died down into a quiet simmer by 1400, but Norse dominance of the sea established during the viking age was also being chipped away. Trade disputes in the North and Baltic Seas would see the Scandinavian kingdoms enter into a personal union, with Sigurd II of Denmark being elected onto the Swedish throne in 1378 and the Norwegian throne in 1384, to contest the rising power of the Hanseatic League. While the Kalmar Union, as this personal union is often called, ultimately emerged victorious in its war against the Hanseatic League, following the Occupation of Novgorod in 1489-1492, the Sack of Danzig in 1495, and Lübeck being burnt to the ground by a Swedish army in 1496, the damage suffered by Scandinavian coastal communities during this war and the expense of waging it ultimately hastened the decline of Scandinavian power in the waves. While in 1000 the Scandinavian kingdoms were the pre-eminent powers in the North and Baltic Seas, by 1500 they were merely one among many, with Albion, France, and the Netherlands all developing into strong maritime cultures.

    Nonetheless, the end of the religious wars and the defeat of the Hansa did turn the Scandinavian kingdoms into notable powers with significant international prestige. Despite being a relative newcomer to the age of discovery, only establishing its first trade factory outside of Europe in 1548, Denmark-Norway emerged as a major naval and colonial power in this era. The Danish East Indies Company established forts across the African and South Asian ports, eventually completing a secure trade route between Europe and China in 1607 with the lease of Macao. To the west, even as control over the Southern Isles were lost to rising native powers in the British Isles, Denmark-Norway expanded across the North Atlantic, putting down its first settlement in the New World in 1620 and chartering Vinland Colony two years later.

    On the other side of Scandinavia, with the pressure of constant war against the Hanseatic League removed, Sweden found that there was little reason to continue the personal union with Denmark and grew increasingly resentful of the centralisation of Scandinavian political power in Copenhagen, breaking free by electing a different candidate to the throne after the death of Knut II in 1520. Penned up as it was in the Baltic, Sweden spent most of the late 16th Century as a minor power on the fringes of European politics, but the radical reorganisation of its army in the early 1600s funded by a strong and rising urban middle class turned the kingdom into a major military power, conquering Estonia and Båhuslen from the Danish-Norwegians, Holstein and Pomerania from the Germans much to the annoyance of the Danes who wanted those same territories, and Courland from the Polish-Lithuanians. The shattering Swedish victory in 1655 against the Poles in the Battle of Częstochowa firmly solidified Sweden’s place among Europe’s great powers for the remainder of the 1600s.

    Due to Denmark-Norway’s colonial successes abroad and Sweden’s military victories along the Baltic Sea, the period between the Razing of Lübeck in 1496 and the beginning of the Great Northern War in 1699 is popularly considered to be the Scandinavian Golden Age.

    The Great Northern War of 1699-1721, which pit Sweden against Denmark-Norway, Poland-Lithuania, and Khazaria and resulted in a decisive Swedish defeat that forced Sweden to return much of the territories it had conquered in the past century and a half, signalled the beginning of the end for Scandinavia’s prominence in the world stage. The 1700s would see a pruning of Denmark-Norway’s colonial empire, with the East Indies Company abandoning many of its smaller outposts and trade factories in favour of consolidating key ports, the loss of its American colonies south of Vinland to the Albionic and later the Columbians, and the displacement of Sweden by Khazaria as the preeminent Eastern European power. Ultimately, as the advantage of superior institutional efficiency that Scandinavia enjoyed throughout the 16th and 17th Centuries became lost, the greater resources and population of their rivals caught up to them and by 1812 both Denmark-Norway and Sweden were considered declining secondary powers.

    Northern history of the 19th Century can be defined by three major political shifts in Northern politics and the resulting wars in the region. The spread of enlightenment ideals throughout Europe in the 1700s took both Denmark-Norway and Sweden by storm, merging with reformist tendencies in the Scandinavian polytheism to create new schools of social and political philosophy. Steadily rising social tensions culminated in the 1810 Stockholm Riots, which would see a coalition of urban mercantile interests and the rural peasantry united by their common opposition to the aristocratic land reforms of the late 1700s, depose the Swedish monarchy and the landed aristocracy to establish a revolutionary republic.

    The new republic sponsored like-minded revolutionaries in her neighbours, with a focus on Denmark-Norway, triggering the First Scandinavian Revolutionary War when Denmark-Norway collapsed into civil war in 1812. The new Swedish Republic and the revolutionaries of Denmark-Norway fought a two-year war against a coalition of Danish-Norwegian royalists, Albion, Khazaria, and Poland-Lithuania. Despite facing a coalition even more formidable than that of the Great Northern War, unlike in the Great Northern War the belligerents were distracted by the greater instability in European affairs. Consequently, the war was a nominal coalition victory but in practice a stalemate; Denmark-Norway would remain a monarchy, but a new liberal constitution was drafted in compromise between the royalists and the revolutionaries. Territorial changes were more substantial, with Sweden ceding the Duchy of Holstein to Denmark and her Baltic territories to Khazaria. The war did, however, destabilise Denmark-Norway, and this personal union was broken after the death of Knut IV in 1821 when Denmark and Norway elected different kings to the throne.

    The wave of nationalist sentiments sweeping through Europe in the early 19th Century also resulted in the creation of a strong pan-Scandinavian political movement, with its adherents arguing that a similar language and culture of the three ‘brother peoples’ was evidence of the Scandinavians being a united nation that deserved to be united under a single state. While the Danish Crown did contemplate creating this unified state by a monarchial personal union similar to the medieval Kalmar Union, such attempts were frustrated by political reality; both the Danish and Norwegian kings in the 1840s were young, healthy, and unlikely to die soon, meaning that a monarchial election in the near future was unlikely, and the Swedish Republic decisively rejected the idea of a return to monarchy. With the republican movement in Denmark and Norway uniting with the pan-Scandinavian movement in denunciation of the monarchy as a roadblock that prevented the Scandinavian people from reaching their true destiny, the political situation for the Crown became untenable. The King of Denmark abdicated in late 1847 and the King of Norway was overthrown by his own parliament in the spring of the next year. The three Scandinavian countries, now all republics, passed a joint parliamentary resolution for the unification of their states on the 1st of May 1848, today celebrated as the Commonwealth’s National Day.

    With neighbouring countries unwilling to accept the creation of a united Scandinavian Commonwealth, and therefore the rise of a new major power in Northern Europe, the Second Scandinavian Revolutionary War began. As Sweden did in the First Scandinavian Revolutionary War, the new Scandinavian Commonwealth in this war also benefited enormously from her enemies being distracted by events in Continental Europe, with Khazaria being particularly heavily affected by the nationalist revolts of 1848. The new Scandinavian Commonwealth emerged victorious against Poland-Lithuania and Khazaria after two years of war, forcing the Khazarians to return most of the Swedish Baltic territories that it had captured in the previous war.

    While the Scandinavian Commonwealth was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, with its first railway line only being established in 1847, when industrialisation did begin it developed quickly, with the region’s robust commercial traditions supporting a healthy capital market and rapidly rising educational standards, bolstered by the establishment of the world’s first public education system in 1842, supporting a strong engineering and scientific tradition. The booming success of industrial cities in southern Scandinavia in the 1850s and 1860s resulted in the rise of the urban industrial working class into political prominence and the development of new social and political movements.

    The socialists first entered government as the junior partner in a liberal coalition after the 1852 elections. After four years of a Conservative government after the 1856 elections, which saw great economic successes but also disastrous social policies, the liberal-socialist coalition would return to power after the 1860 elections and presided over a sweeping range of social and political reforms. Socialist success after the 1864 elections saw them rise to be the senior partner in this coalition, and the parliamentary supermajority they enjoyed after onboarding the agrarians into their coalition in the run-up to the 1868 elections gave them an opportunity to fulfil what has been for some time their ambition: a revision to the 1848 National Constitution. While the resulting document, today called the 1870 Socialist Constitution, was primarily written by the socialists, the necessity of cooperating with their coalition partners meant that the socialists were unable to codify the social and economic restructuring that they desired into the new constitution. Instead, what the 1870 Constitution represented was primarily a political shift, with the institution of suffrage for all men and employed women, the recognition of Finland as a separate republic from Sweden, the creation of a distinction between territory administered by and territory of the Commonwealth, the creation of jus soli citizenship, and the abolishment of electoral constituencies in favour of a proportionally elected National Assembly. The Conservatives feared that these changes would solidify the socialist-liberal coalition into a dominant position in Northern politics, but failed to rally the necessary parliamentary votes to stop its passage. The 1872 elections returned the sitting socialist-liberal coalition into power, and the new government gave the constitutional revision its required ratification. The 1870 Socialist Constitution would thus come into effect in 1873, reforming the Scandinavian Commonwealth into the modern Northern Commonwealth.

    Khazaria saw opportunity in the political instability created by the new coalition and various diplomatic insults resulted in the Commonwealth undertaking an invasion of Khazaria in 1870. While initial battles went well, with the Commonwealth capturing the Neva River and threatening Novgorod after the first year, the tide quickly turned with the Commonwealth Army, still largely a professional standing army at the time, unable to replace the horrifying attrition losses of industrialised warfare. Khazarian troops crossed the Neva again in the summer campaign of 1872, capturing Viipuri later that same year and putting Narva under siege. A broadly unpopular National Service Act of 1873, conscripting men into the army, and the less unpopular but still controversial Army Reform Act of 1875, officially permitting women to volunteer into various non-frontline units in the military, failed to stem the tide. With the fall of Narva in April 1875, visible signs of a military disaster in the making after the Polish entry into the war in 1874, and Albion increasingly making noises about perhaps joining the war, the Commonwealth surrendered in the autumn of 1875. The Duchy of Holstein was forced to cede Lauenburg to a Prussian-appointed noble, Sweden forced to do similar with Western Pomerania, Riga was ceded to Poland-Lithuania, and the rest of the Swedish Baltic was again released as independent states.

    Despite the six years of the Third Scandinavian Revolutionary War being a moderate defeat, the conscription of everyday workers into the Army meant that popular sentiment saw the war as an unmitigated and unnecessary military disaster of the government’s creation. The governing socialist-liberal coalition quickly unraveled and the 1876 elections saw the formation of a minority liberal-agrarian coalition, with an internal schism dividing the Northern Socialist Party into its autonomist and revolutionary wings soon after. This strong popular sentiment also resulted in the Northern Commonwealth largely abandoning war as a means of spreading its ideology and its way of life thereafter, with the new conservative government focusing much more heavily on repairing diplomatic relations with the Commonwealth’s suspicious neighbours to mixed success.

    Political advantages gained by the socialists’ mishandling of the war would not last for very long, however, and the conservatives continued to decline in popularity, its electoral base poached by the agrarians on the more progressive side and the isolationists on the more reactionary side. After 1880 the country would see power passed back and forth primarily between the autonomist-agrarian bloc and the futurist-revolutionary bloc, with the isolationists sometimes serving as kingmakers when neither side was able to achieve a majority. The exception of the 1892-1896 futurist-autonomist coalition, which oversaw the institution of universal suffrage, did however demonstrate that these blocs were not set in stone. Both blocs would push forward radical reforms in the social and economic structure of the Commonwealth, with traditional farmers’ associations and trade unions serving as external power structures that prevented the government from catering to the whims of the more influential individuals of society. While slow and gradual, by 1905 it can no longer be denied that these decades of reform have left the Northern Commonwealth, except in its overseas territories, a broadly syndicalist society.

    This so-called Normalisation, referring to the period after the 1876 peace and lasting until the present day, saw the Northern Commonwealth repairing its strained relations with Albion, Burgundy, and Prussia, attempting to build weird intra-North Sea trade organisations that largely failed at its economic objectives, serving only to defuse the tensions of imminent conflict. Rapprochement with the newly independent Baltic States, over shared concerns of Polish-Lithuanian or Khazarian aggression, served to bring this region firmly back into the Northern sphere of influence by the 1890s. The Normalisation period also saw rapid economic growth, with industrialisation spreading away from the core cities of the Scandinavian heartland into the surrounding countryside and outwards to cities in more remote regions of the Commonwealth, although as of 1905 this process is still incomplete.

    The year is now 1905. After a mere three decades of peace, the traumatic memories of the Third Scandinavian Revolutionary War are still fresh in the collective consciousness of the Northern Commonwealth, even as industrialisation fueled by technological progress transforms the face of Northern society. Only time will tell what the future has in store for this young and vibrant nation...

    RP Sample: Alternative Divergence: 1812

    #AltDiv
    Last edited by Northern Socialist Council Republics on Mon Jun 14, 2021 12:07 pm, edited 9 times in total.
    Call me "Russ" if you're referring to me the out-of-character poster or "NSRS" if you're referring to me the in-character nation.
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    Tracian Empire
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    Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

    Postby Tracian Empire » Wed Jun 09, 2021 1:36 am

    Yes, since the Commonwealth lacks a major port in the Baltic Sea, they will get Riga. Scandinavia will receive the rest of the Baltic states.
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    Northern Socialist Council Republics
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    Left-wing Utopia

    Postby Northern Socialist Council Republics » Wed Jun 09, 2021 1:41 am

    Tracian Empire wrote:Yes, since the Commonwealth lacks a major port in the Baltic Sea, they will get Riga. Scandinavia will receive the rest of the Baltic states.

    Application revised accordingly.
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    The Imperial Warglorian Empire
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    Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

    Postby The Imperial Warglorian Empire » Wed Jun 09, 2021 1:47 am

    Huzzah

    Hey Russ and Tracia, could I mention the Scandinavians and the ERE putting sanctions on the PLC sometime around the mid to late 1800s, which would put the country into a temporary economic slump allowing my country's socialists to come to power?

    I'm sure we'd have to discuss why exactly the sanctions happen, but I'm just thinking of how a socialist government could come to power in the PLC.
    Last edited by The Imperial Warglorian Empire on Wed Jun 09, 2021 1:56 am, edited 3 times in total.
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    Postby Alt Div Admin » Wed Jun 09, 2021 1:55 am

    Map and list have been updated

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    Tracian Empire
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    Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

    Postby Tracian Empire » Wed Jun 09, 2021 1:56 am

    The Imperial Warglorian Empire wrote:Huzzah

    Hey NSCR and Tracia, could I mention the Scandinavians and the ERE putting sanctions on the PLC sometime around the mid to late 1800s, which would put the country into a temporary economic slump allowing my country's socialists to come to power?

    I'm sure we'd have to discuss why exactly the sanctions happen, but I'm just thinking of how a socialist government could come to power in the PLC.

    I'm not sure what would make the ERE sanction the PLC before this.

    However, if the PLC has a socialist government, sanctions would probably follow that. Of course, it depends on how radical and agitating it would be, but the ERE would not view such a government on its borders with good eyes.
    I'm a Romanian, a vampire, an anime enthusiast and a roleplayer.
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    Northern Socialist Council Republics
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    Left-wing Utopia

    Postby Northern Socialist Council Republics » Wed Jun 09, 2021 1:56 am

    The Imperial Warglorian Empire wrote:Hey NSCR and Tracia, could I mention the Scandinavians and the ERE putting sanctions on the PLC sometime around the mid to late 1800s, which would put the country into a temporary economic slump allowing my country's socialists to come to power?

    I can do you one better - read my application's history, especially about the Second and Third Scandinavian Revolutionary Wars.
    Call me "Russ" if you're referring to me the out-of-character poster or "NSRS" if you're referring to me the in-character nation.
    Previously on Plzen. NationStates-er since 2014.

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    Come roleplay with us. We have cookies.

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