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The Authoritarian Personality and the F-Scale

For discussion and debate about anything. (Not a roleplay related forum; out-of-character commentary only.)

Do you think the book is flawed and biased?

No, it is based on solid research and principles.
5
9%
Yes, it is flawed and the entirety of the book and it's research is loaded and biased.
25
43%
There are things that I agree and do not agree with regarding the book and it's research.
14
24%
I can't really say...
14
24%
 
Total votes : 58

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Nejii
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The Authoritarian Personality and the F-Scale

Postby Nejii » Wed Jan 20, 2021 2:44 am

Image
Theodor W. Adorno


The Authoritarian Personality is a 1950 sociology book by Theodor W. Adorno, Else Frenkel-Brunswik, Daniel Levinson, and Nevitt Sanford. It is a sociology book that was the product of a study of prejudices by researches at the University of California, Berkley. The lead author Theodor W. Adorno, pictured above, was a leading member of the Frankfurt School of critical theory and social sciences who fled to the United States amid the rise of Nazi Germany. The impetus of the book was the Holocaust and the rise of Hitler and his authoritarian regime. Adorno and his colleagues desired to identify and measure factors that were believed to contribute to a pro-fascist persona. The book was heavily influenced by studies done in Germany that were modified.

A central idea of The Authoritarian Personality is that authoritarianism is the result of a Freudian developmental model. Excessively harsh and punitive parenting was posited to cause children to feel immense anger towards their parents; yet fear of parental disapproval or punishment caused people to not directly confront their parents, but rather to identify with and idolize authority figures. Moreover, the book suggested that authoritarianism was rooted in suppressed homosexuality, which was redirected into outward hostility towards the father, which was, in turn, suppressed for fear of being infantilized and castrated by the father. This hypothesis was consistent with prevailing psychological theories of the time, and Frenkel-Brunswik reported some preliminary support, but empirical data have generally not confirmed this prediction. Authoritarianism was measured by the F-scale. The "F" was short for "pre-fascist personality." Another major hypothesis of the book is that the authoritarian syndrome is predisposed to right-wing ideology and therefore receptive to fascist governments.

The book itself has been heavily criticized as being left-wing biased, critics arguing that Adorno was in fact a Marxist as were his colleagues. Sociologist J.J. Ray stated that the book was seriously flawed on several points; for not asking questions regarding libertarian politics, for failing to demonstrate that right-wing beliefs are correlated with psychopathology, and for failing to demonstrate that authoritarian beliefs are associated with authoritarian behavior (according to J.J. Ray). Some observers have criticized what they saw as a strongly politicized agenda. Social critic Christopher Lasch argued that by equating mental health with left-wing politics and associating right-wing politics with an invented "authoritarian" pathology, the book's goal was to "subject the American people to what amounted to collective psychotherapy by treating them as inmates of an insane asylum". Conservatives in general regard the book as preachy and elitist, and resentfully argue against it's alleged premise of associating right-wing politics with "mental illness and twisted upbringings". The scientific research/studies applied to the book itself have been called flawed and biased.

Despite criticisms of the book it has been heavily influential in the development of the social sciences. Adorno's F-scale test is even today utilized in sociological studies and is based upon a number of principles given by Adorno;
-Blind allegiance to conventional beliefs about right and wrong.
-Respect for submission to acknowledged authority.
-Belief in aggression toward those who do not subscribe to conventional thinking, or who are different.
-A negative view of people in general - i.e. the belief that people would all lie, cheat or steal if given the opportunity.
-A need for strong leadership which displays uncompromising power.
-A belief in simple answers and polemics - i.e. The media controls us all or The source of all our problems is the loss of morals these days.
-Resistance to creative, dangerous ideas. A black and white worldview.
-A tendency to project one's own feelings of inadequacy, rage and fear onto a scapegoated group.
-A preoccupation with violence and sex.


These, Adorno states, are the raw base(s) of a pro-fascist authoritarian persona.

Below I have provided several links. Various sources as well as a link to a modern F-scale test. Feel free to browse, drop input and opinions, and share your test results!


SOURCES

- The Authoritarian Personality (Psychologist World)
- Theodor W. Adorno (Wikipedia)
- The F-Scale Test (Wikipedia)
- The F-scale Test (Psychology Wiki)
- An Analysis of Trump Supporters Has Identified 5 Key Traits (Psychology Today) (I just had to include this one.)

I have other sources I may share later.

Here is a link to The Authoritarian Personality itself if your interested.

F-scale Test Version A

F-scale Test Version B
Last edited by Nejii on Wed Jan 20, 2021 3:08 am, edited 2 times in total.

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A-Series-Of-Tubes
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Postby A-Series-Of-Tubes » Wed Jan 20, 2021 3:06 am

2.07 Liberal Airhead. This test works for me.

[28] Nowadays when so many different kinds of people move around and mix together so much, a person has to protect himself especially carefully against catching an infection or disease from them.

Interesting how "different kinds of people" can be read in a racist, classist or urban/rural way, and it's barely any different considering the recent change in mores about catching disease from other people. It's not the 'new normal' yet, it's still 'especial'. Anyway, this more than any of the questions needed a RTA option.
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Li Jing
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Postby Li Jing » Wed Jan 20, 2021 3:23 am

A-Series-Of-Tubes wrote:2.07 Liberal Airhead. This test works for me.

[28] Nowadays when so many different kinds of people move around and mix together so much, a person has to protect himself especially carefully against catching an infection or disease from them.

Interesting how "different kinds of people" can be read in a racist, classist or urban/rural way, and it's barely any different considering the recent change in mores about catching disease from other people. It's not the 'new normal' yet, it's still 'especial'. Anyway, this more than any of the questions needed a RTA option.


Ha! 2.12. :p
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Postby Page » Wed Jan 20, 2021 3:27 am

Not going to actually bother to do the test because my knowledge of what is being tested would bias my answers even further but had I done version A I am quite certain I would be in "whining rotter" territory.
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Freiheit Reich
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Postby Freiheit Reich » Wed Jan 20, 2021 3:33 am

Your Overall F Score is: 3.63
You are disciplined but tolerant; a true American.

The score matches but I feel it may need more questions to be more accurate overall. It might be a coincidence it matched. I found the test interesting anyways. Thanks for sharing.
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An Alan Smithee Nation
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Postby An Alan Smithee Nation » Wed Jan 20, 2021 3:45 am

I have a kneejerk doubt about the scientific rigour of anything based on a Freudian model.
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Postby Risottia » Wed Jan 20, 2021 3:45 am

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SD_Film Artists
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Postby SD_Film Artists » Wed Jan 20, 2021 3:53 am

What's the point of it? You can pathologise any political leaning if you try hard enough.
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Radiatia
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Postby Radiatia » Wed Jan 20, 2021 3:53 am

"Your Overall F Score is: 4.13
You are disciplined but tolerant; a true American."

Well apart from the whole American thing, I can't disagree with that assessment. Disciplined but tolerant is actually a pretty good way of encapsulating my personality.

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Postby Page » Wed Jan 20, 2021 4:01 am

SD_Film Artists wrote:What's the point of it? You can pathologise any political leaning if you try hard enough.


True, although I think a more compelling case can be made for pathologizing authoritarian ideologies than libertarian ideologies. Willingly relinquishing one's freedom, in my opinion indicates a lack of self-esteem and learned helplessness.
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Narland
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Postby Narland » Wed Jan 20, 2021 4:14 am

Nejii wrote:...

I had totally forgotten about this book and reseach. It had influence it had on certain family members especially at the junior college level. It caused quite a stir and some hard feelings with the early boomers in my family.

IIRC The most incongruous thing is it doesn't distinguish between motives of rebellion.

Also, didn't it focus on despotism resulting from the cult of personality, and adherence to rigid cultural morés?
It misses despotism resulting from indirect societal pressure or primrose promises?
Despotism derived from attacking the social order could be seen as good?
Lawful attempts of an open and free society who are otherwise rigid in their commitment to strong ethics from a stable? environment would be considered authoritarian (fascist) no matter how dedicated to liberty and equality they were?
Good societies that were free and open but intolerant of deliberate subversion of that goodness and openess would be seen as evil?
Efforts to fight or stop despotic action from criminal elements of those attacking the structure of society would be Faxcistic?

Or am I confusing it with some other work that gained notoriety in the 50s?

Now I am going to have to reread the book. >:(
Last edited by Narland on Wed Jan 20, 2021 4:40 am, edited 5 times in total.

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Postby Dumb Ideologies » Wed Jan 20, 2021 4:36 am

I don't put much credence in this model because the way it was arrived at because it doesn't really hold up to modern standards of validity and reliability and because psychology has moved on from some of the kookier parts of Freudianism which this seems to take for granted.

For what it's worth, from the tests I score firmly in the average area, the second one noting that I scored highly in "projectivity", seemingly a willingness to believe in society's decline and malevolent conspiracies by sinister forces. Given the chaotic acceleration of social change under the pressures of hyperglobalisation, and the increasingly cynical and self-serving strategies of political leaders to mobilise their bases, perhaps this aspect needs some reweighting. I also scored low in destructiveness-cynicism which anyone who is acquainted with me would surely find difficult to believe.

I'm not inclined to put too much credence in this both because of the thinness of the methodology and because I know myself well enough to see that the scores do not ring very true.
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Narland
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Postby Narland » Wed Jan 20, 2021 4:56 am

principled but tolerant, a good American. Overall F Score is: 3.30
Last edited by Narland on Wed Jan 20, 2021 4:58 am, edited 1 time in total.

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Theaca
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Postby Theaca » Wed Jan 20, 2021 5:25 am

I got 1.83. Kinda amusing :p
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A-Series-Of-Tubes
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Postby A-Series-Of-Tubes » Wed Jan 20, 2021 5:30 am

Theaca wrote:I got 1.83. Kinda amusing :p


I got the concentration camp. I think you got sent straight to the gas chamber.
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Theaca
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Postby Theaca » Wed Jan 20, 2021 5:32 am

A-Series-Of-Tubes wrote:I got the concentration camp. I think you got sent straight to the gas chamber.

pretty sure I wouldn't have even made it that far. I am soft and squishy so a baton would probably break open my head like an egg.
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Nekostan-e Gharbi
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Postby Nekostan-e Gharbi » Wed Jan 20, 2021 5:49 am

2.4 lol

Well it is still not harsh enough. I do need to mention that West European authoritarians are often more libertarian than self-proclaimed freedom lovers in many other places. If we base authoritarianism on Saudi Arabia it will be more interesting.
Last edited by Nekostan-e Gharbi on Wed Jan 20, 2021 5:51 am, edited 1 time in total.
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Chan Island
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Postby Chan Island » Wed Jan 20, 2021 5:54 am

Your Overall F Score is: 2.73
You are a liberal airhead.

Scores for Personality Variables:
Conventionalism: 2.50
Authoritarian Submission: 2.71
Authoritarian Aggression: 2.13
Anti-intraception: 3.00
Superstition and Stereotypy: 1.50
Power and "Toughness": 2.75
Destructiveness and Cynicism: 3.00
Projectivity: 3.80
Sex: 3.00


Interesting.

Looks like a bit of an obsolete theory considering the age, the language and examples used, but still has some relevance to help inform more comprehensive theories.
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Miku the Based
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Postby Miku the Based » Wed Jan 20, 2021 6:09 am

The books and Freudian ideology is nonsense. The "all fascists are homos" and "projection" portions are heavy hint in it being nonsense apart from the non-empiricism and lack of evidence.
Let's entertain this nonsense:
scored on first.
Your Overall F Score is: 2.57
You are a liberal airhead.

Scores for Personality Variables:
Conventionalism: 1.75
Authoritarian Submission: 2.71
Authoritarian Aggression: 3.00
Anti-intraception: 1.75
Superstition and Stereotypy: 1.00
Power and "Toughness": 2.38
Destructiveness and Cynicism: 4.00
Projectivity: 3.60
Sex: 5.33

tweaked some answers and scored this on the other
Image

The real cause of fascism is the material conditions not the individual idea.
Last edited by Miku the Based on Wed Jan 20, 2021 6:11 am, edited 1 time in total.
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SD_Film Artists
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Postby SD_Film Artists » Wed Jan 20, 2021 6:26 am

Page wrote:
SD_Film Artists wrote:What's the point of it? You can pathologise any political leaning if you try hard enough.


True, although I think a more compelling case can be made for pathologizing authoritarian ideologies than libertarian ideologies. Willingly relinquishing one's freedom, in my opinion indicates a lack of self-esteem and learned helplessness.


You could also say that a more collectivist ideology is a sign of knowingly putting faith in the importance and effectiveness of a unified nation rather than thinking of oneself as unworthy of more freedoms.
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Nekostan-e Gharbi
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Postby Nekostan-e Gharbi » Wed Jan 20, 2021 6:34 am

Page wrote:
SD_Film Artists wrote:What's the point of it? You can pathologise any political leaning if you try hard enough.


True, although I think a more compelling case can be made for pathologizing authoritarian ideologies than libertarian ideologies. Willingly relinquishing one's freedom, in my opinion indicates a lack of self-esteem and learned helplessness.


Yup. Authoritarianism does need to be made to look bad.
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Theaca
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Postby Theaca » Wed Jan 20, 2021 8:44 am

Miku the Based wrote:The books and Freudian ideology is nonsense. The "all fascists are homos" and "projection" portions are heavy hint in it being nonsense apart from the non-empiricism and lack of evidence.
Let's entertain this nonsense:
scored on first.
Your Overall F Score is: 2.57
You are a liberal airhead.

Scores for Personality Variables:
Conventionalism: 1.75
Authoritarian Submission: 2.71
Authoritarian Aggression: 3.00
Anti-intraception: 1.75
Superstition and Stereotypy: 1.00
Power and "Toughness": 2.38
Destructiveness and Cynicism: 4.00
Projectivity: 3.60
Sex: 5.33

tweaked some answers and scored this on the other
Image

The real cause of fascism is the material conditions not the individual idea.


what's anti-degeneracy?
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My Political Fantasy
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Postby My Political Fantasy » Wed Jan 20, 2021 10:06 am

Your Overall F Score is: 2.73
You are a liberal airhead.

Scores for Personality Variables:
Conventionalism: 3.00
Authoritarian Submission: 3.71
Authoritarian Aggression: 2.38
Anti-intraception: 2.75
Superstition and Stereotypy: 2.00
Power and "Toughness": 2.38
Destructiveness and Cynicism: 4.00
Projectivity: 2.40
Sex: 1.33


These values don't seem calibrated properly. I'll be nice to it since it is over 70 years old.
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Nejii
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Postby Nejii » Wed Jan 20, 2021 10:29 am

My Political Fantasy wrote:
Your Overall F Score is: 2.73
You are a liberal airhead.

Scores for Personality Variables:
Conventionalism: 3.00
Authoritarian Submission: 3.71
Authoritarian Aggression: 2.38
Anti-intraception: 2.75
Superstition and Stereotypy: 2.00
Power and "Toughness": 2.38
Destructiveness and Cynicism: 4.00
Projectivity: 2.40
Sex: 1.33


These values don't seem calibrated properly. I'll be nice to it since it is over 70 years old.


It put me off a bit too. I haven’t taken Version B myself, is it different?

On Version A I scored a 3.30.

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Cordel One
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Postby Cordel One » Wed Jan 20, 2021 10:39 am

1.47, I'm a "whining rotter". The other test ranked me "low" and "very low" on everything.
Last edited by Cordel One on Wed Jan 20, 2021 10:42 am, edited 1 time in total.
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