Take us through how a new law made in YN?

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The Transylvanian States
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Take us through how a new law made in YN?

Postby The Transylvanian States » Thu Mar 08, 2018 11:00 am

Laws are drawn up as a formal document by either the Transylvanian Parliament or by the Sovereign Prince directly. Then each gets ratified by the other
-The Prince has drafted a document on reformation to the justice system, this draft is then given to the parliament to vote on then ultimately process or reject it, before the law is formally brought into practice.
-The Parliament voted on and drafted a document on agriculture, this is then sent to the Sovereign Prince and is ultimately rejected or approved into practice by him personally.

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Postby Rejistania » Thu Mar 08, 2018 11:36 am

It is best explained with a flow chart. Please don't access it via 56k connections or small screens as it is a bit bigger:

Explanation of terms:
Naiken Lentine Tani: given the tricameral system of the Rejistanian government, this is the national representation, equivalent to the Lower House or the Bundestag
Naiken Lentine Rekijo: given the tricameral system of the Rejistanian government, this is the rekijonal representation, there is not really an equivalent in other nations, but imagine that a federal nation is not only seperated in states (called nanti) but also into simultaneous a different set of states called rekijo and these rekijo have their own representation
Naiken Lentine Nanti: given the tricameral system of the Rejistanian government, this is the nantical representation, equivalent to the Upper House or the Senate, or the Bundesrat

Kenlentine Mje'het: This is the council of three that has the joint roles of head of state and head of government.

Lentine Mje'he [tani]: Member of the Kenlentine Mje'het elected by the Naiken Lentine Tani.

Lentine Mje'he Rekijo: Member of the Kenlentine Mje'het elected by the Naiken Lentine Rekijo.

Lentine Mje'he Nanti: Member of the Kenlentine Mje'het elected by the Naiken Lentine Nanti.

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Postby Estainia » Thu Mar 08, 2018 11:57 am

"So I decree, so shall it be." - Insert Lord/Lady of Noble Rank here, the Law applies within their domain and their vassals domains so long as it does not contradict laws of the Emperor. The Emperor's laws apply across the nations of the Empire, without exception, and may contradict local laws for the better.
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Great Chota
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Postby Great Chota » Thu Mar 08, 2018 1:49 pm

Laws in Great Chota outside of the Great Chotan Code are made via community assembly where everyone in a community takes votes.

The steps are as follows:

1. A petition is placed on the floor. Petition laws are varied through the confederation, but usually they come from individual citizens who have a grievance or problem they want addressed. Most communities print out all petitions before the meeting so that people can get to know what they'll be discussing. In cases where people can't make it to meetings either because they are disabled or cannot attend, they are distributed to them afterwards.
2. The petition is discussed between everyone at the assembly, raising concerns, questions, etc.
3. The petition is then voted on by everyone in the community. Each community has a different voting threshold; the customary one for most communities though is that 2/3rds of people must vote for it to be a community law. Most communities have small voting devices that allow for quick tallying of all votes; some communities use smartphone apps, the smallest ones usually can just do a show of hands. After it is voted on by everyone in the community who cares to vote (this includes taking votes from other members not able to attend afterwards), it is then put into law, usually a week or so after the community vote.

For amending the Great Chotan Code, a different process is used. A nationwide referendum is held on any code proposal that manages to get 5% of Great Chotan citizens to sign on to a petition. Nationwide petitions are also voted on by a variety of methods, including on the government's website, community assembly activism. Nationwide referendums to amend the code require at least 2/3rds of the votes in the referendum to be for the petition.

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Postby Radiatia » Thu Mar 08, 2018 1:52 pm

The best way to explain this is through a transcript of a comedy sketch that appeared once on Radiatian TV:


"How Laws Are Made"
A satirical sketch featured on the popular late night comedy show "The Fushi Sakka Show"

A cartoon boy is sitting on the steps of Xerconia Castle looking forlorn, when he is approached by an anthropomorphic piece of paper, meant to represent a bill of parliament.

Bill: "Well hey there, Billy! What are you looking so sad about?"

Billy: "Well, I'm wanting to be an efficient member of Radiatia's democracy, but I just don't know how."

Bill: "Well what don't ya know?"

Billy: "I want to make a law banning people from killing other people, but I just don't know how them dang laws are made..."

Bill: "Well I can show ya, because one day I hope to be a law myself! But first ya gotta pay me - no one's gonna help ya for free ya know!"

Billy hands over some cash.

Bill: "Great! Well, the first thing you need to know is that there are many types of laws.

By-laws only affect people in your community - your town, city or village.

State laws affect your state, while federal law affects everyone in the whole country, even people from Polaris!

There's also international laws but... haha. Hahahaha. AHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHA! They're a joke."

Billy: "Well I want to make a federal law, making it illegal for everyone in Radiatia to kill people. But how do I do that?"

Bill: "Well Billy, laws are passed by the Federal Parliament. There's two chambers in parliament - the Federal Assembly and the Senate.

"The Federal Assembly's job is to ensure that the President can't pass his budget and to put things off for another year, while the Senate's job is to make sure that none of the President's plans regarding foreign policy work out either. That's because people in Parliament hate the President. Even his own party!"

Billy: "Why do they hate him?"

Bill: "They hate him because all he does is sign the bills that they create, but he gets all the credit."

Billy: "Oh so that's why everyone wants to be President so bad! You get to do no work and get all the credit for it!"

Bill: "Right you are, Billy! Well, what you need to do now is to contact your local MP or Senator and ask them to draft the law for you!"

Billy leaves but returns shortly afterwards looking dejected.

Bill: "Well Billy? What did they say?"

Billy: "Well my Senator just ignored me, while my MP's secretary sent me a letter saying thank you, but didn't address any of my concerns."

Bill: "Oh Billy! You're a crack-up! Do you honestly believe politicians give a shit about you? No, no... if you want them to help you, you need to threaten them first! Come on, let's go look up the public records at the library and see what dirt we can dig up on them!"

Later, at the library...

Bill: "Well, your Senator is considering running for President, so he had all his records destroyed in an 'accidental' fire, but it looks like your MP here was accused of drowning his wife 20 years ago. Why don't you tell him what you know and see if he helps you?"

Billy runs off, and then returns shortly afterwords, smiling.

Billy: "It worked! He drafted the bill, and is going to introduce it to the Federal Assembly!"

Bill: "Well we still have a lot of work to do! Now we have to convince the Speaker to schedule a reading of the bill. If the bill is urgent, then chances are the Speaker will delay it as long as possible. But if it's something that involves a pay-rise for MPs, you can bet it'll be top priority!"

Billy: "Well what happens if they do read it?"

Bill: "Well, you need the majority of the Federal Assembly's MPs to vote in favour of the bill for it to pass its first reading. Oh - it looks like they're doing that now!"

Scene shows MPs voting on the bill and the Speaker declaring it read a first time.

Bill: "Now comes the Select Committee phase. This is where the stupidest MPs pretend to be experts on things they're clueless about and add amendments to the bill. They also call for submissions from the public."

Billy: "You mean we're democratic enough that anyone can have their say on a bill?"

Bill: "Well sure, if you're gullible, but really it's where giant corporations bribe MPs into making changes that benefit them. Look Billy! Your bill to ban murder has now been amended into a bill that bans people from protesting against oil companies!"

Billy: "I don't feel so good about that..."

Bill: "No one does, Billy. That's why no one votes - Radiatia is a corrupt shit hole!"

Billy: "Well, at least it passed the second reading. But what are they doing now?"

Bill: "That's called Committee of the Whole House. It's where ignorant MPs like to make more changes to the bill to show how ignorant they are. See? That MP from Pfantz added an amendment banning chickens from flying!"

Billy: "Well at least they've agreed to something. They're reading it for the third time! Hey - what's happening to you?"

The anthropomorphic bill begins to shake and transform, in a special anime-esque sequence, into an Act (i.e. a talking piece of paper with "Act" written on it instead of "bill")
Act: "I've been transformed from a bill... into an Act!"

Billy: "Are you the law yet?"

Act: "Not yet... I still have to go through the Senate."

Billy: "How do we get the Senators to vote for you?"

Act: "Well they usually have their own ideas, and the Senate hates the Federal Assembly. In fact... look, there's a conflicting Senate Act which wants to make murder legal in all states! This means they have to compromise."

Billy: "How do they do that?"

Act: "Simple! We find the most moderate LCP MP and team him up with the most moderate SDU Senator and then put both names on the bill and give a long speech about 'bipartisanship'. That's a buzzword that means "I want everyone's votes, even people who don't normally vote for me.'"

Billy: "Well they've agreed to something, but why is the debate taking so long?"

Act: "Oh, that Senator is filibustering. You see, in the Federal Assembly debates have time limits, but in the Senate people talk as long as they want. You might want to come back later..."

80 years later, Billy returns as a very old man.

Old man Billy: "Are they *cough* done *wheeze* yet?"

Act: "Just about! There you go... it's passed the Senate vote. Now we have to send it to the President!"

Billy: "Will he sign it?"

Act: "Only if he has enough media exposure. Quick! Get some journalists together, and make it look like good publicity!"

Journalists crowd around the President, who is smiling and waving and finally... signs the bill! The Act begins to transform into a law.

Law: "We did it Billy! We successfully passed a federal law banning goats from learning to drive!"

Billy: "Wait a minute... it was meant to be a law banning murder!"

Law: "Yes Billy, but we live in a democracy, which means we're ruled by the people! And everyone knows that people are fucking morons."

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Coconut Palm Island
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Postby Coconut Palm Island » Thu Mar 08, 2018 3:35 pm

There are different types of orders/laws.

A Royal Decree is like an Executive Order, but more far-reaching. It is issued by the King, but can be shot down by a majority of the Senate immediately. Usually, however, Royal Decrees stand, because the King consults with the Senate in most non-emergency situations.

An Act always takes presidence over a Royal Decree. To pass it takes the King and a majority of the Senate, OR 3/4 of the Senate. It can be proposed by the King, or by a Senator.

A Royal Decree or an Act can be nullified by the Royal Court if inconsistent with the Royal Charter (including the Bill of Rights-- which is at the very beginning of the Charter, rather than being attached as amendments).

Finally, an Amendment to the Royal Charter is the most serious change that could be made. To be proposed takes the King's approval and 3/4 of the Senate, OR 100% of the Senate. Once proposed, it is put out as a referendum.

Although we have many options, Royal Decrees are the most commonly used. The King is broadly popular, and most Royal Decrees are good and widely supported.
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Annihitor the Incred
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Postby Annihitor the Incred » Thu Mar 08, 2018 3:38 pm

Superior Leader Annihitor the Incred decrees.

The nation :eek: SNEEZES :eek: in instant approval.

The law is in effect.

Simple, no?
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Postby AHSCA » Thu Mar 08, 2018 3:52 pm

Laws can come about through these ways:

The Duchess can demand a law and write up such a law herself or work with select senators to do so. These are known as Royal Decrees and can be enacted upon without vote. Decrees can be overturned with a 3/4 vote in Congress.

There's also the democratic way:

Any Representative proposes a law and brings it to the floor for debate. Usually it's asked there's at least one or two sponsors but they can be brought about without one.

The proposal is debated and discussed and reviewed and re-drafted as needed. A vote is taken and simple majority vote is needed. if the proposed bill garners enough votes it goes to the Duchess for approval or veto. If the bill fails it gets pushed off the agenda and can be reintroduced next session. If a bill goes to the Duchess and is vetoed it can be either, re-drafted and re-voted upon, or have a veto overturned by 3/4 majority vote.
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Postby Gandoor » Thu Mar 08, 2018 4:17 pm

A proposal must be submitted to the Forum by a Member of the Forum
- The Forum discusses and debates the proposal and any potential changes to it. (Officially all proposals have scheduled debate times, although any proposal can be discussed and debated at any time the Forum is in session but not presently discussing a topic)
- After a period of debate, the Preliminary Voting Committee (a committee of 25 Members from all four parties in the Forum) vote on whether or not the proposal should go to a full vote. At least 19 members of the committee need to vote in favour.
- Voting on the proposal occurs, which must pass by a simple 51% majority
- The proposal is sent to the Prime Minister who must sign the proposal in order for it to officially pass into law.
- In the event the Prime Minister refuses to sign the proposal, then the Forum may vote to sign it in lieu of them. To do so requires a 60% vote in favour.
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Postby Blodrike » Fri Mar 09, 2018 12:39 am

Most laws in Blodrike were written when the nation was founded or when it was industrialising. Since then, new laws have been few and far in between – more is not better for Queen Frøya. But since we are an absolute queendom, passing a law is a simple process with no real obstacles.

An act is a written law that prohibits or requires something. Usually when the queen intends to introduce a new law, she first discusses it privately with the Riksrådet (privy council) – a body consisting of the government ministers and subject experts, that gives confidential advice. The proposed law is then presented to the public to vote on. However, the queen can choose to bypass these steps and sign the act directly. New acts do not take effect until 1 January of the next calendar year, when they are added to the compendium of national laws. The process to repeal an act is similar, but repealed acts immediately stop being in effect.

A decree is a written order from the queen (or someone authorised by her), with the same force as an act. Unlike acts, decrees are not intended to set new policies but to rule on existing ones. Decrees will also trump any law, but most are not permanent and only apply to a specific circumstance. Courts are given their power by the queen, so their decisions are technically decrees (and can be reversed by her).

A warrant is a written permission to do something that is otherwise illegal, like searching the home of a suspect or confiscating property of a tax evader. Just like decrees, courts can also issue warrants, and they are technically orders of the queen.
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Postby Tinhampton » Fri Mar 09, 2018 1:21 am

Well, for the most part, some bloke just proposes it in the Assembly, we pass it and the Mayor affixes his signature (if he doesn't, two-thirds of the Assembly may override the veto.) But if you want the reality :P, for the most part...
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Postby Vallermoore » Fri Mar 09, 2018 2:22 am

Someone brings a problem to the Government's attention, and a law is drawn up and given to the lower house of Parliament (which is elected by first past the post.) If it gets through there it goes to the upper house of Parliament (elected by proportional representation) and then if it gets through there to the President of the Central Committee to sign and lastly, as a formality, to the Queen of Vallermoore to sign into law.

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Canada Dominion
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Postby Canada Dominion » Fri Mar 09, 2018 12:33 pm

Law and are proposed as bills in either the Senate or House of Commons. After debate and revision, the bill is either rejected or accepted. If accepted, the bill moves to the other house for revision and approval. If approved, the bill is passed through the governor generals office. Once approved there, the bill is made law.

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The Greater Siriusian Domain
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Postby The Greater Siriusian Domain » Fri Mar 09, 2018 12:56 pm

In the Greater Siriusian Domain, anyone can write a draft. However, the submission process is very stringent to filter out frivolous drafts.

The initial submission process starts off when the author of the draft, backed by a legislative attorney (a special kind of lawyer in the Greater Siriusian Domain who assists the author of the draft during the editorial process), submits the draft and a small fee to the local legislative office. At that point, research is done by the staff at the legislative office to determine whether the draft would have an effect on anything. A draft must specify what level it is to be applied to.

If the draft survives the submission process, it becomes a bill and is sent to the relevant council. If the bill is sent to any council up to system council, it is then immediately voted on by the council. However, if it is a Confederacy-wide bill, it must first be voted on by the representative body. The representative body is exactly as it says on the tin - system representatives are elected to represent their star system among the confederacy. If it then passes this stage, it then must be voted on by the Confederacy Council. If the Confederacy Council gives unanimous approval, then the bill becomes a law. Otherwise, it goes back to the representative body to be voted on a second time - at this stage, a two-thirds majority is required.
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Postby Ru- » Fri Mar 09, 2018 1:27 pm

-A bill is introduced to the Imperial Senate by one of the senators (all bills need to approval of at least one senator to see the floor, as only a member of the senate may introduce potential laws)

-The Majority Consul places the bill on the Senate's legislative schedule

-The bill is now the next item on the legislative schedule and the consul calls for a vote

-The Senators vote on the bill, if more then 50% vote in favor, it is sent to the monarch and chancellor. If there is a tie, then the majority consul will cast a tie breaking vote. If the bill is stalled in debate then the monarch may preemptively sign the bill, it then becomes a royal edict which must be voted on immediately. It takes a majority of the senate and approval of the chancellor to strike the edict down.

-The bill is sent to the monarch and the chancellor. If they both sign it, then it will become law. If either or both refuse to sign then the bill has been vetoed and it is sent back to the senate, who can override the veto by a two-thirds vote.

(Senators are democratically elected representatives of their district, the majority Consul is chosen by the party that has a senate majority, The chancellor is a democratically elected by all of Ru, the monarch is the current king or queen of Ru)
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Koem Kab
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Iron Fist Consumerists

Postby Koem Kab » Fri Mar 09, 2018 1:31 pm

If the leader says so, it becomes a law.

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Civil Rights Lovefest

Re: Take us through how a new law made in YN?

Postby Yohannes » Fri Mar 09, 2018 5:20 pm


Take us through how a new law made in your nation: Yohannes
Government post 2018 F&NI No 2
Date of creationMarch 10, 2018

Take us through how a new law made in your nation?

The de facto sole legislative body in twenty-first century Yohannes is the parliament. The legislation it passes has a number of functions: to carry out government policy at the imperial level; to protect the rights and property of citizens; to provide social services; to protect the environment; to raise taxes and to authorise Executive Council spending; and to regulate relations between individual Executive Council organisations, and between individual Executive Council organisations and the nation state as embodied by the elected Yohannesian Emperor. In some circumstances, parliament can delegate its legislative authority to other bodies.

Proposed legislation is introduced into parliament in the form of bills. Bills may be nation state bills, local and regional bills or citizen bills. Nation state bills are bills which apply to the entire nineteen countries and its jurisdictional rights overseas, local and regional bills are bills which apply only to a particular local or regional government in the continent of Yohannes, and citizen bills are bills which apply only to a particular entity or individual or group of entities or individuals. Bills introduced by a Minister of the Realm on behalf of the Executive Council are formally called Domestic Nation State Issues Bills (DNSIB), e.g., Higher Education Amendment Bill 2017; bills introduced by individual members are formally called Individual Minor Bills (IMB), e.g., Living Organ Donation Monetary Support Amendment Bill 2017. Individual Minor Bills have little chance of passage, and are usually introduced to encourage debate on contentious or topical issues. Few pass into law; however, two significant exceptions in recent years have been the International Cultural and Education Exchange Act 1926 and the Legalised Homosexual Act 1945.

Domestic Nation State Issues Bills are drafted by the counsel of the Executive Office of the Emperor’s Office of Public Analysis and Intergovernmental Affairs in consultation with the officials of the ministry involved. Drafting an individual minor bill is the responsibility of the member sponsoring it, although this is usually done with the assistance of the Domestic Policy Council. Drafting a local and regional bill is the responsibility of the local and regional government involved. Drafting a citizen bill is the responsibility of the entity or individual or group of entities or individuals involved. The procedure for the passage of bills through parliament is determined by Standing Orders, e.g., Standing Orders of the Imperial Parliament, 2016. On being introduced into parliament, a bill is given what is known as its first reading, e.g., Freight Shipping and Water Transport Amendment Bill 2017: First Reading. In the past, this was usually limited to an explanatory speech by the Minister of the Realm responsible or the sponsor of the bill, and answers to any questions put by other members, but today a political debate on the bill’s merits often develops.

After the first reading all bills, other than appropriation bills (e.g. Navy Appropriation Submission 2018), and bills on which urgency has been taken by invoking the right granted from an existing introductory principle (e.g. Gender, LGBT, Racial and Religious Minority Act 2016), are referred to a select committee for consideration (e.g. the Freight Shipping and Water Transport Amendment Bill 2017 being recommended to the Select Committee on Navy and Merchant Navy). At this stage of select committee deliberation, submissions from the public are invited (e.g. Select Committee Business — Subject to the Committee on Engineering and Science; Wednesday, 4 October 2017). After consideration by the select committee, a bill is reported back to parliament for its second reading (e.g. Freight Shipping and Water Transport Amendment Bill 2017: Second Reading), where any amendments to the bill recommended by the select committee are read into it at this stage. The main debate over the intentions and principles of the bill occurs at the second reading, after which parliament considers the bill in committee — that is, the Committee of the [whole] Parliament, presided over by the Chairman of Committees.

At this stage the bill is examined clause-by-clause, and further amendments may be made. The accompanying debate at Committee stage is not recorded in the Collegian and Parliamentary Hansard, only the end result. The third reading (e.g. Kazansky Heavy Industries and the Bank of Yohannes 2017 — Allanea Amendment Bill: Second and Final Reading) occurs after the Committee stage. Although the third reading was once considered a formality, nowadays, as at the first reading, a very partisan debate often develops.

A bill which has been tabled through all three readings and the Committee of the [whole] Parliament stage becomes an Act; that is, the law of the realm, when it has been given the Imperial Assent by the Yohannesian Emperor in accordance with the third introductory principle of The Will of Parliament.

[ For more information see Archive of the Government of Yohannes Act 2017 and The 115th Debates of Yohannes - Reichstag’s Hansard ]
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Adrien Agreste
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Founded: Feb 11, 2018
Liberal Democratic Socialists

Postby Adrien Agreste » Fri Mar 09, 2018 6:17 pm

Everyone gets a notification of their phone and they vote yes or no. It's really simple because everyone has a phone and there's not many of us.

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Hylia Magna
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Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby Hylia Magna » Fri Mar 09, 2018 7:03 pm

  1. What is known as ichikozu-dachi no shingi, loosely translated as deliberation of the clans is called by one of the clans (not necessarily an appointed clan — any clan can request an ichikozu-dachi no shingi if approved by the King).
  2. Delegates from the Fifteen appointed clans assemble at the court of the clan who called the shingi.
  3. The delegate of the host clan proposes the law in detail.
  4. The delegates of the Fifteen appointed clans deliberate for no less than fifteen days on the proposition, giving them time to relay to and and consult with their masters. During this time they are catered to at the expense of the host clan, who have the authority to expel an unruly or discourteous delegate.
  5. If at the end of fifteen days an agreement is reached in the deliberations, a vote is taken. The Fifteen appointed clans each have a set number of votes — either 3, 2, or 1 — that can be allotted. The total number of ballots is 25. 15 votes of yes are required to create a law from the measure.
  6. If 15 votes are acquired, the proposition is written down in the form of an oath. All the delegates swear over the oath and it is remitted to the King for approval. Upon the King's approval, the oath becomes law.
Kingdom of Hyrule — Hairaru Ōkoku
RP Tech Level: Early Modern; High Fantasy
Land area: 2,166,086 km²
RP population: 60,669,812

Head of State: King Daphnes III
Languages: Modern Hylian (English cipher); Traditional Hylian (Japanese cipher)

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Workers SFSR
Posts: 14
Founded: Feb 06, 2018
Democratic Socialists

Postby Workers SFSR » Fri Mar 09, 2018 7:33 pm

The law is formulated within the Communist Party. The specifics of the law are disseminated among the population so people can familiarize themselves with it, and the general consensus can be monitored. Amendments to the law are made based on popular reactions. This process can take from a week to several months, based on the importance and scope of the law. Once the law is finalized, it is passed up by the Party to the 100-member Central Executive Committee, which holds a vote. A majority secures the law, which is then signed and ratified. The Soviet of People's Commissars executes the law. If a law is particularly major (constitutional amendments, changes to the economic plan etc) or controversial, it waits until the annual 2,000-member Congress of the Soviets, which will vote on it and decide its fate with a majority. The Congress of the Soviets also has the authority to propose its own laws and vote on them.

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Bagong Luzon
Posts: 43
Founded: Jan 30, 2018
Iron Fist Consumerists

Postby Bagong Luzon » Sat Mar 10, 2018 12:31 am

From the Sovereign springs forth all Law and Authority; as an absolute monarch, he answers to none save the Lord our God Himself.

All that said, he only needs to give the order and it becomes law for the entire Kingdom, superseding the local ordinances decreed by the minor aristocrats for their own realms where conflict is present.

This principle is repeated on a lesser scale with respect to laws decreed by superior aristocrats; whenever they conflict with ordinances decreed by the lower ranks for their own realms, the decree of the superior takes precedence.
Puppet of the New Visayan Islands, typically used for fluff purposes.

Naturally, this does not represent my actual beliefs.

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Posts: 712
Founded: Jan 19, 2012
Capitalist Paradise

Postby Vedastia » Sat Mar 10, 2018 1:30 am

Legislation is usually introduced by an individual deputy in the Chamber of Deputies. After legislation is introduced, the issue committee to which the legislation is assigned by the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies will review the legislation and choose whether or not to allow the legislation to be debated. If said committee refuses to allow the legislation to be debated, the legislation will not become law. If the committee in question chooses to allow the legislation to be debated, deputies can choose to amend the legislation with germane articles. A majority vote of the Chamber is required to amend legislation.

If the legislation is passed by the Chamber of Deputies, the process will begin again in the Senate and follow similar steps.

Legislation must pass with a majority of both the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate to become law. After the legislation is passed in both houses, both versions of the legislation must be reconciled through the Reconciliation Committee, which consists of the heads of each issue committee in both houses of Parliament.

The reconciled version of the legislation is presented to the king. The monarch or regent must assent to legislation in order for it to become law. The monarch has the power to refuse assent to any legislation, but a supermajority (2/3rds) of both houses of Parliament can assent to legislation on the monarch's behalf when the monarch has refused assent.

The monarch has the power to issue decrees, but decrees are rarely issued in practice except for matters concerning the Royal Household. Decrees can be overturned by a supermajority (2/3rds) of both houses of Parliament.
Karolos Dimitriadis~Member of the Conservative Hellenic Union
Dinake wrote:
Zoice wrote:The far right is truly to blame. The left may lose ground to them, but they wouldn't be losing ground if there wasn't the far right in the first place calling for batshit insanity.
That's like saying "blockbuster wouldn't be losing ground to netflix if there wasn't any netflix".

Major-Tom wrote:
Risottia wrote:Reality has a left-wing bias.
God, if I had a nickel for every time I heard some smug internet warrior say this...

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Posts: 10741
Founded: Jun 02, 2006
Civil Rights Lovefest

Postby Fatatatutti » Sat Mar 10, 2018 10:35 am

We don't need any new laws. We're still using the old ones.

(We're also still using cars made in the 1960s. The Army is even more conservative - they use jeeps made in the 1940s.)

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Posts: 2178
Founded: Aug 28, 2009
Civil Rights Lovefest

Postby Cirona » Sat Mar 10, 2018 9:49 pm

Statute law
In federal law, a Bill is initially drafted in either Houses of the Federal Parliament and deliberated in both houses for approval, changes or rejection. Members of Parliament may refer the Bill to a Select Committee, which is responsible to investigate and report to the Federal Parliament regarding the intended consequences of the Bill. Both Houses must pass the Bill in the same form with a majority vote before it proceeds to the President.

The President may then assent to, return or veto the Bill:
  • If the President assents to the Bill, the Bill becomes an Act of Parliament and has full effect as law from the date of assent onwards, or otherwise stipulated in the Act of Parliament.
  • If the President returns the Bill, the Bill is sent back with a Presidential Addendum to be considered by the Federal Parliament in Joint-Sitting, where both Houses of Parliament sit as one House. A simple majority is required for any amendments made to the Bill. As a Bill may only be returned once, the Bill, amended or not, is then returned to the President for assent or veto.
  • If the President vetoes a Bill, the Bill does not become law. The Prime Minister may convene the Federal Parliament in Joint-Sitting in order to override a presidential veto. The Bill must pass the Federal Parliament in Joint-Sitting with a two-third majority, following which the Prime Minister shall countersign the Bill into an Act of Parliament. A countersigning triggers an election for the office of the President, which must be held within three months of the countersigning. A countersigned Bill becomes an Act of Parliament and has full effect as law from the date of assent onwards, or otherwise stipulated in the Act of Parliament.
In practice, the President rarely exercises their veto power as they risk losing their office. Instead, returns have been much more common. Since 1930, there has been five cases in which the President have exercised their veto power, of which four were later countersigned. Three Presidents have failed to be re-elected following a countersign election.

Common law
Common law is a body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and tribunals. The common law relies on precedence, in which courts look at past decisions of relevant courts and synthesise the legal principles of those past cases as applicable to current facts. An inferior or equal court is generally bound to follow the reasoning of a past decision made by a superior court should the latter have resolved a similar dispute in the past. If the dispute at hand is fundamentally different from any cases resolved in the past, the court has the authority and duty to resolve the issue and create new common law.

Ceronic common law has been developed throughout 13th century England to the present day. The highest common law authority of the land is the High Court of Cirona, of which all courts in Cirona are bound to. The courts and tribunals often refer to other common law jurisdictions such as England, India and Australia for persuasive precedence. Where statute law and common law are in conflict, statute law prevails.

Presidential Decrees
Presidential Decrees is a law issued by the President with full force of the law. The President may only issue President Decrees on matters regarding the administration of the law, the formation and dissolution of Parliament, foreign affairs, defence, honours, pardons and other reserved powers as expressed in the Constitution.

Presidential Decrees is equal in footing to Acts of Parliament and can only be overridden by constitutional law.

Constitutional law
An amendment to the constitution must be passed through the Federal Parliament and the President in the same manner as an Act of Parliament. Furthermore, amendments to the constitution must be put to a referendum in which a double majority is required - that is to say, a majority of votes and a majority of votes in a majority of countries.

Constitutional law overrides all other sources of law and is exclusively interpreted by the High Court of Cirona.

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Magical Equestria
Posts: 1179
Founded: Nov 04, 2010
Mother Knows Best State

Postby Magical Equestria » Sat Mar 10, 2018 10:38 pm

The Equestrian government contains many vestiges of the pre-Equestrian government forms used by our Earth Pony, Unicorn, and Pegasi populations. Originally, the Earth Ponies were a democracy, the Unicorns a hereditary absolute monarchy, and the Pegasi a military dictatorship. This is reflected in Her Majesty Princess Celestia's government. The government consists of a Parliament having two Chambers: one containing elected Burgesses from among the Earth Ponies and the other containing hereditary Unicorn Peers. The Pegasi choose not to participate in Parliament, holding to their military tradition and accepting direct rule from the Crown.

Laws in Equestria are proposed in the Chamber of Burgesses, and if passed there, sent to the Chamber of Peers for their assent. The Peers cannot offer amendments, only accept or reject the bill as proposed. If rejected, it goes back to the Chamber of Burgesses for rework and the process starts over. If accepted, it goes to the Crown for Princess Celestia's signature, at which it becomes law.

An astute observer will soon find, however, that this system is largely a rubber-stamp affair. Most of the bills actually originate from Princess Celestia or her advisors in the Royal Court, and are sent through Parliament as a formality. Princess Celestia can veto any proposed law and Parliament has no authority to override it; however, Her Majesty rarely invokes that option. In times of national emergency, Princess Celestia can issue Royal Decrees which have the force of law, and usually end up being official laws once our notoriously slow Parliament finally gets around to enacting them.


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