NATION

PASSWORD

SDI Aircraft Catalog [DO NOT POST]

A meeting place where national storefronts can tout their wares and discuss trade. [In character]
User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

SDI Aircraft Catalog [DO NOT POST]

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Fri Apr 08, 2016 1:06 pm

Image


F/A-36 Seraph

General Characteristics:
  • Role: Air Superiority Fighter
  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 21.0 m
  • Wingspan: 15.0 m
  • Height: 3.8 m
  • Wing area: 95 m2
  • Empty weight: 16,800 kg
  • Loaded weight: 29,100 kg
  • Fuel weight: 10,800 kg
  • Max takeoff weight: 38,700 kg
  • Powerplant: 2x SDI F220 adaptive cycle afterburning turbofans, 205 kN each
Performance:
  • Maximum speed:
    • High altitude: Mach 2.9
    • Supercruise: Mach 2.2
  • Combat radius:
      1,300 km (Mach 2.2 @ 20,000 meters)
      1,900 km (Mach 0.85 @ 12,000 meters)
  • Ferry range: 5,600 km
  • Service ceiling: 22,700 m
  • Rate of climb: 470 m/s
  • Wing loading: 285 kg/m2
  • Thrust/weight: 1.44
  • Maximum g-loading: +9.5/-3.5 g
Armament:
Avionics:
  • SN/APG-96 X band AESA radar
  • SN/AAS-60 Advanced Infrared Search & Track System
  • SN/AAQ-80 Multispectral Distributed Aperture System
  • SN/ASQ-266 Electronic Warfare system
  • SN/ASQ-292 CNI system


Overview:
The Seraph is an advanced, sixth generation, single seat, twin engine, all weather, stealth tactical fighter aircraft designed as a long ranged air-to-air combat aircraft with added versatility as a reconnaissance, electronic warfare, and strike platform.


Airframe & Construction:
Designed to both minimize radar cross section while maximizing supersonic aerodynamics and maneuverability the design of the Seraph is fairly unconventional with large, diamond shaped wings, highly angled all moving V-tail, and a highly area ruled fuselage designed to minimize transonic drag rise. The Seraph is intended to be highly maneuverable at both subsonic and supersonic speeds with an extremely high thrust to weight ratio, low wing loading, a high maximum angle-of-attack, high instantaneous turn rate, and an inherently designed relaxed static stability. Both the wing and V-tail of the Seraph use supercritical airfoils designed to have favorable lift, stall, and pitching moment characteristics at high mach numbers. The clipped diamond wings have an aspect ratio of 2.0, the similarly clipped diamond V-tail an aspect ratio of 2.5, with both having a leading and trailing edges having a sweep of 45 degrees. The aggressively chined forward fuselage section, in addition to having various radar very-low-observability benefits, generates large amounts of vortex lift at supersonic speeds which offsets the rearward shift of the aerodynamic center as the aircraft goes supersonic. The aircraft's relatively high L/D ratio at both subsonic and supersonic speeds due to its unconventional blended wing-body shape also allows for efficient cruise performance at both subsonic speeds and in supercruise. The aircraft's structure uses a semi-monocoque design constructed almost entirely of composites including a combination of forged and machined titanium metal matrix composites (MMCs) which make up approximately 50% of the structural weight and graphite-polyiamide and graphite-epoxy polymer composites (PMCs) formed using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding which represent 25% of the aircraft's weight. The use of significant amount of composites in the airframe reduces weight, improves airframe heat resistance for sustained supersonic flight, and reduces the aircraft's radar and infrared signature while also enabling the Seraph to be less maintenance intensive than previous generations of aircraft. Traditional aircraft materials such as aluminum make up only approximately 15% of the aircraft's weight while the remaining 10% consists of other miscellaneous materials.

The internal structure of the Seraph is constructed primarily from SCS-8 silicon carbide fiber reinforced Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr (Ti-5-5-5-3) titanium metal matrix composite (MMC) structures. Compared to conventional titanium alloys the titanium metal matrix composite exhibits superior specific strength, specific stiffness, fracture toughness, wear resistance, creep and oxidation resistance which results in reduced airframe weight, superior resistance to ballistic damage, increased airframe durability and heat tolerance, and reduced maintenance requirements. The fuselage is constructed from eight titanium metal matrix longerons, five running on top of the wings and three along the bottom, which run from the front of the cockpit where they sweep either upward or downward and thicken at the intake and then run back all the way to the middle of the ruddervators. The fuselage is then divided longitudinally by nine titanium metal matrix bulkheads made from monolithic forgings which are directly connected to the longerons to better distribute structural loads. The bulkheads located in the middle of the fuselage are also joined to the titanium MMC spars in the wings. The monolithic forgings used for the fuselage and wing titanium MMC structures are additionally subject to Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) in order to eliminate any voids or gas pockets caused by the forging process before the components are joined together to create the airframe. The titanium MMC wing torsion-box spars are constructed from sinusoidal wave spars creating using super plastic forming and diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) which are connected to additional titanium MMC wing box frames. The titanium-MMC longerons, bulkheads, and wing spars are joined by a mixture of robotic laser welding using a pulsed Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet) fiber-optic laser and robotic friction-stir welding under an inert argon atmosphere.

The skin panels, inlet ducts, landing gear and weapons bay doors, forward fuselage longerons, outer wing spars, and V-tail structure of the Seraph are constructed from laser aligned honeycomb sandwich panels several millimeters thick made from a polymer matrix composite consisting of a 3D weave of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) reinforced carbon fibers embedded into a high temperature polymer matrix.The matrix material used is a radar transparent polyimide resin which has a service temperature in excess of 400 degrees C. The Seraph's weapons bay doors, empennage ribs and spars, and rear wing ribs and spars are constructed out of the same style composite but with an epoxy matrix replacing the polyimide for applications where the high service temperature of the polyimide matrix are unnecessary.


Vehicle Management System & Flight Control Surfaces:
Vehicle Management System (VMS): The Seraph's vehicle management system (VMS) is a quadruple redundant fully digital fly-by-wire control system responsible for controlling the aircraft in flight. The core of the VMS system are four vehicle management computers (VMCs) which interface using fiber-optic cables to the aircraft's control actuators, engines, cockpit controls, air data system, fuel system, and inertial navigation systems. The sensor subsystem of the VMS includes four air data computers (ADCs) and a low observable pneumatic air data system (LOPADS) which consists of four flush mounted pitot tubes located above the radome in front of the cockit and four flush mounted static ports, two on each side of the fuselage, located aft of the radome above and below the forward fuselage chine and provides Mach, altitude, airspeed, angle-of-attack, and sideslip data to the VMS. The VMS system also includes a fuel-control system which can pump fuel from forward fuel tanks to aft ones and vice versa to allow the aircraft to change its CG and stability margin in flight.

Control surfaces: The control surfaces of the Seraph include twin all-moving V-tails, inboard and outboard variable camber flaperons (combined flaps and ailerons), and variable-camber leading edge flaps. The variable camber flaps and ailerons can be continuously deflected in flight to provide near-ideal wing camber for any flight condition and are smoothly blended into the wing to reduce both parasitic drag and the radar return of the control surfaces. The aircraft's control surfaces are controlled using a decoupled flight control architecture which the aircraft to maneuver in one plane without maneuvering in the other (such as turning without banking) and allows any of the aircraft's major control surfaces to provide any control surface function (roll, pirch, or yaw). Under normal flight conditions pitch is provided by deflecting the V-tails in opposite directions, yaw is provided by deflecting the V-tails in the same direction, and roll is provided by deflecting the wing ailerons in opposite directions. Yaw control can also be provided by differential thrust of the engines. The aircraft also features a virtual speedbrake capability achieved by deflecting the outboard flaperons up and deflecting the inboard flaperon and leading edge flaps down. The control surfaces of the Seraph are actuated using a series of self-contained electrohydrostatic actuators powered by the aircraft's electrical system and connected to the aircraft's vehicle management computers through fiber-optic cabling and replace the hydraulic actuators and pumps of a traditional fly-by-wire control system with self-contained actuators that convert the electrical power into localized hydraulic power for flight control purposes. Each control surface of the Seraph including left and right V-tails, inboard and outboard trailing edge flaperons, and leading edge flaps is independently actuated using a series of EHA-VPVM (electro-hydrostatic actuator with variable pump displacement and variable motor speed) actuators which employ variable speed brushless DC permanent magnet motors to drive a variable displacement servopump which is connected to the two chambers of a hydraulic cylinder that is used to actuate the aircraft's control surfaces.

Self-Repairing Flight Control System (SRFCS): A Self-Repairing Flight Control System (SRFCS) is integrated into the aircraft's Vehicle Management System is designed to detect damage or failure in the V-tails, flaperons, and leading edge flaps. When the system detects damage or loss of a flight control surface or actuator the system then compensates by reconfiguring the remaining flight control surfaces and changing the control laws of the flight control software so that aircraft remains controllable and can be landed safely by the pilot.The SRFCS displays all damage to flight control actuators and surfaces to the pilot through the multifunction display in the cockpit which indicates to the pilot the extent of the damage and any flight speed or maneuverability limitations imposed by the damage. The SRFCS combined with the Seraph's decoupled flight control system and lifting body fuselage allow the aircraft to potentially lose an entire wing or one of its V-tails and still maintain controlled flight. In the event all the aircraft's control surfaces are destroyed or disabled the Seraph's Vehicle Management System can command increasing or decreasing engine thrust to pitch up or down (respectively) and differential engine thrust to turn, proving enough control to steer the aircraft to an airfield and perform a safe landing.


Propulsion:
  • Name: SDI F220
  • Type: Adaptive Cycle Afterburning Turbofan
  • Length: 5,080 mm
  • Diameter: 1,170 mm
  • Dry Weight: 1,800 kg
  • Bypass Ratio: variable
  • Compressor: Two stage fan, core driven fan stage (CDFS), five stage high pressure compressor
  • Combustor: Pressure-gain combustor
  • Turbine: single stage HPT, counter rotating single stage LPT
  • Maximum Thrust: 159 kN (dry), 205 kN (with afterburner)
  • Overall Pressure ratio: 26:1
  • Turbine inlet temperature: 1,980 °C
  • Specific fuel consumption: 20 g/Kn-s (dry), 40 g/Kn-s (afterburning)
  • Thrust-to-Weight Ratio: 9.0:1 (dry), 11.6:1 (with afterburner)
The Seraph is powered by a pair of F220 afterburning turbofans which each deliver up to 205 kN of thrust will full afterburner. The F220 engine is an advanced sixth generation engine which uses adaptive cycle engine (ACE) technology that allows the engine to change its overall bypass ratio and fan pressure ratio through the use of adaptive geometry devices. The F220 is a two-spool turbofan with a low pressure spool consisting of two stage fan and single stage low pressure turbine and a high pressure spool consisting of five stage high pressure compressor with core driven fan stage (CDFS) and a single stage high pressure turbine. The two stage fan employs a blisk construction with rotor and highly swept wide-chord blades constructed from carbon fiber reinforced polyamide with Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy reinforcement along the leading edges. The five stage high pressure compressor employs integrally bladed rotors (IBTs) is constructed from Ti-48Al-2Cr-Nb gamma titanium-aluminide (TiAL) alloy which provides comparable or better temperature and creep performance compared to conventional nickel super alloys while having half the density. The first stage of the high pressure compressor is a core driven fan stage (CDFS) and employs extended blade tips that act the third stage of the two stage fan and supercharges the flow entering the engine's bypass flow streams. The combustor of the engine is a double-dome annular combustor with two toroidal primary combustion zones and employs a combustion liner constructed from 3D woven SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) consisting of silicon carbide (SiC) fibers woven into a chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC matrix and a rare earth monosilicate environmental barrier coating (EBC) for increased oxidation resistance at higher temperatures. The high pressure turbine employs a rotor and blades constructed from 3D woven SiC/SiC with environmental barrier coating with internal blade cooling channels through which high pressure bleed from the compressor flows through after first being cooled by a heat exchanger located in the engine's triple-bypass FLADE duct. The internal cooling channels are combined with additional film cooling on the surface of he high pressure turbine blades to keep the Sic/Sic composite within it normal operating temperature limits. The counter-orating low pressure turbine also employs 3D woven SiC/SiC construction but unlike the high pressure stage is not cooled.

The variable cycle features of the engine include the ability to alter fan pressure ratio through the use of a split variable-geometry fan with twin bypass streams and bypass ratio control altered through the use of a second airstream controlled using Variable Area Bypass Injectors (VABIs) that can either be used to provide additional air flow for higher fuel and propulsive efficiency or can be used to provide additional thrust by increasing core flow and and airflow for cooling the high temperature parts of the engine. The adaptive cycle F220 adds an additional third bypass stream controlled by a row of variable inlet guide vanes and a single compression stage made by extending one row of main fan blades into the third bypass stream, a fan on blade or FLADE arrangement. Additionally the F220 includes a core driven fan stage (driven by the high pressure turbine) which provides a boost in pressure to both the core stage and inner bypass flow streams, increasing the engine's overall pressure ratio.The split fan and Variable Area Bypass Injectors allow the F220 to independently control both the high and low pressure rotor speeds to allow for higher airflow at subsonic speeds and higher specific thrust at supersonic speeds than would be possible with a conventional fixed-geometry mixed flow turbofan. To ensure efficient variable-cycle operation the F220 also uses a variable-area low-pressure turbine nozzle (VATN) which allows the engine to operate with additional fan flow at low specific thrust settings to reduce engine noise during takeoff. The F220 has three sets of VABIs. The first VABI is mounted aft of the frontal fan and allows the outer bypass duct to be open to operate in single or double bypass mode or closed to operate in zero-bypass mode. The second VABI is mounted aft of the rear split fan and permits fan operation in either single or double bypass modes. In single bypass mode the valve is closed so that the rear fan exhausts into the high-pressure compressor and into the inner bypass duct with the rear modulating VABI in the open position. When the second VABI valve is opened the engine operates in double-bypass mode where the rear fan air is discharged into both the inner and outer bypass ducts. The rear or exhaust VABI operates a a variable area bypass nozzle which injects the secondary bypass flow into the core stream behind the low pressure turbine into the afterburner or bypasses around the afterburner and inject the bypass into the variable-area low-pressure turbine nozzle (VATN) in either single or double bypass mode. The VABIs, which combined weigh only several kilograms, are individually actuated by lightweight Ti–Ni–Zr high-temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) actuators. The split-fan of the F220 is additionally fitted with Variable Inlet Guide Vanes (VIGVs) which provide efficient thrust modulation across the engine's thrust envelope. For subsonic cruise the VIGV is used to reduce the flow entering the high pressure compressor with the rest bypassed to eliminate excessive spillage drag at low speeds and partial throttle settings. The VIGV are mounted in front of the high-pressure compressor and consists of stationary leading-edge vanes and variable trailing-edge flaps actuated with Ti–Ni–Zr high-temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) actuators that carry the mass flow rate of the engine as a function of engine cycle and freestream velocity. The F220 has an additional set of Variable Inlet Guide Vanes which control the airflow into the third bypass stream (The FLADE duct) which bypasses boundary-layer flow around the core and injects it downwards of the turbine to cool the nozzle and reduce the infrared signature of the exhaust. The last ACE component, the variable-area low-pressure turbine nozzle (VATN), maintains engine efficiency at partial throttle settings by decreasing the nozzle area and thereby increasing the turbine inlet temperature to it's full-throttle state. Being able to operate in partial throttle settings is useful for low-speed loiter and for takeoff where the lower exhaust temperature due to the extra bypass air reduces the jet noise of the engine

The F220 includes a fully digital FADEC (Full-Authority Digital Engine Control) system which includes a digital electronic control unit (DECU), ignition system, fuel control system, air flow control system (AFCS), adaptive cycle control system (ACCS), and various sensors. The FADEC system controls engine and afterburner fuel flow, variable inlet guide vane (VIGV) position, variable area bypass injector (VABI) position, variable-area turbine nozzle (VATN) position, and exhaust nozzle area as a function of throttle position and engine temperature and pressure sensor input in order to optimize the engine's thrust and fuel consumption over the aircraft's operating range while staying within the engines temperature and pressure limits. The core component of the FADEC system is the digital electronic control unit (DECU), a fuel-cooled computer system attached to the underside of the engine casing through vibration isolating mounts. The DECU contains two microprocessors independently connected through high speed serial links to the vehicle management system (VMS) and all engine actuators and sensors

The Seraph uses a pair of of ASIs (Advanced Supersonic Inlets) on either side of the fuselage. The ASI is a divertless, three dimensional mixed compression inlets featuring a triangular shape designed to both maximize supersonic efficiency and minimize incident radar reflections. The ASI is similar in design to traditional divertless supersonic inlet (DSI) designs, with a contoured bump that diverts low-energy boundary layer air, but unlike the DSI which features external compression the ASI is a mixed-compression design with both external and internal supersonic compression. As mixed-compression inlets feature less drag and improved efficiency past supersonic mach numbers of 2.0 or higher the ASI, with a design mach number of approximately 2.5, allows for highly efficiency supersonic cruise at high mach numbers past the operating envelope of a simpler external compression diverterless inlet. In addition to the ASI's the aircraft has a a pair of auxiliary inlets located above the wing on either side of the fuselage. The inlet ducts are an S shaped and feature a spill door behind the engine face which vents above the wing. The exhausts are 2-D single expansion ramp nozzles (SERN) blended into the upper rear fuselage to reduce their radar signature and minimize the IR signature of the exhaust. The nozzle has a variable upper flap and a fixed lower half and is non-thrust vectoring. The nozzle troughs are made superplastic formed and diffusion bonded (SPF/DB) Ti-48Al-2Cr-Nb gamma titanium-aluminide (TiAL) alloy cooled using high pressure bypass air from the FLADE duct of each engine.


Power & Thermal Management:
The Adaptive Power and Thermal Management System (APTMS) of the F/A-36 combines the functions of an auxiliary power unit (APU), emergency power unit (EPU), environmental control system (ECS), and thermal management system (TMS), and electrical power generation system (EPGS) in one integrated, adaptive system which actively manages the aircraft's electrical power generation and cooling needs in real time across various flight conditions. The thermal management system (TMS) component of the APTMS employs a vapor cycle system (VCS) which handles the majority of the waste heat from the aircraft' avionics and other systems. The VCS employs a series of cooled cooling air heat exchanger (CCHX) modules located in the FLADE duct of each F220 engine which combined provide several megawatts of cooling capacity. Cooled air from both the the FLADE duct heat exchanger modules and from a fuel to air heat exchanger is incorporated into the vapor cycle system condenser and is used for cooling the working fluid in the refrigeration loop of the vapor cycle system with waste heat from the VCS transferred into the aircraft's internal fuel through a heat exchanger using polyalphaolefin (PAO) as the working fluid. Cooled working fluid from the VCS is used to cool the avionics and other electrical systems before being passed back into the VCS condenser, itself the heat-exchanger connected to the aircraft's fuel system. At subsonic speeds an interfuel tank recirculation loop is used to recirculate fuel between the colder wing tanks and the hotter internal fuel tanks which are used as aheat sink by the VCS system, the loop being closed off at supersonic speeds to allow the wing tanks to act as heat sink to absorb the heating loads on the wings during sustained supersonic flight.

Replacing both the APU and the ECS in the aircraft's adaptive power and thermal management system is an Integrated Power Turbomachine (IPTM), a miniature twin-spool turboshaft engine connected to a high-reactance permanent magnet machine (HRPMM) motor/generator unit which is initially used to start the IPTM and then used to generate power after the IPTM transitions to self-sustaining operation. Electrical power from the IPTM is then used to power the starter/generator units attached to each main engine in order to start both main engines. After starting both main engines the IPTMs transitions into cooling mode where the fuel flow to the IPTM is cut and the IPTM's compressor inlet is closed where thereafter electrical power from the main engine generators is used to power the IPTM's in closed-loop mode. Back EMF from the aircraft's hydroelectric control systems can also be used to drive the IPTM in order to temporarily offload the main engine generators. In closed loop mode air from the IPTM compressor is first passed through microchannel titanium heat exchangers located in the FLADE duct of each F220 engine and then through an air-fuel heat exchanger before then being passed back into the IPTM where it is then further cooled and expanded in the IPTM's cooling turbine. Cool air from the IPTM is then used to pressurize the cockpit and to provide cooling for both the cabin air and for the aircraft's fuel tanks. In emergency power mode the IPTM functions as an APU, the compressor inlet is opened and air is compressed by the compressor, combustive, and then uses to drive the power turbine which produces electrical power for critical avionics and for re-starting the main engines. To increase the ruggedness and efficiency of the system the IPTM itself employs self-acting hydrodynamic foil bearings , eliminating the need for lubricated bearings and associated oil pumps and filters, and a Variable Area Turbine Nozzle (VATN) which when operated as a turbogenerator maximizes the specific fuel consumption of the IPTM across a broad variety of operating conditions.


Stealth:
The Seraph is designed to have an extremely low radar cross section across multiple bands through the combination of airframe shaping and advanced radar absorbing materials. The Seraph is designed with broadband, all-aspect stealth in mind and features a combination of shaping features and radar absorbing structures and materials designed to counter 0.1-1 GHz long-range surveillance radars, 1.0–3 GHz AWACS radars, and 10 GHz fighter radars illuminating the aircraft simultaneously and from multiple directions. The aircraft is shaped using smoothly blended external geometry with a continuously varying curvature designed to minimize surface currents and scatter radar waves that hit the aircraft across its entire aspect. The leading and trailing surfaces of the wings, intakes and V-tail are all aligned parallel to each other at a 45 degree angle which concentrates specular radar returns into thin, narrow spikes on either side of the aircraft that minimize the chance an incident radar will get a strong return signal. The Seraph also lacks leading edge extensions and instead uses vortex lift generating chines blended into the fuselage which eliminates presenting corner reflections or vertical sides to radars while eliminating circular radar returns from the fuselage. The aircraft's large V-tails are positioned to eliminate corner reflections with the fuselage and sized to eliminate resonance or Raleigh scattering effects at lower UHF or VHF radar frequencies. Weapons bay doors, landing gear doors, and other access panels of the aircraft feature a saw-tooth shape designed to eliminate radar returns from traveling waves across the surface of the aircraft. Gaps between panels and joints on the aircraft are sealed using a combination of flexible conductive form-in-place (CFIP) sealant, conductive bulb seals, and conductive tape which is placed around ready access panels and used to seal the gaps between the the wing and the control surfaces. Reduction of the radar signature from the aircraft's inlets is achieved through the use of diverterless inlets blended into the leasing edge of the aircraft which eliminate the radar reflections caused by a traditional boundary layer diverter or other inlet structures. The diverterless inlets combined with S-duct serpentine intakes also serves to prevent line-of-sight view of the engine's turbine blades from any exterior view. Further reduction of the aircraft's radar signature comes from a hybrid dielectric/magnetic fiber-mat radar absorbing material which is cured into the aircraft's honeycomb composite skin. The RAM consists of randomly oriented carbon fibers infused with multiwall carbon nanotubes coated with a magnetic FeNi nanopowder which are aligned and then cured into an thermoset exposy resin to form a fiber-mat panel which is cured into the aircraft's composite skin. The RAM is made in two layers, the first designed to reduce reflected radar waves by having a thickness intended to optimize internal reflections and a second, more electrically conductive layer with a higher density of CNTs infused into the carbon fibers which dissipates the remaining radar energy as heat and electrical energy. The impedance of the fiber-mat RAM is matched to air at its outer surface and creates essentially a black body absorber from the VHF through W radar bands (0.1 - 60 MHz). Arrangement of the CNTs in multiple orientations allows the RAM to simultaneously absorb incident radar waves from multiple radar source impinging at different incidence angles. The 3D weave is cured into the aircraft's skin panels using a vaccum assisted resin transfer molding process to create each of the individual layers of the RAM (two in total) which are embedded with the composite skin of the aircraft and act as an additional structural member of the skin in addition to functioning as a radar absorbing structure. The RAM does not cover the entire aircraft and is placed in areas where the radar signature can not be reduced through shaping methods such as the wing and tail leading and trailing edges, inside the engine inlet ducts, and on the sides and underside of the fuselage. With the combination of stealth shaping and advanced RAM the Seraph has a radar cross section of around -45 dBSM across the frontal arc, -30 dBSM from the sides, and -35 dBSM from the rear.

Designed with full spectrum stealth in mind the Seraph also features a variety of infrared signature management technologies. The carbon nanotube RAM coating on the aircraft also functions as a moderately effective infrared absorber due to the high infrared absorptivity of CNTs, reducing the aircraft's skin infrared signature in long-wave infrared wavelength (8–12 microns) by around half where the where the RAM is present. The 2D ejector nozzles of the aircraft also serve to reduce the infrared signature of the exhaust by promoting greater mixing of the hot exhaust with ambient air. The hot exhaust from the aircraft's engines is cooled using bypass air and additional secondary air inlets before exiting through exhaust trenches blended into the rear fuselage located between the twin V-tails. The exhaust trenches or tunnels are made of titanium-aluminum alloy coated with low-emissivity carbon/carbon (C/C) ceramic composite tiles and serve to shield direct view of the hot exhaust from the sides or from below the aircraft. To reduce the infrared signature of the airframe itself the fuel and bypass air streams are used as heatsinks for the avionics such as the radar and jamming system which by themselves generate a tremendous amount of heat when active. Further reduction of infrared signature is achieved by circulating fuel around the leading edges of the aircraft which also serves to reduce the heat buildup from sustained supersonic flight. The aircraft also features a series of deployable air scoops along the wings designed to provide cooling air to the engine and power and thermal management system and a set of air scoops located alongside the wing/fuselage junction to provide additional cooling air flow to the engine nacelles.


Avionics:
SN/APG-96 X band AESA Radar: The primary sensor of the Seraph is the SN/APG-96, a long range, low probability of intercept (LPI), fully digital multifunction X band (8-12 GHz) AESA radar which includes forward and side looking radar arrays mounted in the nose of the aircraft. The radar system supports air-to-air tracking and search with range while search (RWS), velocity search while ranging (VSR), and track while scan (TWS) capability, cruise missile detection and tracking, high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mapping, ground and maritime moving target tracking, ultra-high bandwidth directional communications, beacon mode, and high-gain electronics support measures (ESM) receiver and electronic-attack (EA) capability. The main array of the APG-96 employs 2,400 full-duplex, multi-channel, dual-polarized transmit and receive (T/R) modules which each employ a gallium nitride (GaN) on diamond monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) front end with a silicon germanium (SiGe) Bipolar CMOS (BiCMOS) core chip. The side cheek arrays are smaller than the main array and each employ 600 of the same T/R modules as the main array with a conformal antenna blended into the side of the forward fuselage. As opposed to older analog AESAs the APG-96 is fully digitized and includes a digital beam former (DBF) and digital receiver/exciter (DREX) module for every antenna element which contains a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and digital-to-analog converter (DAC) which enable a variety of adaptive and dynamic beam-forming techniques to increase beam-scanning accuracy and increase electronic countermeasures resistance. The ECCM functionality of the APG-96 include randomized burst-to-burst and pulse-to-pulse frequency-hopping, staggered multiple-PRF operation, randomized multiple-beam scan patterns designed to confuse hostile radar warning receivers, sidelobe blanking (SLB) and tapered illumination functions which reduces sidelobe emissions, adaptive null-steering and null-forming techniques for cancelling out directional jamming, and active jammer tracking on both elevation and azimuth. Low probability of interception/detection (LPD/LPI) operation is facilitated by frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) operation which adaptively reduces radar power to the minimum necessary level to continue tracking targets. Automatic target recognition (ATR) techniques supported by the APG-96 system include high range resolution profile (HRRP), inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging (ISAR), and jet engine modulation (JEM). Peak power output of the APG-96 is 48 kW and maximum detection range is 400 km for a 1m2 target and 130 km for a 0.01 1m2 target in single-target track (STT) mode. High resolution SAR imagery can be generated by the radar system out to 300 kilometers using enhanced real-beam ground map mode with optional doppler-beam sharpening for additional resolution improvement. The cooling system required to support the radar's high peak power output is a two-phase hydrofluoroether (HFE) based dielectric fluid based system using vapor chamber cold plates connected to the antenna modules which dumps the heat from the radar systems into the aircraft's vapor cycle system (VCS).

SN/AAS-60 Advanced Infrared Search & Track System: Mounted in faceted low-RCS housings blended into the chines on either side of the radar system is the SN/AAS-60 Advanced Infrared Search & Track (AIRST) system which consists of twin two-axis stabilized mirror assemblies, four-panel conformal optical windows, and two high-magnification mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) starring focal plane array (FPA) imaging infrared (IIR) sensors providing entirely passive long-ranged electro-optical search and track capability. The 1280 × 1024 pixel HgCdTe array used in each sensor operates in both the MWIR (3–8 µm) and LWIR (8–15 µm) wavelengths and uses a hybrid complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) FPA architecture with telescope optics providing three step-wise field-of-views; 8° x 6.4° narrow field-of-view (NFOV), 16° x 12.8° medium field-of-view (MFOV), and 30° x 24° wide field-of-view (WFOV). Each infrared sensor system is cooled to 180 degrees K using a six-stage thermoelectric peltier cooler and is mounted on a vibration isolated gimbal system which provides each sensor with +/- 75 degree azimuth and +/- 75 elevation scan coverage, the two sensors being angled off the center line to provide the system with +/- 140 degree azimuth and +/- 75 elevation hyper-hemispherical coverage. The AIRST system supports both single and multiple-target tracking with track-while-scan (TWS) functions against up to 200 targets with < 0.25 mrad tracking accuracy and can also display infrared sensor feed at into the pilot's helmet mounted display or cockpit head-down display at a rate of up to 50 Hz rates to act as a FLIR for navigation or targeting purposes. Multi-Ship Infrared Search and Track (MSIRST) capability is also supported by the AIRST system which allows two or more Seraph aircraft to passively triangulate targets by sharing bearing and elevation data of target tracks from their AIRST systems using the aircraft's high speed tactical datalink enabling the generation of completely passive 3-D tracks of airborne targets. Maximum detection ranges for the AIRST are 130-200 kilometers depending on target type and aspect. Data from the AIRST can also be be sensor-fused in real time with radar data from the APG-96 to provide highly accurate and jam-resistant detection, tracking, and fire control capability to the Seraph's weapon suite.

SN/AAQ-80 Multispectral Distributed Aperture System: the Seraph's SN/AAQ-80 Multispectral Distributed Aperture System (MDAS) consists of six 1280 × 1024 pixmercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) starring focal plane array IR imagers similar to the ones used in the ASQ-60 placed around the aircraft which provide 360 degree spherical situational awareness infrared search and track (SAIRST), missile approach warning (MAW), and 360 degree spherical day/night pilot vision. One sensor system is placed in the nose pointing forward, two in the nose pointing sideways, one aft of the cockpit pointing upwards, and two on the lower fuselage pointing downwards. The system allows for simultaneous 360 degree spherical tracking of air and surface targets, 360 degree spherical missile approach warning (MAW) capability, and 360 degree spherical pilot vision around the aircraft in all weather conditions. The MDAS is capable of simultaneously tracking enemy aircraft, surface and ground targets, surface to air, air to air, and ballistic missiles, can automatically cue appropriate missile countermeasures, and allows high off bore launching of missiles in any direction relative to the aircraft.

SN/ASQ-266 Integrated Electronic Warfare System The SN/ASQ-266 "Hammerhead" integrated electronic warfare system is a comprehensive offensive and defensive electronic warfare (EW) and electronic support measures (ESM) suite which combines passive radar warning receivers, countermeasures dispersal, and intelligent, adaptive phased array jamming functions. The combined radar warning receiver (RWR) and electronic support measures system (ESM) of the ASQ-266 consists of 24 conformal load-bearing antenna structures (CLAS) blended into the carbon-fiber composite skin of the fuselage, wings, and tails of the aircraft. The antennas include 18 mid/high band antennas covering the 2-40 GHz frequency range and six low band antennas covering the 0.1–2 GHz frequency range which feed into a network of ultra-wide bandwidth photonic digital receivers for signal processing of received radar signals and provides 360 degree spherical broadband, all aspect detection, identification, geolocation, and tracking of radar emissions in the 0.1-40 GHZ range with 40 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth combined with less than 1 degree RMS angle-of-arrival (AoA) precision through the use of dual-baseline interferometer and time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) direction-finding techniques. The high cruise altitude of the aircraft allows the passive receiver system to detect and track line-of-sight RF emissions from ground and ship radars out to 600 kilometers (radar horizon limited) and RF emissions from airborne radars out to over 1,000 kilometers. The passive receiver system also supports bistatic over-the-horizon RF intercept capability allowing RF signals from ground based radars which reflect off aircraft, missiles, satellites, or other air or space borne objects to be detected and tracked by the system at ranges exceeding 2,000 kilometers. The EW subsystem employs resource sharing of common hardware components to perform the simultaneous search, detection, RF measurement, signal analysis, direction finding, identification, geolocation, and tracking of RF signals while simultaneously supporting active jamming of radar threats through the use of adaptive emitter tuning in ECM heavy environments. Functions supported by the ASQ-266 passive radar receiver system include specific emitter identification and verification (SEI/SEV) and intentional modulation on pulse (IMOP) detection capability which provides signal detection and analysis and characterization of incident radar pulses in extremely heavy ECM environments. Precision location strike system (PLSS) capability is also supported by the system which allows up to three F/A-36 aircraft operating together to geolocate RF emissions in real time through the use of the aircraft's tactical data link. To precisely locate emitters PLSS functionality uses time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) techniques to precisely geolocate threat emitters, direction-of-arrival (DOA) techniques to filter and identify specific threats ,and distance measuring equipment (DME) techniques to precisely determine the aircraft's position with the respect to the emitters.

The offensive EW capability of the ASQ-266 Hammerhead system includes 18 active ECM antennas, six low band transceiver antennas covering the 0.5–2 GHz frequency band, six mid-band transceiver antennas covering the 2–6 GHz frequency band, and six high-band transceiver antennas covering the 6–40 GHz frequency band located on the wingtips and leading and trailing edges of the aircraft's wings, and two receive-only broadband 8-arm spiral antennas located on the top and bottom of the fuselage covering the 0.1-40 GHZ frequency range. Each transceiver antenna employs GaN-on-diamond based active electronically scanned array (AESA) antenna technology with digital beam-forming and digital receiver/exciter units and provides 360 degree DRFM deception jamming of radar threats around the aircraft. Each antenna employs a frequency-selective surface (FSS) which consists of an organic honeycomb sandwich structure with embedded wideband end-fire phased arrays employing GaN-on-diamond T/R modules which are structurally integrated into the aircraft's skin panels, reducing drag and radar cross-section over conventional non-structurally embedded and external antenna. The ASQ-266 is a fully cognitive and adaptive system; by using emissions data collected from the ASQ-266s radar warning receiver the DRFM jammers can automatically adapt in real time to unknown waveform characteristics, dynamically synthesize countermeasures, and jam the waveform accordingly which allows the system to effectively jam digitally programmable LPI frequency modulation continuous wave radars employing highly agile waveforms. The DRFM Jammers of the system also include false target generation capability which takes incoming radar signals and injects a variable delay line into the signal before transmitting it back to the receiver, allowing false targets to be generated and their range and speed varied to simulate a real aircraft. The false target generator system can generate up to 32 simultaneous false targets at ranges from less than 150 meters to over 675 kilometers from the aircraft with RCS of false targets varying from near-invisible stealth targets to large size blimps to spoof hostile radar systems. Jet engine modulation (JEM) and high resolution range profile (HRRP) returns for false targets can also be synthesized in order to confuse and spoof hostile radar automatic target recognition (ATR) techniques. To prevent the jammer output from blinding the aircraft's own communications system the ASQ-266 includes an Interference Cancellation System (INCAS) located in the forward fuselage of the aircraft behind the radar which selectivity cancels out the jammer interference in the path of radiated signals. This is done by collecting a sample of the jammer interference signal and using it to create an anti-interference signal which it then mixes into the receive path for the protected transceiver to cancel out the interference from the jamming. For maximal modularity the INCAS system is built into self-contained LRUs and lacks the need for direct interface to either transmitter or receiver elements.

SN/ASQ-292 CNI system: The Seraph's SN/ASQ-292 CNI (Communications, Navigation, Identification) system is a multipurpose sensor suite which includes encrypted data links and communications systems, IFF system with combined interrogator/transponder, instrument landing system, GPS receiver, inertial navigation system, and radar altimeter system. The primary communications system of the CNI system is a software defined radio (SDR) proving multi-band, multi-mode capable, encrypted voice, data, and video communications between the aircraft and other platforms. The SDR supports up to 10 programmable 2 MHz - 2 GHz channels with 40 individual waveforms including UHF, EHF, and VHF demand assigned multiple access satellite communications (DAMA SATCOM), HF, UHF, and VHF line-of-sight airborne communications, enhanced position location reporting system (EPLRS), and tactical air navigation (TACAN) waveforms. The aircraft's IFF system consists of a combined interrogator/transponder unit with integrated cryptological computer supporting mode 5 elementary and enhanced surveillance (ELS and EHS) interrogation capability.

For communicating in hostile airspace the CNI system includes an SDI penetrating tactical datalink (PTDL), an LPI/LPD fast switching narrow-beamwidth directional communications data link operating in the Ku band (14.5–15.5 GHz). The PTDL allows flights of F/A-36 to exchange information in flight such as targeting information, weapons remaining, and fuel status. Six conformal Ku band phased array antenna assemblies with 1 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth are blended into the outer surface of the aircraft to provide complete 360 degree spherical transmit and receive coverage around the aircraft. The PTDL employs frequency agility, randomized burst, spread spectrum techniques, emissions control, and low-power directional transmissions to minimize detection probability by hostile ECM/ELINT receivers. To minimize transmission distance and thus transmission power required the the PTDL employs a "daisy chain" transmission system where the communicating aircraft sends the directional signal to a second, closest aircraft which then relays the signals to a third next-closest aircraft, who then relays the signal to a fourth aircraft, and so on.

Precise aircraft velocity and altitude above ground level (AGL) information is provided by a interferometric synthetic aperture radar altimeter (InSARA) system. Two C band (4.24 to 4.36 GHz) synethic aperture radar antenna blended into the lower surface of the aircraft's fuselage image the terrain underneath the aircraft; the two images then being correlated and the phase difference between the two images used to precisely determine the aircraft's elevation. The InSARA system also acts as an automatic ground-collision avoidance system (Auto-GCAS).

For navigation purposes the aircraft is equipped with a GPS spatial temporal anti-jam receiver (GSTAR) including controlled reception pattern antenna (CRPA), high dynamic range RF (radiofrequency) front-end, digital beamformer and digital receiver unit. The GSTAR system includes a formal antenna with +/- 12 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth and supports up to 16 simultaneous beams with digital beam steering and nulling and features a 36-channel (24 military and 12 civilian) digital receiver unit. The GSTAR system supports both Y-code and M-code GPS and is highly jam resistant with greater than 125 dB jam/signal ratio tracking performance. The GSTAR receiver also supports wide area differential GPS (WADGPS) functionality with 0.5-2 meter 3-dimensional position accuracy in flight for navigation and weapon targeting functions. The GSTAR receiver is coupled with two SDI designed SN-300 IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) systems each containing integrated 3-axis non-dithered laser-ring gyro (LRG), 3-axis pendulous integrating gyroscopic accelerometer (PIGA), and a 3-axis magnetometer which provide linear and angular acceleration, velocity, linear and angular position, and magnetic and true heading outputs. The two IMU units are placed on the aircraft's centerline directly aft of the radar assembly and are additionally operated off two separate data buses to provide independent measurement data. The IMUs provide continuous measurement of the aircraft's acceleration and roll rate which is combined with airspeed and altitude data from the aircraft's air-data system and then input to the aircraft's flight control software. IMU data including magnetic and true heading is also input to the aircraft's navigation software where the IMU data is combined with GPS data to provide highly accurate navigational capability for the aircraft. The IMU system also provides motion compensation capability for the APG-96 radar and AAS-60 AIRST system.


Cockpit:
Canopy: The canopy of the Seraph is constructed from an organically modified sol-gel (ORMSOL) silica based nanocomposite which has excellent optical and thermal properties, high durability, high flexibility, and excellent ballistic performance at a substantially reduced weight compared to current glass/polycarbonate laminates. ORMSOL is made from a crosslink oriented nanocomposite made from a silica gel which has a higher optical transmission, higher tensile strength, higher heat tolerance, and less weight per unit of thickness compared to standard glass/polymer laminates. The canopy is specifically designed to be resistant to bird strikes and is rated to survive strikes from a 1.8kg object traveling at 230 meters per second. The canopy also features a thin layer of indium-tin-oxide nano particles designed to reflect radar emissions.

Cockpit displays and controls: The fully glass cockpit of the Seraph features a 50 x 20 centimeter Multifunction Colour Head Down Display (MCHDD) consisting of a panoramic 2560 x 1024 pixel active-matrix LCD (AMLCD) capacitive touch-screen display which can be configured to display relevant flight instrumentation, navigation, communication, and weapons system information and supports swipe and pinch-zoom capability with 5-point multi-touch capability allowing for the repositioning and enlarging or shrinking of the various display.The MCHDD also includes dual redundant LED backlights which support both daytime high-sunlight and nighttime NVG/NVIS compatible operation modes. Underneath the main MCHDD is an integrated control panel (ICP) which includes a keypad for entering entering communications, GPS, and autopilot data. The Seraph is also equipped with a direct voice input (DVI) system which allows the pilot to use voice commands to issue instructions to the flight control, navigation, communication, and/or weapon systems of the aircraft. The Seraph uses a right handed HOTAS (Hands on Throttle and Stick) layout with the control stick on the right and the throttle on the left of the cockpit.

Helmet mounted display: The pilot of the Seraph is equipped with the SDI Nemesis Advanced Helmet Mounted Display System (AHMDS), a fifth generation Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) which incorporates a curve wave guided holographic display (CWHD), built in night vision camera, high accuracy head and eye tracking system, laser eye protection, and a 3D-Audio/Active Noise Reduction system. The Nemesis features a shock absorbing liner made from a shear thickening non newtonian fluid and is constructed from a carbon nanotube reinforced carbon fiber composite which is custom molded to the head of each individual pilot. The panoramic, polarized visor of the nemesis is constructed from polycarbonate embedded with a nano-thin layer of tungsten oxide and tungsten bronze nanoparticles which provides both laser eye protection and anti-glare functions. The curve wave guided holographic display (CWHD) display of the Nemesis provides 80 x 40 degree field of view, 2560 x 1024 pixel resolution bi-occular imagery uses two LCOS (Liquid Crystal on Silicon) 1280 x 1024 pixel active-matrix liquid-crystal displays (AMLCDs) placed on either side of the helmet to display images onto a holographic optical waveguide built into the polycarbonate visor. For flying in low light conditions the Nemesis features a built in Electron Bombarded Active Pixel Sensor (EBAPS) based visible/near infrared (NIR) night vision camera with a 60 hertz refresh rate and a 1200 x 1600 pixel UXGA (Ultra Extended Graphics Array) resolution which incorporates advanced non-blooming, low halo technology with automatic gain control. The image from the night vision camera can be displayed directly onto the helmet’s visor, negating the need for the pilot to wear night vision goggles. The display also includes an LED backlight designed to increase the readability of the display in high-brightness conditions. A 9-axis internal measurement unit (IMU) and a substrate-guided wave (SGW) based eye tracking system built into the HMD provides precise tracking of pilot head and eye movementand allows both the X band radar and IRST to be slaved to the pilot's vision. Stitched, sensor fused output from the aircraft’s Multispectral Distributed Aperture System (MDAS) infrared cameras can also be displayed into the HMD to provide the pilot with 360 degree spherical day-and-night synthetic vision around the aircraft. The Nemesis also features a built in 3D-Audio/Active Noise Reduction (ANR) system with an additional built in binaural based threat warning system which reduces pilot fatigue and hearing loss, improves the clarity of radio transmissions, and alerts the pilot to threats around the aircraft.

Flight suit & life support: Seraph pilot wears a pneumatically controlled advanced anti-G-suit with partial-pressurization and assisted positive pressure breathing system that allows the pilot to briefly endure 9+ g turns without suffering g induced loss of consciousness as well as maintain breathing ability at altitudes exceeding 20,000 meters. The Seraph's life support system includes an on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS) to generate oxygen for the pilot during flight. The OBOGS works by taking filtered engine bleed-air and passing it through a pressure-reducing valve to reduce the air to ambient pressure where the air is then passed over a zeolite-filled bed that absorbs the nitrogen molecules in the air which are purged from the bed and vented overboard . The 95% pure oxygen generated by the OBOGS is then fed into the pilot's breathing regulator. A back-up tank of liquid oxygen attached to the ejection seat is used to provide oxygen in case of an OBOGS or upon pilot ejection from the aircraft. Pilot ejection in the Seraph is via a SDI ARES (Advanced Rocket Ejection Seat), a rocket powered zero/zero (capable of ejecting at zero airspeed and zero altitude) ejection seat capable of ejection at any altitude from 0 to 30,000 meters and speed from 0 to mach 3.


Armament:
The Seraph has four internal weapons bays, two located side by side on the underside of the fuselage and two located on the sides of the air intakes. The twin ventral bays can each accommodate up to four AAM-A-100 HLRAAM missiles for air superiority missions or two HLRAAM missiles and a single 1,200 kg munition for strike missions. The two side bays each contain a deployable trapeze launcher with a which can accommodate a single AAM-80 Rattlesnake missile.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Thu Mar 18, 2021 5:17 pm, edited 135 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Fri Apr 08, 2016 1:09 pm

Image


F/A-36C Sea Seraph

General Characteristics:
  • Role: Fleet Air Defense Fighter
  • Crew: 2 (pilot, radar/weapon systems officer)
  • Length: 21.5 m
  • Wingspan: 17.0 m
  • Height: 4.2 m
  • Wing area: 110 m2
  • Empty weight: 18,600 kg
  • Loaded weight: 33,050 kg
  • Fuel weight: 12,950 kg
  • Max takeoff weight: 39,950 kg
  • Powerplant: 2x SDI F220 variable cycle afterburning turbofans, 205 kN each
Performance:
  • Maximum speed:
    • High altitude: Mach 2.9
    • Supercruise: Mach 2.2
  • Combat radius:
      1,300 km (mach 2.2 @ 20,000 meters)
      2,000 km (mach 0.85 @ 12,000 meters)
  • Ferry range: 5,800 km
  • Service ceiling: 22,700 m
  • Rate of climb: 410 m/s
  • Wing loading: 275 kg/m2
  • Thrust/weight: 1.27
  • Maximum g-loading: +7.5/-3.5 g
Armament:
Avionics:
  • SN/APG-96 X band AESA radar
  • SN/AAS-60 Advanced Infrared Search & Track System
  • SN/AAQ-80 Multispectral Distributed Aperture System
  • SN/ASQ-266 electronic warfare System
  • SN/ASQ-292 CNI system


Overview:
The Sea Seraph is an advanced, sixth generation, twin seat, twin engine, all weather, stealth fleet air defense aircraft. A derivative of the land based Seraph, the Sea Seraph shares the same avionics, engines, and other systems which are repackaged into an airframe optimized for carrier operations. Major differences from the land based Serpah include a wider, folding wing, the addition of canards, ruggedized undercarriage, a 2 seat cockpit, and the addition of 2D thrust vectoring nozzles.


Airframe & Construction:
Like F/A-36A Seraph the design of the F/A-36C Sea Seraph is to minimize radar cross section while maximizing supersonic aerodynamics and maneuverability. To make the aircraft carrier compatible the design of the F/A-36A has been radically altered and features large rear mounted clipped diamond wings, outboard canted vertical tails, and clipped diamond canards with a pronounced dihedral. The Sea Seraph is intended to be highly maneuverable at both subsonic and supersonic speeds with an extremely high thrust to weight ratio, low wing loading, a high maximum angle-of-attack, high instantaneous turn rate, and an inherently designed relaxed static stability. Both the wing and canard of the Sea Seraph use supercritical airfoils designed to have favorable lift, stall, and pitching moment characteristics at high mach numbers by minimizing flow separation at high mach numbers. The clipped diamond wings have an aspect ratio of 2.2 and the canards have an aspect ratio of 2.6 with both having a leading and trailing wing sweep of 35°. The aggressively chined forward fuselage section, in addition to having various radar very-low-observability benefits, also generates large amounts of vortex lift at supersonic speeds which offsets the rearward shift of the aerodynamic center as the aircraft goes supersonic. The aircraft's relatively high L/D ratio at both subsonic and supersonic speeds due to its unconventional blended wing-body shape also allows for efficient cruise performance at both subsonic speeds and in supercruise. The aircraft's structure uses a semi-monocoque design constructed almost entirely of composites including a combination of forged and machined titanium metal matrix composites (MMCs) which make up approximately 50% of the structural weight and graphite-polyiamide and graphite-epoxy polymer composites (PMCs) formed using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding which represent 25% of the aircraft's weight. The use of significant amount of composites in the airframe reduces weight, improves airframe heat resistance for sustained supersonic flight, and reduces the aircraft's radar and infrared signature while also enabling the Sea Seraph to be less maintenance intensive than previous generations of aircraft. Traditional aircraft materials such as aluminum make up only approximately 15% of the aircraft's weight while the remaining 10% consists of steel other miscellaneous materials.

The internal structure of the Sea Seraph is constructed primarily from a silicon carbide fiber reinforced Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr (Ti-5-5-5-3) titanium metal matrix composite structures. Compared to conventional titanium alloys the titanium metal matrix composite exhibits superior specific strength, specific stiffness, fracture toughness, wear resistance, creep and oxidation resistance which results in reduced airframe weight, superior resistance to ballistic damage, increased airframe durability and heat tolerance, and reduced maintenance requirements. The fuselage is constructed from eight titanium metal matrix longerons, five running on top of the wings and three along the bottom, which run from the front of the cockpit where they sweep either upward or downward and thicken at the intake and then run back all the way to the middle of the ruddervators. The fuselage is then divided longitudinally by nine titanium metal matrix bulkheads made from monolithic forgings which are directly connected to the longerons to better distribute structural loads. The bulkheads located in the middle of the fuselage are also joined to the titanium MMC spars in the wings. The monolithic forgings used for the fuselage and wing titanium MMC structures are additionally subject to Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) in order to eliminate any voids or gas pockets caused by the forging process before the components are joined together to create the airframe. The titanium MMC wing torsion-box spars are constructed from sinusoidal wave spars creating using super plastic forming and diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) which are connected to additional titanium MMC wing box frames. The titanium-MMC longerons, bulkheads, and wing spars are joined by a mixture of robotic laser welding using a pulsed Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet) fiber-optic laser and robotic friction-stir welding under an inert argon atmosphere.

The skin panels, inlet ducts, landing gear and weapons bay doors, forward fuselage longerons, outer wing spars, control surfaces, and vertical tail and canard structure of the Sea Seraph are constructed from laser aligned honeycomb sandwich panels several millimeters thick made from a polymer matrix composite consisting of a 3D weave of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) reinforced carbon fibers embedded into a high temperature polymer matrix. The matrix material used is a radar transparent polyimide resin which has a service temperature in excess of 400 degrees C. The Sea Seraph's weapons bay doors, empennage ribs and spars, and rear wing ribs and spars are constructed out of the same style composite but with an epoxy matrix replacing the polyimide for applications where the high service temperature of the polyimide matrix are unnecessary.


Vehicle Management System & Flight Control Surfaces:
Vehicle Management System (VMS): The Sea Seraph's vehicle management system (VMS) is a quadruple redundant fully digital fly-by-wire control system responsible for controlling the aircraft in flight. The core of the VMS system are four vehicle management computers (VMCs) which interface using fiber-optic cables to the aircraft's control actuators, engines, cockpit controls, air data system, fuel system, and inertial navigation systems. The sensor subsystem of the VMS includes four air data computers (ADCs) and a low observable pneumatic air data system (LOPADS) which consists of four flush mounted pitot tubes located above the radome in front of the cockit and four flush mounted static ports, two on each side of the fuselage, located aft of the radome above and below the forward fuselage chine and provides Mach, altitude, airspeed, angle-of-attack, and sideslip data to the VMS. The VMS system also includes a fuel-control system which can pump fuel from forward fuel tanks to aft ones and vice versa to allow the aircraft to change its CG and stability margin in flight.

Control surfaces: The control surfaces of the Sea Seraph include twin all-moving vertical tails, all-moving canards, inboard and outboard variable camber flaperons (combined flaps and ailerons), variable-camber leading edge flaps, and the aircraft's twin 2-D thrust vectoring nozzles. The variable camber flaps and ailerons can be continuously deflected in flight to provide near-ideal wing camber for any flight condition and are smoothly blended into the wing to reduce both parasitic drag and the radar return of the control surfaces. The aircraft's control surfaces are controlled using a decoupled flight control architecture which the aircraft to maneuver in one plane without maneuvering in the other (such as turning without banking) and allows any of the aircraft's major control surfaces to provide any control surface function (roll, pitch, or yaw). Under normal flight conditions pitch is provided by deflecting the inboard and outboard flaperons up or down, yaw is provided by deflecting the vertical tails, and roll is provided by deflecting the outboard wing flaperons in opposite directions. Pitch and roll control is also augmented by the aircraft's 2-D thrust vectoring nozzles and yaw control can also be augmented by differential thrust of the engines. The aircraft also features a virtual speedbrake capability achieved by deflecting the outboard flaperons up and deflecting the inboard flaperon and leading edge flaps down. The control surfaces of the Sea Seraph are actuated using a series of self-contained electrohydrostatic actuators powered by the aircraft's electrical system and connected to the aircraft's vehicle management computers through fiber-optic cabling and replace the hydraulic actuators and pumps of a traditional fly-by-wire control system with self-contained actuators that convert the electrical power into localized hydraulic power for flight control purposes. Each control surface is independently actuated using a series of EHA-VPVM (electro-hydrostatic actuator with variable pump displacement and variable motor speed) actuators which employ variable speed brushless DC permanent magnet motors to drive a variable displacement servopump which is connected to the two chambers of a hydraulic cylinder that is used to actuate the aircraft's control surfaces.

Self-Repairing Flight Control System (SRFCS): A Self-Repairing Flight Control System (SRFCS) is integrated into the aircraft's Vehicle Management System is designed to detect damage or failure in the aircraft's control surfaces. When the system detects damage or loss of a flight control surface or actuator the system then compensates by reconfiguring the remaining flight control surfaces and changing the control laws of the flight control software so that aircraft remains controllable and can be landed safely by the pilot.The SRFCS displays all damage to flight control actuators and surfaces to the pilot through the multifunction display in the cockpit which indicates to the pilot the extent of the damage and any flight speed or maneuverability limitations imposed by the damage. The SRFCS combined with the Seraph's decoupled flight control system and lifting body fuselage allow the aircraft to potentially lose an entire wing or one of its V-tails and still maintain controlled flight. In the event all the aircraft's control surfaces are destroyed or disabled the Sea Seraph's Vehicle Management System can use the aircraft's 2-D thrust vectoring nozzles to provide pitch and roll control and use differential engine for yaw control, proving enough control to steer the aircraft to an airfield and perform a safe landing.


Propulsion:
  • Name: SDI F220
  • Type: Adaptive Cycle Afterburning Turbofan
  • Length: 5,080 mm
  • Diameter: 1,170 mm
  • Dry Weight: 1,800 kg
  • Bypass Ratio: variable
  • Compressor: Two stage fan, core driven fan stage (CDFS), five stage high pressure compressor
  • Combustor: Pressure-gain combustor
  • Turbine: single stage HPT, counter rotating single stage LPT
  • Maximum Thrust: 159 kN (dry), 205 kN (with afterburner)
  • Overall Pressure ratio: 26:1
  • Turbine inlet temperature: 1,980 °C
  • Specific fuel consumption: 20 g/Kn-s (dry), 40 g/Kn-s (afterburning)
  • Thrust-to-Weight Ratio: 9.0:1 (dry), 11.6:1 (with afterburner)
The F/A-36C is powered by twin SDI F220 adaptive cycle turbofan engines which each delivers up to 205 kN of thrust in afterburner. The F220 is a two-spool afterburning turbofan with a low pressure spool consisting of two stage fan and single stage low pressure turbine and a high pressure spool consisting of five stage high pressure compressor with core driven fan stage (CDFS) and a single stage high pressure turbine. The engine employs adaptive cycle engine (ACE) technology allowing the engine to change its overall bypass ratio and fan pressure ratio in flight through the use of adaptive geometry devices.

Like the land based F/A-36A Seraph the F/A-36C Seraph uses a pair of of ASIs (Advanced Supersonic Inlets) on either side of the fuselage. The ASI is a divertless, three dimensional mixed compression inlets featuring a triangular shape designed to both maximize supersonic efficiency and minimize incident radar reflections. The ASI is similar in design to traditional divertless supersonic inlet (DSI) designs, with a contoured bump that diverts low-energy boundary layer air, but unlike the DSI which features external compression the ASI is a mixed-compression design with both external and internal supersonic compression. As mixed-compression inlets feature less drag and improved efficiency past supersonic mach numbers of 2.0 or higher the ASI, with a design mach number of approximately 2.5, allows for highly efficiency supersonic cruise at high mach numbers past the operating envelope of a simpler external compression diverterless inlet. In addition to the ASI's the aircraft has a a pair of auxiliary inlets located above the wing on either side of the fuselage. The inlet ducts are an S shaped and feature a spill door behind the engine face which vents above the wing. Unlike the F/A-36A Seraph which has non thrust-vectoring nozzles the Sea Serpah's nozzles use a fluidic thrust vectoring (FTV) system which can deflect engine thrust in the pitch directions via a secondary fluidic injection system located in the engine nozzles. The primary advantage of fluid injectors for thrust vector control rather than mechanically steered nozzles is lighter and less complex system compared to traditional mechanically vectored systems which induce weight and complexity penalties on the airframe while also not having a drag or radar cross section penalty while the thrust vectoring system is active. The FTV system used on the Sea Seraph makes use of a Dual Throat Nozzle (DTN) design where the flow is manipulated by injecting bleed air from the engine asymmetrically upstream of a recessed cavity placed in between two throats of a convergent-divergent nozzle. The asymmetric injection of bleed air from the engine, high pressure on one side and low pressure on the other, causes flow separation on the high pressure injection side which in turn vectors the flow in the direction of the low pressure injection side. The flow can be vectored 15 degrees off axis in the pitch or yaw directions with the total thrust penalty of the system while active being less than 2 percent. Maximum defection rate of the FTV system is 60 degrees per second, the system able to change from maximum negative deflection to maximum positive deflection in 0.5 seconds. The design pressure ratio of the DTN nozzle is around 14.6 which results in good nozzle performance from subsonic speeds up to supersonic speeds. In addition to improvements in roll authority and trim control with the FTV system active the Sea Seraph is capable of sustaining maximum angle of attack (AoA) of 70 degrees versus 55 degrees when the FTV system is inactive.




Power & Thermal Management:
The Adaptive Power and Thermal Management System (APTMS) of the F/A-36C combines the functions of an auxiliary power unit (APU), emergency power unit (EPU), environmental control system (ECS), and thermal management system (TMS), and electrical power generation system (EPGS) in one integrated, adaptive system which actively manages the aircraft's electrical power generation and cooling needs in real time across various flight conditions. The thermal management system (TMS) component of the APTMS employs a vapor cycle system (VCS) which handles the majority of the waste heat from the aircraft' avionics and other systems. The VCS employs a series of cooled cooling air heat exchanger (CCHX) modules located in the FLADE duct of each F220 engine which combined provide several megawatts of cooling capacity. Cooled air from both the the FLADE duct heat exchanger modules and from a fuel to air heat exchanger is incorporated into the vapor cycle system condenser and is used for cooling the working fluid in the refrigeration loop of the vapor cycle system with waste heat from the VCS transferred into the aircraft's internal fuel through a heat exchanger using polyalphaolefin (PAO) as the working fluid. Cooled working fluid from the VCS is used to cool the avionics and other electrical systems before being passed back into the VCS condenser, itself the heat-exchanger connected to the aircraft's fuel system. At subsonic speeds an interfuel tank recirculation loop is used to recirculate fuel between the colder wing tanks and the hotter internal fuel tanks which are used as aheat sink by the VCS system, the loop being closed off at supersonic speeds to allow the wing tanks to act as heat sink to absorb the heating loads on the wings during sustained supersonic flight.

Replacing both the APU and the ECS in the aircraft's adaptive power and thermal management system is an Integrated Power Turbomachine (IPTM), a miniature twin-spool turboshaft engine connected to a high-reactance permanent magnet machine (HRPMM) motor/generator unit which is initially used to start the IPTM and then used to generate power after the IPTM transitions to self-sustaining operation. Electrical power from the IPTM is then used to power the starter/generator units attached to each main engine in order to start both main engines. After starting both main engines the IPTMs transitions into cooling mode where the fuel flow to the IPTM is cut and the IPTM's compressor inlet is closed where thereafter electrical power from the main engine generators is used to power the IPTM's in closed-loop mode. Back EMF from the aircraft's hydroelectric control systems can also be used to drive the IPTM in order to temporarily offload the main engine generators. In closed loop mode air from the IPTM compressor is first passed through microchannel titanium heat exchangers located in the FLADE duct of each F220 engine and then through an air-fuel heat exchanger before then being passed back into the IPTM where it is then further cooled and expanded in the IPTM's cooling turbine. Cool air from the IPTM is then used to pressurize the cockpit and to provide cooling for both the cabin air and for the aircraft's fuel tanks. In emergency power mode the IPTM functions as an APU, the compressor inlet is opened and air is compressed by the compressor, combustive, and then uses to drive the power turbine which produces electrical power for critical avionics and for re-starting the main engines. To increase the ruggedness and efficiency of the system the IPTM itself employs self-acting hydrodynamic foil bearings , eliminating the need for lubricated bearings and associated oil pumps and filters, and a Variable Area Turbine Nozzle (VATN) which when operated as a turbogenerator maximizes the specific fuel consumption of the IPTM across a broad variety of operating conditions.


Stealth:
The Sea Seraph is designed to have an extremely low radar cross section across multiple bands through the combination of airframe shaping and advanced radar absorbing materials. The Seraph is designed with broadband, all-aspect stealth in mind and features a combination of shaping features and radar absorbing structures and materials designed to counter 0.1-1 GHz long-range surveillance radars, 1.0–3 GHz AWACS radars, and 10 GHz fighter radars illuminating the aircraft simultaneously and from multiple directions. The aircraft is shaped using smoothly blended external geometry with a continuously varying curvature designed to minimize surface currents and scatter radar waves that hit the aircraft across its entire aspect. The leading and trailing surfaces of the wings, intakes and V-tail are all aligned parallel to each other at a 45 degree angle which concentrates specular radar returns into thin, narrow spikes on either side of the aircraft that minimize the chance an incident radar will get a strong return signal. The Seraph also lacks leading edge extensions and instead uses vortex lift generating chines blended into the fuselage which eliminates presenting corner reflections or vertical sides to radars while eliminating circular radar returns from the fuselage. The aircraft's vertical tails are positioned to eliminate corner reflections with the fuselage and sized to eliminate resonance or Raleigh scattering effects at lower UHF or VHF radar frequencies. Weapons bay doors, landing gear doors, and other access panels of the aircraft feature a saw-tooth shape designed to eliminate radar returns from traveling waves across the surface of the aircraft. Gaps between panels and joints on the aircraft are sealed using a combination of flexible conductive form-in-place (CFIP) sealant, conductive bulb seals, and conductive tape which is placed around ready access panels and used to seal the gaps between the the wing and the control surfaces. Reduction of the radar signature from the aircraft's inlets is achieved through the use of diverterless inlets blended into the leasing edge of the aircraft which eliminate the radar reflections caused by a traditional boundary layer diverter or other inlet structures. The diverterless inlets combined with S-duct serpentine intakes also serves to prevent line-of-sight view of the engine's turbine blades from any exterior view. Further reduction of the aircraft's radar signature comes from a hybrid dielectric/magnetic fiber-mat radar absorbing material which is cured into the aircraft's honeycomb composite skin. The RAM consists of randomly oriented carbon fibers infused with multiwall carbon nanotubes coated with a magnetic FeNi nanopowder which are aligned and then cured into an thermoset exposy resin to form a fiber-mat panel which is cured into the aircraft's composite skin. The RAM is made in two layers, the first designed to reduce reflected radar waves by having a thickness intended to optimize internal reflections and a second, more electrically conductive layer with a higher density of CNTs infused into the carbon fibers which dissipates the remaining radar energy as heat and electrical energy. The impedance of the fiber-mat RAM is matched to air at its outer surface and creates essentially a black body absorber from the VHF through W radar bands (0.1 - 60 MHz). Arrangement of the CNTs in multiple orientations allows the RAM to simultaneously absorb incident radar waves from multiple radar source impinging at different incidence angles. The 3D weave is cured into the aircraft's skin panels using a vaccum assisted resin transfer molding process to create each of the individual layers of the RAM (two in total) which are embedded with the composite skin of the aircraft and act as an additional structural member of the skin in addition to functioning as a radar absorbing structure. The RAM does not cover the entire aircraft and is placed in areas where the radar signature can not be reduced through shaping methods such as the wing and tail leading and trailing edges, inside the engine inlet ducts, and on the sides and underside of the fuselage. With the combination of stealth shaping and advanced RAM the Seraph has a radar cross section of around -45 dBSM across the frontal arc, -25 dBSM from the sides, and -30 dBSM from the rear.

Designed with full spectrum stealth in mind the Sea Seraph also features a variety of infrared signature management technologies. The carbon nanotube RAM coating on the aircraft also functions as a moderately effective infrared absorber due to the high infrared absorptivity of CNTs, reducing the aircraft's skin infrared signature in long-wave infrared wavelength (8–12 microns) by around half where the where the RAM is present. The 2D ejector nozzles of the aircraft also serve to reduce the infrared signature of the exhaust by promoting greater mixing of the hot exhaust with ambient air. To reduce the infrared signature of the airframe itself the fuel and bypass air streams are used as heatsinks for the avionics such as the radar and jamming system which by themselves generate a tremendous amount of heat when active. Further reduction of infrared signature is achieved by circulating fuel around the leading edges of the aircraft which also serves to reduce the heat buildup from sustained supersonic flight. The aircraft also features a series of deployable air scoops along the wings designed to provide cooling air to the engine and power and thermal management system and a set of air scoops located alongside the wing/fuselage junction to provide additional cooling air flow to the engine nacelles.


Avionics:
SN/APG-96 X band AESA Radar: The primary sensor of the Sea Seraph is the SN/APG-96, a long range, low probability of intercept (LPI), fully digital multifunction X band (8-12 GHz) AESA radar which includes forward and side looking radar arrays mounted in the nose of the aircraft. The radar system supports air-to-air tracking and search with range while search (RWS), velocity search while ranging (VSR), and track while scan (TWS) capability, cruise missile detection and tracking, high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mapping, ground and maritime moving target tracking, ultra-high bandwidth directional communications, beacon mode, and high-gain electronics support measures (ESM) receiver and electronic-attack (EA) capability. The main array of the APG-96 employs 2,400 full-duplex, multi-channel, dual-polarized transmit and receive (T/R) modules which each employ a gallium nitride (GaN) on diamond monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) front end with a silicon germanium (SiGe) Bipolar CMOS (BiCMOS) core chip. The side cheek arrays are smaller than the main array and each employ 600 of the same T/R modules as the main array with a conformal antenna blended into the side of the forward fuselage. As opposed to older analog AESAs the APG-96 is fully digitized and includes a digital beam former (DBF) and digital receiver/exciter (DREX) module for every antenna element which contains a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and digital-to-analog converter (DAC) which enable a variety of adaptive and dynamic beam-forming techniques to increase beam-scanning accuracy and increase electronic countermeasures resistance. The ECCM functionality of the APG-96 include randomized burst-to-burst and pulse-to-pulse frequency-hopping, staggered multiple-PRF operation, randomized multiple-beam scan patterns designed to confuse hostile radar warning receivers, sidelobe blanking (SLB) and tapered illumination functions which reduces sidelobe emissions, adaptive null-steering and null-forming techniques for cancelling out directional jamming, and active jammer tracking on both elevation and azimuth. Low probability of interception/detection (LPD/LPI) operation is facilitated by frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) operation which adaptively reduces radar power to the minimum necessary level to continue tracking targets. Automatic target recognition (ATR) techniques supported by the APG-96 system include high range resolution profile (HRRP), inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging (ISAR), and jet engine modulation (JEM). Peak power output of the APG-96 is 48 kW and maximum detection range is 400 km for a 1m2 target and 130 km for a 0.01 1m2 target in single-target track (STT) mode. High resolution SAR imagery can be generated by the radar system out to 300 kilometers using enhanced real-beam ground map mode with optional doppler-beam sharpening for additional resolution improvement. The cooling system required to support the radar's high peak power output is a two-phase hydrofluoroether (HFE) based dielectric fluid based system using vapor chamber cold plates connected to the antenna modules which dumps the heat from the radar systems into the aircraft's vapor cycle system (VCS).

SN/AAS-60 Advanced Infrared Search & Track System: Mounted in faceted low-RCS housings blended into the chines on either side of the radar system is the SN/AAS-60 Advanced Infrared Search & Track (AIRST) system which consists of twin two-axis stabilized mirror assemblies, four-panel conformal optical windows, and two high-magnification mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) starring focal plane array (FPA) imaging infrared (IIR) sensors providing entirely passive long-ranged electro-optical search and track capability. The 1280 × 1024 pixel HgCdTe array used in each sensor operates in both the MWIR (3–8 µm) and LWIR (8–15 µm) wavelengths and uses a hybrid complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) FPA architecture. The HgCdTe infrared sensor system is cooled to 180 degrees K using a six-stage thermoelectric peltier cooler and is mounted on a vibration isolated gimbal system which provides each sensor with a +/- 75 degree azimuth and +/- 75 elevation field of view, the two sensors being angled off the center line to provide the system with +/- 140 degree azimuth and +/- 75 elevation hyper-hemispherical coverage. The AIRST system supports both single and multiple-target tracking with track-while-scan (TWS) functions against up to 200 targets with < 0.25 mrad tracking accuracy and can also display infrared sensor feed at into the pilot's helmet mounted display or cockpit head-down display at a rate of up to 50 Hz rates to act as a FLIR for navigation or targeting purposes. Multi-Ship Infrared Search and Track (MSIRST) capability is also supported by the AIRST system which allows two or more Seraph aircraft to passively triangulate targets by sharing bearing and elevation data of target tracks from their AIRST systems using the aircraft's high speed tactical datalink enabling the generation of completely passive 3-D tracks of airborne targets. Maximum detection ranges for the AIRST are 130-200 kilometers depending on target type and aspect. Data from the AIRST can also be be sensor-fused in real time with radar data from the APG-96 to provide highly accurate and jam-resistant detection, tracking, and fire control capability to the Seraph's weapon suite.

SN/AAQ-80 Multispectral Distributed Aperture System: the Sea Seraph's SN/AAQ-80 Multispectral Distributed Aperture System (MDAS) consists of six 1280 × 1024 pixmercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) starring focal plane array IR imagers similar to the ones used in the ASQ-60 placed around the aircraft which provide 360 degree spherical situational awareness infrared search and track (SAIRST), missile approach warning (MAW), and 360 degree spherical day/night pilot vision. One sensor system is placed in the nose pointing forward, two in the nose pointing sideways, one aft of the cockpit pointing upwards, and two on the lower fuselage pointing downwards. The system allows for simultaneous 360 degree spherical tracking of air and surface targets, 360 degree spherical missile approach warning (MAW) capability, and 360 degree spherical pilot vision around the aircraft in all weather conditions. The MDAS is capable of simultaneously tracking enemy aircraft, surface and ground targets, surface to air, air to air, and ballistic missiles, can automatically cue appropriate missile countermeasures, and allows high off bore launching of missiles in any direction relative to the aircraft.

SN/ASQ-266 Integrated Electronic Warfare System The SN/ASQ-266 "Hammerhead" integrated electronic warfare system is a comprehensive offensive and defensive electronic warfare (EW) and electronic support measures (ESM) suite which combines passive radar warning receivers, countermeasures dispersal, and intelligent, adaptive phased array jamming functions. The combined radar warning receiver (RWR) and electronic support measures system (ESM) of the ASQ-266 consists of 24 conformal load-bearing antenna structures (CLAS) blended into the carbon-fiber composite skin of the fuselage, wings, and tails of the aircraft. The antennas include 18 mid/high band antennas covering the 2-40 GHz frequency range and six low band antennas covering the 0.1–2 GHz frequency range which feed into a network of ultra-wide bandwidth photonic digital receivers for signal processing of received radar signals and provides 360 degree spherical broadband, all aspect detection, identification, geolocation, and tracking of radar emissions in the 0.1-40 GHZ range with 40 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth combined with less than 1 degree RMS angle-of-arrival (AoA) precision through the use of dual-baseline interferometer and time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) direction-finding techniques. The high cruise altitude of the aircraft allows the passive receiver system to detect and track line-of-sight RF emissions from ground and ship radars out to 600 kilometers (radar horizon limited) and RF emissions from airborne radars out to over 1,000 kilometers. The passive receiver system also supports bistatic over-the-horizon RF intercept capability allowing RF signals from ground based radars which reflect off aircraft, missiles, satellites, or other air or space borne objects to be detected and tracked by the system at ranges exceeding 2,000 kilometers. The EW subsystem employs resource sharing of common hardware components to perform the simultaneous search, detection, RF measurement, signal analysis, direction finding, identification, geolocation, and tracking of RF signals while simultaneously supporting active jamming of radar threats through the use of adaptive emitter tuning in ECM heavy environments. Functions supported by the ASQ-266 passive radar receiver system include specific emitter identification and verification (SEI/SEV) and intentional modulation on pulse (IMOP) detection capability which provides signal detection and analysis and characterization of incident radar pulses in extremely heavy ECM environments. Precision location strike system (PLSS) capability is also supported by the system which allows up to three F/A-36 aircraft operating together to geolocate RF emissions in real time through the use of the aircraft's tactical data link. To precisely locate emitters PLSS functionality uses time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) techniques to precisely geolocate threat emitters, direction-of-arrival (DOA) techniques to filter and identify specific threats ,and distance measuring equipment (DME) techniques to precisely determine the aircraft's position with the respect to the emitters.

The offensive EW capability of the ASQ-266 Hammerhead system includes 18 active ECM antennas, six low band transceiver antennas covering the 0.5–2 GHz frequency band, six mid-band transceiver antennas covering the 2–6 GHz frequency band, and six high-band transceiver antennas covering the 6–40 GHz frequency band located on the wingtips and leading and trailing edges of the aircraft's wings, and two receive-only broadband 8-arm spiral antennas located on the top and bottom of the fuselage covering the 0.1-40 GHZ frequency range. Each transceiver antenna employs GaN-on-diamond based active electronically scanned array (AESA) antenna technology with digital beam-forming and digital receiver/exciter units and provides 360 degree DRFM deception jamming of radar threats around the aircraft. Each antenna employs a frequency-selective surface (FSS) which consists of an organic honeycomb sandwich structure with embedded wideband end-fire phased arrays employing GaN-on-diamond T/R modules which are structurally integrated into the aircraft's skin panels, reducing drag and radar cross-section over conventional non-structurally embedded and external antenna. The ASQ-266 is a fully cognitive and adaptive system; by using emissions data collected from the ASQ-266s radar warning receiver the DRFM jammers can automatically adapt in real time to unknown waveform characteristics, dynamically synthesize countermeasures, and jam the waveform accordingly which allows the system to effectively jam digitally programmable LPI frequency modulation continuous wave radars employing highly agile waveforms. The DRFM Jammers of the system also include false target generation capability which takes incoming radar signals and injects a variable delay line into the signal before transmitting it back to the receiver, allowing false targets to be generated and their range and speed varied to simulate a real aircraft. The false target generator system can generate up to 32 simultaneous false targets at ranges from less than 150 meters to over 675 kilometers from the aircraft with RCS of false targets varying from near-invisible stealth targets to large size blimps to spoof hostile radar systems. Jet engine modulation (JEM) and high resolution range profile (HRRP) returns for false targets can also be synthesized in order to confuse and spoof hostile radar automatic target recognition (ATR) techniques. To prevent the jammer output from blinding the aircraft's own communications system the ASQ-266 includes an Interference Cancellation System (INCAS) located in the forward fuselage of the aircraft behind the radar which selectivity cancels out the jammer interference in the path of radiated signals. This is done by collecting a sample of the jammer interference signal and using it to create an anti-interference signal which it then mixes into the receive path for the protected transceiver to cancel out the interference from the jamming. For maximal modularity the INCAS system is built into self-contained LRUs and lacks the need for direct interface to either transmitter or receiver elements.

SN/ASQ-292 CNI system: The Sea Seraph's SN/ASQ-292 CNI (Communications, Navigation, Identification) system is a multipurpose sensor suite which includes encrypted data links and communications systems, IFF system with combined interrogator/transponder, instrument landing system, GPS receiver, inertial navigation system, and radar altimeter system. The primary communications system of the CNI system is a software defined radio (SDR) proving multi-band, multi-mode capable, encrypted voice, data, and video communications between the aircraft and other platforms. The SDR supports up to 10 programmable 2 MHz - 2 GHz channels with 40 individual waveforms including UHF, EHF, and VHF demand assigned multiple access satellite communications (DAMA SATCOM), HF, UHF, and VHF line-of-sight airborne communications, enhanced position location reporting system (EPLRS), and tactical air navigation (TACAN) waveforms. The aircraft's IFF system consists of a combined interrogator/transponder unit with integrated cryptological computer supporting mode 5 elementary and enhanced surveillance (ELS and EHS) interrogation capability.

For communicating in hostile airspace the CNI system includes an SDI penetrating tactical datalink (PTDL), an LPI/LPD fast switching narrow-beamwidth directional communications data link operating in the Ku band (14.5–15.5 GHz). The PTDL allows flights of F/A-36 to exchange information in flight such as targeting information, weapons remaining, and fuel status. Six conformal Ku band phased array antenna assemblies with 1 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth are blended into the outer surface of the aircraft to provide complete 360 degree spherical transmit and receive coverage around the aircraft. The PTDL employs frequency agility, randomized burst, spread spectrum techniques, emissions control, and low-power directional transmissions to minimize detection probability by hostile ECM/ELINT receivers. To minimize transmission distance and thus transmission power required the the PTDL employs a "daisy chain" transmission system where the communicating aircraft sends the directional signal to a second, closest aircraft which then relays the signals to a third next-closest aircraft, who then relays the signal to a fourth aircraft, and so on.

Precise aircraft velocity and altitude above ground level (AGL) information is provided by a interferometric synthetic aperture radar altimeter (InSARA) system. Two C band (4.24 to 4.36 GHz) synethic aperture radar antenna blended into the lower surface of the aircraft's fuselage image the terrain underneath the aircraft; the two images then being correlated and the phase difference between the two images used to precisely determine the aircraft's elevation. The InSARA system also acts as an automatic ground-collision avoidance system (Auto-GCAS).

For navigation purposes the aircraft is equipped with a GPS spatial temporal anti-jam receiver (GSTAR) including controlled reception pattern antenna (CRPA), high dynamic range RF (radiofrequency) front-end, digital beamformer and digital receiver unit. The GSTAR system includes a formal antenna with +/- 12 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth and supports up to 16 simultaneous beams with digital beam steering and nulling and features a 36-channel (24 military and 12 civilian) digital receiver unit. The GSTAR system supports both Y-code and M-code GPS and is highly jam resistant with greater than 125 dB jam/signal ratio tracking performance. The GSTAR receiver also supports wide area differential GPS (WADGPS) functionality with 0.5-2 meter 3-dimensional position accuracy in flight for navigation and weapon targeting functions. The GSTAR receiver is coupled with two SDI designed SN-300 IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) systems each containing integrated 3-axis non-dithered laser-ring gyro (LRG), 3-axis pendulous integrating gyroscopic accelerometer (PIGA), and a 3-axis magnetometer which provide linear and angular acceleration, velocity, linear and angular position, and magnetic and true heading outputs. The two IMU units are placed on the aircraft's centerline directly aft of the radar assembly and are additionally operated off two separate data buses to provide independent measurement data. The IMUs provide continuous measurement of the aircraft's acceleration and roll rate which is combined with airspeed and altitude data from the aircraft's air-data system and then input to the aircraft's flight control software. IMU data including magnetic and true heading is also input to the aircraft's navigation software where the IMU data is combined with GPS data to provide highly accurate navigational capability for the aircraft. The IMU system also provides motion compensation capability for the APG-96 radar and AAS-60 AIRST system.


Cockpit:
Canopy: The canopy of the Sea Seraph is constructed from an organically modified sol-gel (ORMSOL) silica based nanocomposite which has excellent optical and thermal properties, high durability, high flexibility, and excellent ballistic performance at a substantially reduced weight compared to current glass/polycarbonate laminates. ORMSOL is made from a crosslink oriented nanocomposite made from a silica gel which has a higher optical transmission, higher tensile strength, higher heat tolerance, and less weight per unit of thickness compared to standard glass/polymer laminates. The canopy is specifically designed to be resistant to bird strikes and is rated to survive strikes from a 1.8kg object traveling at 230 meters per second. The canopy also features a thin layer of indium-tin-oxide nano particles designed to reflect radar emissions.

Cockpit displays and controls: Both the pilot and RSO (Radar System Operator) stations of the aircraft include a 50 x 20 centimeter Multifunction Colour Head Down Display (MCHDD) consisting of a panoramic 2560 x 1024 pixel active-matrix LCD (AMLCD) capacitive touch-screen display which can be configured to display relevant flight instrumentation, navigation, communication, and weapons system information and supports swipe and pinch-zoom capability with 5-point multi-touch capability allowing for the repositioning and enlarging or shrinking of the various display.The MCHDD also includes dual redundant LED backlights which support both daytime high-sunlight and nighttime NVG/NVIS compatible operation modes. Underneath the main MCHDD is an integrated control panel (ICP) which includes a keypad for entering entering communications, GPS, and autopilot data. The Sea Seraph is also equipped with a direct voice input (DVI) system which allows the pilot and RSO to use voice commands to issue instructions to the flight control, navigation, communication, and/or weapon systems of the aircraft. The Sea Seraph uses a right handed HOTAS (Hands on Throttle and Stick) layout with the control stick on the right and the throttle on the left of the cockpit.

Helmet mounted display: The pilot and RSO of the Sea Seraph are equipped with the SDI Nemesis Advanced Helmet Mounted Display System (AHMDS), a fifth generation Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) which incorporates a curve wave guided holographic display (CWHD), built in night vision camera, high accuracy head and eye tracking system, laser eye protection, and a 3D-Audio/Active Noise Reduction system. The Nemesis features a shock absorbing liner made from a shear thickening non newtonian fluid and is constructed from a carbon nanotube reinforced carbon fiber composite which is custom molded to the head of each individual pilot. The panoramic, polarized visor of the nemesis is constructed from polycarbonate embedded with a nano-thin layer of tungsten oxide and tungsten bronze nanoparticles which provides both laser eye protection and anti-glare functions. The curve wave guided holographic display (CWHD) display of the Nemesis provides 80 x 40 degree field of view, 2560 x 1024 pixel resolution bi-occular imagery uses two LCOS (Liquid Crystal on Silicon) 1280 x 1024 pixel active-matrix liquid-crystal displays (AMLCDs) placed on either side of the helmet to display images onto a holographic optical waveguide built into the polycarbonate visor. For flying in low light conditions the Nemesis features a built in Electron Bombarded Active Pixel Sensor (EBAPS) based visible/near infrared (NIR) night vision camera with a 60 hertz refresh rate and a 1200 x 1600 pixel UXGA (Ultra Extended Graphics Array) resolution which incorporates advanced non-blooming, low halo technology with automatic gain control. The image from the night vision camera can be displayed directly onto the helmet’s visor, negating the need for the pilot to wear night vision goggles. The display also includes an LED backlight designed to increase the readability of the display in high-brightness conditions. A 9-axis internal measurement unit (IMU) and a substrate-guided wave (SGW) based eye tracking system built into the HMD provides precise tracking of pilot head and eye movementand allows both the X band radar and IRST to be slaved to the pilot's vision. Stitched, sensor fused output from the aircraft’s Multispectral Distributed Aperture System (MDAS) infrared cameras can also be displayed into the HMD to provide the pilot with 360 degree spherical day-and-night synthetic vision around the aircraft. The Nemesis also features a built in 3D-Audio/Active Noise Reduction (ANR) system with an additional built in binaural based threat warning system which reduces pilot fatigue and hearing loss, improves the clarity of radio transmissions, and alerts the pilot to threats around the aircraft.

Flight suit & life support: Both the Sea Seraph pilot and RSO wear a pneumatically controlled advanced anti-G-suit with partial-pressurization and assisted positive pressure breathing system that allows the pilot to briefly endure 9+ g turns without suffering g induced loss of consciousness as well as maintain breathing ability at altitudes exceeding 20,000 meters. The aircraft's life support system includes an on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS) to generate oxygen for the pilot during flight. The OBOGS works by taking filtered engine bleed-air and passing it through a pressure-reducing valve to reduce the air to ambient pressure where the air is then passed over a zeolite-filled bed that absorbs the nitrogen molecules in the air which are purged from the bed and vented overboard . The 95% pure oxygen generated by the OBOGS is then fed into the pilot's breathing regulator. A back-up tank of liquid oxygen attached to the ejection seat is used to provide oxygen in case of an OBOGS or upon pilot ejection from the aircraft. Pilot and RSO ejection in the Sea Seraph is via a SDI ARES (Advanced Rocket Ejection Seat), a rocket powered zero/zero (capable of ejecting at zero airspeed and zero altitude) ejection seat capable of ejection at any altitude from 0 to 30,000 meters and speed from 0 to mach 3.


Armament:
The Sea Seraph has four internal weapons bays, two located side by side on the underside of the fuselage and two located on the sides of the air intakes. The twin ventral bays can each accommodate up to four AAM-A-100 HLRAAM missiles for air superiority missions or two HLRAAM missiles and single 1,200 kg munition for strike missions. The two side bays each contain a deployable trapeze launcher with a which can accomodate a single AAM-A-80 Rattlesnake missile.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Thu Mar 18, 2021 5:39 pm, edited 52 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Fri Apr 08, 2016 4:40 pm

reserved
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Thu Oct 15, 2020 9:21 am, edited 22 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Mon Aug 01, 2016 11:14 pm

Image


SR-96 Valkyrie

General Characteristics:
  • Role: Hypersonic Reconnaissance Aircraft
  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 35.0 m
  • Wingspan: 20.0 m
  • Height: 6.0 m
  • Wing area: 300 m2
  • Empty Weight: 32,500 kg
  • Loaded Weight: 78,500 kg
  • Fuel Weight: 44,000 kg
  • Max Takeoff Weight: 88,750 kg
  • Powerplant: Turbine Based Combined Cycle Propulsion:
    • 4x SDI F257 Variable Cycle Hyperburning Turboramjets, 205 kN each
    • 4x SDI SRJ-16 Dual Mode Scramjets, 120 kN each
Performance:
  • Cruise speed: Mach 9.0
  • Zone range: 7,400 km (Mach 9.0 @ 36,500 m)
  • Ferry range: 16,700 km
  • Service ceiling: 39,600 m
  • Rate of climb: 220 m/s
  • Wing loading: 262 kg/m2
  • Thrust/weight: 0.90
  • Maximum g-loading: +2.5/-1.0 g
Avionics:
  • SN/APY-88 Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar System
  • KA-90 Optical Bar Camera System
  • SN/ALQ-186 RWR/ECM/ELINT System
  • SN/AVN-37 Astro-Inertial Navigation System
  • SN/ASW-3 Communications Intelligence System


Overview:
The SR-96 Valkyrie is a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft designed to penetrate heavily defended airspace and gather imagery, signals, measurement and signature intelligence using a variety of advanced onboard sensor systems.


Airframe & Construction:
The SR-96 is designed to cruise at nine times the speed of sound and features a waverider shape combining high hypersonic L/D ratio and high volumetric efficiency with a hot-strucutre thermal protection system made from a mixture of titanium superalloys and intermetallic composites designed to allow the aircraft to survive the extreme heat flux of sustained hypersonic flight through the atmosphere. The choice to use metals over lighter ceramic tiles in the Valkyrie's thermal protection system is due to the superior mechanical properties of metal alloys compared to more brittle and fragile high temperature ceramic materials which would also ablate at high temperatures and require frequent replacing. The outer thermal protection system (TPS) of the Valkyrie is made from two layers of Ti2-4Al-11Nb titanium aluminide truss-core sheets formed using superplastic forming and diffusion bonding which sandwich several layers of high-temperature aluminoborosilicate foil insulation. This multi-layer metallic thermal protection serves both to resist aerothermal loads and to shield the inner metallic structure and cryogenic fuel tanks of the aircraft from the extreme heat flux and high temperature gases induced by sustained hypersonic flight through the atmosphere. The titanium-aluminide and multi-layer insulation sandwich composite panels are connected to the inner titanium fuselage through Inconel superalloy support brackets designed to accolade the thermal expansion of the sandwich panels during flight with a small air gap between the panels and the skin of the aircraft's fuselage. The metallic TPS is also structurally integrated with the aircraft's externally stiffened cryogenic fuel tanks, themselves constructed from a welded aluminum-lithium alloy.

A thermal protection system support (TPSS) consisting of foil-gauge titanium aluminide metal spot welded into a box-like lattice structure which is mechanically attached to both the outer TPS and to the stringers of the cryogenic fuel tank. The air gap between the cryogenic polyimide foam insulation bonded to the outside surface of the tank and the TPS structure is purged with nitrogen in flight, minimizing heat flux into the cryogenic tanks and neutralizing any potential leaks of the hydrogen fuel. The leading edges of the aircraft, where temperatures can approach 2000° K in flight, feature a hexagonal honeycomb cellular lattice constructed from a graphite fiber/copper matrix (Gr/Cu) composite metallurgically bonded to the inside of the outer metallic skin panels through which hydrogen fuel is pumped from the aircraft's fuel tanks, removing heat from the leading edges of the aircraft via convective cooling. The internal structure of the Valkyrie employs a conventional skin/stringer/frame design and is constructed primarily from titanium and beryllium alloys. The forward fuselage structure which contains the pressurized crew compartment is constructed from forged and superplastically formed/diffusion bonded Ti-5533 titanium (5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr) skin-stringer panels, frames and bulkheads which are joined together using a friction stir welding process. The crew compartment is constructed from Ti-5533 alloy plate with internals stiffening stringers and framing which is friction-stir welded together to form the pressure-tight structure. A total of only four inconel alloy struts connect the crew compartment to the forward fuselage in order to minimize the transmission of vibrational and thermal loads from the hot structure. The aircraft's wing is constructed from forged and superplastically formed/diffusion bonded titanium alloy ribs, spars, and honeycomb skin covers.The corrugated structure of the titanium wing spars also serve as the attachment points for the aircraft's titanium-aluminide composite thermal protection system structure. To reduce weight the toque box for the wing structure is constructed from an ultra lightweight aluminium-beryllium metal matrix composite alloy (62% Be -38% Al) formed via powder metallurgy using hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and cold isostatic pressing (CIP). Wing secondary structures including the elevons and rudders are made from carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) ceramic matrix composite (CMC).


Vehicle Management System & Flight Control Surfaces:
The SR-96 vehicle management system (VMS) is a quadruple redundant fully digital fly-by-light control system responsible for controlling the aircraft in flight. The core of the VMS system are four vehicle management computers (VMCs) which interface using fiber-optic cables to the aircraft's control actuators, engines, cockpit controls, air data system, fuel system, and inertial navigation systems.

The aircraft's control surfaces include trailing edge elevons for pitch and roll control and two all-moving vertical tail fins for yaw control. The control surfaces are actuated by a four independent main hydraulic systems operating at 21 MPa (3,000 PSI) which use MLO-7277B petroleum oil with a service temperature of 230° C as the working fluid. The hydraulic system keeps the working fluid within its operating temperature range by a series of heat exchangers within the hydraulic circuit which exchange heat from the MLO-7277B fluid with an ethylene glycol-water coolant loop which then passes through a series of heat exchangers within the fuel system that dump the heat from the hydraulic system into the aircraft's fuel.


Propulsion:
  • Name: SDI F257
  • Type: Variable Cycle Hyperburning Turboramjet
  • Length: 5,080 mm
  • Diameter: 1,170 mm
  • Dry Weight: 1,800 kg
  • Bypass Ratio: variable
  • Compressor: Two stage fan, core driven fan stage (CDFS), five stage high pressure compressor
  • Combustor: Annular combustor
  • Turbine: single stage HPT, counter rotating single stage LPT
  • Maximum Thrust: 159 kN (dry), 205 kN (with afterburner)
  • Overall Pressure ratio: 26:1
  • Turbine inlet temperature: 1,980 °C
  • Specific fuel consumption: 20 g/Kn-s (dry), 40 g/Kn-s (afterburning)
  • Thrust-to-Weight Ratio: 9.0:1 (dry), 11.6:1 (with afterburner)
  • Name: SDI SRJ-16
  • Type: Dual-mode scramjet
  • Length: 6,000 mm
  • Diameter: 1,000 mm
  • Dry Weight: 1,480 kg
  • Maximum Thrust: 120 kN
  • Specific fuel consumption: 55 g/Kn-s
  • Thrust-to-Weight Ratio: 8.0:1
The SR-96 Valkyrie employs a dual-fuel turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion system which uses JP-7 hydrocarbon fueled turboramjet engines for low-speed (Mach 0-4.5) operations and liquid hydrogen fueled dual-mode scramjets capable of operating in both subsonic mode (air flowing through the combustion is subsonic as in a ramjet) or supersonic (as in a scramjet) mode for high-speed operations (Mach 4-5-9). The engines are contained in a nacelle underneath the fuselage in an over/under engine arrangement; the turboramjets in the over position with dual mode scramjets in the under positions with separate variable geometry inlet ducts for both propulsion systems. The engines are integrated with the airframe such that the aircraft forebody serves as a pre-compression surface for the engine inlets while the aftbody acts as a high expansion ratio nozzle. Stating at takeoff the aircraft is powered by its turboramjet engines which accelerate the vehicle to a speed of mach 4.0 where the scramjet engine is then started, both the turboramjet engines and scramjets operating from mach 4.0-4.5 to provide maximum thrust during the turboramjet/sramjet engine transition. At mach 4.5 the turboramjet engines are shut down and the aircraft accelerates under pure scramjet power to a cruise speed of mach 9.0 at a cruise altitude of over 35,000 meters. The aircraft can cruise at mach 9.0 for a distance of up to 7,400 kilometers after which the scramjets are shut off and the vehicle glides unpowered down to a speed of mach 0.9 at an altitude of 10,000 meters where the turboramjets are then restarted. The aircraft retains enough JP-7 fuel for 10 minutes of loiter and can then either land or rendezvous with a tanker where both its JP-7 tanks and now empty liquid hydrogen tanks can be refilled with JP-7 fuel, the aircraft then accelerating to a cruise speed of Mach 4.5 and a cruise altitude of 40,000 meters where it can cruise for a distance of 5,600 kilometres before refueling again or landing.

For takeoff up to Scramjet transition (Mach 4.0-4.5) the aircraft is powered by four SD F257 variable cycle turboramjet engines providing 159 kilonewtons dry and 205 kilonewtons augmented thrust each. The F257 engine combines the modified core section of the SDI designed F220 triple-bypass adaptive cycle engine with a ramjet afterburner, referred to as a hyperburner, which allows the engine to function as a single or double bypass afterburning turbofan at subsonic to low supersonic speeds before transitioning to ramjet operation at high supersonic speeds. Changes made from the base F220 engine core to accommodate the higher design speed of the F257 include a new, larger diameter fan and fan frame to allow for a higher engine bypass ratio (BPR) along with a new core driven fan stage (CDFS) and upgraded compressor with higher temperature titanium-aluminide (TiAl) and inconel superalloy blade and vane materials. The afterburner of the F220 is additionally replaced with a new hyperburner and a convergent slave exhaust system instead of the divergent-convert nozzle of the F220. The flow to the hyperburner is controlled through the variable area bypass injectors (VABIs) located in the F220 derived core section which serves to maintain ideal core-hyperburner work balance during flight. At takeoff the engine operates in single bypass with one of the forward VABI's closed and the other VABI open where the majority of the air delivered to the hyperburner is from the core, the hyperburner and core effectively functioning as a typical low bypass turbofan. As the aircraft accelerates past mach 2 the second frontal VABI is opened and the engine operates in double-bypass mode, with the hyperburner thrust augmented by additional air mass flow from the outer fan bypass duct.

The four SRJ-16 dual mode scramjet engines that power the Valkyrie at hypersonic speeds are capable of operating as either a ramjet or scramjet, known as "dual-mode" operation. The SRJ-16 scramjet consists of four sections, an inlet, a constant volume isolator, a combustor, and a nozzle. The dual-mode scramjet is first lit at mach 4.0 and initially operates as a ramjet, decelerating the flow to subsonic speeds before combustion with combustion taking place at constant pressure. As the mach number is increased past 5.0 the the subsonic ramjet transitions into the dual-mode regime, where the combustor inlet Mach number is increased enough such that a thermal throat is created in the combustor and a pre-combustion shock train is generated. The isolator is designed to prevent this shock train from reaching the inlet to prevent inlet unstart which would choke the engine of airflow. In this regime the combustor operates in a mixed subsonic/supersonic, or dual-mode. As the Mach number is further increased past about 6. the pre-combustion shock train moves out of the isolator and the combustor operates in the supersonic mode with combustion taking place at a constant volume, rather than at a constant pressure like in the subsonic combustion regime. Liquid hydrogen fuel is first passed through a set of ceramic matrix composite heat exchangers in the walls of the engine before being injected into the combustion chamber in a gaseous state via a series of ramp injectors recessed into the walls of the scramjet. The ramp injectors are designed to provide the minimum possible flow losses and maximize fuel mixing with supersonic airflow to maximize combustion efficiency. The SRJ-16 scramjet engine is constructed from 3D printed copper using direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), an additive manufacturing technique. GRCop-84, a high temperature copper alloy composed of 88% copper, 8% chromium and 4% percent niobium, is placed in powdered form on a bed and fired upon by a ytterbium fiber optic laser which fuses the powder together layer by layer to create the final solid part. The part is built up in individual layers roughly 20 micrometers thick and like other additive machining manufacturing the DMLS process allows complex internal and external geometry to be created which would otherwise be impossible with traditional casting or machining methods with almost no wasted material. The finished laser printed part has over a 99.5% density and is extremely durable and lightweight compared to a machined or cast part. As temperatures in the scramjet can reach 3000 degrees C the SJE-160M is actively cooled using cryogenic hydrogen fuel pumped through a series of heat exchangers integral to the walls of the engine which both vaporizes the hydrogen fuel before combustion and keeps the engine walls within acceptable temperature limits. To prevent excessive heat transfer to the uncooled fuselage the scramjets are insulated with an Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blanket constructed from amorphous silica fibers sandwiched in between high temperature silica and glass fabric sewn together with silica threads. The insulation blanket is bonded to the copper surface of the scramjet using RTV silicon adhesive, a thin glue with a very low coefficient of thermal expansion.

The aircraft has two separate fuel systems with a JP-7 hydrocarbon fuel system supplying the turboramjet engines and a liquid hydrogen fuel system supplying the dual mode scramjet engines. The JP-7 fuel system employs a total of three tanks contained inside the fuselage. Aircraft CG during JP-7 fueled turboramjet operation is managed using a digitally controlled fuel transfer and feed sequence from each tank which adjusts aircraft CG as fuel is burned and as the aircraft center of pressure changes during flight. During initial operation and acceleration to scramjet operation the JP-7 fuel tanks are pressurized to 1.5 bar and inserted using helium, switching to pressurization via ram air on the return flight after scramjet cruise. JP-7 tanks are insulated from the liquid hydrogen tanks using 15 centimeters of q-felt micro-quartz fiber Insulation. The liquid hydrogen fuel system has two fuel tanks located forward and aft each with a self-contained chill system and are pressurized to 2.0 bar with helium gas. The liauid hydrogen fuel tanks are constructed from an aluminum-lithium alloy while the liquid hydrogen feedlines use stainless steel with 5-6 mm of foam insulation. Both JP-7 and liquid hydrogen fuel lines employ boost pumps which boost the fuel pressure to 14 bar before being fed into main engine pumps which boost the fuel pressure to 70 bar. The JP-7 main engine pumps are driven credulity by the turboramjet engine shaft while the liquid hydrogen main engine pumps are driven by a fuel expansion turbine using boiled off liquid hydrogen from the scramjet combustor heat exchangers.


Power & Thermal Management::
The SR-96's thermal management system (TMS) is designed to cool the airframe, dual-mode scramjet engines, avionics, and crew compartment during hypersonic cruise. During Mach 9 cruise liquid hydrogen fuel from the aircraft's fuel tanks is pumped using a boost pump through heat exchangers which transfer heat loads from the avionics, cockpit environmental control system, and hydraulics system into the fuel. After leaving the heat exchanger the fuel is then pumped through the fuselage and wing leading edges to keep the aircraft's leading edge thermal protection system within its structural temperature limit. The fuel is then routed to the propulsion active cooling system where it then cools the scramjet combustor walls and nozzle through heat exchangers embedded in the combustor and nozzle walls before finally being injected into the combustor. High temperature hydrogen gas from the scramjet combustor wall heat exchangers is also used to drive a series of four fuel turbines which in turn drive the boost pumps, main fuel pumps, hydraulic pumps, and auxiliary power units. The avionics, cockpit environmental control system, and hydraulic system are cooled using using an ethylene glycol/water coolant loop which exchanges heat with the liquid hydrogen fuel pumped out of the tanks through a series of hydrogen/ethylene glycol-water heat exchangers. During Mach 4.5 cruise the JP-7 fuel is first pumped using an engine shaft driven pump through a series of JP-7/ethylene glycol-water heat exchangers connected to the same ethylene glycol/water coolant loop that cools the avionics, cockpit environmental control system, and hydraulic system. The JP-7 fuel is then pumped through a catalytic heat exchanger reactor where heat from a polydimethylsiloxane heat transfer fluid used to cool the nozzles and ramjet combustion chamber of F257 turboramjet engines is exchanged with the JP-7 fuel. Inside the catalytic heat exchanger reactor the combination of a catalyst and the heat transfer to the JP-7 fuel causes the JP-7 fuel to undergo an endothermic reaction, the fuel decomposing into combustible consittuent molecules while absorbing a tremendous amount of heat, the now thermally decomposed JP-7 fuel then being injected into the turboramjet combustor.

The aircraft's power system employs a total of four power turbines and four turboramjet engine mounted accesroy drives which provide mechanical shaft power to drive both an oil cooled variable displacement AC alternator connected to the aircraft's 115-volt, three-phase, 400-hertz ac electrical electrical distribution system and a 21 MPa (3,000 PSI) variable displacement hydraulic pump connected to one of the aircraft's four main hydraulic systems. The power turbines operate while the aircraft is in scramjet mode and are driven by a rankine cycle power system using hot, high pressure gaseous hydrogen from the scramjet heat exchangers. High pressure liquid hydrogen fuel pumped through heat exchangers in the scramjet walls and nozzle where it boils off and passes through a proportioning valve which sends most of the fuel to the scramjet combustor where it is then injected into the scramjet combustion chamber. A small amount of boiled off fuel is bypasses by the proportioning valve back into the scramjet heat exchangers where it is superheated before flowing through one of the four power turbines. The gaseous exhaust from the power turbine is then passed through a heat exchanger where the fuel exchanges heat with the cryogenic liquid hydrogen fuel where it returns to the liquid state and is then pumped back into the liquid hydrogen fuel tanks. During turboramjet operation the power turbines are not used and both the AC alternators and main hydraulic pumps are directly driven by an engine shaft driven accessory gearbox mounted on each turboramjet engine. The aircraft also contains four hydrazine-fueled, turbine-driven auxiliary power units which can drive the generators and hydraulics pumps if both turboramjet and scramjet engines are inoperative.


Avionics
SN/APY-88 Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar System: The SN/APY-88 X band active electronically scanned array (AESA) synthetic aperture radar system designed to generate high-resolution radar imagery at standoff ranges and in all weather conditions. The SN/APY-88 consists of an antenna assembly mounted in the nose of the aircraft which contains the electronically scanned array antenna, transmitter, two-channel receiver/exciter, and analog signal converter along with a digital cassette recorder-incremental (DCRSi) and radar signal processor mounted in the fuselage avionics bays, and a radar display unit unit installed inside the aircraft's cockpit. The electronically scanned antenna can scan +/- 30° forward and back in the pitch direction and is mounted to a 2-axis stabilized gimbal which allows the antenna to be rotated +/- 90° in the roll direction to enable the antenna to scan on either side of the aircraft. The radar system can operate in either stripmap or spotlight mode with stripmap mode providing 0.3 meter resolution across a swath 20 kilometers wide and 40 to 185 kilometers long up at ranges up to 185 kilometers on either side of the aircraft and spotlight mode providing 0.3 meter resolution on an approximately 2 x 2 kilometer square at ranges up to 160 kilometers on either side of the aircraft. Radar imagery recorded by the system is stored on a digital cassette recorder-incremental (DCRSi) unit which can record up to an hour worth of radar imagery corresponding to about 7,400 kilometers of along-track imgaery. Imagery from the radar can also be transmitted using a Ku band (14.40-14.93 transmit and 15.15-15.35 GHz receive) SDI tactical high bandwidth datalink (THBD) antenna which which can stream recorded radar imagery at up to 274 Mbps at line-of-sight ranges up to 300 kilometres. The datalink system is comprised of three line-replaceable units (LRUs),an airborne modem assembly (AMA), a radio-frequency electronics (RFE) assembly, and a 24 centimeter 2-axis stabilized antenna located inside a radome on the underside of the fuselage.

KA-90 Optical Bar Camera: For daytime reconnaissance missions the aircraft has the option to replace the AN/APY-88 radar system in the nose of the aircraft with an an optical bar camera (OBC) for high resolution, panoramic daytime surveillance. The OBC consists of a 76 centimeter focal length eight-element, field-flattened petzval type lens polished to within several nanometers which continuously rotates 360° with imagery being recorded from 5° to 70° on either side of vertical, the entire assembly rocking back and forth 1.6° with every revolution. The OBC is stabilized in the pitch direction via a 2-axis stabilized gimbal assembly and in the roll direction by varying the optical tube roll rate of the camera. At 40,000 meters the OBC can scan an area 220 kilometers wide and can scan over 1.5 million square kilometers of land in one hour of flight. Each OBC frame is 36 gigapixels (42k x 862k) with a 3.7 micron resolution. 3,200 meters of color film 168 mm wide is fed into the OBC at a rate of 5.7 meters per second with a set of servo-controlled tensioned rollers.

MS-366 Electro-optical Reconnaissance Camera System: The MS-366 (Multispectral - 366 centimeter focal length) is a hyperspectral camera system which combines visible and near-infrared (VNIR), short-wave infrared sensors (SWIR), and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensors for day and night all weather imaging capability which allows for the detection and identification of targets based on their spectral signature. The hyperspectral sensor system works by collecting an image from each distinct band and fusing it together to form a 3-D hyper-spectral image with spatial data in the XY plane and spectral data in the Z plane. The VNIR system uses a gallium nitride based charged coupled device (GaN CCD) and can record 244 unique spectral bands covering the spectral range of 400 nm to 1000 nm with a 2.9 nm resolution, the SWIR sensor uses a HgCdTe (Mercury cadmium telluride) photodetector and a Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) based tunable Fabry Perot (FP) filter integrated into a silicon CCD imager which can record 254 unique spectral bands from 970 to 2500 nm with an 8.9 nm resolution, and the LWIR scanner which uses a HgCdTe (Mercury cadmium telluride) photodetector with a stirling cryocooler that operates in the 8-14 micron (8,000 - 14,000 nm) spectral range with 84 unique spectral bands and a 100 nm resolution. The Hyperspectral array generates images up to 185 kilometers wide containing several hundred unique spectral bands which are fused into a 3-D hyper-spectral image before being transmitted in real time to ground based stations via secure datalink for analysis.

SN/ALQ-186 RWR/ECM/ELINT System: SN/ALQ-186 RWR/ECM/ELINT System is an advanced electronic warfare and surveillance system which includes emitter location and identification systems and standoff DRFM based jammers along with signal processing equipment which provides real-time electronic order of battle (EOB) surveillance and electronic signal analysis functions. The ALQ-186 employs a series of wideband (K to ULF band) RF antennae smoothly blended into the fuselage of the aircraft which use amplitude-comparison monopulse based direction finding tp provide precise geolocation of ground, air, or sea based radar emissions. Received signals can then be digitized and analyzed and identified using emitter identification algorithms based on a programmable library stored in the aircraft's computer systems. The DRFM jamming system of the ALQ-186 is designed to defeat surface-to-air and air-to-air missiles and uses AESA (active electronically scanned array) jammers embedded into the wings and vertical control surfaces of the aircraft. The DRFM jammers can automatically adapt in real time to unknown waveform characteristics, dynamically synthesize countermeasures, and jam the waveform accordingly which allows jamming of digitally programmable radars which use highly agile waveforms. The DRFM jammers of the ALQ-186 are also capable of active radar cancellation, the incident radar wave frequency, phase, amplitude, waveform characteristics, polarization, and radar space position determined and measured and using the FPGA circuit a precise replication of the waveform, with the phase reversed, is emitted by the DFRM jammers in a pulse that is time-coincident with the opposing waveform.

SN/AVN-37 Astro-inertial Navigation System: The SN/AVN-37 is an advanced strapdown astro-inertial navigation system (SAIN) with additional GPS capability. The AVN-37 consists of an inertial navigation unit coupled to an Optical Wide-Angle Lens Startracker (OWLS) which employs a holographic lens blended into the upper surface of the fuselage behind the cockpit. The OWLS employs three megapixel CCD FPAs operating in the far red band (0.6-0.8 μm) which can simultaneously image three separate 3 degree fields of view to provide all-aspect, day or night stellar coverage down to sea level in all weather conditions. The OWLS system is able to achieve stellar fixes enabling highly accurate GPS independent navigation with position fixes accurate to within 20 meters in broad daylight using the 61 star catalog stored in the system's computer. The inertial measurement unit contained in the system employs a triad of four-mode multioscillator ring laser gyroscopes (RLGs) and a triad of pendulous integrating gyroscopic accelerometers providing highly accurate free-inertial navigation with position errors of less than 1 kilometer/hour. Additional GPS capability is enabled in the AVN-37 system which includes a SAASM (Selective Availability Anti-Spoofing Module)-based receiver with zero-age differential GPS (ZDGPS) capability and space-time adaptive processing (STAP) providing up to 120 dB of GPS jamming resistance.


Cockpit
The Valkyrie has a tandem cockpit with the Pilot in the forward cockpit and a reconnaissance systems officer (RSO) in the rear cockpit. The windows in the cockpit are made from an aluminum silicate glass and fused silica glass composite and consist of three separate planes, an internal pressure pane, an optical pane, and an external thermal pane. The use of high temperature glass-ceramic composites for the cockpit windows is necessary as the temperature on the exterior of the windows can approach 1000° C on a typical mission. The cockpit is fitted with a nitrogen pressurization system which can pressurize the cockpit to altitudes of 10 km with a pressure suit being worn by both crew members to operate at higher altitudes. Both cockpits use a air conditioning system using which takes heat from the cabin and dumps it into the fuel using a series of ethylene glycol heat exchangers. Each crewmember sits on an SDI ARES (Advanced Rocket Ejection Seat), a rocket powered zero/zero (capable of ejecting at zero airspeed and zero altitude) ejection seat capable of ejection at any altitude from 0 to 40,000 meters and speed from 0 to mach 8 assuming the pilot's helmet and oxygen system remains intact.

In order to safely operate at extremely altitudes altitude both crewmembers of the Valkyrie are outfitted with tailor-made SDI Mark V pressure suit which are designed to protect the wearer in the event of sudden cabin depressurization at extremely high altitude. The Mark V, originally designed as a space suit for astronauts, is made from a nomex fiber and is pressurized with nitrogen to 0.24 atm, equivalent to the air pressure at 11 km altitude. The Mark V pressure includes a carbon fiber composite helmet custom molded to fit the head of each individual crewmember which features a clear polycarbonate visor and a retractable sun visor with a thin gold coating. Oxygen is fed into the helmet through a flexible hose which runs down the suit and out through the wearer's thigh where it then connects into the cockpits internal life support system. The helmet also features a GPS transponder and emergency radio system as well as a built in 3D-Audio/Active Noise Reduction (ANR) system with a binaural based threat warning system which reduces pilot fatigue, improves the clarity of radio transmissions, and alerts the pilot to threats around the aircraft. The Mark V carries a built in backup life support system which can supply up to 10 minutes of oxygen if the primary vehicle powered life support system fails. The Mark V suit also includes a survival backpack with flares, a fulton recovery balloon, and an inflatable life raft should the wearer eject over the ocean. The suit's gloves are constructed from nomex with a texture d polyurethane palm and are fully pressurized and attached to the suit through a locking ring with a series of hydrostatic bearings which allows the user to swivel their wrists. A Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment (LCVG) is worn underneath the pressure suit which circulates a 50/50 mix of ethylene glycol and water (EGW) cooled using a thermoelectric chiller through a series of flexible ethylene vinyl acetate tubes which wrap around the wearer's body. The LCVG also features a series of crush-resistant ventilation ducts designed to vent sweat and moisture from the wearer's extremities. The base layer of the LCVG is constructed from a sweat wicking, fire retardant, and anti micro-bacterial nomex based fabric.

The Valkyrie uses glass cockpit technology with both the pilot and RSO cockpits being equipped with multiple Multifunction Colour Head Down Displays (MCHDDs) each consisting of a 2000 dpi Thin-film-transistor Liquid-Crystal-Display (TFT LCD) which can be configured to display relevant flight instrumentation, navigation, communication, and sensor system information. The pilot's cockpit is equipped with a integrated control panel (ICP) located underneath the cockpit window which is equipped with a keypad and is used to manually enter in navigation, communications, and autopilot information. On either side of the ICP are two 10 x 10cm displays which are primarily used as flight instrument displays. Directly underneath the ICP is a 20 x 20cm primary multi-function display (PMFD) which is used for navigational data with three 16x16cm secondary multifunction displays mounted on either side and directly underneath the PMFD used for displaying sensor data. The Valkyrie uses a center-stick HOTAS (Hands On Throttle and Stick) system which places all the buttons and switches needed for important flight controls on the throttle and stick. The rear cockpit for the RSO features a single large 50 x 20cm primary multi-function display (PMFD) used to display sensor and navigation data. The RSO cockpit also contains various keypads and controls for operating the aircraft's various sensor and radio systems and a keypad for inputting information into the aircraft's astro-inertial navigation system.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Mon Feb 22, 2021 1:19 pm, edited 34 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Sun Jan 08, 2017 11:10 pm

Image


RB-80C Vampire

General Characteristics:
  • Role: Strategic Bomber
  • Crew: 4 (pilot, copilot, bombardier, navigator/electronic warfare officer
  • Length: 56.8 m
  • Wingspan: 32.0 m
  • Height: 9.4 m
  • Wing area: 585 m2
  • Empty Weight: 86,590 kg
  • Loaded Weight: 246,620 kg
  • Fuel Weight: 157,720 kg
  • Max Takeoff Weight: 251,290 kg
  • Powerplant: 6x SDI J98 variable-cycle turbojets, 150 kN each
Performance:
  • Maximum speed: Mach 3.3
  • Cruise speed: Mach 3.2
  • Ferry range: 10,100 km
  • Combat radius: 4,900 km (Mach 3.2 @ 25,000 meters)
  • Service ceiling: 25,870 m
  • Rate of climb: 140 m/s
  • Wing loading: 403.9 kg/m2
  • Thrust/weight: 0.37
Armament:
Avionics:
  • SN/APQ-80 Advanced Phased Array Attack Radar
  • SN/APN-219 Airborne Doppler Velocity Sensor
  • SN/APN-225 Radar Altimeter
  • SN/AVN-36 Astroinertial Navigation System
  • SN/ALQ-95 Defensive ECM System
  • DB-213 Digital Dual-Band Camera System


Overview:
The RB-80C Vampire is a supersonic strategic bomber designed by SDI Aerospace Systems. Originally designed in the 1960s the RB-80C is an upgraded version of SDI's original RB-80 bomber with modern digital avionics replacing the majority of the analog systems used in the original bomber.


Airframe & Construction:
The RB-80C is a large, delta-wing, multi-engine supersonic bomber designed for sustained supersonic cruise at mach 3 speeds at altitudes in excess of 25,000 meters. The aircraft features a thin, low aspect ratio delta wing with a 1.75 aspect ratio, 65°sweep-back angle, and constant 5 degree dihedral, twin vertical stabilizers with rudders, and forward swept all-moving canards. The wing features variable-geometry wingtips with the outer 6 meters of each wing which fold downwards at supersonic speeds to increase directional stability and to offset the rearward shift of the aircraft's aerodynamic center at supersonic speeds. Segmented elevons are mounted on the trailing-edge of each which provide pitch and roll control. The forward-swept canards are mounted just behind the cockpit of the aircraft and provide longitudinal trim during flight as well as additional pitch control during takeoffs and landings. The aircraft's landing gear includes a twin wheel nose gear which retracts in between the inlet ducts and two four-wheel main gears which retract into either side of the fuselage.

To withstand the high temperatures of sustained mach 3 flight the RB-80 aircraft is constructed almost entirely from high temperature stainless steel and titanium alloys. The wing and fuselage of the aircraft is primarily constructed from brazed 15-7 Mo alloy stainless steel honeycomb sandwich panels which retain excellent strength characteristics at elevated temperatures and insulate the internal fuel tanks from the heat of supersonic flight. The leading and trailing edges of the wing are constructed from triangular panels of graphite-loaded pyroceram, a high temperature ceramic glass with additional radar-absorbing properties, held in place by notched stainless steel ribs. High temperature fiberglass laminates is used for the engine inlets, primarily to reduce radar cross-section. Ti-4Al-3Mo-1V alpha-beta titanium alloy is used for the forward fuselage, canards, engine bay, vertical stabilizers, and internal structure of the wings. H-11 tool steel, an ultra-high strength and high-temperature capable chromium tool steel alloy, with a nickel-zinc electroplate coating for corrosion resistance is used for the landing gear and wing carry-through structure. Rene 41, a nickel-chromium superalloy, is used for the engine nacelle exhausts and other high-temperature structural components in the engine bay due to its excellent mechanical properties temperatures up to and exceeding 600 degrees C. The radome is constructed from a laminated glass reinforced polyester.


Vehicle Management System & Flight Control Surfaces:
The control surfaces of the RB-80 include 12 trailing edge elevens with two hydraulic actuators each provide pitch and roll control, all-moving canards with trailing edge flaps that provide trim control and additional pitch authority, and twin rudders providing yaw control. The RB-80 also features variable geometry wingtips with the outer 6 meters of each wing folding down at a 25°for low altitude supersonic flight and at a 65° for high altitude mach 3 cruise. The two outboard most elevons on each wing are located on the variable geometry wingtips and are locked in place when the wing folds down. The control surfaces are powered by a 28 MPa (4,000 psi) hydraulic system with two independent primary systems and two independent utility systems. The hydraulic system is powered by 12 fixed displacement hydraulic pumps, six primary system pumps rated at 360 liters per minute and six utility pumps rated at 220 liters per minute. One primary and one utility pump each are contained in an accessory gearbox driven by each one of the aircraft's six turbojet engines with the pumps also operating as motors to start the engines.


Propulsion:
  • Name: SDI J98
  • Type: Variable-Cycle Turbojet
  • Length: 4,600 mm
  • Diameter: 1,300 mm
  • Dry Weight: 2,600 kg
  • Compressor: 9 stage axial
  • Combustor: Annular straight-through-flow
  • Turbine: two stage axial
  • Maximum Thrust: 110 kN (dry), 150 kN (with afterburner)
  • Overall Pressure ratio: 12.5:1
  • Specific fuel consumption: 25 g/Kn-s (dry), 45 g/Kn-s (afterburning)
  • Thrust-to-Weight Ratio: 4.5:1 (dry), 6.0:1 (with afterburner)

The RB-80 is powered by six SDI J98 afterburning turbojet engines. The J98 is a single shaft, axial flow turbojet engine which produces 150 kN of thrust in afterburner and 110 kN of thrust without afterburner.The J98 engine employs a single-shaft rotor using an 9 stage axial compressor with variable inlet guide vane (VIGVs) and a variable bypass system which diverts up to 40% of the air entering the 4th compressor stage around the combustion chamber through six external bypass tubes and injects in into the afterburner. The valves which let air enter the bypass tubes open up starting at mach 2.5 and become fully open at mach 3.2 where the gas generator portion of the engine ceases to generate thrust. The air bled from the compressor is passed through the outer casing of the afterburner to cool the afterburner walls being injected into the reheat chamber to produce additional thrust. The variable compressor bleed reduces the pressure ratio of the engine in flight and also serves to prevent choking of the flow in the compressor as the aircraft speed increases from past mach 2.5 up to mach 3.2 .The combustor is of a can-annular design and the turbine uses two stages employing both convective and boundary later cooling. Bleed air from the compressor is used to cool the turbine blades by passing high pressure compressor bleed air through internal channels in the blades to cool them via convection before the air is vented through small holes in the turbine blades to create a boundary layer of air around the blades. The nozzle system used is fully variable converging-diverging exhaust nozzle. The inlet guide vanes and first compressor stage of the engine are constructed from Ti-13V-11Cr-3Mo titanium alloy. The remainder of the engine is constructed from high temperature nickel superalloys. Inconel X-750 and 718 precipitation-hardened nickel-chromium alloys are used for the blades and stators of the remaining compressor stages while Hastelloy X nickel-chromium-iron-molybdenum alloy as well as IN-100 and MAR-M200 superalloys are used for the combustor and the single-crystal turbine blades. L-605 solid-solution, cobalt-nickel-chromium-tungsten alloy sprayed with a ceramic thermal barrier coating is used for the afterburner casing and nozzle. The six J98 engines are fed from a total of 11 internal tanks (three in each wing and five in the fuselage) pressurized and inerted by dry nitrogen gas which combined can hold over 157,000 kg of JP-7 thermally stable jet fuel (TSJF).

Air is fed into the six engines using twin symmetrical two-dimensional, variable-geometry, convergent-divergent mixed-compression inlet ducts located in a nacelle underneath the aircraft's center-line which together form the aircraft's Air Induction Subsystem (AIS). Each inlet controls the airflow to three engines and features it's own mechanically independent control system. The inlets use a rectangular cross section and employ both external and internal compression to slow the supersonic free-stream air entering the inlets to subsonic speeds at the engine faces. Each inlet features two fixed external ramps and four variable-throat ramps which are used to modulate the airflow through the ducts during flight to maximize engine performance throughout the aircraft's speed range. The variable-geometry throat ramps are controlled by the aircraft's Air Induction Control System (AICS) which automatically positions the four variable-geometry ramps in each inlet to maximize pressure recovery, minimize inlet drag, and provide steady airflow to the engine faces during flight. Each inlet features six variable-area bypass doors located just upstream of the engine faces which bypass air around the engines in flight to prevent spillage drag in the engine faces as the aircraft's speed increases. All variable bypass panels and doors in the inlet are actuated by hydraulically actuators with control being fully automatic by the AICS. Each inlet additionally contains a Boundary Layer Control System (BLC) which removes the turbulent boundary-layer air from the inlet and discharges it overboard. The walls in the inlet throat are are porous and bleed the boundary layer air into ducts where the air is ducted aft and used to cool the engine compartment before being discharged overboard through vents on the upper surface of the wing.

An accessory drive gearbox is attached to each J98 engine which includes a primary hydraulic pump, utility hydraulic pump, and an oil cooled AC generator driven by power take off from the engine. The 60 kVa oil-cooled AC alternator provides three-phase 240/416 volt power at 440 Hz and is designed for operations at altitudes up to 30,000 meters with a temperature rating of -50° C to 165° C. The generator uses a brushless exciter with a rotating rectifier and is pressurized with dry nitrogen to prevent arcing and corona discharge due to atmospheric particle contamination.


Avionics:
SN/APQ-80 Advanced Phased Array Attack Radar: The SN/APQ-80 is an X band (8-12 GHz) is an active electronically scanned array (AESA) attack radar system used by the RB-80C with electronic beam steering with synthetic aperture radar ground mapping, ground moving target indicator and ground moving target track (GMTI/GMTT), terrain following, weather detection, and precision altimeter and doppler navigation capability. This radar system replaces the pulse-doppler, mechanically scanned navigation and attack radars of the original RB-80A. The APQ-80 radar system employs a phased array antenna with over 2,000 individual GaAs (Gallium Arsenide) X band transmit/receive (T/R) modules. The radar antenna is mounted facing forward and can scan +/- 60 degrees in both azimuth and elevation and can additionally be swiveled up to 45 degrees to either side allowing radar coverage of up to 105 degree coverage on either side of the aircraft's center line. The APQ-80 is capable of generating radar maps at ranges up to 300 km in front of or on either side of the aircraft with selectable patch size and range resolution and with additional doppler-beam sharpening (DBS) capability for generating high-resolution imagery (<0.3m resolution) for identifying specific targets or terrain features. A motion sensor subsystem (MSS) is coupled directly to the aircraft and compensates for aircraft motion during synthetic aperture radar operation. For weapons delivery the radar provides doppler velocity updates to the inertial navigation system as well as high-altitude radar altimeter functionality. In addition to air-to-ground modes the APQ-80 features an air-to-air search mode with a maximum range of 460 kilometers which can be used for tanker rendevouz.

SN/APN-219 Airborne Doppler Velocity Sensor: The SN/APN-219 Airborne Doppler Velocity Sensor is a Ku band (13-15 GHz) radar system which provides highly accurate velocity measurements in flight for the aircraft's onboard bombing and navigation system. The APN-219 employs two adjacent planar waveguide arrays with a traveling-wave-tube (TWT) transmitter and standing wave receiver assembly. The APN-129 provides velocity data accurate to within 0.15% RMS at speeds up to 2,500 knots at altitudes up to 30,000 meters. Doppler velocity information from the sensor is fed into the aircraft's bombing and navigation system and is also displayed on aGroundSpeed/Drift Indicator (GSDI) inside the cockpit.

SN/APN-225 Radar Altimeter: The SN/APN-225 is a solid state C band (4.3 GHz) radar altimeter system which provides all-weather airborne low-level terrain tracking and height above ground level (AGL) sensing from 0 to 1500 meters altitude. The APN-225 system tracks terrain below the aircraft and will audibly warn the crew when the aircraft's altitude above ground level falls below a certain pre-selected value or when the aircraft's absolute altitude rapidly changes.

SN/AVN-36 Astro-inertial Navigation System: The SN/AVN-36 is an astro-inertial navigation system with additional GPS capability. The SN/AVN-36 together with the APQ-80 radar and the aircraft's Doppler velocity sensor, radar altimeter and attitude heading and reference system form the aircraft's integrated bombing and navigation system. The AVN-36 is mounted in the nose behind the APQ-80 radar system and consisting of an inertial navigation unit coupled to a CCD star-tracker camera which looks upward through a circular window located just ahead of the cockpit. The star tracker employs a stabilized telescope and is able to achieve stellar fixes enabling highly accurate GPS independent navigation with position fixes accurate to within 90 meters in broad daylight using a pre-programmed 57 star catalog. The inertial measurement unit contained in the system employs a triad of four-mode multioscillator ring laser gyroscopes (RLGs) and a triad of pendulous accelerometer providing highly accurate free-inertial navigation with position errors of less than 1 kilometer/hour. Additional GPS capability is enabled in the AVN-36 system which includes a SAASM (Selective Availability Anti-Spoofing Module)-based reciver with zero-age differential GPS (ZDGPS) capability and space-time adaptive processing (STAP) providing up to 120 dB of GPS jamming resistance.

SN/ALQ-95 Defensive ECM System: The SN/ALQ-95 is a defensive electronic counter-measures (ECM) system which combines radar warning receiver and radar jamming systems to protect the aircraft against radar based threats by detecting, identifying, and defeating threat radar emissions. The system is designed to counter ground and air based radars and provides detection and jamming in the 0.2 to 20 GHz range. The system includes over 30 omnidirectiona RF antennas positioned around the aircraft which feed the radar signals into four wideband superheterodyne receivers where the radar signal parameters are measured and encoded into a digital signal which is received by the aircraft's digital computer unit for processing and threat evaluation. Radar signatures are compared to an on-board threat library for identification with the identified signal and it's angle-of-arrival (AOA) displayed graphically to the crew on their multi-function displays. Displayed radar signatures determined to be a threat by the onboard processor will be accompanied by an audible warning. Threat signals are automatically jammed by the system's high-power jamming transmitters located in the wingtips and atop the vertical tails which can jam a threat radar within milliseconds of it being detected by the aircraft's radar warning receivers. The radar receivers are designed to work with the active jamming transmitters and are tuned to look through the jamming signal to detect new incoming radar signals while the system is jamming in the same frequency band. The jamming system is a deception radio-frequency pulse/continuous wave repeater deceptive jamming system which supports Range Gate Pull Off (RGPO), Velocity Gate Pull Off (VGPO), anti-monopulse crosseye jamming, terrain bounce, and scatter jamming techniques. The ALQ-95 system additionally features a built-in system monitoring network which automatically monitors and reports any electronic warfare system degradation or computer failures and automatically routes electronic signals around failed or battle damaged components via a databus to retain full system performance in high-threat environments.

DB-213 Digital Dual-Band Camera System: For pre and post-strike reconnaissance missions the RB-80 can be equipped with a side-looking DB-213 long-range oblique photography (LOROP) camera system mounted on a self-contained electro-optical sensor pallet which can be placed in either left or right side camera bays outboard of the inlet air ducts on either side of the aircraft's bomb bay. The DB-213 camera uses a 30 centimeter diameter reflecting telescope with a 127/213 centimeter visible/infrared focal length which features both a 25 megapixel (5k x 5k) 0.4-0.9 μm Silicon CCD visible band detector and a 4 megapixel (2k x 2k) 3-5-μm InSB (Indium Antimonide) mid-wave infrared (MWIR) band FPA detector. The side-looking camera is capable of imaging targets out to a slant range of over 120 kilometres in both spot collection mode (2 x 2 kilometer spot) and wide-area search mode (10 kilometer wide swath) and can provide NIIRS level 5 or better resolution (0.75 - 1.2 m) out to 74 kilometers (visible) or 26 kilometers (infrared) slant ranges. The camera is stabilized using a 2-axis roll and pitch gimbal which provides +/- 20°degree azimuth and +/-80° roll FOV and can maintain camera line-of-sight (LOS) stabilization up to aircraft motion frequencies of 20 Hz. An image processing unit (IPU) mounted in the electro-optical sensor pallet alongside the DB-213 camera provides image processing and camera control and routes the processed image feed to a solid-state recorder and to the aircraft's data link system at a rate of up to 650 Mbps. The electro-optical sensor pallet also includes a power conversion unit (PCU) which converts and transforms power from the aircraft's electrical power distribution system to power the camera and image processing unit.


Cockpit
The RB-80C has a crew of four, a pilot and co-pilot who sit side-by-side at the front of the cockpit and a bombardier and navigator/electronic warfare officer who sit side-by-side at the rear. Forward of the cockpit is a variable-geometry visor which is raised for supersonic flight to streamline the nose profile and lowered for subsonic flight to improve crew visibility down over the nose. The upgraded RB-80C features a partial glass cockpit with a total of four AMLCD (active matrix liquid crystal display) multifunction displays for the pilot and copilot and six AMLCD multifunction displays for the bombardier and navigator/electronic warfare officer supplementing the analog instruments of the original RB-80. A door for crew ingress and egress is located at the aft of the cockpit on the port side of the fuselage. Cockpit air temperature and pressure is regulated by two Freon refrigeration units driven by high pressure engine bleed air which are mounted in an environmental control system bay directly behind the cockpit.

Instead of conventional ejection seats the RB-80 uses individual escape capsules for each crew member. Use of an escape capsule is primarily to enable the flight crew to survive mach 3 ejection at altitudes over 25,000 meters while operating in a shirt-sleeve environment without the need to wear bulky pressure suits. In case of sudden cabin depressurization the ejection capsule has a set of clamshell doors actuated by pair of handles on either side of each seat which also tighten the straps attached to hands and feet of each crewmember to pull their limbs together and up into the seat before the clamshell doors close. The upper clamshell door includes a window large enough to permit seeing most of the instrument panel with both the pilot and copilot capsules enclosing the flight control sticks, enabling limited control of the plane with the capsule closed to allow the aircraft to be flown to a lower altitude where the clamshell doors can be opened again. Squeezing either lever again initiates capsule ejection, firing a series of rocket motors which eject the capsule from the aircraft followed by a drogue chute which deploys as soon as the capsule clears the aircraft which stabilizes it before the main parachute is displayed. An impact attenuation airbag located under the capsule deploys shortly before impact with the ground to cushion the landing and also serves as a flotation device for water landings.


Armament:
The RB-80C has two bomb bays mounted in tandem separated by a bulkhead. Each weapons bay is 5.0 meters long and can accommodate either a single store weighing up to 10,000 kg or a single rotary launcher which can suspend and eject up to eight munitions with a weight up to 1,500 kg and length up to 4.5 meters. Both weapons bays are covered by a pair of hydraulically actuated sliding doors; sliding both doors aft uncovers the forward weapons bay while sliding just the rear door aft uncovers the rear weapons bay.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Tue Mar 02, 2021 7:30 pm, edited 30 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Mon Jan 09, 2017 12:18 am

Image

RQ-190 Gorgon

General Characteristics:
  • Role: High-Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) UAV
  • Crew: 0 onboard, up to 3 remote (2 pilots, 1 sensor operator)
  • Length: 21.5 m
  • Wingspan: 62.5 m
  • Height: 3.6 m
  • Wing area: 336 m2
  • Empty Weight: 21,950 kg
  • Loaded Weight: 56,700 kg
  • Fuel Weight: 31,750 kg
  • Powerplant: 2x SDI F440 turbofans, 89 kN each
Performance:
  • Maximum speed: Mach 0.85
  • Cruise speed: Mach 0.65
  • Flight Endurance: 40 hours at 3,700 km
  • Ferry Range: 33,300 km
  • Service ceiling: 24,400 m
  • Wing loading: 170 kg/m2
  • Thrust/weight: 0.30
Avionics:
  • SN/ZPY-7 Synthetic Aperture Radar System
  • DB-213 Digital Dual-Band Camera System
  • SN/ZLQ-3 ESM/ELINT System
  • SN/AVN-37 Astro-inertial Navigation System


Overview:
The RQ-190 is a high altitude, long endurance stealth UAV designed by SDI Aerospace Systems. The RQ-190 is designed to be fully autonomous and is capable of taking off, flying to a target area, gather and transmit sensor data, then fly back to base and land without any human intervention.


Airframe & Construction:
The RQ-190 features a tailless flying-wing design with a blended fuselage and extremely high aspect ratio wing designed to both minimize the aircraft's radar signature and to maximize it's flight range and endurance. The aircraft features a high-aspect laminar-flow ratio swept wing with a 62.5 meter span, 35° sweep angle, and an aspect ratio 17. The wing includes a swept wing laminar flow control (SWLFC) system consisting of micrometer-sized discrete roughness elements (DREs) on the upper and lower surfaces of the wing which maintain laminar flow on 45% of the chord on the upper wing surface and 75% of the chord on the lower wing surface at typical cruise conditions, reducing total cruise drag by up to 15%. Large hydraulically-actuated split elevons and split ruddervons on the trailing edge of the wing are used for roll, pitch, and yaw control and provide active gust load alleviation (GLA) in flight. The control surfaces employ a flexible fiber-reinforced elastomer which is used to seal the gap between the hingeline and the forward edge of the control surface, creating a smooth transition from the wing to the control surface which reduces parasitic drag and reduces any potential radar reflection due to gaps between the wing and moving control surfaces.

To reduce radar cross section and structural weight the RQ-190 features an almost all-composite construction with over 90% of the aircraft's empty weight being vacuum assisted resin transfer molded (VARTM) graphite-epoxy sandwich composite structures, essentially everything except the landing gear, engines, actuators, and avionics. To minimize the aeroelastic responses from gust loads the extremely high aspect ratio wings feature an aeroelastically tailored design with the carbon fiber laminate consisting of alternating layers of ±45 fiber orientation laminates which provide favorable bend-twist coupling by allowing the wings to bend up and down under gust loads without twisting, severely limited the shear stress at the wing fuselage junction and thus limiting the required structural mass of the wing structure.


Propulsion
  • Name: SDI F440
  • Type:Twin-spool non-afterburning turbofan
  • Length: 2,550 mm
  • Diameter: 1,180 mm
  • Dry Weight: 1,450 kg
  • Bypass ratio: 0.87
  • Compressor: 3 stage fan, core-driven fan stage (CDFS), 8 stage high pressure compressor
  • Combustor: Annular
  • Turbine: 1 stage high pressure turbine, 2 stage low pressure turbine
  • Maximum thrust: 89 kN
  • Overall pressure ratio: 35:1
  • Specific fuel consumption: 20 g/kN-s
  • Thrust-to-weight ratio: 6.2:1
The RQ-190 aircraft is powered by twin SDI F440 engines. The F440 is a twin spool, low-bypass, axial flow, non-afterburning turbofan capable of producing up to 89 kN of static, sea level thrust. The F440 features a three-stage, long chord blisk fan driven by a two-stage, uncooled low-pressure turbine along and a core-driven fan stage (CDFS) and eight-stage high-pressure compressor driven by a one-stage high-pressure turbine. Variable stator vanes and variable inlet guide vanes are fitted to the three fan stages, core-driven fan stage, and the first three stages of the high-pressure compressor. The three stage fan features highly loaded, long chord, highly swept fan bladed and uses a blisk design for lower fan noise and increased damage tolerance. Nominal fan pressure ratio is 4.2 and nominal overall bypass ratio (OBR) is 0.87.

The F440 features a variety of advanced composite and intermetallic materials designed to increase engine performance and reduce weight and maintenance requirements. The fan blades and low pressure turbine blisks (also referred to as integrally bladed rotors or IBTs) of the F440 are constructed from a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced polyamide composite with titanium reinforcement along the leading edges of the blades which results in an fan and low-pressure compressor that are as strong and durable as their all-metal counterparts while being significant lighter in weight. The high pressure compressor blisks of the F440 are constructed from superplastically formed and diffusion bonded high-temperature gamma titanium aluminide alloy. With a higher temperature tolerance than conventional titanium allots the titanium-aluminide high-pressure compressor allows the engine to function with a higher pressure ratio which decreases specific fuel consumption. The combustor liners, nozzle, and high and low pressure turbine blisks of the F440 are constructed of spark plasma sintered SiC/SiC, an ultra high temperature ceramic matrix composite (CMC) which consists of boron nitride coated silicon carbide fibers embedded into a silicon carbide matrix. The ultra-high temperature turbine material allows the F440 to have an extremely high turbine inlet temperature, improving thrust and fuel efficiency The fuel injectors in the engine are constructed from 3D printed cobalt-chromium alloy manufactured by inserting cobalt-titanium powder into a Direct Metal Laser Melting Machine (DMLMM) where layers of the fine cobalt-titanium powder, each 20 microns thick, are fused together with a fiber optic laser into the desired shape.


Stealth:
The RQ-190 is designed as a VLO (very low obervable) stealth aircraft with an emphasis on multispectral, broadband, all-aspect signature reduction principles. A combination of shaping techniques and radar absorbing materials and structures are designed to counter 0.1-1 GHz long-range surveillance radars, 1.0–3 GHz AWACS radars, and 10 GHz fighter radars while nozzle shaping and various coatings are designed to reduce the aircraft's signature to IRST and FLIR detectors. The RQ-190 is the stealthiest aircraft designed by SDI with an average frontal RCS (+/- 15 degrees from centerline) of -50 dBsm (0.00001 m2) against centimeter band radars and -40 dBsm (0.0001 m2) against meter band radars. The high-aspect ratio wing and blended wing-body fuselage are almost completely featureless when viewed from below and employ continuous curvature shaping which reflects radar energy away from the source. The various panels on the aircraft employ serrated edges to scatter travelling waves and all panel gaps on the aircraft are sealed with a flexible conductive form-in-place (CFIP) sealant or conductive tape to eliminate any gaps in the aircraft surface. The low-profile dorsal mounted divertless intake features a serrated leasing edge and connects to the twin engine faces with a serpentine shaped duct which completely blocks radar line-of-sight view of the engine compressor faces from any aspect. Both engines are buried deep in the fuselage and exhaust through a 2-dimensional nozzle blended into the trailing edge of the fuselage which shields line-of-sight view of the hot exhaust from below.

To eliminate edge diffraction the leading edges of the wing and fueslage as well as the forward lip of the inlet duct feature a comprehensive leading edge treatment consisting of a leading edge extension several centimetres thick made from an RF transparent kapton skin enclosing a fiber honeycomb composite radar absorbing structure (RAS). The honeycomb structure is made with a carbon loaded foam core enclosed by composite sheets made from randomly oriented carbon fibers infused with multiwall carbon nanotubes coated with a magnetic FeNi nanopowder which are aligned and then cured into an thermoset exposy resin to form a fiber-mat panel which is cured into the honeycomb structure. The material is made in two layers, the first designed to reduce reflected radar waves by having a thickness intended to optimize internal reflections and a second, more electrically conductive layer with a higher density of CNTs infused into the carbon fibers which dissipates the remaining radar energy as heat and electrical energy. The impedance of the fiber-mat RAM is matched to air at its outer surface and creates essentially a black body absorber from the VHF through W radar bands (0.1 - 60 MHz). Additional RAM coatings made from the same material are used to line the inlet duct to prevent radar waves from reaching the engine faces.

The Infrared signature of the aircraft is mitigated through a combination of coatings and nozzle features. The aircraft's carbon nanotube RAM coating on the aircraft functions as a moderately effective infrared absorber due to the high infrared absorptivity of CNTs and reduces aircraft's skin infrared signature in long-wave infrared wavelength (8–12 microns) by around half where the where the RAM is present. The aircraft's blended 2D nozzle reduces the infrared signature of the exhaust by promoting greater mixing of the hot exhaust with ambient air and prevents the exhaust form being view from below. The exhaust from the aircraft's engines is passed through an S shaped exhaust duct where it is cooled using bypass air re-injected into the exhaust flow and with ambient air from additional secondary air inlets before exiting through an exhaust trench blended into the rear fuselage of the aircraft. The aircraft's visual signature is mitigated by a grey camouflage scheme which is designed to blend into the sky at the aircraft's typical cruising altitudes.


Avionics
SN/ZPY-7 Synthetic Aperture Radar System: The SN/ZPY-7 is an X band (9.35 GHz) airborne side-looking synethic aperture radar system based on SDI's SN/APY-88 radar which provides long-range, all weather, day and night, high resolution ground mapping and ground moving target indicator (GMTI) capabilities. The SPY-7 radar system is contained on a radar pallet system mounted in the aircraft's ventrally located modular payload bay which provides both left and right broadside scan capability. The ZPY-7 antenna is stabilized using a 2-axis gimbal in both elevation in azimuth and employs a GaN (gallium nitride)-on-diamond T/R modules with individual digital receiver/exciter modules and a digital beamformer unit and has a bandwidth of 600MHz and a maximum radiated power of 3.5 kW. The antenna is capable of scanning +/- 55° perpendicular to the aircraft's centerline with a maximum scan range of 200 kilometers. The ZPY-7 features multiple operating modes including a wide-area scan mode which can image 30km and 50km swaths with 2.0 and 3.0 meter resolution (respectively), strip-map mode which can image a 10 kilometer range swath with 1.0 meter resolution, spotlight mode which can image a 2 by 2 kilometer patch with 0.3 meter resolution, and ground moving target indicator (GMTI) with 20-200 kilometers of range which can detect and track moving ground targets. Ground moving target indicator (GMTI) mode can also be interleaved into both wide-area scan and strip scan modes which provides detection of moving targets within the antenna scan area. Processed SAR imagery from the SN/ZPY-7 radar can be transmitted at up to 100 Mbit/s to ground stations using a Ku band penetrating tactical datalink (PTDL) or at up to 1.5 Mbit/s to communication satellites using a SATCOM antenna blended into the top of the fuselage.

DB-213 Digital Dual-Band Camera System: The SDI DB-213 (Dual band - 213 centimeter focal length) is a side-looking, dual-band, long-range oblique photography (LOROP) camera system mounted in a self-contained electro-optical sensor pallet in the nose of the aircraft. The DB-213 camera uses a 30 centimeter diameter reflecting telescope with a 127/213 centimeter visible/infrared focal length which features both a 25 megapixel (5k x 5k) 0.4-0.9 μm Silicon CCD visible band detector and a 4 megapixel (2k x 2k) 3-5-μm InSB (Indium Antimonide) mid-wave infrared (MWIR) band FPA detector. The side-looking camera is capable of imaging targets out to a slant range of over 120 kilometres in both spot collection mode (2 x 2 kilometer spot) and wide-area search mode (10 kiloemeter wide swath) and can provide NIIRS level 5 or better resolution (0.75 - 1.2 m) out to 74 kilometers (visible) or 26 kilometers (infrared) range. The camera is stabilized using a 2-axis roll and pitch gimbal which provides +/- 20°degree azimuth and +/-80° roll FOV perpendicular to the aircraft's centerline and can maintain camera line-of-sight (LOS) stabilization up to aircraft motion frequencies of 20 Hz. An image processing unit (IPU) mounted in the electro-optical sensor pallet alongside the DB-213 camera provides image processing and camera control and routes the processed image feed to a solid-state recorder and to the aircraft's data link system at a rate of up to 650 Mbps. The electro-optical sensor pallet also includes a power conversion unit (PCU) which converts and transforms power from the aircraft's electrical power distribution system to power the camera and image processing unit.

SN/ZLQ-3 ESM System: The SN/ZLQ-3 ESM System is a combined COMINT/SIGINT/ELINT system designed to detect, identify, and accurately geolocate and track electronically agile radars, RF communications systems, and modern mobile jammers in real time. The SN/ZLQ-3 system employs port and starboard conformal linear interferometer arrays blended into the leading edges of the aircraft's wings which feed into a network of digital-based narrow and wide band receivers and provides detection of radar signals in the 0.1-40 GHz range and communications signals in the 30-3000 MHz range with less than 1° RMS angle-of-arrival (AoA) error with the ability to detect and track up to 1,000 simultaneous emitters in ECM dense environments. Signals from the SN/ZLQ-3 recovers are compared on a signal processor with threat profiles from an onboard library which can store detailed ESM profiles of up 10,000 unique emitters. The system creates an EOB (Electronic Order of Battle) which includes the mapping of all active emitters in the theater including the current emission parameters, location, and direction of each threat emitter which can then be downlinked in real time to other aircraft or to a ground station using the aircraft's Ku band penetrating tactical datalink (PTDL) or the aircraft's SATCOM antenna.

SN/AVN-37 Astro-inertial Navigation System: The SN/AVN-37 is an advanced strapdown astro-inertial navigation system (SAIN) with additional GPS capability. The AVN-37 consists of an inertial navigation unit coupled to an Optical Wide-Angle Lens Startracker (OWLS) which employs a holographic lens blended into the upper surface of the fuselage behind the aircraft's dorsal inlet. The OWLS employs three CCD FPAs operating in the far red band (0.6-0.8 μm) which can simultaneously image three separate 3-degree fields of view to provide all-aspect, day or night stellar coverage down to sea level in all weather conditions. The OWLS system is able to achieve stellar fixes enabling highly accurate GPS independent navigation with position fixes accurate to within 20 meters in broad daylight using the 61 star catalog stored in the system's computer. The inertial measurement unit contained in the system employs a triad of four-mode multioscillator ring laser gyroscopes (RLGs) and a triad of pendulous integrating gyroscopic accelerometers providing highly accurate free-inertial navigation with position errors of less than 1 kilometer/hour. Additional GPS capability is enabled in the AVN-37 system which includes a SAASM (Selective Availability Anti-Spoofing Module)-based receiver with zero-age differential GPS (ZDGPS) capability and space-time adaptive processing (STAP) providing up to 120 dB of GPS jamming resistance.

Vehicle Management System: The aircraft's Vehicle Management System (VMS) is quadruple redundant fly-by-wire system which provides control of all the aircraft flight subsystems. The fly-by-wire system is necessary due to the aircraft's extreme static and dynamic instability which requires constant correction from the aircraft's control surfaces to keep the aircraft in level flight. The VMS consists of four vehicle management computers (VMCs), an interface to the aircraft's SN/AVN-37 astro-inertial navigation and GPS system, two flush mounted LPI (low probability of intercept) radar altimeters, and a low observable pneumatic air data system (LOPADS). The low observable pneumatic air data system (LOPADS) which consists of four flush-mounted air data ports located underneath the nose and eight flush mounted static ports, four on each side of the fuselage, located aft of the radome above and below the forward fuselage chine and provides Mach, altitude, airspeed, angle-of-attack, and sideslip data to the VMS.


Ground Control:
The RQ-190 is controlled on the ground from a Ground Control Element (GCE) which encompasses a Mission Control Station (MCS) and a Launch & Recovery Station (LRS). The Mission Control Station (MCS) a 2.4m x 2.4m x 7.3m shelter which houses communications, command and control, mission planning and image processing computers with four workstations for the pilot and mission control staff. The pilot workstation in the MCE provides a virtual cockpit display which displays aircraft status and health, sensor information, and a keyboard for entering navigation waypoints and alternating the flight course of the aircraft. The sensor operator workstation in the MCE allows the sensor operator to update sensor scan parameters, monitor sensor data collection and status, and initiate remote sensor calibration. The Launch & Recovery Station (LRS) is a 2.4m x 2.4m x 3.0m shelter located at the airbase which is equipped with two workstations and various launch and recovery computers and is responsible for launch and recovery of the aircraft along with local air traffic control responsibilities.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Tue Nov 24, 2020 12:46 pm, edited 17 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Wed Jan 11, 2017 9:41 pm

Image

F/A-33 Revenant

General Characteristics:
  • Role: STOVL Strike Fighter
  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 15.6 m
  • Wingspan: 10.7 m
  • Height: 3.6 m
  • Wing area: 42.7 m2
  • Empty Weight: 14,700 kg
  • Loaded Weight: 22,000 kg
  • Fuel Weight: 6,100 kg
  • Max Takeoff Weight: 27,200 kg
  • Powerplant: 1x SDI F220 variable cycle turbofan, 205 kN
  • Powerplant: 1x SDI F99 lift turbofan, 71 kN
Performance:
  • Maximum speed: Mach 1.8
  • Combat Radius: 1,100 km
  • Ferry Range: 2,220 km
  • Service ceiling: 15,000 m
  • Rate of climb: 250 m/s
  • Wing loading: 515 kg/m2
  • Thrust/weight: 0.95 (loaded weight with 100% fuel)
  • Design g-loading: +7.0/-3.0 g
Armament:
  • Air-to-Air Loadout:
    • 6x AAM-100 HLRAAM
  • Air-to-Ground Loadout:
    • 2x 500 kg bombs or cruise missiles
    • 2x AAM-100 HLRAAM
  • Hardpoints: 6x underwing pylons, 6800 kg total
Avionics:
  • SN/APG-91 X band AESA Radar
  • SN/AAQ-60 Electro-Optical Sensor System
  • SN/AAQ-116 Multispectral Distributed Aperture System
  • SN/ALR-97 Multi-Purpose Passive Receiver System
  • SN/ALE-90 Fiber-Optic Towed Decoy Countermeasure System
  • SN/ASQ-292 CNI System


Overview:
The Revenant is a short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) strike aircraft designed by SDI Aerospace Systems. The Revenant is designed to operate from amphibious assault ships and aircraft carriers and combines stealth shaping with supersonic speed with sensors and internal weapons bays with dual capability for both air-to-ground strike and air superiority missions.


Airframe & Construction:
The Revenant employs a fairly unconventional airframe design with a chined fuselage with strong wing-body blending, a lambda shaped wing, highly canted V-tails, and diamond shaped canards which combine to provide low radar observeability, large internal fuel capacity and payload volume, high agility, high angle-of-attack capability, and low transonic and supersonic drag. The aircraft has twin bifurcated S-duct duct inlets angled to align with the leading and trailing edges of the wing and tail and a yaw/pitch vectoring low observable axisymmetric exhaust nozzle. Control effectors include the all-moving canards, inboard and outboard wing elevons, leading edge vortex flaps, and the pitch and yaw vectoring nozzle.

The aircraft's construction is filly conventional and employs aluminum, titanium, and composite construction. 35% of airframe weight of the the aircraft is made of composite materials including the skin, control surfaces, V-tails, cooling ducts, inlet ducts, access panels, and weapons bay and landing gear doors which are made from vacuum assisted resin transfer molded (VARTM) graphite//bismaleimide (BMI) and graphite/epoxy sandwich composite structures. Machined 7085 aluminum alloy and 2397 aluminium-lithium alloy forgings and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) processed and superplastic forming and diffusion bonded (SPF/DB) Ti-6AI-6V-2Sn titanium alloy structures are used for the majority of internal load bearing structures including bulkheads, longerons, wing ribs, and wing spars.


Vehicle Management System & Flight Control Surfaces:
Vehicle Management System (VMS): The Revenant's vehicle management system (VMS) is a quadruple redundant fully digital fly-by-wire control system responsible for controlling the aircraft in flight. The core of the VMS system are four conduction cooled vehicle management computers (VMCs) which interface using fiber-optic cables to the aircraft's control actuators, engines, cockpit controls, air data system, fuel system, and inertial navigation systems. The sensor subsystem of the VMS includes four air data computers (ADCs) and a low observable pneumatic air data system (LOPADS) which consists of four flush mounted pitot tubes located above the radome in front of the cockit and four flush mounted static ports, two on each side of the fuselage, located aft of the radome above and below the forward fuselage chine and provides Mach, altitude, airspeed, angle-of-attack, and sideslip data to the VMS.

Control surfaces: The control surfaces of the Revenant include split inboard and outboard elevons, leading edge vortex flaps, all-moving canards, and the aircraft's pitch and yaw vectoring nozzle. Pitch control is provided by deflecting the canards and elevons up or down, roll control is provided by deflecting the wing elevons in opposite directions, and yaw control is provided by opening the left or right split elevons. Pitch and yaw control is also augmented by the aircraft's pitch and yaw vectoring nozzle. The aircraft also features a virtual speedbrake capability achieved by deflecting the outboard elevons up and deflecting the inboard elevons and leading edge flaps down. The leading edge vortex flaps act as high-lift devices at low speeds by generating vortex lift across the wing and provide decoupling of fuselage chine and wing vortices at high angles of attack at high sideslip angles, reducing the aircraft's drag and improving its maneuverability and post-stall characteristics at high angles of attack. The aircraft also features two forebody spoilers mounted above and behind the inlet face on each side of the fuselage which can be deflected in flight to provide additiona; yaw control at high angles of attack by generating asymmetric vortex flows about the aircraft's forebody.

Control surface actuators: The control surfaces of the Revenant are actuated using a series of self-contained electrohydrostatic actuators powered by the aircraft's electrical system and connected to the aircraft's vehicle management computers through fiber-optic cabling and replace the hydraulic actuators and pumps of a traditional fly-by-wire control system with self-contained actuators that convert the electrical power into localized hydraulic power for flight control purposes. Each control surface including elevons, flaps, and canards is actuated independently using a series of EHA-VPVM (electro-hydrostatic actuator with variable pump displacement and variable motor speed) actuators which employ variable speed brushless DC permanent magnet motors to drive a variable displacement servopump which is connected to the two chambers of a hydraulic cylinder that is used to actuate the aircraft's control surfaces.

Self-Repairing Flight Control System (SRFCS): A Self-Repairing Flight Control System (SRFCS) is integrated into the aircraft's Vehicle Management System and is designed to detect damage or failure in the aircraft's elevons, canards, and leading edge flap control surfaces. When the system detects damage or loss of a flight control surface or actuator the system then compensates by reconfiguring the remaining flight control surfaces and changing the control laws of the flight control software so that aircraft remains controllable and can be landed safely by the pilot.The SRFCS displays all damage to flight control actuators and surfaces to the pilot through the multifunction display in the cockpit which indicates to the pilot the extent of the damage and any flight speed or maneuverability limitations imposed by the damage. In the event all the aircraft's control surfaces are destroyed or disabled the Revenant's Vehicle Management System can use the aircraft's pitch and yaw vectoring nozzle to steer the aircraft, proving enough control to steer the aircraft to an airfield and perform a safe landing.


Propulsion:
SDI F220
  • Type: Adaptive Cycle Afterburning Turbofan
  • Length: 5,080 mm
  • Diameter: 1,170 mm
  • Dry Weight: 1,800 kg
  • Bypass Ratio: variable
  • Compressor: Two stage fan, core driven fan stage (CDFS), five stage high pressure compressor
  • Combustor: Pressure-gain combustor
  • Turbine: single stage HPT, counter rotating five stage high pressure compressor LPT
  • Maximum Thrust: 159 kN (dry), 205 kN (with afterburner)
  • Overall Pressure ratio: 26:1
  • Turbine inlet temperature: 1,980 °C
  • Specific fuel consumption: 20 g/Kn-s (dry), 40 g/Kn-s (afterburning)
  • Thrust-to-Weight Ratio: 9.0:1 (dry), 11.6:1 (with afterburner)

SDI F99
  • Type: Turbofan
  • Length: 1,500 mm
  • Diameter: 1,200 mm
  • Dry Weight: 360 kg
  • Bypass Ratio: 0.68
  • Compressor: Two stage fan, five stage high pressure compressor
  • Combustor: Annular combustor
  • Turbine: single stage HPT, counter rotating two-stage LPT
  • Maximum Thrust: 71 kN
  • Overall Pressure ratio: 30:1
  • Specific fuel consumption: 25 g/Kn-s
  • Thrust-to-Weight Ratio: 20:1
The F/A-33 is powered by a single SDI F220 adaptive cycle turbofan engine which delivers up to 205 kN of thrust in afterburner. The F220 is a sixth generation engine originally developed for SDI's F/A-36 Seraph aircraft which has been retrofitted to the F/A-33 to improve the speed, agility, and range of the aircraft. The F220 is a two-spool afterburning turbofan with a low pressure spool consisting of two stage fan and single stage low pressure turbine and a high pressure spool consisting of five stage high pressure compressor with core driven fan stage (CDFS) and a single stage high pressure turbine. The engine employs adaptive cycle engine (ACE) technology allowing the engine to change its overall bypass ratio and fan pressure ratio in flight through the use of adaptive geometry devices. Unlike the F220 on the F/A-36 which uses a non thrust vectoring two-dimensional nozzle blended into the aft fuselage the F220 on the F/A-33 employs a three-dimensional low-observable axisymmetric thrust vectoring nozzle which is integrated into the aircraft's artificial stability system. The nozzle is actuated by four independent fueldraulic actuators controlled by a central thrust vector control unit (TVCU) which can vector the engine thrust in both pitch and yaw up to +/- 20° off the aircraft's centerline at a rate of up to 110°/sec. In addition to drastically improving the aircraft's maneuverability the thrust vectoring capability is also used to keep the aircraft in level flight by integrating the thrust vector control unit (TVCU) with the aircraft's vehicle management system (VMS). As the aircraft's extremely high stability instability margin requires near constant control surface actuation to remain in level flight the use of thrust vectoring for stability control limits the actuation required by the aircraft traditional flight control surfaces and thus minimizes both the drag and radar reflection of moving control surfaces.

For V/STOL operation the Revenant uses a lift plus lift/cruise system with vertical thrust provided by both an F99 lift engine and an aft lift module (ALM) with a diverter valve and two retractable rear lift nozzles which vector thrust from the F220 cruise engine downwards during vertical operations. In V/STOL mode the ALM closes the cruise exhaust system and opens a passageway allowing the core and fan streams of the F220 to exit through two lift nozzles on either side of the fuselage which vector the engine thrust downwards to provide lift. A series of movable vanes in each lift nozzle also provide pitch and roll control while hovering. The lift engine is a 71kN thrust SDI F99 turbofan engine 1.5m high and 1.2m in diameter which is mounted behind the cockpit. The F99 is a twin-spool low bypass ratio turbofan with 10 stages; a 2 stage fan with tip shrouded high aspect ratio fan blades, a five-stage high-pressure (HP) compressor, a single-stage HP turbine, and a two-stage low-pressure turbine. The F99 uses a variable area vane box nozzle to provide vectoring of the lift engine exhaust for additional pitch control while hovering. The nozzle uses six highly cambered vanes actuated by tandem linear hydraulic actuators which can vector the lift engine thrust +/- 40° fore and aft at a rate of up to 40° per second. Independent control of the vanes allows the effective nozzle throat area of the engine to be varied which along with variable inlet guide vanes (VIGVs) in the compressor are used to modulate engine thrust and stall margin of the engine during vertical operations. The thrust vectoring nozzle also allows the aircraft to fly at forward speed up to 310 km/h which gives the aircraft an emergency return to base capability in case of main engine failure. The F99 uses an air impingement starting system which takes high pressure bleed air from the F220 engine compressor and directs it through a set of nozzles in the turbine section of the engine.


Stealth:
As a stealth aircraft the Revanant features an extensive radar very low observable (VLO) design with extensive airframe shaping and radar absorbing materials and structures. The aircraft's shaping and radar absorbing materials are designed to counter both 1.0–3 GHz (L - S Band) AWACS radars and 10 GHz (X Band) fighter radars with the aircraft having a frontal radar cross section of around -35 dBSM against centimeter band radars. The aircraft has a faceted fuselage and nose shape and parallel aligned canards, wings, and tails which are shaped and aligned to reflect incident radar energy away from the aircraft. The Revenant also lacks any traditional vertical tail surfaces or any other features which would create corner reflections with the wings and/or fuselage. The aircraft's twin S-duct serpentine intakes prevent line-of-sight view of the engine's turbine blades from any exterior view while the aircraft's low-observable, axisymmetric thrust-vectoring nozzle features a serrated trailing edge to break up traveling reflections. The aircraft's weapons bay doors, landing gear doors, and other access panels feature a saw-tooth shape designed to eliminate radar returns from traveling waves across the surface of the aircraft. Gaps between panels and joints on the aircraft are sealed using a combination of flexible conductive form-in-place (CFIP) sealant, conductive bulb seals, and conductive tape which is placed around ready access panels and used to seal the gaps between the the wing and the control surfaces.

Further reduction of the aircraft's radar signature comes from a hybrid dielectric/magnetic fiber-mat radar absorbing material which is cured into the aircraft's honeycomb composite skin. The RAM consists of randomly oriented carbon fibers infused with multiwall carbon nanotubes coated with a magnetic FeNi nanopowder which are aligned and then cured into an thermoset exposy resin to form a fiber-mat panel which is cured into the aircraft's composite skin. The RAM is made in two layers, the first designed to reduce reflected radar waves by having a thickness intended to optimize internal reflections and a second, more electrically conductive layer with a higher density of CNTs infused into the carbon fibers which dissipates the remaining radar energy as heat and electrical energy. The impedance of the fiber-mat RAM is matched to air at its outer surface and creates essentially a black body absorber from the VHF through W radar bands (0.1 - 60 MHz). Arrangement of the CNTs in multiple orientations allows the RAM to simultaneously absorb incident radar waves from multiple radar source impinging at different incidence angles. The 3D weave is cured into the aircraft's skin panels using a vaccum assisted resin transfer molding process to create each of the individual layers of the RAM (two in total) which are embedded with the composite skin of the aircraft and act as an additional structural member of the skin in addition to functioning as a radar absorbing structure. The RAM does not cover the entire aircraft and is placed in areas where the radar signature can not be reduced through shaping methods such as the wing and tail leading and trailing edges, inside the engine inlet ducts, and on the sides and underside of the fuselage.

Designed with full spectrum stealth in mind the Reverent also features a variety of infrared signature management technologies. The carbon nanotube RAM coating on the aircraft also functions as a moderately effective infrared absorber due to the high infrared absorptivity of CNTs, reducing the aircraft's skin infrared signature in long-wave infrared wavelength (8–12 microns) by around half where the where the RAM is present. To reduce the infrared signature of the airframe both the fuel tanks and bypass air streams of the engine are used as heatsinks for the avionics such as the radar and jamming system which by themselves generate a tremendous amount of heat when active. Further reduction of infrared signature is achieved by circulating fuel around the leading edges of the aircraft which also serves to reduce the heat buildup from supersonic flight. The aircraft also features a series of deployable air scoops along the wings designed to provide cooling air to the engine and power and thermal management system and a set of air scoops located alongside the wing/fuselage junction to provide additional cooling air flow to the engine nacelles.


Avionics:
SN/APG-91 Radar: The SN/APG-91 is an X band active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar system mounted in the nose of the aircraft which provides all-weather air-to-ground, air-to-air, and electronic warfare capability. The radar employs over 1,500 transmit and receive (T/R) modules which use a gallium nitride (GaN) on diamond monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) architecture and is electronically steered with a 120° field of view in both azimuth and elevation. Peak transmitted power of the APG-91 radar is 20 kW and detection range against a 1 m² RCS (0 dBsm) target is about 250 km. Radar modes of the APG-91 include air-to-air target detection and track, ground moving targeting detection and track, maritime moving target detection and track, high resolution synethic aperture radar (SAR) mapping, high-gain ESM and electronic attack. ECCM functionality include randomized burst-to-burst and pulse-to-pulse frequency-hopping, staggered multiple-PRF operation, randomized multiple-beam scan patterns designed to confuse hostile radar warning receivers, sidelobe blanking (SLB) and tapered illumination functions which reduces sidelobe emissions, adaptive null-steering and null-forming techniques for cancelling out directional jamming, and active jammer tracking on both elevation and azimuth. Low probability of interception/detection (LPD/LPI) operation is facilitated by frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) operation which adaptively reduces radar power to the minimum necessary level to continue tracking targets. Automatic target recognition (ATR) techniques supported by the APG-91 system include high range resolution profile (HRRP), inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging (ISAR), and jet engine modulation (JEM).

SN/AAQ-60 Electro-Optical Sensor System: The SN/AAQ-60 Electro-Optical Sensor System or EOSS is a multi-spectral electro-optical targeting sensor fitted underneath the nose of the aircraft which provides FLIR, IRST, laser designation, laser spot tracking, and target geo-location functionality enabling air-to-air and air-to-ground surveillance, target tracking, and precision guided weapon delivery. The EOSS assembly is located in a low-RCS faceted dome constructed from seven sapphire glass panels located on the underside of the fuselage behind the nose of the aircraft. The third generation FLIR used in the EOSS is a 1280 × 1024 pixel HgCdTe array operating in both the MWIR (3–8 µm) and LWIR (8–15 µm) wavelengths and features continuous electronic zoom and four selectable fields of view (wide, medium, narrow and ultra-narrow). The FLIR sensor is supplemented with a 2-Megapixel (1920 × 1080 pixels) dual FPA (Visible/NIR) color HDTV camera and a 1280 x 1024 pixel InGaAs SWIR sensor. The EOSS also includes 40 kilometer range 2.08 μm holmium:YLF (YLiF4) eye-safe laser rangefinder with <1 m range resolution, 1.06 μm and 1.57 µm Nd:YAG laser designators, 0.808 µm NVG/NVIS compatible laser illuminator, and 1.06 μm and 1.57 µm laser spot trackers. For targeting INS/GPS guided weapons the EOSS includes far target location (FTL) capability using the laser rangefinder on the sensor and an onboard 9-axis IMU and GPS-based attitude (GPS/A) sensor which allows the 10-digit GPS grid location of targets illuminated by the system's laser rangefinder to be generated. The EOSS is cooled using Polyalphaolefin (PAO) coolant fed from the aircraft's liquid avionics cooling system.

SN/AAQ-80 Multispectral Distributed Aperture System :[/b] the aircraft's SN/AAQ-80 Multispectral Distributed Aperture System (MDAS) consists of six 1280 × 1024 pixel mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) starring focal plane array IR imagers similar to the ones used in the ASQ-60 placed around the aircraft which provide 360 degree spherical situational awareness infrared search and track (SAIRST), missile approach warning (MAW), and 360 degree spherical day/night pilot vision. One sensor system is placed in the nose pointing forward, two in the nose pointing sideways, one aft of the cockpit pointing upwards, and two on the lower fuselage pointing downwards. The system allows for simultaneous 360 degree spherical tracking of air and surface targets, 360 degree spherical missile approach warning (MAW) capability, and 360 degree spherical pilot vision around the aircraft in all weather conditions. The MDAS is capable of simultaneously tracking enemy aircraft, surface and ground targets, surface to air, air to air, and ballistic missiles, can automatically cue appropriate missile countermeasures, and allows high off bore launching of missiles in any direction relative to the aircraft.

SN/ALR-97 Multi-Purpose Passive Receiver System: The SN/ALR-97 is the primary electronic warfare system carried by the F/A-33 aircraft. The ALR-97 provides radar warning, direct finding and geolocation, multi-ship emitter triangulation, and supports electronic attack capability through the aircraft's radar and towed decoys. The ALR-97 employs two 200 element wide-band synthetic arrays (WBSAs) on the wing leading edges covering the 6–18 GHz range , two 64 element wide-band synthetic arrays on the wing trailing edges covering the 2-6 GHz range, two single arm spiral antennas on the top and bottom of the fuselage covering the 2–18 GHz range, and four 8-arm spiral antennas on the top and bottom of the fuselage covering the 0.2-2 GHz range. Each array is interconnected via a fiber-optic RF interconnect to a group of frequency converters which convert the received RF signals to an intermediate frequency (IF) which then feed the signal through an IF interconnect to the EW receiver modules. The system empoys 12 wideband EW receivers grouped into three sets of four recivers each covering the low, mid, and high bands. The EW recicvers convert the IF signal and convert it into digital signal which is sent to the aircraft's integrated core processor (ICP) for processing. In addition to displaying the pilot the location and characteristics of detected emitters on his multiplication cockpit display the ALR-97 also interfaces with the aircraft's radar system, countermeasure dispensers, and towed decoys and provides multiple self-defense against radar threats that are illuminating the aircraft including dispersal of chaff and/or jamming of the radar using the aircraft's towed decoys or AESA radar system.

SN/ALE-90 Fiber-Optic Towed Decoy Countermeasure System: For self-protection against radar guided missiles and fire control radars the F/A-33 aircraft carries four ALE-90 fiber-optic towed decoys contained in retractable reel-in/reel-out capable employers deployers in two sets of trap-door bays located on either side of the aircraft's rear landing gear doors. The deployed ALE-90 decoy is connected to the host aircraft through a kevlar strengthened fiber-optic cable which transmits specific deception techniques from an on-board threat library to be emitted through the decoy's integral embedded radar technique generator and digital RF Memory (DRFM) jammer system with GaN (Gallium Nitride) based solid-state transmitters and power amplifiers. The towed decoy units employ four electro-mechanically actuated variable drag fins for aerodynamic stability which open and close in response to varying air pressures and aircraft speeds to maintain constant decoy separation and attitude relative to the host aircraft across varying flight conditions. The ALE-90 decoys employ range and velocity gate pull-off (RGPO/VGO) and cross-eye based deceptive jamming techniques to prevent radar lock- and tracking of the host aircraft. The decoys can also operate in seduction mode which simulates the radar signature of the host aircraft to the lure the incoming missile(s) towards the decoy instead of the aircraft.


Cockpit:
Cockpit displays and controls: The aircraft's cockpit features a 50 x 20 centimeter Multifunction Colour Head Down Display (MCHDD) consisting of a panoramic 2560 x 1024 pixel active-matrix LCD (AMLCD) capacitive touch-screen display which can be configured to display relevant flight instrumentation, navigation, communication, and weapons system information and supports swipe and pinch-zoom capability with 5-point multi-touch capability allowing for the repositioning and enlarging or shrinking of the various display.The MCHDD also includes dual redundant LED backlights which support both daytime high-sunlight and nighttime NVG/NVIS compatible operation modes. Underneath the main MCHDD is an integrated control panel (ICP) which includes a keypad for entering entering communications, GPS, and autopilot data. The cockpit is also equipped with a direct voice input (DVI) system which allows the pilot to use voice commands to issue instructions to the flight control, navigation, communication, and/or weapon systems of the aircraft. The aircraft uses a right handed HOTAS (Hands on Throttle and Stick) layout with the control stick on the right and the throttle on the left of the cockpit.

b]Helmet mounted display:[/b] The F/A-33 aircraft is designed to be flown using the SDI Nemesis Advanced Helmet Mounted Display System (AHMDS), a fifth generation Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) which incorporates a curve wave guided holographic display (CWHD), built in night vision camera, high accuracy head and eye tracking system, laser eye protection, and a 3D-Audio/Active Noise Reduction system. The Nemesis features a shock absorbing liner made from a shear thickening non newtonian fluid and is constructed from a carbon nanotube reinforced carbon fiber composite which is custom molded to the head of each individual pilot. The panoramic, polarized visor of the nemesis is constructed from polycarbonate embedded with a nano-thin layer of tungsten oxide and tungsten bronze nanoparticles which provides both laser eye protection and anti-glare functions. The curve wave guided holographic display (CWHD) display of the Nemesis provides 80 x 40 degree field of view, 2560 x 1024 pixel resolution bi-occular imagery uses two LCOS (Liquid Crystal on Silicon) 1280 x 1024 pixel active-matrix liquid-crystal displays (AMLCDs) placed on either side of the helmet to display images onto a holographic optical waveguide built into the polycarbonate visor. For flying in low light conditions the Nemesis features a built in Electron Bombarded Active Pixel Sensor (EBAPS) based visible/near infrared (NIR) night vision camera with a 60 hertz refresh rate and a 1200 x 1600 pixel UXGA (Ultra Extended Graphics Array) resolution which incorporates advanced non-blooming, low halo technology with automatic gain control. The image from the night vision camera can be displayed directly onto the helmet’s visor, negating the need for the pilot to wear night vision goggles. The display also includes an LED backlight designed to increase the readability of the display in high-brightness conditions. A 9-axis internal measurement unit (IMU) and a substrate-guided wave (SGW) based eye tracking system built into the HMD provides precise tracking of pilot head and eye movementand allows both the X band radar and IRST to be slaved to the pilot's vision. Stitched, sensor fused output from the aircraft’s Multispectral Distributed Aperture System (MDAS) infrared cameras can also be displayed into the HMD to provide the pilot with 360 degree spherical day-and-night synthetic vision around the aircraft. The Nemesis also features a built in 3D-Audio/Active Noise Reduction (ANR) system with an additional built in binaural based threat warning system which reduces pilot fatigue and hearing loss, improves the clarity of radio transmissions, and alerts the pilot to threats around the aircraft.

Flight suit & life support: The F/A-33 is intend to be flown using a pneumatically controlled anti-G-suit with partial-pressurization and assisted positive pressure breathing system that allows the pilot to briefly endure 7+ g turns without suffering g induced loss of consciousness as well as maintain breathing ability at high altitudes. The aircraft life support system includes an on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS) to generate oxygen for the pilot during flight. The OBOGS works by taking filtered engine bleed-air and passing it through a pressure-reducing valve to reduce the air to ambient pressure where the air is then passed over a zeolite-filled bed that absorbs the nitrogen molecules in the air which are purged from the bed and vented overboard . The 95% pure oxygen generated by the OBOGS is then fed into the pilot's breathing regulator. A back-up tank of liquid oxygen attached to the ejection seat is used to provide oxygen in case of an OBOGS or pilot ejection from the aircraft. Pilot ejection is via a SDI ARES (Advanced Rocket Ejection Seat), a rocket powered zero/zero (capable of ejecting at zero airspeed and zero altitude) ejection seat which is rated for ejection at any altitude from 0 to 30,000 meters and speed from 0 to mach 3.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Tue Mar 02, 2021 7:31 pm, edited 16 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Mon Jan 30, 2017 9:18 pm

Image

RAH-80 Reaper

General Characteristics:
  • Role: Reconnaissance and attack helicopter
  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 13.2 m
  • Height: 4.7 m
  • Disc area: 113 m2
  • Empty Weight: 3,400 kg
  • Fuel Weight: 700 kg
  • Max Takeoff Weight: 6,500 kg
  • Powerplant:1x SDI T1000 turboshaft, 2,250 kW
  • Main Rotor Diameter: 12.0 m
  • Propeller: 6-bladed variable-pitch, 2.5 m diameter
Performance:
  • Maximum Speed: 240 knots (440 km/h)
  • Cruise Speed: 220 knots (410 km/h)
  • Combat Radius: 275 km w/ 2 hour loiter
  • Endurance: 3.5 hours
  • Ferry Range: 2,200 km
  • Service Ceiling: 6,100 m
  • Rate of Climb: 28 m/s
  • Disc Loading: 57.5 kg/m2
  • Power/mass: 0.35 kW/kg
  • Maximum g-loading: +3.5/-1.0 g
Armament:
  • 1x 20mm MK-203 three-barrel rotary cannon, 500 rounds
  • Internal bays: 6x ASM-93 missiles or 24x 81mm AGR-30 Viper guided rockets
  • Optional stub wings : 8x ASM-93 missiles or 32x 81mm AGR-30 Viper guided rockets
Avionics:
  • SN/AAQ-70 Multispectral Target Acquisition System (MTAS)
  • SN/AAR-64 Missile Approach Warning System
  • SN/APR-56 Radar Frequency Interferometer System
  • SN/ALQ-216 Integrated RF Countermeasure System
  • SN/ALE-68 Countermeasures Dispenser System
  • SN/AAQ-13 Advanced Infrared Countermeasure (AIRCM) System


Overview:
The RAH-80 Reaper is a high speed reconnaissance and attack helicopter designed by SDI Aerospace Systems


Design & Construction:
The RAH-80 employs a single-piece, composite semi-monocoque fuselage constructed from graphite/epoxy and kevlar/epoxy laminates and honeycomb sandwich composites which combined constitute approximately 80% of the airframe weight. The fuselage has a faceted shape with prominent nose chines designed to reduce the helicopter's radar cross section. Ballistically resistant kevlar/epoxy laminates and kevlar/epoxy honeycomb sandwich strictures are used for the majority of the external fuselage while graphite/epoxy composite structures are used for the majority of the internal load bearing structures. An aluminium wire mesh is laminated into the outer composite skin panels to provide lightning strike protection. The main fuselage structure consists of kevlar/epoxy laminate skin with kevlar/epoxy honeycomb skin stiffeners and internal graphite/epoxy honeycomb sandwich panel stringers, beams and frames. The floor of the helicopter contains kevlar/epoxy honeycomb crush structures designed to deform and absorb energy upon impact and are designed to absorb the impact of a 12 m/s vertical velocity crash landing. Kevlar/epoxy laminates with rubber backed boron carbide (B4C) tiles embedded into the epoxy resin are used around the cockpit structure and in the crew seats of the helicopter which provide multi-hit protection against 15mm AP ammunition at 100 meters range. The fuel cells are located in the fuselage and are supported with fiber-reinforced ballistic foam. The tailcone structure is built as a single co-cured component and is constructed from filament wound graphite/epoxy composite and contains a set of blow-out panels designed to relieve the internal pressure caused by the internal detonation of a 30 mm high explosive incendiary (HEI) projectile. The tail cone section is also designed to break off during crashes to minimize the weight the fuselage crush-structures have to absorb on impact. The empennage structure consist of a horizontal stabilizer with outboard inward cranked vertical tail fins and a single ventral rudder and is constructed from kevlar/epoxy sandwich composite skins with internal tubular spars constructed from filament wound graphite/epoxy composites designed to withstand the overpressure of a 30 mm HEI round detonation.


Propulsion:
  • Name: T1000
  • Type: Turboshaft
  • Length: 1,190 mm
  • Diameter: 410 mm
  • Dry Weight: 207 kg
  • Compressor: 6 stage axial, 1 stage centrifugal
  • Combustor: annular axial-flow
  • Turbine: 2 stage HPT, 3 stage PT
  • Maximum power output: 2,250 kW
  • Overall pressure ratio: 25:1
  • Power-to-weight ratio: 10.8 kW/kg
  • Turbine inlet temperature:[/b 1,430 °C
  • [b]Specific fuel consumption: 0.22 kg/kW-hr
Engine: The Reaper is powered by a single SDI T1000 turboshaft engine providing 2,250 kW of power. The T1000 engine consist of four removable modules; an inlet particle separator (IPS) module, accessory gearbox module, gas generator module, and a power turbine module. The inlet particle separator (IPS) module is designed to prevent engine ingestion of sand, dirt, dust, and other debris and consists of an engine driven axial flow separator with a flow splitter, scavenge air vanes, and graphite-epoxy composite scroll fan designed to filter inlet air with minimum inlet pressure loss. The accessory gearbox module is driven by the high pressure spool using a radial driveshaft and contains the mounting points for the starter, IPS blower, oil pump, and fuel
control unit. The gas generator module consist of an axial-centrifugal compressor with six axial stages and one centrifugal stage, an axial-flow annular combustion chamber, and a cooled two-stage high-pressure turbine. The six transonic axial-flow stages employ single piece Ti-1100 beta titanium alloy blisks with highly swept airfoils while the single centrifugal stage employs Ti-62222S alpha-beta titanium alloy construction. The engine features a set of variable inlet guide vanes (VIGV) located in front of the first compressor stage and variable stator vanes located after the first and second axial compressor stages which are automatically adjusted in-flight as a function of compressor RPM and inlet temperature to ensure an adequate surge margin for the engine across varying flight conditions. The combustor is an axial-flow type and employs 15 fuel­-atomizing nozzles and supplies hot, high pressure combustion products to the turbine section of the engine. The two-stage high pressure (HP) turbine drives the compressor and employs Udimet 720 nickel superalloy turbine disks with turbine blades constructed from monolithic single crystal superalloy castings and employs impingement and film cooling using bleed-air from the fifth axial compressor stage. After exiting the second high pressure turbine stage the gases flow into the power turbine module which consist of a three-stage free power turbine which extracts most of the remaining energy of the hot combustion gasses to drive the aircraft's rotors and pusher propeller. The three-stage power turbine employs three rows of uncooled nickel-chromium superalloy blades and three Udimet 720 nickel superalloy turbine disks. After the gases have passed through the power turbine section the gases are vented upwards into the atmosphere through the engine exhaust duct which vents the exhaust upwards through slots built into an inverted shelf on the sides of the tail-boom. The T1000 engine control system includes a dual-channel FADEC (full-authority digital engine control) with all electrical and optical connections to the aircraft's digital flight control system and and an engine health monitoring system to expedite engine maintenance and repair.

Rotor system: The aircraft uses SDI's compound coaxial helicopter propulsion system which employs a lift-offset coaxial rotor design with two contra-rotating rigid main rotors and a clutchable pusher propeller assembly. The lift-offset rotor design offloads the lift from the retreating blades by using the aerodynamic lift of the advancing blade, eliminating the potential of stall of the retreating blades and thus allowing for higher speed horizontal flight. In addition the two contra-rotating coaxial rotors produce opposing torques, eliminating the need for a tail rotor. Each of the coaxial main rotors is 12 meters in diameter and and has four rigid wide-chord active rotor blades attached to the rotor hub using a series of elastomeric pitch bearings. The rotor blades are tapered in thickness from the tip to root and employ a continuous wound carbon fiber skin bonded to a hollow graphite/epoxy honeycomb composite structure. An additional polyurethene abrasion strip is bonded to the leading edge of each rotor blade. Each hollow blade additionally contains a graphite/epoxy composite flexbeam which extends from the rotor hub to the mid-span of the blade which provides ballistic tolerance to internal detonations of HEI rounds up to 30 mm in caliber and increases the rigidity and flapping stiffness of the rotor blade to allow for closer spacing of the coaxial rotors to minimize drag in forward flight. Each rotor blade features an active vibration control system (AVCS) consisting of a trailing edge flap on each rotor blade actuated by double X-frame actuator with four single-crystal piezoelectric stack columns embedded in each rotor blade capable of defecting the trailing edge flap +/- 3°. The active flaps allow the lift generated by each rotor blade to be varied and blade-vortex interaction (BVI) induced noise and vibration to be significantly reduced by eliminating pressure fluctuations on the leading edges of the blades. A composite fairing covers each rotor hub to reduce parasitic drag in flight. Each coaxial rotor is fitted with its own rotor control system which are located concentric with the twin coaxial rotors. Each rotor control system contains four electro-mechanical servomotor actuators and a swashplate and pitch control rod assembly used to adjust the pitch of the four rotor blades of each rotor in flight. A noise and vibration reducing electronic synchrophaser mechanism is located inside the rotor control system assembly and matches the rpm and phase of both coaxial rotors by adjusting the speed of each rotor and the relative positions of each individual blade.

Transmission system: The transmission system of the helicopter is rated for 2,250 kW (3,000 PS) and transfers power from the turboshaft engines to the coaxial main rotors, the pusher propeller, and the accessory drive system. The main gearbox of the transmission system is constructed from magnesium to reduce weight and provides a speed reduction between the turboshaft engine and the pusher propeller and coaxial rotor drive shafts and is connected to the fuselage using four elastomeric isolator mounts which provide vibration isolation in the roll, pitch, and yaw directions. Power from the turboshaft engines enters the main gearbox using a turboshaft-to-gearbox drive shaft fitted with flexible couplings that allow for slight misalignment between the engine output shaft and the gearbox housing. Inside the gearbox the engine output shaft connects to an overrunning clutch and connects to both the pusher propeller shaft and a spiral bevel gear reduction set which rotates the power output 90 degrees from horizontal to vertical and then connects to a compound spur planetary gear reduction set which drives the twin coaxial main rotors. The upper rotor is driven by the lower planetary ring gear and rotates counter-clockwise while the lower rotor is driven by the lower planetary carrier and rotates clockwise. A differential rotor speed drive located inside the main gearbox is used to transfer torque from the yaw control motor to the upper planetary ring gear and permits differential rotor rpm to produce differential torque about the yaw axis. A spur gear connected to the ring gear drives an oil lubricated rotary vane pump and provides cooling oil flow to the gears and bearings of the main gearbox. Power take-off from the transmission system is also used to drive two 30 kW 270VDC oil-cooled electric generators and two 3,000 psi hydraulic pumps which provide electrical and hydraulic power for the aircraft and two HPMGs (Hydraulic Permanent Magnet Generators) which power the flight control computers. The rear pusher propeller is driven by an composite drive shaft constructed from transversely wound carbon fiber reinforced PEEK (Polyether ether ketone) and which runs from the main gearbox and connects to the pusher propeller gearbox located in the tail of the aircraft. A disconnecting clutch is contained in the pusher propeller gearbox which allows the pusher propeller to be disengaged for hovering or low-speed flight. The overruning clutch located in the main gearbox activates past a certain rotor RPM and disengages the rotor drive system from the gearbox, transferring all the engine power to the pusher propeller and letting the main rotors auto-rotate for high speed forward flight.

Auxiliary power unit:The aircraft is equipped with an SDI SDT-125 170 HP Auxiliary power unit which is used to start the main engine, provide bleed air for the aircraft's environmental control system (ECS) and also to drive a third 30 kW 270VDC oil-cooled electric generator and 3,000 psi hydraulic pump as a backup to the two electric generators and hydraulic pumps driven by the main transmission system. The SDT-125 features a single-stage centrifugal compressor, reverse-flow combustor with effusion cooled combustor liner, and single axial turbine stage and provides up to 0.5 kg/s of bleed air flow and can start in the engine in mid-air at altitudes up to 4,500 meters.


Avionics:
SN/AAQ-70 Multispectral Target Acquisition System (MTAS): The SN/AAQ-70 MTAS is a combined electro-optical surveillance and fire control sensor system designed to allow target surveillance and precision weapon targeting day and night and in adverse weather conditions. The MTAS contains a 1280 × 1024 pixel third-generation cooled mid-wave infrared (3 - 5 µm) starring array FLIR sensor with four selectable fields of view (WFOV, MFOV, NFOV, and SNFOV) and up to 130× continuous digital zoom, 1920 × 1080 pixel dual-FPA visible and near-infrared (NIR) low-light-level TV (LLLTV) camera with four fields of field of view matched to the FLIR sensor and continuous digital zoom, 40 kilometer range 2.08 μm holmium:YLF (YLiF4) eye-safe laser rangefinder with <1 m range resolution, 1.06 μm and 1.57 µm Nd:YAG laser designators, 0.808 µm NVG/NVIS compatible laser illuminator, and 1.06 μm and 1.57 µm laser spot tracker. The MTAS sight housing can rotate +/-120° in azimuth and +30°/-80° degrees in elevation at up to 60°/s and is stabilized using 2-axis pitch and yaw active gyro stabilization and 6-axis passive dampening. The MTAS supports sensor fusion of the FLIR and LLTV outputs which is infinitely selectable from 0% IR - 100% visible/NIR to 100% IR - 0% visible/NIR. Supported software functions of the MTAS include continuous autofocus, field of view and focus slaving, automated search pattern scanning, data recording, automatic target tracking with track-while-scan capability, and image processing functions including automatic target recognition (ATR) capability using an onboard library of threats stored in the memory of the MTAS processor. Targets detected and classified by the MTAS system are displayed on the crew's multi-function displays as cropped images of the target with an underlying target assessment text generated by the ATR algorithm which allow the pilots to then confirm the target and either automatically engage it with their aircraft's own weapons or relay the targe information to another platform. The automated search pattern capability of the MTAS additionally allows the aircraft to emerge from cover, rapidly scan a section of terrain, then immediately retreat back to cover where the video feed from MTAS scan of the terrain can be replayed to the crew and potential targets located and identified for attack. The MTAS also supports far target location (FTL) capability using the laser rangefinder and an onboard 9-axis IMU and GPS-based attitude (GPS/A) sensor which allows the 10-digit GPS grid location of targets illuminated by the system's laser rangefinder to be generated.

SN/AAQ-44 Distributed Aperture System: For flying in low-light and/or low visibly conditions the aircraft includes an SN/AAQ-44 Distributed Aperture System (DAS) system combining panoramic high resolution sensors providing stereoscopic vision for terrain elevation, distance perception, and obstacle detection functions. The DAS system comprises the sensor modules placed above the MTAS sensor which each contain three 640 x 512 pixel uncooled uncooled microbolometer focal-plane array (FPA) detectors operating in the LWIR (7.5 - 13.5 µm) region which combined provide +/-90° azimuth and +/-24° elevation field of view. Imagery from the DAS is combined with imagery feed from the MTAS sensor and streamed directly into the helmet mounted display (HMD) of eahc pilot, allowing them to literally see through the aircraft in order to detect obstacles, terrain hazards, or other threats around the aircraft in all light and weather conditions.

SN/AAR-64 Missile/Laser Warning System: The SN/AAR-64 is a combined missile and laser warning system installed in the aircraft which provides passive warning of incoming threat missiles and illumination by threat lasers. The AAR-64 system employs six optical sensor heads with integral optical signal converters mounted in the nose and tail of the aircraft which provide combined 360 degree spherical coverage around the aircraft, a central processor which inputs and analyses signals from the six sensor heads to detect and classify threats, and a central control unit located in the cockpit which provides visual and aural threat warning to the crew and allows for control of the system. Each AAR-64 sensor heads contains an ultra-violet (UV) single-pixel quadrant sensors with an adjunct UV sensor for improved dynamic blanking, a laser warning sensor which warns the crew when the aircraft is being illuminated by a laser designator/illuminator/rangefinder or if the aircraft is being targeted by a laser beam-riding missile, and a short-wave infrared (SWIR) camera which provide detection and tracking of incoming rocket and tracer ammunition. An interface with the aircraft's APR-56 radar warning system allows the AAR-64 system to distinguish between radar and infrared guided missile threats and to automatically queue the countermeasures system to dispense flares when the system identifies an oncoming IR guided missile.

SN/APR-56 Radar Frequency Interferometer System: The APR-56 radar frequency interferometer system consists of four short-baseline and long-baseline dual-polarized four-element interferometer antenna arrays, twin four-channel amplitude and three channel phase digitized quadrant receiver with digital signal processing (DSP) and instantaneous frequency measurement (IFM) capability, and a central digital signal measurement and radar data processor unit. The complete system provides 360 degree spherical detection, identification, and high accuracy direction finding of radar signals in the UHF through W band (0.7-40 GHz) including radar directed air defense threats such both pulse Doppler and continuous wave (CW) surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery search and tracking radars. The system can also automatically dispense appropriate countermeasures and warn the crew through cockpit displays and a synthetic voice warning system to take evasive action when a threat radar system is illuminating the aircraft.

SN/ALQ-216 Integrated RF Countermeasure System: The SN/ALQ-216 is a comprehensive airborne electronic warfare suite which includes which includes wideband DRFM (Digital Radio Frequency Memory) jamming system and central electronic warfare control processor unit. The active jamming capability of the ALQ-216 includes a set of two low band and two high band solid state phased array (SSPA) DRFM jammers employing gallium nitride (GaN) lightweight circuit boards and conformal broad-band antenna units providing 360 degree jamming coverage around the aircraft covering the 0.7-40 GHz frequency bands and providing narrow beam, high power self-protection deceptive jamming capability effective against pulse Doppler, monopulse, and continuous wave radars. The DRFM jammer system employs phase front distortion, range gate pull-off (RGPO), velocity gate pull-off (VGPO), and other deceptive jamming techniques and includes an on-board threat library which identifies and prioritizes threat emitters and jams them order of perceived threat to the host aircraft. When threat signals are detected and identified by the systems radar interferometer sensors jamming of the emitter automatically begins and continues until the threat radar signal is no longer detected by the system's receiver arrays.

SN/ALE-68 Countermeasures Dispenser System: The SN/ALE-68 is an airborne countermeasures dispenser system designed to dispense chaff, flares, and other expendable decoys to increase aircraft survivability. The SN/ALE-58 system consists of two tail mounted cartridge dispenser modules (CDMs) each capable of containing up to 32x 5.0 cm x 2.5 cm x 8.0 cm countermeasures each and a central defensive aids controller (DAC) unit with inputs from both the SN/AAR-64 missile/laser warning system and SN/APR-56 system. When a threat missile is detected by the aircraft's SN/AAR-64 missile/laser warning system or SN/APR-56 systems the defensive aids controller of the ALE-68 automatically selects appropriate expendable countermeasures to be released by the system's dispensers to decoy or spoof away the incoming missile. Countermeasures supported including pyrophoric spectral flares for decoying IR missiles and chaff, and active digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) decoys for decoying RF guided missiles.

SN/AAQ-13 Advanced Infrared Countermeasure (AIRCM) System: The SN/AAQ-13 is a directional infrared countermeasure system which employs tunable multi-band quantum cascade laser (QCL) laser dazzlers to counter infrared man portable air defense systems (IR MANPADS) threats. The AAQ-13 system consists of missile warning system interface, central control unit processor, and two laser pointer/tracker units mounted on either side of the fuselage which provide combined 360 degree protection around the aircraft. The missile warning system interface uses the UV and IR sensors of the SN/AAR-64 system to detect and incoming missiles and cue the laser pointer/tracker to track and then jam the incoming missile. Each laser pointer/tracker weighs 16 kilograms and consists of quantum cascade laser (QCL) based optical emitter assembly and a beam steering assembly consisting of a clear hemispherical housing 14 centimeters in diameter containing a laser mirror mounted on a servomotor actuated 2-axis gimbal with a strap-down inertial sensor which provides 360° continuous azimuth and -10°/+ 90°degree elevation coverage with a maximum slew rate of 1200°/s. The gimbal has a maximum slew time of less than 300 milliseconds and can track targets up to 30°/s with less than 0.3 milliradians pointing accuracy. The quantum cascade laser (QCL) used in the AAQ-13 system employs a GaInAs/AlInAs (gallium-indium arsenide/aluminium indium arsenide) lattice on an InP (indium phosphide) substrate which provides high continuous-wave power output at room temperature and which covers both the mid and long-wave infrared bands used by typical infrared missile seekers (3-12 μm) allowing simultaneous break-lock jamming of infrared guided missiles in multiple infrared spectrum bands. The entire AAQ-13 system consumes less than 550 watts of peak power and is relatively light and compact with a total weight of less than 40 kilograms including twin laser pointer/tracker assemblies and central processor unit.

SDI OWLS (Obstacle Warning Laser System): The SDI OWLS or Obstacle Warning Laser System is an active LADAR (Laser Detection and Ranging) based sensor system designed to detect power lines, cables, and other small obstacles in front of the helicopter which are not readily detectable by the helicopter's FLIR or radar sensors . OWLS employs a 3-D LADAR sensor mounted in a box above the SN/AAS-54 FLIR turret in the helicopter's nose which contains an eye-safe 15 kW erbium fiber pulsed laser operating at 60 kHz. The 3D LADAR system scans +/- 18° in azimuth and +/- 21° in elevation in front of the helicopter and is capable of detecting a 5mm diameter wire at a range of 700 meters under normal atmospheric conditions. Obstacles detected by the OWLS sensor are superimposed into the N/AAQ-44 Distributed Aperture System feed and the pilot's helmet mounted display (HMD) and are accompanied by an aural warning tone in the cockpit when the system detects an obstacle in the helicopter's current flight path, enabling the crew to avoid to avoid them.

ICNIA (Integrated Communications Navigation Identification Avionics) System: The Aircraft is designed with an SDI ICNIA system which combined software defined radio communications system, embedded global positioning system/inertial navigation system (EGI), and IFF interrogator and transponder unit. The primary communications system of the aircraft is an SDI software defined radio (SDR) proving multi-band, multi-mode capable, encrypted voice, data, and video communications between the aircraft and other platforms. The SDR supports up to 10 programmable channels in the 2 MHz -2 GHz frequency range with 40 individual waveforms including UHF, EHF, and VHF demand assigned multiple access satellite communications (DAMA SATCOM), VHF-FM, VHF-AM and UHF-FM, line-of-sight communications, HF non-line of sight communications, UHF, L, S, C, and Ku band tactical two-way datalinks, enhanced position location reporting system (EPLRS), and tactical air navigation (TACAN) waveforms.For navigation the aircraft is equipped with twin redundant embedded GPS/INS navigation systems each combining a SAASM (Selective Availability Anti-spoofing Module) and SPS (Standard Positioning Service) capable dual frequency anti-jam GPS receiver with a strapdown INS unit containing 3 axis digital ring laser gyros (RLG) and 3-axis quartz flexure accelerometers (QFA) which supports highly accurate free-inertial and blended GPS/INS navigation modes and gyrocompass, stored heading, and in-flight alignment modes. The navigation system also includes an SDI SN/APN-188 low probability of intercept altimeter which is a solid-state, frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar altimeter system operating in the C band (4.2-4.4 GHz) which provides highly accurate (<0.3 meter accuracy) altitude measurement from 0 to 2,500 meters altitude. The IFF system integrated into the ICNIA suite consists of a combined interrogator/transponder unit with integrated cryptological computer supporting mode 5 elementary and enhanced surveillance (ELS and EHS) interrogation capability.The ICNIA system is managed by a trio of SDI multi-core mission processors with 512 GB of memory, 80 1.8GHz cores and four graphics processor units each which provide mission computing and central processing for all the aircraft's ICNIA system.

Integrated Flight and Fire Control (IFFC) System: The integrated fire and flight control (IFFC) system is a combined fire control and flight control software system which allows for combined evasive maneuvering and unguided rocket and turreted gun system firing against moving aerial and ground targets and for guided missile launch against targets off-axis from the aircraft's current flight direction. When engaged the IFFC system will use the automatic target tracking function of aircraft's multispectral target acquisition system (MTAS) to automatically lock on to a target and compute a firing solution when the target is selected by the pilot. When the pilot presses the attack button on his stick the IFFC system will then interface with the aircraft's fly-by-wire flight control system to automatically turn and maneuver the aircraft into weapon range, point the aircraft or gun turret in the direction of the target, and fire the weapon without any further pilot input. When the cannon is selected the IFCC will use the angle tracker of the MTAS system in combination with the laser rangefinder to precisely compute target speed, range, angle, automatically slew the gun turret to a position ahead and above the target (as a function of target range and speed), and fire a burst of rounds. When using unguided rockets the IFFC system will instead point the entire aircraft to align the rocket launch axis with the computed fire control system solution. When firing guided missiles the IFFC will instead just spin or turn the aircraft towards the target, pitch the nose up or down (depending on target range), and fire the missile. In all weapon modes the IFCC supports automatic evasive maneuvering which when selected performs a series of +3/-1 G pseudo-random evasive maneuvers as the aircraft turns towards the target and fires its weapon in order the reduce the probably of the aircraft being hit by anti-aircraft fire.


Cockpit & Flight Control:
Canopy: The cockpit canopy is constructed from two layers of acrylic/polycarbonate laminate with an optical grade thermoplastic polyurethane interlayer which provides high ballistic and thermal shock tolerance with high light transmittance and optical quality. A fogging/deicing system consisting of two layers of transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) coatings on either side of the polyurethane interlayer which are heated using an AC waveform to remove ice and fogging from the canopy. The indium tin oxide coating also provides electromagnetic shielding for the cockpit and prevents radar waves from entering the cockpit. The cockpit also features an outer anti-reflective dielectric coating which prevents static build up and collection of dust particles on the exterior of the cockpit glass. The two halves of the canopy are separated by a thin trapezoidal shaped graphite/epoxy windshield post which results in minimal visual obstruction for the flight crew.

Cockpit displays:The aircraft employs a side-by-side cockpit seating arrangement which lets both pilots share the same displays.The aircraft features a fully glass cockpit design which includes two 50 x 20 centimeter active matrix LCD multifunction displays (MFD), a control display unit (CDU) with a 9 x 9 centimeter active matrix LCD display, a video processing module (VPM), data transfer unit (DTU), and an integrated vehicle health management system (IVHMS) with a crash survivable memory unit (CSMU).The two 50 x 20 centimeter 2560 x 1024 pixel active matrix LCD infrared touchscreen displays are mounted side-by-side, one for each of the pilots, and are each divided electronically into two 25 by 20 centimeter side-by-side screen element. The touch screen displays supports swipe and pinch-zoom capability with 5-point multi-touch capability allowing for the repositioning and enlarging or shrinking of the various display. Each screen features dual redundant LED backlights which support both daytime high-sunlight and nighttime NVG/NVIS compatible operation modes. Below the two touchscreen displays is the control display unit which includes a NVIS/NVG compatible 9 x 9 centimeter active matrix LCD display and a high tactile feedback full alphanumeric sealed keyboard and provides for centralized display and management of navigation and radio communication information for both pilots. The video processing module includes a general purpose processor and a dedicated graphics engine and provides analog and digital video management and mission computing and supports up to five analog video and six HDTV digital inputs while providing up to six 1.485 Gbit/s high-definition serial digital interface (HD-SDI) outputs. The data transfer unit is a microprocessor based mass memory storage unit which can record, store, and playback video and audio files with up to 548 GB of data storage capability. The data transfer unit also serves to store digital moving map data and can access and transfer digital map data files to the main flight displays in real time. The digital map storage capability of the DTU when combined with the aircraft's INS/GPS navigation system allows the aircraft's position to be continuously displayed in real time on 300 x 300 kilometer color 3-D digital terrain map with selectable 1:50,000, 1:250,000, 1:1,000,000, or 1:2,000,000 map scales.

Helmet mounted display: The aircraft is designed to be used with the SDI Nemesis-R Rotor-wing Helmet Mounted Display System (RWMDS), a rotary-wing optimized version of SDI's Nemesis Advanced Helmet Mounted Display System (AHMDS) which incorporates a curve wave guided holographic display (CWHD), built in night vision camera, high accuracy head and eye tracking system, laser eye protection, and a 3D-Audio/Active Noise Reduction system. The helmet is divided into two main assemblies; the outer helmet assembly where the holographic display visor, night vision camera, HMD umbilical connector, and hybrid optical tracker are mounted to, and the inner helmet assembly which contains the 3D audio and active noise reduction system, attachment points for the pilot's oxygen mask, and the helmet's custom fit protective liner (CFPL) which is created using a 3D scan of each pilots head. The panoramic, polarized display visor of the HMD is constructed from a polycarbonate laminate embedded with a nano-thin layer of tungsten oxide and tungsten bronze nanoparticles which provides both laser eye protection and anti-glare functions. The curve wave guided holographic display (CWHD) display of the Nemesis provides 80 x 40 degree field of view bi-occular imagery using two 1920 × 1200 pixel LCOS (Liquid Crystal on Silicon) projectors placed on either side of the helmet to display images at 60 Hz onto a holographic optical waveguide in front of each eye. For flying in low light conditions the Nemesis features a built in Electron Bombarded Active Pixel Sensor (EBAPS) based visible/near infrared (NIR) night vision camera with a 60 hertz refresh rate and a 1200 x 1600 pixel UXGA (Ultra Extended Graphics Array) resolution which incorporates advanced non-blooming, low halo technology with automatic gain control. The image from the night vision camera can be displayed directly onto the helmet’s visor, negating the need for the pilot to wear night vision goggles. The HMD supports combined vision system (CVS) capability which combines enhanced vision system (EVS) and synthetic vision system (SVS) capability. The combined vision system takes sensor fused FLIR and LLTV imagery from the aircraft's MTAS, Distributed Aperture System, and LADAR obstacle warning sensor systems and projects it over synthetic 3D terrain imagery including buildings and terrain features generated using stored 3D topographic data from a 3-D digital moving map database which is then displayed into the the helmet's holographic display for flying high-speed terrain following flight profiles in reduced or zero-visibly weather conditions. A 9-axis internal measurement unit (IMU) and a substrate-guided wave (SGW) based eye tracking system built into the HMD provides precise tracking of pilot head and eye movement and allows the aircraft's MTAS and cannon armament to be slaved to the pilot's head and eye motions. The Nemesis also features a built in 3D-Audio/Active Noise Reduction (ANR) system with an additional built in binaural based threat warning system which reduces pilot fatigue and hearing loss, improves the clarity of radio transmissions, and through an interface to the aircraft's missile, laser, and radar warning sensor provides directional aural warning tones to alert the pilot to threats around the aircraft.

Cognitive Decision–Aiding System (CDAS): The Cognitive Decision–Aiding System (CDAS) is an AI based information management and mission planning software system integrated into the aircraft's cockpit which is designed to reduce pilot workload. The CDAS system includes six different software modules; Data Fusion, External Situation Assessment (ESA), Internal Situation Assessment (ISA), Mission Planner, Cockpit Information Manager (CIM), and Mission Processor. The data fusion module of the CDAS suite is responsible for combining sensor and data feed from the aircraft's various surveillance, targeting and navigation sensors into a single unified situational awareness display (SAD) for the pilot on their multifunction cockpit displays. External Situation Assessment (ESA) uses information form the aircraft's targeting and surveillance sensors to create an external threat assessment for the aircraft. Internal Situation Assessment (ISA) interfaces with the aircraft's Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) sensors and other status-monitoring systems to create an internal health assessment of the aircraft. Data from the ESA and ISA software modules is then used by the system's mission planner module to present the pilot with route planning, survivability, communications, sensor management, and weapon system employment suggestions on their multifunction displays and/or heads up display. The Cockpit Information Manager (CIM) acts as the intelligent user interface (IUI) of the CDAS system and is responsible for displaying CDAS task and mission suggestions to the crew and for acting as the primary pilot interface to the CDAS system. The CIM will generate various pop up displays on the cockpit multifunction displays and in the pilot's HMD displaying threat location and type, route planning information, vehicle health status, etc. The CIM will also automatically change the moving map scale based on current mission tasks such a shifting to a wider scale for ingress/egress and shifting to a smaller, more detailed scale when maneuvering or engaging pop-up targets.

Flight Controls: The aircraft features two sets of identical flight controls which allow the aircraft to be piloted from either seat. Each pilot station features a sidestick cyclic pitch controllers on the left side of the seat and a center mounted active collective levers. The sidestick cylic controller features a thumb lever used to control the pitch of the tail pusher propeller which can pushed forward to provide positive thrust or pulled back to provide reverse thrust via negative prop pitch to slow the aircraft down. A thumb botton on the cyclic controller also actuates the the pusher propeller clutch which when depressed disconnects the pusher propeller from the gearbox for hovering or for low speed flight. At higher flight speeds (past 180 knots) the main rotor system is disconnected using an overrunning clutch and the the collective control is locked into place, the aircraft then been flown exclusively with the cyclic side stick and rudder pedals. Both sets of flight controls input into a quadruplex (dual digital plus dual analog redundant) fly-by-wire system which consists of the twin cyclic sticks and active collective levers, two sets of rudder pedals, two air data computers (ADCs), two attitude and heading reference systems (AHRS), two GPS units, four flight control computers (FCC), and flight control actuators including twin coaxial rotor control systems, differential yaw control power system, twin rudder actuators, and elevator actuator. The flight controls are actuated using a dual redundant 3000 psi hydraulic system which uses twin hydraulic pumps driven by the rotor and pusher propeller transmission s which provide hydraulic power through two redundant hydraulic lines to drive the hydraulic actuators used by the elevator, twin rudders, and twin rotor control systems. The fly-by-wire flight control system features two default control settings; rate command/attitude hold (RCAH) mode which provides crisp, highly responsive flight control for high speed, low level flying in daylight VFR conditions and an attitude command/velocity hold (ACVH) mode with a more dampened flight control response for nighttime or IFR condition flying. Autopilot features of the flight control system include auto hover, automatic bob-up/bob-down, flight envelope cueing, automatic terrain- following/terrain-avoidance (TF/TA), and integrated fire and flight control (IFFC) with automatic evasive maneuvering and weapon launch capability.

Environmental control system: The environmental control system (ECS) provides NBC protection for the crew and provided cooled air flow filtered of any chemical contaminants to the cockpit and to the aircraft's avionics. The ECS takes high pressure bleed air from the APU and passes it through a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter and a dual bed self-purging pressure swing absorber (PSA) which removes any particulate matter, NBC contaminants, or water vapor from the bleed air before it enters the air cycle machine (ACM) which provides cool air flow into the cockpit to cool the cockpit and various cockpit avionics. The air cycle machine also provides constant 0.5 psi overpressure to the crew cabin to prevent any potential NBC contaminants from entering the cockpit due to ballistic or environmental damage to the canopy glass or cockpit structure.


Armament:
Turreted Gun System (TGS): The turreted gun system (TGS) consists of a chin mounted MK-203 lightweight rotary cannon, turret housing with composite fairing, electronics control units, and linkless ammunition feed system. The cannon is capable of traversing +/-120° in azimuth and +15°/-45° degrees in elevation. When not in use the cannon can also be rotated back 180 degrees and retracted into the composite fairing to reduce the aircraft's drag and radar cross section. The MK-203 cannon used with the TGS is a three-barred, electrically powered rotary cannon with a weight of 36.5 kilograms which is driven by a 270 VDC brushless permanent-magnet motor through a integral gearbox with pilot selectable rate of fire between 750 and 1500 RPM. The cannon is designed to fire aluminum cased, electrically primed 20 x 139 mm SAPHEI-T (semi-armor-piercing high-explosive incendiary - tracer) ammunition which is fed from a linkless ammunition feed system with 500 rounds of ammunition contained in a storage drum behind the cockpit. Each 20x139mm HEI-T round weighs 315 grams and fires a 120 gram projectile contains 5.8 grams of Hexal P30 (73% RDX, 23% Al, 4% wax) with a muzzle velocity of 1,050 m/s and can penetrate 20 mm of RHA at 1,000 meters. Ammunition can be loaded into the feed system through a swing-away access door in the fuselage which allows all 500 rounds to be reloaded by a team of ground personnel in less than 15 minutes.

Internal weapon bays:The helicopter contains twin I-RAMS (Integrated Retractable Munitions Systems) sideways opening electro-mechanically actuated internal weapons bays located behind the cockpit of the aircraft which which can each carry either three ASM-93 long-range anti-tank guided missiles or twelve 81mm AGR-30 Viper air-to-ground guided rockets. Internal weapons carriage is used to decrease drag during high speed forward flight and to minimize the helicopter's radar cross section. For ferry missions a 425 liter fuel tank can be placed into each internal weapons bay to increase the helicopter's fuel capacity for long range self-deployment flights.

Stub wings:For additional payload capability the aircraft is capable of mounting two external stub wings located above the internal weapons bays doors as part of its EFAMS (external fuel and armament management subsystem) capability. Each stub wing has a single hard point allowing the carriage of up to four ASM-93 missiles, 44 AGR-30 Viper rockets, or a 1,700 liter external fuel tank for self-deployment.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Tue Mar 02, 2021 7:32 pm, edited 50 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Fri Feb 03, 2017 9:50 pm

Image

B-3 Wraith

General Characteristics:
  • Role: Supersonic Stealth bomber
  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 43.6 m
  • Wingspan: 36.4 m
  • Height: 5.2 m
  • Wing area: 560 m2
  • Empty Weight: 74,840 kg
  • Fuel Weight: 90,740 kg
  • Max Takeoff Weight: 199,580 kg
  • Powerplant: 4x SDI F220 adaptive cycle turbofans, 205 kN each
Performance:
  • Maximum speed: Mach 2.5
  • Cruise speed: Mach 2.2
  • Combat Radius: 5,600 km (Mach 2.2 @ 20,000 meters)
  • Ferry Range: 13,000 km
  • Service ceiling: 24,000 m
  • Rate of climb: 170 m/s
  • Wing loading: 356 kg/m2
  • Thrust/weight: 0.49
    Maximum g-loading: +2.5/-1.0 g
Armament:
Avionics:
  • SN/APG-96 Multimode AESA Radar
  • SN/ALQ-287 Electronic Warfare system
  • SN/AAR-80 Missile Warning System
  • SN/ALE-79 Countermeasures Dispenser System
  • SN/SVN-37 Astro-Inertial Navigation System


Overview:

The B-3 Wraith is a supersonic, low observable strategic bomber designed by SDI Aerospace Systems


Design & Construction:
The Wraith is a large, blended wing-body, multi-engine supersonic strategic incorporating low-observable stealth technology for penetrating hostile air defense networks. The Wraith features a highly swept, low aspect ratio cranked arrow wing with a 70 degree inboard, 50 degree outboard leading edge sweep, and a saw-tooth trailing edge which is smoothly blended into the trapezoidal shaped fuselage. Turbulent drag over the wing surface is minimized by a unique active laminar flow control (LFC) system which pulls the turbulent boundary layer air through a porous skin built into the upper mold line of the wing. The LFC system is powered by two sets of turbo-compressors in each wing driven by compressor bleed air from the aircraft's engines.

The Wraith employs a semi-monoque construction with an outer-load carrying honeycomb composite skin reinforced with internal composite bulkheads, ribs, and spars. The outer skin of the aircraft employs a composite sandwich panel construction with graphite- bismaleimide (Gr/BMI) face-sheets sandwiching an SCS-8/RSR (rapid solidification rate) aluminum-silicon carbide (Al-Sic) metal matrix composite honeycomb core. The leading and trailing wing edges feature an interlocking saw-tooth wedge construction with the outward wedges constructed from SCS-8/RSR AL alloy and the inward pointing wedges constructed from a carbon-loaded glass fiber honeycomb radar absorbing structure (RAS). Superplastically formed, diffusion-bonded (SPF/DB) Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al alloy titanium account for approximately 25% of the aircraft's dry mass and is used for the internal bulkheads, engine bays, wing box structure, and 25% of wing spars (every fourth wing spar) which employ a sine-wave structure. Graphite/epoxy composites formed using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM ) comprise approximately 20% of the aircraft's dry mass and are used for the fuel tank skins, 75% of the wing spars, and the internal structure of the twin vertical tails. Other materials include aluminum-lithium alloy which is primarily used for the cockpit structure and 18Ni maraging steel which is used for the landing gear.


Vehicle Management System & Flight Control Surfaces:
Vehicle Management System (VMS): The Seraph's vehicle management system (VMS) is a quadruple redundant fully digital fly-by-wire control system responsible for controlling the aircraft in flight. The core of the VMS system are four vehicle management computers (VMCs) which interface using fiber-optic cables to the aircraft's control actuators, engines, cockpit controls, air data system, fuel system, and inertial navigation systems. The sensor subsystem of the VMS includes four air data computers (ADCs) and a low observable pneumatic air data system (LOPADS) which consists of four flush mounted pitot tubes located above the radome in front of the cockit and four flush mounted static ports, two on each side of the fuselage, located aft of the radome above and below the forward fuselage chine and provides Mach, altitude, airspeed, angle-of-attack, and sideslip data to the VMS. The VMS system also includes a fuel-control system which can pump fuel from forward fuel tanks to aft ones and vice versa to allow the aircraft to change its CG and stability margin in flight.

Control surfaces: The aircraft's control surfaces consist of trailing edge inboard and outboard split elevons for pitch and roll-control, twin all-moving vertical tails for yaw control, and full-span leading edge vortex flaps on the inboard and outboard leading edges of the wing to improve the aircraft's low-speed handling characteristics. All control surfaces of the aircraft are actuated using a hydraulic system with the aircraft's hydraulic power generation and distribution system (HPGDS) having four independent main hydraulic systems and one auxiliary system. The hydraulic system operates at 350 bar (5,000 psi) and uses four pumps each rated at 300 liters per minute output with two pumps installed on each engine accessory drive gearbox.

Self-Repairing Flight Control System (SRFCS): A Self-Repairing Flight Control System (SRFCS) is integrated into the aircraft's Vehicle Management System is designed to detect damage or failure in the aircraft's control surfaces. When the system detects damage or loss of a flight control surface or actuator the system then compensates by reconfiguring the remaining flight control surfaces and changing the control laws of the flight control software so that aircraft remains controllable and can be landed safely by the pilot.The SRFCS displays all damage to flight control actuators and surfaces to the pilot through the multifunction display in the cockpit which indicates to the pilot the extent of the damage and any flight speed or maneuverability limitations imposed by the damage. In the event all the aircraft's control surfaces are destroyed or disabled the aircraft's Vehicle Management System can command increasing or decreasing engine thrust to pitch up or down (respectively) and differential engine thrust to turn, proving enough control to steer the aircraft to an airfield and perform a safe landing.


Propulsion:
  • Name: SDI F220
  • Type: Adaptive Cycle Afterburning Turbofan
  • Length: 5,080 mm
  • Diameter: 1,170 mm
  • Dry Weight: 1,800 kg
  • Bypass Ratio: variable
  • Compressor: Two stage fan, core driven fan stage (CDFS), five stage high pressure compressor
  • Combustor: Pressure-gain combustor
  • Turbine: single stage HPT, counter rotating single stage LPT
  • Maximum Thrust: 159 kN (dry), 205 kN (with afterburner)
  • Overall Pressure ratio: 26:1
  • Turbine inlet temperature: 1,980 °C
  • Specific fuel consumption: 20 g/Kn-s (dry), 40 g/Kn-s (afterburning)
  • Thrust-to-Weight Ratio: 9.0:1 (dry), 11.6:1 (with afterburner)
The Wraith is powered by four SDI F220 afterburning turbofans which each deliver up to 205 kN of afterburning thrust. The F220 engine is an advanced sixth generation engine which uses adaptive cycle engine (ACE) technology that allows the engine to change its overall bypass ratio and fan pressure ratio through the use of adaptive geometry devices. The high pressure spool of the F220 features a 5 stage axial compressor with variable stators and is driven by a single stage turbine. The first compressor stage has extended tips and acts as a core driven fan stage (CDFS). The counter-rotating low pressure spool employs a two-stage fan employing wide-chord unshrouded blades and is driven by a single stage low-pressure turbine. The fan pressure ratio is changed through the use of a split variable-geometry fan with twin bypass streams while the bypass ratio is altered through the use of a third airstream controlled using Variable Area Bypass Injectors (VABIs) that can either be used to provide additional air flow for higher fuel and propulsive efficiency or can be used to provide additional thrust by increasing core flow and and airflow for cooling the high temperature parts of the engine. The adaptive cycle F220 adds an additional third bypass stream controlled by a row of variable inlet guide vanes and a single compression stage made by extending one row of main fan blades into the third bypass stream, a fan on blade or FLADE arrangement. Additionally the F220 includes a variable core driven fan stage (driven by the high pressure turbine) placed ahead of the high pressure compressor which provides a boost in pressure to both the core stage and inner bypass flow streams, increasing the engine's overall pressure ratio.The split fan and Variable Area Bypass Injectors allow the F220 to independently control both the high and low pressure rotor speeds to allow for higher airflow at subsonic speeds and higher specific thrust at supersonic speeds than would be possible with a conventional fixed-geometry mixed flow turbofan. To ensure efficient variable-cycle operation the F220 also uses a variable-area low-pressure turbine nozzle (VATN) which allows the engine to operate with additional fan flow at low specific thrust settings to reduce engine noise during takeoff. The F220 has three sets of VABIs. The first VABI is mounted aft of the frontal fan and allows the outer bypass duct to be open to operate in single or double bypass mode or closed to operate in zero-bypass mode. The second VABI is mounted aft of the rear split fan and permits fan operation in either single or double bypass modes. In single bypass mode the valve is closed so that the rear fan exhausts into the high-pressure compressor and into the inner bypass duct with the rear modulating VABI in the open position. When the second VABI valve is opened the engine operates in double-bypass mode where the rear fan air is discharged into both the inner and outer bypass ducts. The rear or exhaust VABI operates a a variable area bypass nozzle which injects the secondary bypass flow into the core stream behind the low pressure turbine into the afterburner or bypasses around the afterburner and inject the bypass into the variable-area low-pressure turbine nozzle (VATN) in either single or double bypass mode. The split-fan of the F220 is additionally fitted with Variable Inlet Guide Vanes (VIGVs) which provide efficient thrust modulation across the engine's thrust envelope. For subsonic cruise the VIGV is used to reduce the flow entering the high pressure compressor with the rest bypasses to eliminate excessive spillage drag at low speeds and partial throttle settings. The VIGV are mounted in front of the high-pressure compressor and consists of stationary leading-edge vanes and variable trailing-edge flaps that vary the mass flow rate of the engine as a function of engine cycle and free-stream velocity. The F220 has an additional set of Variable Inlet Guide Vanes which control the airflow into the third bypass stream (The FLADE duct) which bypasses boundary-layer flow around the core and injects it downwards of the turbine to cool the nozzle and reduce the infrared signature of the exhaust. The last ACE component, the variable-area low-pressure turbine nozzle (VATN), maintains engine efficiency at partial throttle settings by decreasing the nozzle area and thereby increasing the turbine inlet temperature to it's full-throttle state. Being able to operate in partial throttle settings is useful for low-speed loiter and for takeoff where the lower exhaust temperature due to the extra bypass air reduces the jet noise of the engine

The F220 features a variety of advanced materials and construction techniques designed to increase engine performance and reduce weight and maintenance requirements. The highly swept wide-chord blades of the engine's split-fan are constructed from a carbon fiber-polyamide composite with titanium reinforcement along the leading edges for increased foreign object debris (FOD) damage tolerance . Following the two-stage fan the high pressure compressor blisks (also referred to as integrally bladed rotors or IBTs) in the 5-stage high pressure compressor of the F220 are all constructed from a Ti-48Al-2Cr-Nb gamma titanium-aluminium (Ti-AL) alloy. This alloy has similar temperature and creep performance to conventional nickel super alloys while having half the density. The turbine blades, turbine vanes, and combustor section of the engine are constructed from a monocrystalline Sic/SiC ceramic matrix composite with a HfO2 aluminosilicate coating for increased oxidation resistance at higher temperatures. To support the extremely high 1,980 °C degree K turbine inlet temperature the the high pressure turbine blades and vanes of the F220 feature internal cooling channels through which high pressure bleed from the compressor flows through after first being cooled by a heat exchanger located in the engine's triple-bypass FLADE duct. The internal cooling channels are combined with additional film cooling on the surface of the blades and vanes to keep the Sic/Sic composite within it normal operating temperature limits.

Each F220 includes a fully digital FADEC (Full-Authority Digital Engine Control) system which includes a digital electronic control unit (DECU), ignition system, fuel control system, air flow control system (AFCS), adaptive cycle control system (ACCS), and various sensors. The FADEC system controls engine and afterburner fuel flow, variable inlet guide vane (VIGV) position, variable area bypass injector (VABI) position, variable-area turbine nozzle (VATN) position, and exhaust nozzle area as a function of throttle position and engine temperature and pressure sensor input in order to optimize the engine's thrust and fuel consumption over the aircraft's operating range while staying within the engines temperature and pressure limits. The core component of the FADEC system is the digital electronic control unit (DECU), a fuel-cooled computer system attached to the underside of the engine casing through vibration isolating mounts. The DECU contains two microprocessors independently connected through high speed serial links to the vehicle management system (VMS) and all engine actuators and sensors.

[/tab Each F220 engine also mounts an accessory drive gear box which powers a 150 kVA oil cooled variable displacement AC alternator connected to the aircraft's 115-volt, three-phase, 400-hertz ac electrical electrical distribution system and a 350 bar (5,000 psi) variable displacement hydraulic pump which drives on of the aircraft's four hydraulic systems. Power from the four AC alternaotrs is transmitted to the electronic rack in the fuselage where it is converted to 115/200 VAC, 400 Hz three-phase power for distribution. The electrical system is designed to be highly fault tolerant and damage resistant with the ability to maintain all types of flight with two generators inoperative and maintain subsonic flight with up to three generators inoperative. The aircraft also contains two APUs one mounted on each side of the engine bay. Each APU is a 400 PS (300 kW) unit with a single rotor and constant speed turbine and is designed for both bleed and shaft power extraction and is started by hydraulic power from an APU mounted accumulator.

[tab=25]
Air is fed into the four F220 engines through twin three-dimensional, mixed compression, quarter-cone divertless inlets optimized for supersonic cruise performance. Each inlets features a quarter-spike shaped contoured centerbody which diverts turbulent boundary layer flow over the sides of the inlet cowl while also generating a series of upstream shocks inside the inlet which decelerate the incoming supersonic air to subsonic speeds. The inlets feature a long, serpentine shaped subsonic diffuser section aft of the centerbody which is designed to hide the engine compressor faces from illumination by radar. A series of bypass doors inside the subsonic diffuser ducts are used to vary the flow of bypass air around the engines in flight to match engine air-flow requirements throughout the aircraft's flight regime. An additional set of suck-in doors are located on the upper wing surface immediately forward of the engines which provide additional mass flow to the engines for takeoff. The engine exhausts are a two-dimensional, variable-geometry, convergent-divergent ejector nozzle system which provides optimal flow expansion at supersonic speeds and minimizes the infrared signature of the engines through mixing of hot engine exhaust with ambient air sucked in by the ejector nozzle system.


Stealth:

The Wraith is designed to have an extremely low radar cross section across both centimetric and metric radar bands through the combination of airframe shaping and advanced radar absorbing materials. The aircraft is shaped using smoothly blended external geometry with a continuously varying curvature designed to scatter radar waves that hit the aircraft across its entire aspect. The use of diverterless inlets serves to eliminate the radar reflections caused by a traditional boundary layer diverter system. The long serpentine shaped intake ducts also serves to prevent line-of-sight view of the engine's turbine blades from any exterior view. The inlet ducts are additionalyl lined with radar absorbing material to suppress any radar energy that could bounce off the duct walls to reach the engine faces. The inlet cowls as well as the various fuselage seams and panels of the aircraft all feature a W-shaped serrated design designed to refract radar waves away from their source. Further reduction of the aircraft's radar signature comes from a fiber-mat composite radar absorbing material which is cured into the aircraft's composite skin. The fiber-mat RAM consists of carbon fibers infused with multiwall carbon nanotubes embedded with ferrite nanoparticles which are aligned and then cured into an thermoset exposy resin to form a fiber-mat panel which is embedded within the aircraft's composite skin panels. The RAM is made in two layers, the first designed to reduce reflected radar waves by having a thickness intended to optimize internal reflections and a second, more electrically conductive layer with a higher density of CNTs infused into the carbon fibers which dissipates the remaining radar energy as heat and electrical energy. The refractive index of the fiber-mat RAM is close to air and creates essentially a black body absorber from the K through VHF radar bands.

The radar cross section of the Wraith is actively managed by an on-board aircraft signature management suite (ASMS) which actively tracks and controls the aircraft's electromagnetic emissions in order to reduce the chance of hostile detection. The ASMS will then adjust the aircraft's flightplan in order minimize favorable radar detection angles and finely tune the aircraft's SRR RAM coating to absorb incoming radar waves. The ASMS will also monitor the aircraft's electronic emissions including the aircraft own radar and RF emissions in order to limit probability of hostile detection. The flightpath of the Wraith will be optimized by the ASMS to fly at high altitude directly at emitting radars as the aircraft's radar cross section is lowest when viewed from the lower front which usually results in the Wraith flying in a "zig-zag" pattern in between hostile radars. When entering hostile airspace the Wraith will transition into "Low observable" or "LO" mode which involves retracting all external radio antennae and suppressing the aircraft's RF emissions. In LO mode the Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and GPS navigation system is usually turned off or used only briefly to update the astro-inertial navigation system. In "LO" mode the Wraith's radar will operate exclusively in "low probability of intercept"or "LPI" mode where the onboard AESA radar uses narrow and highly agile waveforms to reduce the chance of detection by passive radar detection systems. When penetrating hostile airspace the Wraith will usually keep its radar turned completely off, using it only to briefly illuminate targets to generate targeting data for the aircraft's precision guided munitions.

In addition to radar stealth the aircraft features a variety of features designed to reduce the aircraft's infrared signature. The carbon nanotube RAM coating on the aircraft also functions as a moderately effective infrared absorber due to the high infrared absorptivity of CNTs, reducing the aircraft's skin infrared signature in long-wave infrared wavelength (8–12 microns) by around half where the where the RAM is present. The 2D exhaust nozzles of the aircraft also serve to reduce the infrared signature of the exhaust by promoting greater mixing of the hot exhaust with ambient air. Further reduction of the exhaust IR signature is achieved by drawing cold air into the 2D rectangular exhaust and allowing it to mix with the hot exhaust gases before leaving the nozzle. To reduce the infrared signature of the airframe itself the fuel and bypass air streams are used as heatsinks for the avionics such as the radar and jamming system which by themselves generate a tremendous amount of heat when active. The aircraft also features a series of deployable air scoops along the wings designed to provide cooling air to the engine and power and thermal management system and a set of air scoops located alongside the wing/fuselage junction to provide additional cooling air flow to the engine nacelles. Further reduction of infrared signature is achieved by circulating fuel around the leading edges of the aircraft which also serves to reduce the heat buildup from sustained supersonic flight.


Avionics:
SN/APG-96 Multimode AESA Radar:The SN/APG-96 is a long range, low probability of intercept (LPI), multifunction X band (8-12 GHz) AESA radar system the Wraith shares with the F/A-36 Seraph fighter aircraft which includes forward and side looking radar arrays mounted in the nose of the aircraft. The APG-96, modified for use in the B-3, forms the core component of the aircraft's Offensive Avionics System (OAS) and supports variable-resolution synthetic aperture radar mapping, real-beam ground-mapping, Ground-Moving Target Indicate/Ground Moving Target Track (GMTI/GMTT), terrain following/terrain avoidance, weather detection, beacon search, air-to-air search, and airborne velocity and radar altimeter functions for precision weapons delivery. The main array of the APG-96 uses 2,400 full-duplex radio integrated circuit transmit and receive (T/R) modules (with 500 T/R modules for each side-array) which employ gallium nitride (GaN) complementary metal-oxide semiconductors (CMOS) on a diamond substrate integrated into 10-bit field-programmable gate array circuits for extremely high throughout processing and high-bandwidth data transferring. Using full-duplex radio integrated technology allows each transmit and receive module to simultaneously transmit and receive the same frequency, giving the radar twice the spectral efficiency of conventional half-duplex systems. The front and side-looking arrays are electronically scanned in both azimuth and elevation with +/- 60 degree vertical and horizontal scan capability which with the side-looking arrays allows for +/- 130 degree radar coverage on either side of the aircraft's center-line. Peak power output of the APG-96 is 48 kW. SAR imagery with <0.3 meter resolution can be generated out to 300 kilometers using enhanced real-beam ground map mode. The cooling system required to support the radar's high peak power output is a two-phase nanofluid based system using vapor chamber cold plates fitted with carbon nanotube micro cooling fins attached to each antenna array. The APG-96 uses a cognitive signal processing system which consists of a closed feedback loop between the radar transmitter and receiver as well as sensor fusion between the radar and the various other EW sensors of the aircraft. Radar returns are processed by various neuro-dynamic artificial intelligence algorithms using the aircraft's central integrated processors (CIPs) which fuze radar data with sensor data acquired by the aircraft's various other RF sensors to counter attempted barrage jamming attacks by shifting the radar waveform to unaffected frequencies in real time. LPI and ECCM functionality of the APG-96 includes randomized multiple-beam scan patterns designed to confuse hostile radar warning receivers, sidelobe cancellation (SLC), and a tapered illumination function which reduces sidelobe emissions to less than -45 dB. The radar also includes a 'freeze' setting for its various air-to-ground modes which completely cuts off all radar emissions for radar-silent approaches to the target.

SN/ASQ-287 Electronic Warfare system: The primary electronic warfare system of the Wraith is the SN/ASQ-287 "Rampart" cognitive electronic warfare system, a comprehensive offensive and defensive electronic warfare (EW) and electronic support measures (ESM) suite which combines passive radar warning receivers and phased array jamming functions for electronic warfare, SIGINT, and ELINT functions. Based on the SN/ASQ-266 "Hammerhead" of the F/A-36 Seraph the radar warning system consists of over 30 solid state wide-band phase interferometer arrays blended into the fuselage and leading and trailing edges of the wings and vertical tails which feed into a series of channelized fast scanning superheterodyne receivers. The system provides 360 degree spherical broadband, all aspect detection of radar emissions with precise emitter location down to 0.1 degree angle-of-arrival (AoA) with single-ship geolocation and threat identification capability. Radar signals are processed by the system's cyclostationary signal processing algorithms which are specifically designed to process and filter low-probability-of-intercept (LPI) waveforms emitted by hostile frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW) radars. The ASQ-287 system also includes low, mid, and high band active electronically scanned array (AESA) gallium nitride based Digital Radio Frequency Memory (DRFM) jammers located in the leading and trailing wing roots for offensive electronic warfare purposes. The ASQ-287 is a fully cognitive and adaptive system; by using ELINT data collected from the ASQ-287s radar warning receiver and processed by adaptive neurodynamic algorithms the DRFM jammers can automatically adapt in real time to unknown waveform characteristics, dynamically synthesize countermeasures, and jam the waveform accordingly. The ASQ-287 is designed with the capability to jam digitally programmable LPI frequency modulation continuous wave radars such as modern AESA systems which employ highly agile waveforms to counter traditional jamming attacks. The DRFM Jammers of the ASQ-287 also include false target generation capability allowing the ASQ-287 to generate up to 32 simultaneous false targets to spoof hostile radar systems.

SN/AAR-80 infrared Missile Approach Warning System: Detection of threat missile launches in the Wraith is provided by the SN/AAR-80 infrared Missile Approach Warning System (MAWS) which consists of six mercury cadmium Trelluride (HgCdTe) staring focal plane array (FPA) imagers operating in the SWIR (1-3 μm) and MWIR (3-5μm) bands housed in six separate low observable window assemblies smoothly blended into the exterior of the aircraft that provide combined 360 degree detection and tracking of both surface and air launched missiles around the aircraft. The AAR-80 can also queue the aircraft's SN/ALE-80 countermeasures dispenser system which can dispense both flares and expendable active radar decoys as necessary to lure away infrared and radar guided missiles from the aircraft.

SN/ALE-79 Countermeasures Dispenser System: The SN/ALE-79 is an airborne countermeasures dispenser system designed to dispense chaff, flares, and other expendable decoys to increase aircraft survivability. The SN/ALE-58 system consists of eight cartridge dispenser modules (CDMs) mounted above and behind the cockpit each capable of containing up to 12x 7.0 cm diameter x 24.6 cm long countermeasures and a central defensive aids controller (DAC) unit with inputs from both the SN/AAR-80 missile warning system and ASQ-287 system. When a threat missile is detected by the aircraft's SN/AAR-80 missile/laser warning system or ASQ-287 EW systems the defensive aids controller of the ALE-79 automatically selects appropriate expendable countermeasures to be released by the system's dispensers to decoy or spoof away the incoming missile. Countermeasures supported including pyrophoric spectral flares for decoying IR missiles and chaff, and active digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) decoys for decoying RF guided missiles.

SN/AVN-37 Astro-inertial Navigation System: The SN/AVN-37 is an advanced strapdown astro-inertial navigation system (SAIN) with additional GPS capability. The SN/AVN-37 together with the APG-96 radar and the aircraft's Doppler velocity sensor, radar altimeter and attitude heading and reference system form the aircraft's integrated bombing and navigation system. The AVN-37 consists of an inertial navigation unit coupled to an Optical Wide-Angle Lens Startracker (OWLS) which employs a holographic lens blended into the upper surface of the fuselage behind the cockpit. The OWLS employs three megapixel CCD FPAs operating in the far red band (0.6-0.8 μm) which can simultaneously image three separate 3 degree fields of view to provide all-aspect, day or night stellar coverage down to sea level in all weather conditions. The OWLS system is able to achieve stellar fixes enabling highly accurate GPS independent navigation with position fixes accurate to within 20 meters in broad daylight using the 61 star catalog stored in the system's computer. The inertial measurement unit contained in the system employs a triad of four-mode multioscillator ring laser gyroscopes (RLGs) and a triad of pendulous integrating gyroscopic accelerometers providing highly accurate free-inertial navigation with position errors of less than 1 kilometer/hour. Additional GPS capability is enabled in the AVN-37 system which includes a SAASM (Selective Availability Anti-Spoofing Module)-based receiver with zero-age differential GPS (ZDGPS) capability and space-time adaptive processing (STAP) providing up to 120 dB of GPS jamming resistance.

SN/APN-188 Low Probability of Intercept Altimeter: The SN/APN-188 is a solid-state, frequency modulated continuous carrier wave (FMCW) radar altimeter system operating in the C band (4.2-4.4 GHz) which provided highly accurate (+/- 1%) altitude measurement from 0 to 20,000 meters. The APN-188 provides low probability of intercept (LPI) through spread-spectrum frequency hopping and by active control of the power output by the system which automatically adjusts the transmitter power to the minimum value needed to maintain normal altimeter operation given the terrain, aircraft attitude, and attitude.

Integrated Core Processor: The integrated core processor or ICP is the brains of the aircraft and is responsible for centralized signal processing for the aircraft's various sensors and avionics systems. The ICP is packaged in two racks of 30 modules located in a compartment behind the aft weapon's bay. The computer modules used in the ICP are single-board computers employing four dual-core 1 GHz processors and 2 GB of DDR2 SDRAM. The ICP is liquid cooled polyalphaolefin (PAO) dielectric coolant pumped using brushless DC motor pumps which pump the coolant through aluminum-beryllium alloy liquid flow through heat exchanger modules which are laminated to the PCBs (printed circuit boards) of the ICP modules. The PAO coolant is first passed through the aircraft's engine bleed-air driven air-cycle machine (ACM) and then pumped through the ICP modules where the coolant then flows through heat-exchanges in the wing which dumps heat from the ICP modules into the wing fuel tanks,


Cockpit:
The Wraith is piloted by a crew of two who sit side-by-side in the cockpit at the front of the aircraft. The pilot sits on the left while the co-pilot and mission systems operator (MSO) responsible for navigation, weapons delivery, and electric warfare sits on the right. Both crew stations are identical and feature full flight controls. The aircraft features a 'glass cockpit' with each crew station containing four 16 x 21 cm XGA resolution active matrix LCD displays along with one 20 x 50 cm display mounted on a center console which is shared by both crew stations. The cockpit's life support system includes an on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS) to generate oxygen for the crew during flight. The OBOGS works by taking filtered engine bleed-air and passing it through a pressure-reducing valve to reduce the air to ambient pressure where the air is then passed over a zeolite-filled bed that absorbs the nitrogen molecules in the air which are purged from the bed and vented overboard . The 95% pure oxygen generated by the OBOGS is then fed into the pilot's breathing regulator. A back-up tank of liquid oxygen attached to each ejection seat is used to provide oxygen in case of an OBOGS failure or upon pilot ejection from the aircraft. Both pilots stations are fitted with an SDI ARES (Advanced Rocket Ejection Seat), a rocket powered zero/zero (capable of ejecting at zero airspeed and zero altitude) ejection seat capable of ejection at any altitude from 0 to 30,000 meters and speed from 0 to mach 3.

To reduce supersonic drag and frontal radar cross section the B-3 cockpit lacks any forward facing windows and instead using an external vision system (XVS) to provide pilot visibility. The system uses two 3840×2400 pixel color UHD cameras mounted above the nose under conformal windows which operate at 60 fps and have their feeds stitched together to create a single 7680 x 2400 pixel image with which is displayed on two conformal 44.5 x 54.5 cm monitors with 3840 × 2400 pixel Wide Quad Ultra XGA (WQUXGA) resolution which are placed above the multifunction displays where the traditional canopy windows would be. Vision from the XVS system is supplanted by traditional side and upwards facing canopy windows. The canopy windows also feature retractable nuclear flash shields with small transparent portholes made from Lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramic to protect the crew from nuclear flash while still permitting limited external visibility. The external vision system also includes enhanced vision system (EVS) capability in the form of short-wave infrared (SWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) imagers with 1280 x 1024 pixel resolution which are mounted facing forward below the nose under conformal windows flush with the underside of the fuselage. Feed from the infrared cameras is stitched together and displayed on the two wide quad ultra XGA monitors conformal to the XVS camera scene, allowing the pilot to see runway and markings through fog, smoke, and other low-visibility conditions while on approach and on landing.


Armament:
The B-3 features twin weapon bays in tandem separated by a removable bulkhead. Each weapons bay is 9.0 meters long, 2.0 meters wide, and 2.0 meters tall. A single SDI strategic rotary launcher unit (SRLU) can be installed in each bomb bay which weighs 2,000 kg an has six hardpoints with 35 and 70 centimeter suspension capability which can suspend and forcibly eject munitions with weight of up to 2,500 kg. Each rotary launcher has a maximum payload suspension capacity of 15,000 kg which allows up to twelve munitions with a weight of up 1,250 kg each to be carried or six munitions with a weight up to 2,500 kg each to be carried on each rotary launcher.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Wed Apr 21, 2021 6:49 pm, edited 46 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Sun Feb 12, 2017 9:52 pm

Image

A-20 Ghost

General Characteristics:
  • Role: Naval Stealth Bomber
  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 13.2 m
  • Wingspan:
    • Unfolded: 22.8 m
    • Folded: 11.1 m
  • Height: 3.5 m
  • Wing area: 150 m2
  • Empty Weight: 15,890 kg
  • Loaded Weight: 36,770 kg
  • Fuel Weight: 15,270 kg
  • Max Takeoff Weight: 38,640 kg
  • Powerplant: 2x SDI F440 turbofans, 89 kN each
Performance:
  • Maximum Speed: Mach 0.95
  • Cruise Speed: Mach 0.85
  • Combat Radius: 2,750 km (maximum payload, internal fuel)
  • Ferry Range: 5,600 km (internal fuel)
  • Service ceiling: 15,300 m
  • Rate of climb: 115 m/s
  • Wing loading: 245 kg/m2
  • Thrust/weight: 0.49 (loaded weight with 100% fuel)
  • Design g-loading: +6.5/-3.5 g
Armament:
Avionics:
  • SN/APQ-192 Ku band multifunction AESA Radar
  • SN/AAQ-60 Electro-Optical Sensor System
  • SN/AAQ-80 Multispectral Distributed Aperture System
  • SN/ALD-12 ESM/ECM system
  • SN/ALE-90 Fiber-Optic Towed Decoy Countermeasure System
  • SN/ASQ-292 CNI System


Overview:

The A-20 Ghost is a naval attack aircraft and stealth bomber designed by SDI Aerospace Systems.


Airframe & Construction:
The A-20 Ghost uses a tailless flying wing design which enables the aircraft to have both an extremely low radar signature and good subsonic aerodynamic performance. The wing has a triangular shape with a leading edge swept back at a 48.75° angle and an overall aspect ratio of 3.5. The wing uses a supercritical airfoil. The centerbody structure is blended smoothly into the wing structure and houses the cockpit located at the front of the aircraft along with the ventral weapons bays and the aircraft's two turbofan engines and their serpentine inlet and exhaust ducts. The control surfaces include full span trailing edge elevons and leading edge slats.

The A-20 is constructed primarily from composite materials in an effort to reduce airframe weight and radar signature. Approximately 80% of the airframe weight is made from composite materials of which the majority is vacuum assisted resin transfer molded (VARTM) graphite/epoxy sandwich composite structures. Some of the internal load bearing structure including the bulkheads and every other wig spar is constructed from cast 2397 aluminium-lithium alloy and superplastic formed and diffusion bonded (SPF/DB) Ti-6AI-6V-2Sn titanium alloy.


Vehicle Management System & Flight Control Surfaces:
Vehicle Management System (VMS): The Ghost's vehicle management system (VMS) is a quadruple redundant fully digital fly-by-wire control system responsible for controlling the aircraft in flight. The core of the VMS system are four conduction cooled vehicle management computers (VMCs) which interface using fiber-optic cables to the aircraft's control actuators, engines, cockpit controls, air data system, fuel system, and inertial navigation systems. The sensor subsystem of the VMS includes four air data computers (ADCs) and a low observable pneumatic air data system (LOPADS) which consists of four flush mounted pitot tubes placed in the nose in front of the cockit and four flush mounted static ports, two on each side of the fuselage, above and below the forward fuselage chine and provides Mach, altitude, airspeed, angle-of-attack, and sideslip data to the VMS.

Control surfaces: The control surfaces of the aircraft include eight trailing edge elevons and two leading edge vortex flaps. The outer pair of elevons are split and act as brake-rudders to provide yaw control while the inner six elevons are not split and provide both pitch and roll control. The split brake-rudders can also act as speedbrakes by opening symmetrically on both sides. Yaw control is also augmented by differential thrust of the engines. The leading edge vortex flaps act as high-lift devices at low speeds by generating vortex lift across the wing and provide decoupling of fuselage fuselage chine and wing vortices at high angles of attack at high sideslip angles, reducing the aircraft's drag and improving its maneuverability and post-stall characteristics at high angles of attack. The control surfaces of the aircraft are actuated using a series of self-contained electrohydrostatic actuators powered by the aircraft's electrical system and connected to the aircraft's vehicle management computers through fiber-optic cabling and replace the hydraulic actuators and pumps of a traditional fly-by-wire control system with self-contained actuators that convert the electrical power into localized hydraulic power for flight control purposes. Each control surface including each elevon and the two leading edge flaps are actuated independently using a series of EHA-VPVM (electro-hydrostatic actuator with variable pump displacement and variable motor speed) actuators which employ variable speed brushless DC permanent magnet motors to drive a variable displacement servopump which is connected to the two chambers of a hydraulic cylinder that is used to actuate the aircraft's control surfaces.

Self-Repairing Flight Control System (SRFCS): A Self-Repairing Flight Control System (SRFCS) is integrated into the aircraft's Vehicle Management System and is designed to detect damage or failure in the aircraft's elevons or leading edge flap control surfaces. When the system detects damage or loss of a flight control surface or actuator the system then compensates by reconfiguring the remaining flight control surfaces and changing the control laws of the flight control software so that aircraft remains controllable and can be landed safely by the pilot. The SRFCS displays all damage to flight control actuators and surfaces to the pilot through the multifunction display in the cockpit which indicates to the pilot the extent of the damage and any flight speed or maneuverability limitations imposed by the damage In the event all the aircraft's control surfaces are destroyed or disabled the Seraph's Vehicle Management System can command increasing or decreasing engine thrust to pitch up or down (respectively) and differential engine thrust to turn, proving enough control to steer the aircraft to an airfield and perform a safe landing.


Propulsion
  • Name: SDI F440
  • Type:Twin-spool non-afterburning turbofan
  • Length: 2,550 mm
  • Diameter: 1,180 mm
  • Dry Weight: 1,450 kg
  • Bypass ratio: 0.87
  • Compressor: 3 stage fan, core-driven fan stage (CDFS), 5 stage high pressure compressor
  • Combustor: Annular
  • Turbine: 1 stage high pressure turbine, 2 stage low pressure turbine
  • Maximum thrust: 84.5 kN
  • Overall pressure ratio: 35:1
  • Specific fuel consumption: 20 g/kN-s
  • Thrust-to-weight ratio: 6.0:1
The A-20 is powered by twin SDI F440 engines. The F440 is a twin spool, low-bypass, axial flow, non-afterburning turbofan capable of producing up to 89 kN of static, sea level thrust. The F440 features a three-stage, long chord blisk fan powered by a two-stage, uncooled low-pressure turbine along with a core-driven fan stage (CDFS) and five-stage high-pressure compressor powered by a one-stage high-pressure turbine. Variable stator vanes and variable inlet guide vanes are fitted to the three fan stages, core-driven fan stage, and the first three stages of the high-pressure compressor. The three stage fan features highly loaded, long chord, highly swept fan bladed and uses a blisk design for lower fan noise and increased damage tolerance. Nominal fan pressure ratio is 4.2 and nominal overall bypass ratio (OBR) is 0.87.

The F440 features a variety of advanced composite and intermetallic material designed to increase engine performance and reduce weight and maintenance requirements. The fan blades and low pressure turbine blisks (also referred to as integrally bladed rotors or IBTs) of the F440 are constructed from a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced polyamide composite with titanium reinforcement along the leading edges of the blades which results in an fan and low-pressure compressor that are as strong and durable as their all-metal counterparts while being significant lighter in weight. The high pressure compressor blisks of the F440 are constructed from superplastically formed and diffusion bonded high-temperature gamma titanium aluminide alloy. With a higher temperature tolerance than conventional titanium allots the titanium-aluminide high-pressure compressor allows the engine to function with a higher pressure ratio which decreases specific fuel consumption. The combustor liners, nozzle, and high and low pressure turbine blisks of the F440 are constructed of spark plasma sintered SiC/SiC, an ultra high temperature ceramic matrix composite (CMC) which consists of boron nitride coated silicon carbide fibers embedded into a silicon carbide matrix. The ultra-high temperature turbine material allows the F440 to have an extremely high turbine inlet temperature, improving thrust and fuel efficiency The fuel injectors in the engine are constructed from 3D printed cobalt-chromium alloy manufactured by inserting cobalt-titanium powder into a Direct Metal Laser Melting Machine (DMLMM) where layers of the fine cobalt-titanium powder, each 20 microns thick, are fused together with a fiber optic laser into the desired shape.

The F440 includes a fully digital FADEC (Full-Authority Digital Engine Control) system which includes a digital electronic control unit (DECU), ignition system, fuel control system, air flow control system (AFCS), and various sensors. The FADEC system controls engine fuel flow rate, variable inlet guide vane (VIGV) position, variable-area turbine nozzle (VATN) position, and exhaust nozzle area as a function of throttle position and engine temperature and pressure sensor input in order to optimize the engine's thrust and fuel consumption over the aircraft's operating range while staying within the engines temperature and pressure limits. The core component of the FADEC system is the digital electronic control unit (DECU), a fuel-cooled computer system attached to the underside of the engine casing through vibration isolating mounts. The DECU contains two microprocessors independently connected through high speed serial links to the vehicle management system (VMS) and all engine actuators and sensors.


Stealth:
The A-20 Ghost is designed to have an extremely low radar cross section across multiple bands through the combination of airframe shaping and advanced radar absorbing materials. The aircraft's stealth shaping and materials are designed to counter 0.1-1 GHz long-range surveillance radars, 1.0–3 GHz AWACS radars, and 10 GHz fighter radars illuminating the aircraft simultaneously and from multiple directions with the aircraft having a frontal radar cross section of around -40 dBSM against centimeter band radars and -30 dBSM against meter band radars. The flying wing shape with extensive wing-body blending is almost completely featureless when viewed from below and employs continuous curvature shaping which reflects radar energy away from the source. The various panels on the aircraft employ serrated edges to scatter travelling waves and all panel gaps on the aircraft are sealed with a flexible conductive form-in-place (CFIP) sealant or conductive tape to eliminate any gaps in the aircraft surface. The aircraft's intakes use serpentine shaped ducts which completely blocks radar line-of-sight view of the engine compressor facess from any aspect. Both engines are buried deep in the fuselage and exhaust through 2-dimensional nozzles blended into the trailing edge of the fuselage which shields line-of-sight view of the hot exhaust from below. To eliminate edge diffraction the leading edges of the wing and fueslage feature a comprehensive leading edge treatment consisting of a leading edge extension several centimetres thick made from an RF transparent kapton skin enclosing a fiber honeycomb composite radar absorbing structure (RAS). The honeycomb structure is made with a carbon loaded foam core enclosed by composite sheets made from randomly oriented carbon fibers infused with multiwall carbon nanotubes coated with a magnetic FeNi nanopowder which are aligned and then cured into an thermoset exposy resin to form a fiber-mat panel which is cured into the honeycomb structure. The material is made in two layers, the first designed to reduce reflected radar waves by having a thickness intended to optimize internal reflections and a second, more electrically conductive layer with a higher density of CNTs infused into the carbon fibers which dissipates the remaining radar energy as heat and electrical energy. The impedance of the fiber-mat RAM is matched to air at its outer surface and creates essentially a black body absorber from the VHF through W radar bands (0.1 - 60 MHz). Additional RAM coatings made from the same material are used to line the inlet duct to prevent radar waves from reaching the engine faces.

The Infrared signature of the aircraft is mitigated through a combination of coatings and nozzle features. The aircraft's carbon nanotube RAM coating on the aircraft functions as a moderately effective infrared absorber due to the high infrared absorptivity of CNTs and reduces aircraft's skin infrared signature in long-wave infrared wavelength (8–12 microns) by around half where the where the RAM is present. The aircraft's blended 2D nozzle reduces the infrared signature of the exhaust by promoting greater mixing of the hot exhaust with ambient air and prevents the exhaust form being view from below. The exhaust from the aircraft's engines is passed through an S shaped exhaust duct where it is cooled using bypass air re-injected into the exhaust flow and with ambient air from additional secondary air inlets before exiting through an exhaust trench blended into the rear fuselage of the aircraft.


Avionics
APQ-192 Attack Radar:The APQ-192 radar, designed specifically for the A-20 aircraft, is a multi-function AESA (Active Electronically Scanned Array) which operates in the Ku band (12.5 to 18 GHz) featuring over 20 operating modes including fixed target indication (FTI), wide area surveillance, ground, air and maritime moving target indicator (MMTI), variable-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) operation, terrain following and terrain avoidance, aircraft position and velocity measurements for autonomous navigation, and modes for precision delivery of air-to-ground weaponry. The radar employs two electronically scanned antennas mounted behind frequency-selective surface (FSS) radomes located on either side of the aircraft's center-line under the leading edge of the wing. With the antenna boresight being approximately 40° off the aircraft centerline and with each phased array antenna having a +/- 60 degree field of view the total field of the view of the radar system is +/- 100° on either side of the aircraft centerline with sufficient pattern overlap in the forward sector to allow for operation with one antenna if the other fails. The antennas of the radar are electronically steered in both azimuth and elevation and each consist of over 4,000 Ku band transmit/receive (T/R) modules employing a GaN-on-diamond monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) architecture. The radar and associated power electronics are cooled using a two-phase cooling system employing HFE 1700 (methoxy-nonafluorobutane) dielectric coolant. A motion additional sensor subsystem (MSS) consisting of a strapdown laser-ring gyro based inertial measuring unit (IMU) is additionally attached to each antenna to actively compensate for aircraft movement during Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) operation. The radar is capable of tracking up to 40 targets simultaneously with detection and tracking range in excess of 200 km for moving air and surface targets in track-while-scan (TWS) mode. In air-to-ground (AtG) mode the radar is capable of generating high-resolution ground maps for navigation and targeting at ranges exceeding 100 km. Low probability of intercept/low-probability of detection (LPI/LPD) operation is facilitated through active sidelobe cancellation (SLC), frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) operating modes, and a 'freeze' option which cuts all radar emissions and allows the aircraft to approach targets radar-silent.

SN/AAQ-60 Electro-Optical Sensor System: The SN/AAQ-60 Electro-Optical Sensor System or EOSS is a multi-spectral electro-optical targeting sensor fitted underneath the nose of the aircraft which provides FLIR, IRST, laser designation, laser spot tracking, and target geo-location functionality which enables air-to-air and air-to-ground surveillance, target tracking, and precision guided weapon delivery. The EOSS assembly is located in a low-RCS faceted dome constructed from seven sapphire glass panels and is placed behind the nose on the aircraft's center-line. The third generation FLIR used in the EOSS is a 1280 × 1024 pixel HgCdTe array operating in both the MWIR (3–8 µm) and LWIR (8–15 µm) wavelengths and features continuous electronic zoom and four selectable fields of view (wide, medium, narrow and ultra-narrow). The FLIR sensor is supplemented with a 2-Megapixel (1920 × 1080 pixels) dual FPA (Visible/NIR) color HDTV camera and a 1280 x 1024 pixel InGaAs SWIR sensor. The EOSS also includes 40 kilometer range 2.08 μm holmium:YLF (YLiF4) eye-safe laser rangefinder with <1 m range resolution, 1.06 μm and 1.57 µm Nd:YAG laser designators, 0.808 µm NVG/NVIS compatible laser illuminator, and 1.06 μm and 1.57 µm laser spot trackers. For targeting INS/GPS guided weapons the EOSS includes far target location (FTL) capability using the laser rangefinder on the sensor and an onboard 9-axis IMU and GPS-based attitude (GPS/A) sensor which allows the 10-digit GPS grid location of targets illuminated by the system's laser rangefinder to be generated. The EOSS is cooled using Polyalphaolefin (PAO) coolant fed from the aircraft's liquid avionics cooling system.

SN/AAQ-80 Multispectral Distributed Aperture System: The aircraft's SN/AAQ-80 Multispectral Distributed Aperture System (MDAS) consists of six 1280 × 1024 pixel mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) starring focal plane array IR imagers similar to the ones used in the ASQ-60 placed around the aircraft which provide 360 degree spherical situational awareness infrared search and track (SAIRST), missile approach warning (MAW), and 360 degree spherical day/night pilot vision. One sensor system is placed in the nose pointing forward, two in the nose pointing sideways, one aft of the cockpit pointing upwards, and two on the lower fuselage pointing downwards. The system allows for simultaneous 360 degree spherical tracking of air and surface targets, 360 degree spherical missile approach warning (MAW) capability, and 360 degree spherical pilot vision around the aircraft in all weather conditions. The MDAS is capable of simultaneously tracking enemy aircraft, surface and ground targets, surface to air, air to air, and ballistic missiles, can automatically cue appropriate missile countermeasures, and allows high off bore launching of missiles in any direction relative to the aircraft.

SN/ALD-12 ESM system: The SN/ALD-12 is a multi-functional offensive and defensive electronic support measures (ESM) system which combines active jamming, radar-warning receiver (RWR) and electronic Intelligence (ELINT) functionality by providing wideband, high probability of intercept, precision direction finding, ranging, identification, threat warning, and jamming of incident radar emitters in real time. Rapid detection, identification, and geo-location of fixed and mobile pop-up emitters supports emitter threat avoidance operation to minimize aircraft probability of detection by hostile radar systems. The ALD-12 system employs twelve separate arrays of multi-arm spiral interferometer antenna arrays covering the 0.2-35 GHZ frequency range which are blended into the leading and trailing edges of the aircraft to allow for precise emitter geolocation and multi-ship emitter location in high electronic clutter environments. The six multi-element antenna arrays feed into nine separate RF front ends which can be individually tuned to a different part of the frequency spectrum. Intercepted emitter information from the system is overlaid on a pre-programmed display of known emitter locations on the pilot and WSO's multi-function displays. The jamming system of the ALD-12 ESM system consist of 12 log-period antennas located along the aircraft's leading and trailing wing edges which employ digital RF Memory (DRFM) based deception jamming and terrain-bounce jamming techniques to defeat coherent pulse-Doppler and continuous wave (CW( airborne and surface radars.

SN/ALE-90 Fiber-Optic Towed Decoy Countermeasure System: For self-protection against radar guided missiles and fire control radars the A-20 carries four ALE-90 fiber-optic towed decoys contained in retractable reel-in/reel-out capable employers deployers in two sets of trap-door bays located on either side of the aircraft's rear landing gear doors. The deployed ALE-90 decoy is connected to the host aircraft through a kevlar strengthened fiber-optic cable which transmits specific deception techniques from an on-board threat library to be emitted through the decoy's integral embedded radar technique generator and digital RF Memory (DRFM) jammer system with GaN (Gallium Nitride) based solid-state transmitters and power amplifiers. The towed decoy units employ four electro-mechanically actuated variable drag fins for aerodynamic stability which open and close in response to varying air pressures and aircraft speeds to maintain constant decoy separation and attitude relative to the host aircraft across varying flight conditions. The ALE-90 decoys employ range and velocity gate pull-off (RGPO/VGO) and cross-eye based deceptive jamming techniques to prevent radar lock- and tracking of the host aircraft. The decoys can also operate in seduction mode which simulates the radar signature of the host aircraft to the lure the incoming missile(s) towards the decoy instead of the aircraft.


Cockpit:
Canopy: the canopy of the Ghost is constructed with from an organically modified sol-gel (ORMSOL) silica based nanocomposite which has excellent optical and thermal properties, high durability, high flexibility, and excellent ballistic performance at a substantially reduced weight compared to current glass/polycarbonate laminates. ORMSOL is made from a crosslink oriented nanocomposite made from a silica gel which has a higher optical transmission, higher tensile strength, higher heat tolerance, and less weight per unit of thickness compared to standard glass/polymer laminates. The canopy is specifically designed to be resistant to bird strikes and is rated to survive strikes from a 1.8kg object traveling at 230 meters per second. The canopy also features a thin layer of indium-tin-oxide nano particles designed to reflect radar emissions.

Cockpit displays and controls: Both the pilot and WSO (Weapon System Operator) stations of the aircraft include a 50 x 20 centimeter Multifunction Colour Head Down Display (MCHDD) consisting of a panoramic 2560 x 1024 pixel active-matrix LCD (AMLCD) capacitive touch-screen display which can be configured to display relevant flight instrumentation, navigation, communication, and weapons system information and supports swipe and pinch-zoom capability with 5-point multi-touch capability allowing for the repositioning and enlarging or shrinking of the various display.The MCHDD also includes dual redundant LED backlights which support both daytime high-sunlight and nighttime NVG/NVIS compatible operation modes. Underneath the main MCHDD is an integrated control panel (ICP) which includes a keypad for entering entering communications, GPS, and autopilot data. The aircraft is also equipped with a direct voice input (DVI) system which allows the pilot to use voice commands to issue instructions to the flight control, navigation, communication, and/or weapon systems of the aircraft. The aircraft uses a HOTAS (Hands on Throttle and Stick) layout with the control stick in the center and the throttle on the left of the cockpit.

Helmet mounted display: Both pilot and WSO of the Ghost are intended to be equipped with the SDI Nemesis Advanced Helmet Mounted Display System (AHMDS), a fifth generation Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) which incorporates a curve wave guided holographic display (CWHD), built in night vision camera, high accuracy head and eye tracking system, laser eye protection, and a 3D-Audio/Active Noise Reduction system. The Nemesis features a shock absorbing liner made from a shear thickening non newtonian fluid and is constructed from a carbon nanotube reinforced carbon fiber composite which is custom molded to the head of each individual pilot. The panoramic, polarized visor of the nemesis is constructed from polycarbonate embedded with a nano-thin layer of tungsten oxide and tungsten bronze nanoparticles which provides both laser eye protection and anti-glare functions. The curve wave guided holographic display (CWHD) display of the Nemesis provides 80 x 40 degree field of view, 2560 x 1024 pixel resolution bi-occular imagery uses two LCOS (Liquid Crystal on Silicon) 1280 x 1024 pixel active-matrix liquid-crystal displays (AMLCDs) placed on either side of the helmet to display images onto a holographic optical waveguide built into the polycarbonate visor. For flying in low light conditions the Nemesis features a built in Electron Bombarded Active Pixel Sensor (EBAPS) based visible/near infrared (NIR) night vision camera with a 60 hertz refresh rate and a 1200 x 1600 pixel UXGA (Ultra Extended Graphics Array) resolution which incorporates advanced non-blooming, low halo technology with automatic gain control. The image from the night vision camera can be displayed directly onto the helmet’s visor, negating the need for the pilot to wear night vision goggles. The display also includes an LED backlight designed to increase the readability of the display in high-brightness conditions. A 9-axis internal measurement unit (IMU) and a substrate-guided wave (SGW) based eye tracking system built into the HMD provides precise tracking of pilot head and eye movement and allows stitched, sensor fused output from the aircraft’s Multispectral Distributed Aperture System (MDAS) infrared cameras to be displayed into the HMD to provide the pilot with 360 degree spherical day-and-night synthetic vision around the aircraft. The Nemesis also features a built in 3D-Audio/Active Noise Reduction (ANR) system with an additional built in binaural based threat warning system which reduces pilot fatigue and hearing loss, improves the clarity of radio transmissions, and alerts the pilot to threats around the aircraft.

Flight suit & life support: Both pilot of the aircraft are intended to wears a pneumatically controlled advanced anti-G-suit with partial-pressurization and assisted positive pressure breathing system that allows the pilot to briefly endure 6+ g turns without suffering g induced loss of consciousness as well as maintain breathing ability at altitudes exceeding 20,000 meters. The aircraft's life support system includes an on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS) to generate oxygen for the pilot during flight. The OBOGS works by taking filtered engine bleed-air and passing it through a pressure-reducing valve to reduce the air to ambient pressure where the air is then passed over a zeolite-filled bed that absorbs the nitrogen molecules in the air which are purged from the bed and vented overboard . The 95% pure oxygen generated by the OBOGS is then fed into the pilot's breathing regulator. A back-up tank of liquid oxygen attached to the ejection seat is used to provide oxygen in case of an OBOGS or pilot ejection from the aircraft. Pilot and WSO ejection is via a SDI ARES (Advanced Rocket Ejection Seat), a rocket powered zero/zero (capable of ejecting at zero airspeed and zero altitude) ejection seat capable of ejection at any altitude from 0 to 30,000 meters and speed from 0 to mach 3.


Armament
The A-20 Ghost features a total of four internal weapons bays with a combined capacity of 5,400 kg of ordinance. The aircraft has two 4.5 meter long ventral weapon bays located on either side of the centerline separated by a bulkhead which each have two hardpoints rated at 1,200 kg for carrying various guided bombs or cruise missiles. The aircraft also has two 4.0 meter long outer weapon bays located outboard of the rear landing gear wells which can each accommodate am AIM-A-80 Rattlesnake and AIM-A-100 HLRAAM missile.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Wed Apr 21, 2021 6:50 pm, edited 22 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Sun Mar 05, 2017 2:45 pm

Image

E-13 Vanguard

General Characteristics:
  • Role: Multi-sensor battlefield surveillance aircraft
  • Crew: 2 pilots + 15-20 mission crew
  • Length: 76.5 m
  • Wingspan: 71.8 m
  • Height: 19.7 m
  • Wing area: 517 m2
  • Empty Weight: 165,000 kg
  • Fuel Weight: 179,000 kg
  • Max Takeoff Weight: 344,000 kg
  • Powerplant: 2x SDI800 turbofans, 490 kN each
Performance:
  • Maximum Speed: Mach 0.87
  • Cruise Speed: Mach 0.84
  • Endurance: 20 hours
  • Ferry Range: 20,400 km
  • Service ceiling: 13,100 m
  • Wing loading: 665 kg/m2
Avionics:
  • SN/APS-163 Weather Radar
  • SN/APY-13 X band Multirole Surveillance & Attack Radar System
  • SN/APY-4 L band Airborne Early Warning Radar
  • SN/AYR-3 ESM/ELINT System
  • SN/AAR-64 Missile Approach Warning System
  • SN/ALE-68 Countermeasures Dispenser System
  • SN/ALQ-95 Defensive ECM System
  • SN/AAQ-13 Advanced Infrared Countermeasure (AIRCM) System
  • SN/AVN-36 Astro-inertial Navigation System


Overview:

The E-13 Vanguard is a multi-role surveillance aircraft designed by SDI Aerospace Systems. The aircraft is based on SDI's S-1070 wide body airliner modified with dual surveillance radar systems mounted on the top and bottom of the front and rear fuselage, battle management command and control (BMC2) system, wingtip and tail mounted electronic warfare antennas, fuselage mounted UHF and VHF blade antennas, additional internal fuel tanks, and a receptacle on top of the forward fuselage for in-flight refueling capability.


Design & Construction:
The E-13 Vanguard is built from modified SDI's S-1070 wide body airliners and shares the same basic fuselage, wings, empennage, and landing gear. The aircraft is constructed by weight from 50% graphite-epoxy and glass-epoxy composites, 20% aluminum-lithium alloy, 15% titanium alloys, 10% steel alloys, and 5% other materials. Graphite reinforced epoxy and fiberglass composites are used for the fuselage and wing structure with aluminum-lithium alloys used for the wing and empennage leading edges, titanium alloys used for the wingbox structure, engine nacelles, and fasteners, and steel alloys including 18Ni maraging steel used for the landing gear and other various structures. The 6.2 meter diameter fuselage is constructed from carbon fibre–reinforced epoxy and consists of monolithic barrel structures formed using vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) which are joined together to create the final fuselage assembly. Lightning strike protection, a potential issue for all-composite aircraft structures, is addressed through an aluminum micro-wire grid embedded into the skin of the composite fuselage and wing structure which renders it electrically conductive. Structural modifications made to the S-1070 for the E-13 include the deletion of the cabin windows and addition of composite fairings and pylon to support the dual surveillance radar systems.


Propulsion
  • Name:SDI800
  • Type:Twin-spool ultra-high bypass ratio geared turbofan
  • Length: 7,280 mm
  • Diameter: 3,770 mm
  • Dry Weight: 8,760 kg
  • Bypass ratio: 25:1
  • Compressor:1 stage fan, 5 stage LPC, 6 stage HPC
  • Combustor:Annular combustor
  • Turbine: single stage HPT, 4 stage LPT
  • Maximum thrust: 490 kN
  • Overall pressure ratio: 75:1
  • Specific fuel consumption: 10 g/kN-s (cruise)
  • Turbine inlet temperature: 1,760 °C
  • Thrust-to-weight ratio: 5.7:1
Like the S-1070 the E-13 is powered by two SDI800 ultra-high bypass geared turbofan engines which each provide a maximum of 490 kN of sea level static thrust. The SDI800 uses a twin-spool geared turbofan architecture with a single stage HPT driving an 11 stage HPC and a 6 stage LPT driving both a 3 stage LPC and single stage fan with variable-pitch fan blades which is driven through a 4:1 gear ratio planetary gearbox in between the fan and HPC. The fan has a diameter of 3.55 meters with a design fan pressure ratio of 1.3:1 and employs 18 wide chord fan blades constructed from hollow 3-D woven carbon fiber reinforced composite (CFRP) with Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy reinforcement along the leading edges. The fan employs a novel variable pitch fan system which allows the pitch of the fan blades to be optimized for each phase of flight and removes the need for a variable fan nozzle or a conventional thrust reverser mechanism. The variable-pitch mechanism is completely encloses by the fan centerbody and consists of a central rotary actuator with a pitch change collector ring connected using pitch arms to high strength composite fan blade tension/torsion retention straps constricteed from carbon fiber reinforced PEEK (polyether ether ketone) which support the centrifugal load of each fan blade and are attached using pins to a grooved disk which acts as the blade pivot center. A hydraulic motor is used to actuate the pitch change collector ring through a worm gear drive which provided high magnification of the hydraulic motor output torque and prevents back-driving of the pitch change mechanism. The pitch change mechanism allows the incidence angle of each flan blade to be varied across a 100° range, allowing the fan blade incidence angles to be decreased at low aircraft speeds to avoid fan stall flutter and allowing the blades to be feathered or rotated past the feather position to provide reverse thrust upon landing. The 5 stage low pressure compressor has a pressure ratio of 6.0:1 and employs five Ti-48Al-2Cr-Nb titanium alloy integrally bladed rotors (IBRs) with highly swept, highly loaded blades. The 6-stage high pressure compressor (HPC) has a pressure ratio of 10.0:1 and employs integrally bladed rotors with highly swept, highly loaded blades constructed from a high temperature metal matrix composite (MMC) consisting of Ti-48Al-2Cr-Nb titanium alloy reinforced with 30% by volume high strength (>3450 Mpa), high modulus high modulus (380 Gpa) SiC (silicon carbide) fibers. The combustor section of the engine employs a twin annular premixing swirler (TAPS) combustor with 20 fuel spray nozzles and a floatwall silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) ceramic matrix composite combustor liner with a with a zirconia (ZrO2) environmental barrier coating which provides high combustion efficiency and reduced NOx emission. Air exists the compositor at design combustor exit temperature of 1,760 °C where it then enters the single stage high pressure turbine which drives the high pressure compressor. The high pressure turbine employs silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) ceramic matrix composite turbine blades with a zirconia (ZrO2) environmental barrier coating which are convention and film cooled using high pressure bleed-air from the high pressure compressor. After exiting the high pressure turbine the air drives the 4-stage low-pressure turbine (LPT) which uses 4 rows of uncooled Ti-48Al-2Cr-Nb gamma titanium-aluminide (TiAL) alloy blades. The low-pressure turbine directly drives the low pressure compressor and also drives the single stage variable-pitch fan through an 80 centimetre diameter 4:1 gear ratio planetary gearbox rated at 100,000 kW of input shaft power. Both spools are mounted on SiC (silicon carbide) reinforced Ti-6Al-4V titanium metal matrix composite shafts supported by silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramic bearings. Each engine includes twin oil-cooled AC permanent-magnet variable frequency starter-generator (VFSG) mounted on the cold side of the engine concentrically to the high pressure turbine shaft which when direct driven at 9,000 RPM by the high pressure turbine each provide 600 kVA of 235 VAC electrical power for the aircraft's radars and other onboard electrical systems. Compared to the S-1070 the E-13's engines are modified to accommodate an additional 600 kVA starter-generator to meet the higher power demand of the E-13 aircraft with its twin surveillance radar systems. Starting power for both engines is provided by an SDI SGT3200 variable-speed bleedless APU rated at 1,300 kW (1,737 PS) of shaft power which can be started at any altitude from sea level to 13,100 meters and is used to drive an additional oil-cooled AC permanent-magnet starter-generator providing 600 kVA of 235 Vac electrical power.

Each engine is controlled using a two-channel dual redundant FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) system with one active and one standby channel. The FADEC system is mounted to the fan case of each engine and is powered by a permanent magnetic alternator driven by the aircraft's electrical system. The FADEC system provides centralized control of engine fuel flow, variable-pitch fan blade incidence angle control, compressor variable inlet guide vane (VIGV) and variable stator vane (VSV) actuation control, high and low pressure spool overspeed protection control, exhaust gas temperature (EGT) monmitoring, engine thrust and power management control, engine starting sequence control, and transmission of engine parameters and FADEC system status to the cockpit displays.


Avionics:
SN/APY-13 Multirole Surveillance & Attack Radar System: The APY-11 Multirole Surveillance & Attack Radar System (MSARS) is an X band moving target indicator (MTI) and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system which provides all weather detection, identification and tracking of both moving and stationary ground targets. The APY-11 is housed in a 12 meter long canoe shaped radome located underneath the forward fuselage on the aircraft's centerline directly aft of the cockpit. The radar is scanned electronically in azimuth (+/-60 degrees) and mechanically in elevation and can be rotated inside its radome up to 120 degrees off each side of the aircraft's centerline with the ability to cover more than 50,000 square kilometers of terrain in a single radar scan. The antenna assembly is 8.0 meters long and 0.6 meters tall and employs GaN (gallium nitride)-on-diamond T/R modules with individual digital receiver/exciter modules and a digital beamformer unit and has a maximum radiated power of 30 kW. The radar supports enhanced synthetic aperture radar/fixed target indicator (ESAR/FTI) modes with 0.1 meter (spotlight SAR mode) or 0.3 meter resolution (striplight SAR mode) at ranges up to 250 km with the capability to identify tanks, TELS, mobile artillery, and SAM systems and provide accurate battle damage assessment (BDA) of targets, narrow and wide area high range resolution ground moving target indicator (HRR/GMTI) modes with the capability to track up to 1,000 simultaneous moving ground targets at ranges up to 350 km, and Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) moving-target imaging mode which allows targets tracked in GMTI mode to be imaged with <0.1 meter resolution by the radar system for identification. The radar also features airborne moving target indicator (AMTI) capability which can detect airborne targets at ranges out to 400 kilometers and can be combined with a weapons guidance mode which lets the MSARS track targets and simultaneously guide ground, air, or sea launched ballistic and cruise missiles to targets it has detected, identified, and tracked. An inertial measuring unit (IMU) is mounted to the antenna assembly and is used to provide motion compensation for SAR and ISAR imaging. The SAR and ISAR capability of the radar is enhanced with automatic target recognition (ATR) capability which matches the RCS profile of moving or stationary targets detected and imaged in either ESAR or HRR/GMTI mode to an onboard library of targets and automatically identifies and geolocates detected targets in the current radar image. ATR information is displayed to the crew console as a color coded box around the target which a subtext includes target description (ie TEL), target x and y coordinates within the radar image, confidence rating for the target identification, target 10 digit grid coordinates, and a color for the box and text (either red, yellow, orange, green, or blue) which can be specified by the operator based on the target type. The radar also has radar responsive (R2) tag ability which allows moving and stationary targets inside the radar field of view to be manually tagged and geolocated by the radar system operators. The MSARS is supported by four 120 gigaflop, 1-gigabyte bandwidth, space-time adaptive processing (STAP) and displaced phase center antenna (DPCA) based common radar processor modules (CRPMs), one dedicated to GMTI and the other three for SAR/ISAR processing. Radar data from the MSARS is distributed using a digital fiber-optic based LAN (local area network) to onboard avionics processors and crew displays.

SN/APY-4 L band Airborne Early Warning Radar: The SN/APY-4 Airborne Early Warning (AEW) Radar is the primary air surveillance radar of the E-13 aircraft. The APY-4 is an L band (1.0-1.2 GHz) active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar which employs a low aerodynamic drag dorsal fairing atop the aircraft containing two two side-looking antenna arrays and a front and back looking cavity endfire antenna array which combined provide 360 degree coverage around the aircraft without the additional weight, complexity, and performance loss of a traditional rotating radome system. Over 1,000 GaN (gallium nitride)-on-diamond T/R modules with individual digital receiver/exciter units and a common digital beam-former are contained in the upper fuselage for ease of access and connect to the radome using antenna feeds which run up into the radome fairing through the support strut. The APY-4 radar features up to 100 kW of peak tramsitted power, is capable of tracking up to 1,000 simultaneous targets and has an instrumented range of 650 kilometers and can detect and track a 1m2 airborne target flying at high altitude at up to 520 kilometers at high altitude and a 1m2 airborne target flying at low altitude at up to 400 kilometers. In addition to tracking air targets the APY-4 can also detect and track surface vessel targets out to a radar horizon limited range of around 480 km. The APY-4 also has a ballistic missile tracking mode which uses the radar's digital beamformer to generate extremely narrow-width pencil beams which can track ballistic missiles in their boost, ascent, midcourse, and terminal phases at ranges out to 2,000 kilometers (max 10 simultaneous targets). The radar also doubles an an IFF antenna due to the overlap in radar operating frequency (1.0-1.2 GHz) and two-channel IFF transponder frequency (1030 MHz transmit /1090 MHz receive). ECCM and clutter suppression functions of the radar include jammer detection and tracking in both azimuth and elevation (up to 24 simultaneous jammers), ultra-low emitted sidelobes, broadband operation with high frequency agility, randomized PRF switching and PRF stagger, randomized burst transmissions, LPI/LPD frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) waveforms, automatic sensitivity time control (STC), and constant false-alarm rate (CFAR) detection of targets in the presence of jamming and/or clutter. Like the APY-13 radar system the radar data from the APY-4 is distributed using a digital fiber-optic based LAN (local area network) to onboard avionics processors and crew displays.

SN/AYR-3 ESM/ELINT System: The SN/AYR-3 is strategic grade passive electronic support measures (ESM) and electronic intelligence (ELINT) system which gives the aircraft the ability to detect, identify, and geo-locate radio frequency emissions. The AYR-3 employs two wingtip antennas, a nose antenna, and a tail antenna to provide 360 degree coverage around the aircraft. Each of the four antenna feeds into an ultra-wide bandwidth photonic digital receiver which processes and analyzes the signal and compares to an on-board threat library for indentification. Identified signals are then sent through a fiber-optic LAN network to the aircraft's central mission computer where it is then displayed to the mission crew on their multifunction displays. Being a strategic grade system the AYR-3 has a sensitivity of -90 to -95 dBm and covers the 0.02-40 GHz frequency system with a 40 GHz instantaneous bandwidth. The dual baseline interferometry techniques used by the system and the wide spacing of the antenna allow DF accuracy to within 1°RMS. The system is able to detect and track up to 1,000 simultaneous radar threats including conventional pulse-Doppler and continuous wave (CW) as well as LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/Low Probability of Detection) radars employing frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) operating modes. The sensitivity of the AYR-3 system permits the detection of a 100 watt vehicle APS radar at 400 kilometers and a 10 kilowatt fighter aircraft radar at over 1,000 kilometers (radar horizon limited).

SN/AAR-64 Missile Approach Warning System: The SN/AAR-64 is a passive missile warning system installed in the aircraft which provides warning of incoming threat missiles. The AAR-64 system employs four optical sensor heads with integral optical signal converters mounted in the nose and tail cone of the aircraft which provide combined 360 degree azimuth coverage, a central processor which inputs and analyses signals from the four sensor heads to detect and classify threats, and a central control unit located in the cockpit which provides visual and aural threat warning to the crew and allows for control of the system. Each AAR-64 sensor heads contains an ultra-violet (UV) single-pixel quadrant sensors with an adjunct UV sensor for improved dynamic blanking, a laser warning sensor which warns the crew when the aircraft is being illuminated by a laser designator/illuminator/rangefinder or if the aircraft is being targeted by a laser beam-riding missile, and a short-wave infrared (SWIR) camera which provide detection and tracking of incoming rocket and tracer ammunition. An interface with the aircraft's ALQ-95 ECM system allows the AAR-64 system to distinguish between radar and infrared guided missile threats and to automatically queue the countermeasures system to dispense flares when the system identifies an oncoming IR guided missile.

SN/ALE-68 Countermeasures Dispenser System: The SN/ALE-58 is an airborne countermeasures dispenser system designed to dispense chaff, flares, and other expendable decoys to increase aircraft survivability. The SN/ALE-68 system consists of multiple tail mounted cartridge dispenser modules (CDMs) each capable of containing up to 32 5.0 cm x 2.5 cm x 8.0 cm countermeasures each and a central defensive aids controller (DAC) unit with inputs from both the SN/AAR-64 missile/laser warning system and SN/ALQ-95 system. When a threat missile is detected by the aircraft's SN/AAR-64 missile/laser warning system or SN/ALQ-95 radiofrequency systems the defensive aids controller of the ALE-68 automatically selects appropriate expendable countermeasures to be released by the system's dispensers to decoy or spoof away the incoming missile. Countermeasures supported including pyrophoric spectral flares for decoying IR missiles and chaff, and active digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) decoys for decoying RF guided missiles.

SN/ALQ-95 Defensive ECM System: The SN/ALQ-95 is a defensive electronic counter-measures (ECM) system which combines radar warning receiver and radar jamming systems to protect the aircraft against radar based threats by detecting, identifying, and defeating threat radar emissions. The system is designed to counter ground and air based radars and provides detection and jamming in the 0.2 to 40 GHz range. The system includes over 30 omnidirectiona RF antennas positioned around the aircraft which feed detected radar signals into four wideband superheterodyne receivers where the radar signal parameters are measured and encoded into a digital signal which is received by the aircraft's digital computer unit for processing and threat evaluation. Radar signatures are compared to an on-board threat library for identification with the identified signal and it's angle-of-arrival (AOA) displayed graphically to the crew on their multi-function displays. Displayed radar signatures determined to be a threat by the onboard processor will be accompanied by an audible warning. Threat signals are automatically jammed by the system's high-power jamming transmitters located in the wingtips and atop the vertical tails which can jam a threat radar within milliseconds of it being detected by the aircraft's radar warning receivers. The radar receivers are designed to work with the active jamming transmitters and are tuned to look through the jamming signal to detect new incoming radar signals while the system is jamming in the same frequency band. The jamming system is a deception radio-frequency pulse/continuous wave repeater deceptive jamming system which supports Range Gate Pull Off (RGPO), Velocity Gate Pull Off (VGPO), anti-monopulse crosseye jamming, terrain bounce, and scatter jamming techniques. The ALQ-95 system additionally features a built-in system monitoring network which automatically monitors and reports any electronic warfare system degradation or computer failures and automatically routes electronic signals around failed or battle damaged components via a databus to retain full system performance in high-threat environments.

SN/AAQ-13 Advanced Infrared Countermeasure (AIRCM) System: The SN/AAQ-13 is a directional infrared countermeasure system which employs tunable multi-band quantum cascade laser (QCL) laser dazzlers to counter infrared man portable air defense systems (IR MANPADS) threats. The AAQ-13 system consists of missile warning system interface, central control unit processor, and two nose and tail mounted laser pointer/tracker units which provide combined 360 degree protection around the aircraft. The missile warning system interface uses the UV and IR sensors of the SN/AAR-64 system to detect and incoming missiles and cue the laser pointer/tracker to track and then jam the incoming missile. Each laser pointer/tracker weighs 16 kilograms and consists of quantum cascade laser (QCL) based optical emitter assembly and a beam steering assembly consisting of a clear hemispherical housing 14 centimeters in diameter containing a laser mirror mounted on a servomotor actuated 2-axis gimbal with a strap-down inertial sensor which provides 360° continuous azimuth and -10°/+ 90°degree elevation coverage with a maximum slew rate of 1200°/s. The gimbal has a maximum slew time of less than 300 milliseconds and can track targets up to 30°/s with less than 0.3 milliradians pointing accuracy. The quantum cascade laser (QCL) used in the AAQ-13 system employs a GaInAs/AlInAs (gallium-indium arsenide/aluminium indium arsenide) lattice on an InP (indium phosphide) substrate which provides high continuous-wave power output at room temperature and which covers both the mid and long-wave infrared bands used by typical infrared missile seekers (3-12 μm) allowing simultaneous break-lock jamming of infrared guided missiles in multiple infrared spectrum bands. The entire AAQ-13 system consumes less than 550 watts of peak power and is relatively light and compact with a total weight of less than 40 kilograms including twin laser pointer/tracker assemblies and central processor unit.

SN/AVN-36 Astro-Inertial Navigation System: The SN/AVN-36 is an astro-inertial navigation system with additional GPS capability. The AVN-36 consists of an inertial navigation unit coupled to a CCD star-tracker camera which looks upward through a circular window located just aft of the aircraft's cockpit. The star tracker employs a stabilized telescope and is able to achieve stellar fixes enabling highly accurate GPS independent navigation with position fixes accurate to within 90 meters in broad daylight using a pre-programmed 57 star catalog. The inertial measurement unit contained in the system employs a triad of four-mode multioscillator ring laser gyroscopes (RLGs) and a triad of pendulous accelerometer providing highly accurate free-inertial navigation with position errors of less than 1 kilometer/hour. Additional GPS capability is enabled in the AVN-36 system which includes a SAASM (Selective Availability Anti-Spoofing Module)-based receiver with zero-age differential GPS (ZDGPS) capability and space-time adaptive processing (STAP) providing up to 120 dB of GPS jamming resistance.

BMC2 (Battle Management, Command and Control) Suite: The E-13 BMC2 suite includes the aircraft's radios, communications antenna, datalinks, computers, networking systems, data storage, central computing architecture, and mission software used to provide centralized battle management and command and control capability of the aircraft. Functions supported by the BMC2 include air tasking order generation, friend or foe identification, track fusion of detected contacts, automated radar imagery analysis and exploitation, centralized sensor planning and control, weapon targeting, and target engagement prioritization and management. The communication capability of the BMC2 suite includes an SDI four-channel, full duplex, software-defined radio, UHF and EHF SATCOM antennas, two HF, a dozen UHF, and four VHF radio antennas, and four Ku band, four L band, and four HF/UHF band tactical datalink antenna. The mission software of the BMC2 suite includes the track fusion engine is the software module which is responsible for generating detailed orders-of-battle of hostile forces in the aircraft's operating theater. The track fusion engine inputs track data from both the aircraft's onboard radar sensors and track data from off-board sensors mounted on ground, air, or space based platforms which is received via the aircraft's various tactical datalinks and SATCOM antenna. The track fusion engine divides tracks into airborne target tracks and surface target tracks which are then used to create both an airborne tactical situation model and surface tactical situation model. Sensor data received by the system including target bearing, range, current orientation, velocity, type (fighter, helicopter, APC, tank etc), etc is classified either as a new track or is used to update a new track by fusing the data from the new track with existing sensor tracks of the target. The tactical situation models including track information on each reported contact is then distributed across the battle force through the aircraft's tactical datalinks in real time, synchronizing the sensor information of each operational unit in the battle force. Sensor information gaps in both the airborne tactical situation model and surface tactical situation model (such as ambiguous or unknown bearing, range, current orientation, velocity, or type) are prioritized in the track fusion engine by a sensor scheduling algorithm which then queues either onboard or off-board sensors to fill in the missing track data. The track fusion engine also interfaces with SDI's Arcturus Battle Management System (ABMS) for ground forces by disseminating surface tactical situation model information into the Arcturus network. Arcturus compatible track files are generated by the aircraft's MSARS system which include vehicle type (APC, tank, helicopter, etc), grid position and elevation, heading, IFF status (friendly, enemy, or unknown), damage status (operational, damaged, destroyed), and sensor used to detect (MSARS radar) are down-linked to a dedicated Vanguard Ground Station Module (VGSM) mounted on an SDI FTTS 10x10 truck which is generally attached to army formations at the corps or field army level. The ground station receives the track data from the Vanguard aircraft's Ku band datalink and firther disseminates it using the ground stations own wideband, two way digital data-link systems to unit commanders at the division, brigade, and battalion level. Radio communication between the ground station and the aircraft's BMC2 operators is via secure UHF/VHF radios which allows commanders to request specific radar imagery or tracking data from orbiting Vanguard aircraft.


Cockpit and Cabin:
The E-13 employs a glass cockpit instrumentation system which includes five 30 x 23 centimeter AMLCD (active-matrix liquid crystal display) touchscreen displays with 1600 × 1200 pixel UXGA resolution; two for each pilot which act as primary flight displays and one shared display mounted between the pilots on the center console. The cockpit also includes two digital heads up displays (HUDs) with a 35° x 26° field of view and 1280 x 1024 pixel resolution. The HUDs are used with the aircraft's SDI enhanced vision system (EVS) which uses a tri-band short-wave infrared, long-wave infrared and visible high-resolution imager mounted in the nose to display a 1280 x 1024 pixel raster image on the HUD which is conformal to the outside scene, allowing the pilot to see runway lights and markings through fog, smoke,and other low-visibility conditions while on approach and on landing. The HUD also supports surface guidance system (SGS) capability which uses DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System) information to overlay runway, taxiway, and guidance line ques onto the heads up displays to allow the pilots to navigate during landing rollout and taxi operations in low visibility conditions.

The BMC2 (Battle Management, Command and Control) section of the E-13 is capable of mounting anywhere between 15 to 20 reconfigurable modular workstations each of which are fitted with a 64 x 42 centimeter display with 2560×1600 pixel WQXGA resolution. The displays are used to present tracking data and high resolution SAR/ISAR imagery generated by the aircraft's twin surveillance radar systems as well as data received from the aircraft's electronic intelligence sensors and information received via data link and allow the mission crew to monitor tracked targets, analyze radar imagery, and manage the aircraft' defensive avionics suite (DAS) and other onboard systems.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Wed Nov 11, 2020 8:21 pm, edited 35 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Sat May 13, 2017 10:57 pm

Image

MC-53 Medusa

General Characteristics:
  • Role: STOL Special Operations Transport
  • Crew: 5 (pilot, copilot, navigator/electronic warfare officer, two loadmasters)
  • Length: 46.5 m
  • Wingspan: 56.3 m
  • Height: 12.2 m
  • Wing area: 530 m2
  • Empty Weight: 52,300 kg
  • Fuel Weight: 36,500 kg
  • Max Payload Weight: 36,500 kg
  • Max Takeoff Weight: 125,300 kg
  • Powerplant: 4x SDI F159 high-bypass turbofans, 140 kN each
Performance:
  • Maximum Speed: Mach 0.95
  • Cruise Speed: Mach 0.85
  • Range: 5,500 km (maximum payload)
  • Ferry Range: 7,400 km
  • Service ceiling: 12,200 m
  • Wing loading: 236 kg/m2
  • Thrust/weight: 0.45
  • Takeoff distance: 450 m with 30 t payload
Avionics:
  • SN/APQ-190 Multi-mode Terrain Following Radar
  • SN/AAQ-40 Multispectral Sensor System
  • SN/AAR-64 Missile Approach Warning System
  • SN/ALE-68 Countermeasures Dispenser System
  • SN/ALQ-177 Defensive Electronic Countermeasure System


Overview
The MC-53 Medium STOL Airlifter or 'Medusa" for short is a low observable, medium-lift, short takeoff and landing capable tactical airlifter intended for low-level, clandestine penetration of hostile airspace for infiltration, exfiltration, and resupply of special operations forces with secondary missions of electronic warfare, psychological operations, and aerial refueling of special operations helicopter and tilt-rotor aircraft. Notable features of the Medusa include a mostly composite airframe, stealth shaping, low-speed hybrid powered lift system, rough field landing/takeoff capability, all-weather low-level terrain following/ terrain avoidance capability, comprehensive defensive electronic support measures, and an aerial refueling receptacle and a probe-and-drogue aerial refueling system.


Design & Construction
The fuselage and wing structure of the Medusa is constructed almost entirely from laser aligned honeycomb sandwich panels 5mm thick made from a self-healing polymer composite consisting of a 3D weave of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) reinforced carbon fibers embedded into an epoxy resin matrix. The composite, which covers virtually all of the aircraft's wetted area and makes up over 60% of the aircraft by weight, consists of sandwich panels of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy which are bonded together with a polymer like glue containing carbon nanotubes that is created by dispersing gas-phase purified multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes into the polymer matrix material using an ultrasonic bath which ensures homogeneous dispersion of the carbon nanotubes in the 3D carbon fiber reinforced polymer matrix.The carbon nanotube reinforced polymer glue act to strengthens the bonds between the composite layers and to prevent them from delaminating, significantly improving the strength, stiffness, and durability of the composite. The carbon fiber reinforced honeycomb sandwich panels are shaped using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process, a form of a resin tranfer molding which uses a vacuum to facilitate resin flow into the fiber layup contained within a mold tool covered with a vacuum bag. After the impregnation of the composite occurs the composite part is allowed to cure at room temperature out of autoclave, allowing extremely large parts to be manufactured that would otherwise require excessively large ovens to cure. VARTM allows extremely large parts to be manufactured, for example the entire upper and lower fuselage of the Medusa are made from single parts which are then joined together to produce the complete fuselage. VARTM allows the total number of structural parts to be reduced by an order of magnitude compared to a conventional metal fuselage which when combined with the aircraft's fastenerless construction significantly reduces the cost and complexity of the aircraft's manufacturing process. To compensate for composite's lower damage tolerance compared to conventional aluminum contribution a vascular self-healing system consisting of fine grid of copper nanowires is embedded into the composite which allows the composite to seal cracks and repair minor damage. By using the aircraft's onboard processing suite to monitor the electrical resistance at different points of the composite the location and size of stress cracks within the composite can be detected as a crack will cause the electrical resistance of the carbon nanotubes to change in proportion to the size of the crack. A small electric pulse is then sent through the vascular network of nanowires which heats up the carbon nanotubes and which in turn melts an embedded dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) monomer healing agent inside that flows out of the carbon nanotubes and seals the crack. This system allows the aircraft to heal microsized cracks within the composite which if left to propagate could eventually cause severe structural failure.

To protect the crew from anti-aircraft artillery and small arms fire crew cabin of the Medusa is armored with a composite armor protection system which consists of hexagonal aluminum metal-matrix composite encased silicon carbide tiles mounted around the crew cabin area. The armor is formed with silicon carbide armor tiles backed with a layer of carbon fiber and silicon carbide preform featuring hollow "crush zones" which are placed into a mold cavity made from a graphite die. The mold is then then infiltrating with liquid aluminum using a squeeze casting process where the die is poured over with molten aluminum which is infiltrated into the mold using the pressure from a hydraulic press. The liquid aluminum infiltrates the mold and solidifies the carbon fiber and silicon carbide preform whilst binding the layers together and thus integrating the structure. The hollow "crush zones" are not infiltrated with the liquid aluminum are are thus left to deform under the pressure of an impact. The final composite armor module assembly is a hexagonal block of aluminum encasing a layer of composite tiles backed by layers of aluminum infiltrated silicon carbide and carbon fiber. The tiles are arranged together and glued to a dyneema and fiberglass backing and are insatlled into the aircraft cabin as a single modular assembly which can be replaced in the field as necessary,

To facilitate rough field capability the strengthened undercarriage of the Medusa is constructed from a 3D printed titanium alloy formed using rapid plasma deposition (RPD). The RPD process consists of feeding room temperature Ti-6Al-4V titanium ribbons into a plasma arc created by a pair of torches in argon gas environment. The titanium ribbons are melted and then robotically printed as a liquid by a robotic depositing arm inside the RPD machine. The titanium solidifies instantly after being deposited. The component is rapidly built up in layers in a closed-loop process with the final built-up part given an additional machined finish. Compared to traditional titanium forging or machining of cast titanium billets RPD is significantly faster and cheaper, allowing large titanium sections necessary for the landing gear components to be efficiently and affordably manufactured.


Propulsion:
  • Name: Syndicate Dynamics F159
  • Type: High Bypass Turbofan
  • Length: 3,210 mm
  • Diameter: 1,680 mm
  • Dry Weight: 2,400 kg
  • Bypass Ratio: 4.6:1
  • Overall pressure ratio: 36:1
  • Compressor: One stage fan, 4 stage LPC, 10 stage HPC
  • Combustor: Annular
  • Turbine: 2 stage HPT, 5 stage LPT
  • Maximum Thrust: 140 kN
  • Specific fuel consumption: 25 g/Kn-s
  • Thrust-to-Weight Ratio: 6.0:1


Vehicle Management System & Flight Control Surfaces:
Designed for Stealth and takeoff/landing performance the Medusa is statically unstable in all three aircraft principal axes and requires constant flight corrections from a quadruply redundant fly-by-light flight system to maintain controlled level flight. Instead of hydraulic actuators in its control surfaces the Medusa uses self-contained electrohydrostatic actuators powered by the aircraft's electrical system. Electrohydrostatic actuators (EHA) are a type power-by-wire (PBW) system which replaces the hydraulic actuators and pumps of a traditional fly-by-wire control system with self-contained actuators that convert the electrical power into localized hydraulic power for flight control purposes. The Medusa’s control surfaces use variable pump displacements and variable motor electrohydrostatic actuators (VPVM-EHA) which employ variable speed brushless DC permanent magnet motors to drive a variable displacement servopump which is connected to the two chambers of hydraulic cylinder that is used to actuate the control surface. The ailerons, wing flaps and slats, rudders, and elevator also feature backup electro-mechanical actuators (EMAs) which will remain operational in the event of a total loss of hydraulic power or failure of the power-by-wire system and consists of series of permanent magnet synchronous servomotors which drive the control surfaces through a bearingless coaxial magnetic gearbox.

For enhanced STOL performance the Medusa uses a hybrid powered lift system consisting of internally blown flaps and ailerons on the outer wing and a fluidic thrust vectoring/reversing nozzle system on the inner trapezoidal wing. Air exits the fan and core streams of the F159 engines is first passes through a sound supressing multi-lobed daisy mixer at the turbine exit. The mixed air then flows through an S-duct nozzle that transitions from a circular nozzle to a high aspect ratio rectangular slit at the exit which in addition to having a low radar cross section is designed to rapidly mix the exhaust with the surrounding air, reducing the infrared signature of the exhaust. In powered lift mode a 2D Fluidic Thrust Vectoring (FTV) system located in the rectangular engine nozzles can deflect engine thrust downwards in the pitch direction. The primary advantage of fluid injectors for thrust vector control rather than mechanically steered nozzles is a lighter and less complex system compared to traditional mechanically vectored systems which induce weight and complexity penalties on the airframe while also having a drag or radar cross section penalty while the thrust vectoring system is active. The FTV system used on the Medusa makes use of a Dual Throat Nozzle (DTN) design where the flow is manipulated by injecting bleed air from the engine asymmetrically upstream of a recessed cavity placed in between two throats of the rectangular convergent-divergent nozzle. The asymmetric injection of bleed air from the engine, high pressure on one side and low pressure on the other, causes flow separation on the high pressure injection side which in turn vectors the flow in the direction of the low pressure injection side. For deceleration on the ground the FTV system can also act as a thrust reverser, a bucket mounted behind the main engine nozzle is deployed and the FTV system vectors the thirst upwards into the bucket which vectors the exhaust flow up and forward over the upper surface of the wing.

The second part of the Medusa's hybrid powered lift system is a circulation control system which increases lift by rerouting high pressure air from an offtake scoop in the bypass duct of the F159 engine located just before the daisy lob mixer into a plenum behind the aft spar and blowing it out a thin slot located along the upper surface of the wing. The slot is located at the flap hinge line and as the flap deploys it creates a Coanda surface to which the flow remains attached, increasing lift. The pressurized flow from the bypass duct moves outboard through the structural ties inside the pressurized plenum and is accelerated through the thin converging slot on the outer wing. At low speeds this mechanism provides aerodynamic lift augmentation by controlling separation off of a deflected aft flap at low blowing rates and can provide super-circulation lift at higher blowing rates. The blown flaps are also used at transonic cruise conditions to reduce compressibility drag. The CCW flap on each wing is also split to allow the outer section to act as a blown aileron. The leading edge of the wing is protected by a slat that deploys forward and down at low speeds which prevents early stall because of the dramatic increase in circulation from the CCW.


Stealth

With the Intended mission revolving around penetrating defended airspace the Medusa is designed to have a very low radar and infrared signature to decrease the risk of hostile detection. The frontal radar cross-section of the Medusa is approximately -35 dBSM (0.0003 m2) and is achieved through a combination of shaping techniques and radar absorbing coatings. The Medsua features a faceted fuselage with a blended wing/body fore section that uses parallel edge alignment and continuously varying curvature designed to scatter incident radar waves and has the wings and tail structure angled to avoid 90 degree corner reflections with the fuselage. The various fuselage seams and panels of the aircraft all feature a serrated design designed to refract radar waves away from their source. The engines of the aircraft are buried within the wing stucture and feature S shaped inlet and exhaust ducts which prevents radar line-of-sight view of the spinning compressor and turbine blades. Further reduction of the aircraft's radar signature comes from a fiber-mat radar absorbing material which is cured into the aircraft's composite skin. The fiber-mat RAM consists of carbon fibers infused with multiwall carbon nanotubes embedded with ferrite nanoparticles which are aligned and then cured into an thermoset exposy resin to form a fiber-mat panel which is embedded within the aircraft's composite skin panels. The RAM is made in two layers, the first designed to reduce reflected radar waves by having a thickness intended to optimize internal reflections and a second, more electrically conductive layer with a higher density of CNTs infused into the carbon fibers which dissipates the remaining radar energy as heat and electrical energy. The refractive index of the fiber-mat RAM is close to air and creates essentially a black body absorber from the K through VHF radar bands. The RAM does not cover the entire aircraft and is placed in areas where the radar singature can not be reduced through shaping methods with the RAM being found mostly on the wing and tail leading and trailing edges, inside the engine inlets, and on the sides and underside of the fuselage.

In addition to radar stealth the Medusa features a variety of features designed to reduce the aircraft's infrared signature. The carbon nanaotube RAM coating on the aircraft also functions as a moderately effective infrared absorber due to the high infrared absorptivity of CNTs, reducing the aircraft's skin infrared signature in long-wave infrared wavelength (8–12 microns) by around half where the where the RAM is present. The 2D exhaust nozzles of the aircraft also serve to reduce the infrared signature of the exhaust by promoting greater mixing of the hot exhaust with ambient air. Further reduction of the exhaust IR signature is achieved by drawing cold air into the 2D rectangular exhaust and allowing it to mix with the hot exhaust gases before leaving the nozzle. To reduce the infrared signature of the airframe itself the fuel and bypass air streams are used as heatsinks for the avionics such as the radar and jamming system which by themselves generate a tremendous amount of heat when active. The Medusa also features a series of deployable air scoops along the wings designed to provide cooling air to the engine and power and thermal management system and a set of air scoops located alongside the wing/fuselage junction to provide additional cooling air flow to the engine nacelles.


Avionics
SN/APQ-190 Multi-Mode Terrain Following Radar:The primary sensor of the Medusa is the SN/APQ-190; a multimode, active electronically scanned, Ku band, forward-looking radar that integrates terrain-following and terrain-avoidance features, synthetic aperture ground-mapping, ground moving target indication (GMTI) and dismount moving target indication (DMTI) capability, weather detection and avoidance, and beacon interrogation modes of operation which when combined with the aircraft's multispectral FLIR sensor helps the pilots clear terrain obstacles and avoid threats, provides a high-quality image of terrain features to give the crew an accurate picture of the flight path and serves to provide for effective low-level navigation capability and the ability to locate small drop zones and deliver personnel and/or equipment with high accuracy at high speeds and under all weather conditions. The electronically scanned array of the APQ-190 is mounted on a rotating mechanical gimbaled repositioner which gives the APQ-190 a 100 degree field of view on either side of the nose. The APQ-190 provides two SAR modes: strip and spot. In strip mode the radar produced medium resolution imagery either parallel to the aircraft flight vector or along a specified ground path independent of the aircraft's current flight path while in spot mode the radar produces a high resolution image at a specific geographic patch. In the GMTI modes the radar provides moving target locations overlaid on a digital map. The weather detection ability of the APQ-190 is designed to detect wins shear and turbulence conditions and can automatically interface to the autopilot to re-route the aircraft around hazardous weather conditions. Maximum range of the APQ-190 is 370 km in SAR and GMTI modes and 590 km for weather detection.

SN/AAQ-40 Multispectral Sensor System: Located underneath the nose of the aircraft below the APQ-190 radar is the SN/AAQ-40 Multispectral Sensor System which consists of a dual-band mid-wave/long-wave cryo cooled indium antimonide (InSb) focal plane array (FPA) FLIR camera, eyesafe laser rangefinder/designator, laser spot tracker, and two image-intensified low-light television cameras (LLTV) all mounted on sensor turret connected to a four axis gimbal recessed into the fuselage and covered by a radar opaque RAM mesh screen to prevent radar waves from contacting the sensor turret with the edges of the recesses being serrated as well to reduce incident radar reflections. The AAQ-40 system can display multiple channels of sensor video at one time, can track targets on complex, high-clutter settings including mountainous terrain and urban areas and can indicate the speed and heading at which a target is moving on the ground. The AAQ-40 also can act as an enhanced vision system by streaming sensor-fused video feed from the FLIR and LLTV cameras to the pilot’s head's up display which when combined with the terrain overlay display from the APQ-190 radar can provide a combined synthetic vision system to improve pilot situational awareness in low-light and adverse weather conditions. The enhanced vision system functions by combining streams from the FLIR and LLTV cameras and is programmed to remove field of view (FOV) and spatial resolution differences between the cameras and to correct bore-sighting inaccuracies. The fused data stream is output as a standard NTSC signal and is fed into either the heads-up or heads-down display for viewing by the pilot. The advantage of the EVS is the fused video stream contains more information than any individual sensor feed and also provides the additional benefit of producing a single output for the pilot to observe instead of having to switch between viewing multiple screens outputting feeds from individual sensors. The sensor-fused images streamed from the FLIR and LLTV onto the HUD to create the enhance vision system are also scaled to be the same size and aligned with objects outside the aircraft which allows the pilot to seamlessly transition from augmented to un-augmented vision as objects become closer and visually identifiable.

SN/ALQ-177 Defensive Electronic Countermeasure System: The SN/ALQ-177 Defensive Electronic Countermeasure System is a suite of broadband radiofrequency countermeasures sensors designed to counter pulse, pulse-Doppler, continuous-wave and monopulse radar threats. The passive receiver portion of the system provides consists of four wideband digital receiver which combined provide 360 degree detection of UHF to W band radiofrequency emissions and checks the threat radar frequency, phase, amplitude, waveform characteristics, polarization, and radar space position to identify hostile emitters with confidence. Threat characteristics of hostile radars are stored in the electronic order of battle that is loaded before each mission and is accessible by the crew during flight. The active jamming component of the ALQ-177 uses combination of noise, repeater, barrage or transponder electronic jamming techniques to defeat pulse-doppler and continuous wave emitters. The ALQ-177 can use its passive RF receivers to establish the threat range from the mission aircraft. If an aircraft is in lethal range of a detected threat the ALQ-177 initiates an integrated instantaneous response and attempts to break missile lock through various RF countermeasures. The ALQ-177 is also interfaced with both the SN/AAR-64 Missile Approach Warning System and SN/ALE-68 Countermeasures Dispenser System for more comprehensive detection and neutralization of threats. The AAR-64 Missile Approach Warning System consists of six solar blind ultraviolet (SBUV) single-pixel quadrant detectors placed around the aircraft, a processor that analyzes the signals received by the sensors declares an incoming threat, warns the aircrew and initiates dispensing of countermeasures, and a control/indicator unit that provides warning indications to the aircrew and allows control of the system. The AAR-64 works by detecting ultraviolet energy from the threat missile’s exhaust plume and can track multiple sources, rapidly and accurately classifies each source, and provides threat information to the ALQ-177 countermeasures system to defeat RF guided missile threats. The AAR-64 system also includes laser warning capability for detecting laser rangefinders, laser designators, and laser beam-rider missiles. Both the SN/ALQ-177 and SN/AAR-64 systems are connected to the SN/ALE-68 Countermeasures Dispenser System which can dispense flares and chaff when the radar warning or missile warning systems detect an approaching threat.


Cockpit

The Medusa features a fully glass cockpit containing five 30 x 20cm LCD multifunction head-down touchscreen displays, dual touchscreen electronic flight bags, two retractable keyboard and cursor control devices (KCCU), and two night-vision-goggle compatible 40 x 30 degree FOV 1,280 x 1,024 pixel super XGA resolution heads up displays. The HUD for each pilot displays pitch and roll, heading, flight path angle, track, selected/actual speed and altitude, radio altitude, air dropping guidance, threat warning, and terrain information in addition acting as the display for the enhanced visions system connected or the AAQ-40 sensor system. The MFDs are configured so each pilot has a primary flight display, secondary flight display, and an engine display shared between the two. The primary flight display is normally configured with an Attitude Director Indicator (ADI), a Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI), an Airspeed/Mach Indicator(AMI), an Altitude Indicator(AI), a Vertical Velocity Indicator(VVI), and an Angle of Attack Indicator. The secondary flight display is primarily used to display the digital moving map, Intraformation Positioning/Collision Avoidance System (IFPCAS), traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS), terrain awareness and warning system (TAWS), weather information, defensive aid systems, and status reporting systems. The engine-indicating and crew-alerting system (EICAS) display shared between both pilots contains engine performance menus which contain engine RPM, turbine inlet temperature (TIT), thrust, fuel flow rate, oil temperature, oil pressure, oil quantity, hydraulic pressures, as well as electrical, deicing, and environmental systems information. Located behind the cockpit is sideways facing auxiliary crew member (ACM) station which seats the navigator/electronic warfare officer (EWO). The ACM station contains two 30x20cm LCD multifunction head-down touchscreen displays and a laptop for data entry. The navigator/EWO's multifunction displays are by default configured with adar ground map displays, FLIR/LLTV displays, mission information display, electronic warfare and defensive aid systems displays. The entire cockpit and flight deck also features NVG compatible interior and exterior lighting.

The cabin of the Medusa is pressurized to 1,800 meters through a series of electrically driven compressors rather than with bleed air from the engine. life support system for the Medusa includes an on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS) to generate oxygen for the pilot during flight. The OBOGS works by taking filtered compressor-air and passing it through a pressure-reducing valve to reduce the air to ambient pressure where the air is then passed over a zeolite-filled bed that absorbs the nitrogen molecules in the air which are purged from the bed and vented overboard. The 95% pure oxygen generated by the OBOGS is then fed into the crew cabin. A back-up tank of liquid oxygen attached to each crewmember's seat should the OBOGS system malfunction. The cabin air quality is maintained by a set of High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and carbon activated CBRN filters which remove chemical and biological agents, airborne particles, odors, irritants, and gaseous contaminants as well as particulates like viruses, bacteria and allergens from the crew cabin.


Cargo
The cargo compartment of the Medusa measures 16 meters in length, 4 meters in width, 3.85 meters in height and can support up to 36,500 kg of cargo. The cargo compartment is sized to carry nine 463L master pallet and up to 54 troops seated adjacent to the pallets on both sides of the fuselage. The primary feature of the Medusa's cargo compartment is an enhanced cargo handling system intended to improve cargo handling efficiency. The Medusa's primary loadmaster is equipped with a multifunction display and a ramp control panel along with a parachute initiation device handle and a panel containing electronic circuit breakers for the ramp and cargo handling equipment. The primary loadmaster's multifunction display is a 30 x2 0 cm touchscreen display with NVG compatible lighting. The floor under the cargo bay contains a electric motor powered winch with a 20 meter cable that can support up to a 30 t load with either a 6 or 12 meter per second reel-out rate which is selectable on the winch's control pendant. The rear of the fuselage aft of the cargo ramp also includes a removable 5 ton electromechanical crane which can be used to load and offload cargo onto and from the aircraft. Running along the entire length of the cargo compartment are two low-profile rails each with 17 electric locks designed to secure cargo pallets into place and release them during transport or airlift operations. The electric locks can be activated manually or remotely through the primary loadmaster's multifunction display. Alongside the rails are a total of 48 low-profile reversible rollers which allow easy moving of palletized cargo onto and onto the aircraft. The rollers can also be stowed for when wheeled or tracked cargo is being carried. For heavy equipment airdrops a towplate is used to tow a drogue parachute behind the aircraft in order to provide positive extraction of the cargo at the Computed Air Release Point (CARP). The towlink connected to the towplate is attached to a drogue chute and an extraction parachute bridle and is locked into the towplate with an ejector parachute extraction system (EPES) which releases the towlink from the towplate and extracts the airdrop load. The towplate is mounted flush with the cargo ramp floor and protected by a cover plate when not in use. Release of the towlink from the towpoint is normally done automatically when the aircraft reaches the Computed Air Release Point (CARP) but can be done manually or remotely via the primary loadmaster's multifunction display.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Fri Nov 13, 2020 9:20 pm, edited 22 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Wed May 24, 2017 11:34 pm

Image

S-4 Corsair

General Characteristics:
  • Role: Carrier-based anti-submarine aircraft
  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 20.4 m
  • Wingspan: 22.4 m
  • Height: 7.0 m
  • Wing area: 88.5 m2
  • Empty Weight: 19,800 kg
  • Loaded Weight: 32,200 kg
  • Fuel Weight: 8,400 kg
  • Max Takeoff Weight: 36,300 kg
  • Powerplant: 2x SDI T430 propfans, 9,000 kW each
  • Propellers: 16-bladed 2.8 m diameter counter-rotating (8-bladed forward, 8-bladed rear)
Performance:
  • Maximum Speed: Mach 0.75
  • Cruise Speed: Mach 0.70
  • Combat Radius: 3,000 km
  • Endurance: 8.0 hours @ 650 km radius
  • Ferry Range: 7,000 km
  • Service ceiling: 15,200 m
  • Wing loading: 362 kg/m2
  • Power/mass: 0.56 kW/kg
Payload:
Avionics:
  • SN/APS-192 Multifunction Surveillance Radar
  • SN/ASX-8 Multispectral Imaging System
  • SN/ASQ-209 Advanced Magnetic Anomaly Detector
  • SN/ARR-80 Sonobuoy Communications System
  • SN/ASN-171 INS/GPS System
  • SN/ALQ-229 RWR/ESM/ELINT Sensor System
  • SN/AAR-64 Missile Approach Warning System
  • SN/ALE-75 Fiber Optic Towed Decoy System


Overview:
The S-4 Corsair is a carrier based multirole twin-engine propfan-powered aircraft designed by SDI Aerospace system for anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare, mine warfare, and various other support missions.


Design & Construction:
The Corsair features an unconventional aerodynamic configuration with frontal all-moving canards, single folding vertical tail, and a large, high-aspect ratio folding wing located at the rear of the aircraft. Aft-loaded supercritical airfoils are used for both the wing and canard which minimize drag at high subsonic speeds. A large internal weapons bay sits between the wing and canards and is centered on the aircraft's center-of-gravity (cg). Control is provided by the control canards, inboard and outboard elevons on the wing, and a double-hinged rudder on the vertical tail. Two podded propfan engines are located at the midspan of each wing which employ a pusher propeller configuration which maximizes crew distance from the propfans to minimize noise inside the crew cabin as well as to provide passive protection for the crew and vital aircraft systems in case of blade failure.

The aircraft is constructed primarily from advanced composite materials in place of conventional aluminum. The airframe is primarily constructed from intermediate modulus graphite/epoxy and graphite/aramid composites which accounts for approximately 45% of the aircraft's dry weight. The fuselage is constructed from upper and lower skins of carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CRFP) laminate which are manufactured out-of-autoclave and joined together using 3-dimensional woven performs infused with an epoxy resin to provide a rigid structural assembly without the use of fasteners. The wing and canards employ upper and lower stitched/RFI (Resin film infusion) manufactured CRFP skins with internal ribs and spars made from unidirectional prepreg carbon/epoxy tape using an automated fiber placement (AFP) process. The engine nacelles and control surfaces feature a honeycomb construction using carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy skins bonded to an epoxy resin-impregnated aramid honeycomb core.


Propulsion:
  • Name: SDI T430
  • Type: Three-shaft Propfan
  • Length: 3,780 mm
  • Diameter: 1,240 mm
  • Dry Weight: 1080 kg engine, 1,920 kg with propellor
  • Compressor: four stage LPC, four stage axial plus 1 stage centrifugal HPC
  • Combustor: annular counter-flow combustor
  • Turbine: single stage HPT, counter rotating single stage LPT, four stage PT
  • Maximum power output: 8,950 kW
  • Overall Pressure ratio: 34:1
  • Specific fuel consumption: 0.183 kg/kW-hr
  • Power-to-weight ratio:: 8.29 kW/kg
The Corsair is powered by two SDI T430 propfan engines each delivering 9,000 kW (12,000 shp) of sea-level static power and up to 70 kN of thrust at takeoff. The T430 is a three-spool, counter-rotating geared pusher propfan design. The high pressure spool employs four axial compressor stages with variable-inlet guide vanes (VIGVs) on the first compressor stage and one centrifugal compressor driven by a single-stage high pressure turbine. The low-pressure spool employs four axial compressor stages with twin variable stators driven by a single intermediate-pressure turbine. The twelve counter-rotating propeller blades (6 + 6)of each propfan engine are driven by a four-stage free power turbine through an in-line differential planetary gearbox with counterrotating output shafts which is cooled using fuel/oil and oil/air heat exchangers. The low-pressure compressor employs four Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy blisk-rotors with a casing made from cast aluminum. The high-pressure compressor employs Ti-1100 (Ti-6Al-2.8Sn4Zr-0.4Mo-0.4Si) alloy titanium for the first three axial stage compressor blades, vanes, and disks and IN100 nickel-chromium superalloy for the last high-pressure compressor stage blades, vanes, and disk and for the centrifugal compressor. The high-pressure compressor casing made from cast 17-4 PH martensitic stainless steel around the axial section and IN100 alloy around the centrifugal stage. The combustor liners are manfactured from cast B1900+Hf nickel-hafnium superalloy with a casing made from cast IN100. The high pressure and intermediate pressure turbine blades and vanes are made from single-crystal IN718 nickel-chromium superalloy with a thermal barrier coating. The high pressure and intermediate pressure turbine blades feature combined convective and film cooling using high-pressure bleed air tapped off from the compressor. The high and intermediate pressure turbine disks as well as the power turbine blades, vanes, and disks employ cast IN713 nickel- chromium superalloy. Unlike the high and intermediate pressure turbines the power turbine stages do not feature any cooling. The turbine casing is made from cast IN100 alloy. The engine employs a multi-lobed mixer-ejector nozzle system which exhausts the hot air from the gas generator section of the engine through 11 equally spaced radial lobes located just forward of the propellor section. The lobed nozzle system facilitates highly effective mixing of the hot jet exhaust with cooler ambient air for reducing jet noise, lowering the engine's infrared signature, and reducing the temperature of the exhaust that impinges on the spinning propeller blades. The counter-rotating propellers with 6 blades each employ thin, highly swept propellor blades made from hollow superplastic forming and diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) titanium alloy spars with an outer fiberglass shell.

The T430 includes a dual-channel full authority digital electronic control system (FADEC). Control modes include independent control of blade pitch and propellor speed allowing variable synchrophasing control of each propfan engine to minimize engine noise and vibration, protective measures for regulating turbine-inlet temperature and preventing inadvertent engine overspeed or overtorque, and fault modes allowing for propellor blade feathering and gas generator compressor/turbine section windmilling if an engine fails or has to be shut down in flight. The FADEC control system is housed in a dual-channel electronic control unit containing circuitry connected to various engine sensors whose inputs are used by the FADEC system to control fuel flow, propeller pitch, variable compressor vanes and stators, bleed air flow, and other systems to optimize the performance of the engine throughout the flight envelope. Sensors are additionally linked together to the aircraft's control through a dual redundant fiber-optical data bank which integrates engine status and diagnostics with the aircraft's flight control system.


Avionics:
SN/APS-192 Multifunction Surveillance Radar: The SN/APS-192 is a pulse Doppler X band (9.0 to 10 GHz) multi-mission maritime and overland surveillance radar system mounted in the nose of the aircraft. The radar assembly consists of six modular line-replaceable units (LRUs); the antenna/pedestal, microwave front end, receiver/transmitter, signal transmitter, radar digital data recorder, and integrated identification friend or foe interrogator (IFFI). The antenna/pedestal assembly features dual pencil beam, flat-plate radiator antenna and a high-speed waveguide switch which allows for simultaneous dual-mode operation. The waveform used by the radar antenna is a linear-frequency modulated chirped pulse waveform with a bandwith of 1 GHz. The antenna assembly includes +/- 15 degree pitch and +/- 25 degree roll stabilization. The APS-192 supports multiple maritime and overland surveillance modes including wide-area surveillance (400 km, >300 targets), enhanced small-target detection (ESTD) for periscope/snorkel/LRCS (low radar cross section) target detection, air-to-air search (up to 400 km, 300 targets) ground moving target indicator (GMTI)/ground moving target track (GMTT), maritime moving target indicator (MMTI)/maritime moving target track (MMTT), weather mapping, coastline mapping/navigation, search and rescue transponder (SART) detection, and imaging modes including stripmap and spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) Imaging with up to 0.4 meter resolution, and seaspot or ISAR (inverse synthetic aperture radar) with up to 1 meter resolution against moving maritime targets. Doppler beam sharpening (DBS) options are available for imaging modes which uses space-time adaptive processing techniques to cancel clutter and increase image resolution. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) integral to the antenna is used to provide compensation for aircraft motion during imaging operations.

SN/ASX-8 Multispectral Imaging System: The SN/ASX-8 is a long-range, multisensor optical system mounted on a retractable turret behind and to the left the nose radome which is equipped with HD daylight and HD low-light electro-optical (EO) cameras, infrared imagers, and laser illuminator/rangefinder/designator systems which provides 360 degree continuous azimuth long range and high altitude day and night detection, identification, and tracking of surface targets. The payload of the ASX-8 comprises 9 sensors; a MWIR (3-5µm) staring array HD thermal imager with 1280 x 1024 px resolution and selectable FOV, daylight continuous zoom 5 megapixel color HD camera, low-light continuous zoom electron multiplied CCD camera, 2 megapixel color HD long-range spotter camera, SWIR spotter camera with FOV matched to the daylight spotter camera, 860nm continuous or pulsed selectable laser illuminator, selectable 1064nm/1570nm diode pumped Nd:Yag laser designator/laser rangefinder, and 1064nm quadrant detector laser spot tracker. The camera turret features full 5-axis stabilization and 6-axis vibration isolation with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) coupled to the optical bench assembly for maximum target pointing accuracy.

SN/ASQ-209 Advanced Magnetic Anomaly Detector: The SN/ASQ-209 is an advanced digital magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) employing a three-axis low-temperature superconducting (LTS) SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometer which is used to detect and locate deeply submerged submarines by measuring subtle variations in the intensity of the local magnetic field caused by the hull of submarine. The MAD sensor is housed in a retractable fiberglass tail boom which can be extended and retracted in flight. The niobium based LTS SQUID sensor is immersed in a liquid helium dewar contained inside the tail boom which maintains SQUID detector temperature at 4 degrees K. Digital electronics and microprocessos contained in a set of line-replaceable units (LRUs) are used to to compensate for magnetic noise caused by aircraft motion in flight. The MAD sensor provides automatic detection capability and warning with an aural detection tone for the operator with range, bearing, and detection confidence estimates displayed on crew stations for magnetic anomaly contacts

SN/ARR-80 Sonobuoy Communications System: The SN/ARR-80 is a radio receiver system designed for communicating and managing sonobuoys launched by the aircraft. The receiver system features four receiver units with 16 acoustic channels and 99 sonobuoy VHF channels each, an automatic direction finding (ADF) system, power supply module, pre-amplifier, receiver status indicator, and receiver control panel. VHF receiver channels (396 in total) are computer controlled using a microprocessor control unit which can command each receiver channel to any frequency within standard sonobuoy communication bands (136 MHz - 174 MHz). Simultaneous signal reception from up to 16 sonobuoys is supported by the four receiver system.

SN/ASN-171 INS/GPS System: The SN/ASN-171 is a combined inertial navigation system and global positioning system (INS/GPS) which provides autonomous long-range navigation capability for the aircraft. TheASN-171 combines dual 6-axis strap-down inertial measurement units (IMU) with three fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOG) and three-axis solid-state silicon micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) accelerometers each with a 24 channel, Selective Availability/Anti-Spoofing Module (SAASM) based zero-age differential global positioning system (ZDGPS) anti-jam GPS receiver system. GPS only, INS only, and blended GPS/INS navigation modes are available with the ASN-171 navigation system.

SN/ALQ-229 RWR/ESM/ELINT Sensor System: the SN/ALQ-229 is an electronic warfare receiver system combining radar warning receiver (RWR), electronic support measures (ESM), and electronic intelligence (ELINT) functions and is designed to provide automatic omni-directional and simultaneous detection, identification, geo-location, and analysis of RF signals in high ECM environments. The ALQ-229 system when combined with the AAR-64 missile approach system and ALE-75 towed decoy system forms the core of the aircraft's integrated defensive countermeasure system (IDCM). The ALQ-229 system uses 8 broadband cavity-backed spiral antennas located in two wingtip pods providing 360 detection of RF signals in the 0.2-40 GHz range. The antennas feed into four digital channelized wide-band quadrant receiver units employing short and long baseline interferometer techniques and passive ranging algorithms to enable precise single-ship geolocation and over-the-horizon precision direction-finding and targeting of ground, sea, and air targets in high ECM environments. The system is configured to provide the aircrew with aural warnings of detected RF threats and and interface directly with countermeasures dispensers and missile warning sensors to provide automatic dispersal of countermeasures and can be linked to the aircraft's weapon and fire control systems to provide over-the-horizon targeting capability for anti-ship and/or anti-radiation missiles carried by the aircraft.

SN/AAR-64 Missile Approach Warning System: The SN/AAR-64 is a passive missile warning system installed in the aircraft which provides warning of incoming threat missiles. The AAR-64 system employs four optical sensor heads with integral optical signal converters mounted in the nose and tail cone of the aircraft which provide combined 360 degree azimuth coverage, a central processor which inputs and analyses signals from the four sensor heads to detect and classify threats, and a central control unit located in the cockpit which provides visual and aural threat warning to the crew and allows for control of the system. Each AAR-64 sensor heads contains an ultra-violet (UV) single-pixel quadrant sensors with an adjunct UV sensor for improved dynamic blanking, a laser warning sensor, and a multi-color short-wave infrared (SWIR) camera which provide detection and tracking of incoming missiles and rockets and warns the crew when the aircraft is being illuminated by a laser designator/illuminator/rangefinder or if the aircraft is being targeted by a laser beam-riding missile. An additional hostile-fire indicator (HFI) capability provides detection of muzzle flashes and detection and tracking of incoming tracer projectiles fired at the aircraft. An interface with the aircraft's ALQ-229 radar warning system allows the AAR-64 system to distinguish between radar and infrared guided missile threats and to automatically queue the countermeasures system to dispense flares when the system identifies an oncoming IR guided missile.

SN/ALE-75 Fiber Optic Towed Decoy System: The SN/ALE-75 is a radio-frequency towed decoy system which when integrated with the aircraft's ALQ-229 electronic countermeasures system is intended to suppress and/or deceive hostile radar systems to prevent them from acquiring ad tracking the host aircraft. The ALE-75 system employs a towed decoy equipped with dual high-power traveling wave tubes (TWT) based jammers designed to counter coherent pulse-Doppler and continuous-wave (CW) radars and is connected to the host aircraft using a fiber-optic line. Two reel-in/reel-out deployed units are located underneath the aircraft's wingtip ECM pods and are capable of deploying and reeling back in the decoys during flight as necessary. RF threats are detected and analyzed by the aircraft's ALQ-229 ECM system which then sends an appropriate jamming signal through the fiber-optic line to the towed jammer through an electronic frequency converter (EFC) which converts the RF signals from the planes ECM suite into optical signals which are transmitted through the fiber-optic line. The signals are the converted back to RF using an electronic frequency converter on the decoy unit where the towed decoy then emits the jamming waveform to prevent or impede the hostile radar's ability to track the aircraft.


Cockpit:
The Corsair features a pressurized, fully 'glass' cockpit containing a crew of four seating facing forward in a 2 by 2 arrangement. The pilot sits in the left forward seat, the co-pilot in the right forward seat, sensor operator in the left rear seat, and combined navigator/bombardier/electronic warfare operator seated in the right rear seat. All four crew are seated on zero/zero (zero altitude/zero speed) capable ejection seats. The tactical glass cockpit system is fully outfitted with an electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) and employs three 34 x 27 centimeter color LCD primary flight displays (PFDs) for the pilot and co-pilot. The two rear seats employ interchangeable SDI multi-function display/control system (MFDCS) crew stations with 51 cm multi-function color LCD displays which enable display of sensor outputs and control for the aircraft's various sensor, navigation, communication, and weapon systems.


Armament:
Internal weapons bay: The Corsair contains an internal weapons bay located in the fuselage at the aircraft's center of gravity. The weapons bay measures 4.5 meters long by 2.0 meters wide by 1.0 meters tall and is divided in two by a keel longeron running the length of the weapons bay. Each side of the weapons bay contains a hardpoint rated at 1,200 kilograms which can be used to carry a single ASM-N-110 supersonic anti-ship cruise missile,
ASM-A-87 Corvus cruise missile, GBU-1000 glide bomb, CBU-1000 cluster bombs AM70 bottom mine, AM88 moored mine, or an ejector rack with two Viperfish ASW torpedoes . The weapons bay is covered by four thermoplastic composite doors, two on each side which hinge on the keel longeron and the side of the fuselage and which are actuated using a 275 bar hydraulic system which is shared with the aircraft's landing gear and tail hook mechanism.

Wing hardpoints:In addition to the internal weapons bay the S-4 features four wing hardpoints; two wet hardpoints rated at 1,200 kg each located just outboard of the propfan nacelles and two hardpoints rated at 100 kg located just inboard of the wingtips. The inner wing hardpoints can be used to carry the same weapons as the internal weapons bay hardpoints and can additionally be used to carry 1,500 liter drop tanks or a buddy refueling pod containing fuel transfer and hydraulic pumps driven by a nose-mounted ram-air turbine and a 12 meter extendable reel with a drogue receptacle on the end. The buddy refueling pod itself carries 1,000 liters of fuel and can transfer fuel at a rate of up to 750 liters per minute. The outer wing hardpoints are designed to carry a rail launcher with a single AIM-A-80 short range air-to-air missile to give the aircraft a limited self defense capability against hostile aircraft.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Wed Apr 21, 2021 6:51 pm, edited 45 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Thu May 25, 2017 9:46 pm

Image

E-15 Sentinel

General Characteristics:
  • Role: Carrier-based early warning and control aircraft
  • Crew: 5
  • Length: 20.4 m
  • Wingspan: 22.4 m
  • Height: 7.0 m
  • Wing area: 88.5 m2
  • Empty Weight: 20,900 kg
  • Loaded Weight: 31,100 kg
  • Fuel Weight: 10,800 kg
  • Max Takeoff Weight: 36,300 kg
  • Powerplant: 2x SDI T430 propfans, 9,000 kW each
  • Propellers: 16-bladed 2.75 m diameter counter-rotating (8-bladed forward, 8-bladed rear)
Performance:
  • Maximum Speed: Mach 0.75
  • Cruise Speed: Mach 0.70
  • Endurance: 10 hours at 650 km
  • Ferry Range: 9,200 km
  • Service ceiling: 15,200 m
  • Wing loading: 362 kg/m2
  • Power/mass: 0.56 kW/kg
Avionics:
  • SN/APY-13 UHF band Advanced Airborne Surveillance Radar
  • SN/ALQ-227 ESM System
  • SN/ASN-171 INS/GPS System
  • SN/AAR-64 Missile Approach Warning System
  • SN/ALE-75 Fiber Optic Towed Decoy System


Overview:
The E-15 Sentinel is a carrier based airborne early warning (AEW) aircraft designed by SDI Aerospace systems. The aircraft is a variant of SDI's S-4 carrier based aircraft and features a modified fuselage and tail structure to accommodate the aircraft's long-range surveillance radar.


Design & Construction:
Like the S-4 Corsair the Sentinel features an unconventional aerodynamic configuration with frontal all-moving canards, a single vertical tail, and a large, high-aspect ratio folding wing located at the rear of the aircraft. Aft-loaded supercritical airfoils are used for both the wing and canard which minimize drag at high subsonic speeds. A large internal weapons bay sits between the wing and canards and is centered on the aircraft's center-of-gravity (cg). Control is provided by the control canards, inboard and outboard elevons on the wing, and a double-hinged rudder on the vertical tail. Two podded propfan engines are located at the midspan of each wing which employ a pusher propeller configuration which maximizes crew distance from the propfans to minimize noise inside the crew cabin as well as to provide passive protection for the crew and vital aircraft systems in case of blade failure.

The aircraft is constructed primarily from advanced composite materials in place of conventional aluminum. The airframe is primarily constructed from intermediate modulus graphite/epoxy and graphite/aramid composites which accounts for approximately 45% of the aircraft's dry weight. The fuselage is constructed from upper and lower skins of carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CRFP) laminate which are manufactured out-of-autoclave and joined together using 3-dimensional woven performs infused with an epoxy resin to provide a rigid structural assembly without the use of fasteners. The wing and canards employ upper and lower stitched/RFI (Resin film infusion) manufactured CRFP skins with internal ribs and spars made from unidirectional prepreg carbon/epoxy tape using an automated fiber placement (AFP) process. The engine nacelles and control surfaces feature a honeycomb construction using carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy skins bonded to an epoxy resin-impregnated aramid honeycomb core.


Propulsion:
  • Name: SDI T430
  • Type: Three-shaft Propfan
  • Length: 3,780 mm
  • Diameter: 1,240 mm
  • Dry Weight: 1080 kg engine, 1,920 kg with propellor
  • Compressor: four stage LPC, four stage axial plus 1 stage centrifugal HPC
  • Combustor: annular counter-flow combustor
  • Turbine: single stage HPT, counter rotating single stage LPT, four stage PT
  • Maximum power output: 8,950 kW
  • Overall Pressure ratio: 34:1
  • Specific fuel consumption: 0.183 kg/kW-hr
  • Power-to-weight ratio:: 8.29 kW/kg
The Sentinel is powered by two SDI T430 propfan engines each delivering 9,000 kW (12,000 shp) of sea-level static power and up to 70 kN of thrust at takeoff. The T430 is a three-spool, counter-rotating geared pusher propfan design. The high pressure spool employs four axial compressor stages with variable-inlet guide vanes (VIGVs) on the first compressor stage and one centrifugal compressor driven by a single-stage high pressure turbine. The low-pressure spool employs four axial compressor stages with twin variable stators driven by a single intermediate-pressure turbine. The twelve counter-rotating propeller blades (6 + 6) of each propfan engine are driven by a four-stage free power turbine through an in-line differential planetary gearbox with counterrotating output shafts which is cooled using fuel/oil and oil/air heat exchangers. The low-pressure compressor employs four Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy blisk-rotors with a casing made from cast aluminum. The high-pressure compressor employs Ti-1100 (Ti-6Al-2.8Sn4Zr-0.4Mo-0.4Si) alloy titanium for the first three axial stage compressor blades, vanes, and disks and IN100 nickel-chromium superalloy for the last high-pressure compressor stage blades, vanes, and disk and for the centrifugal compressor. The high-pressure compressor casing made from cast 17-4 PH martensitic stainless steel around the axial section and IN100 alloy around the centrifugal stage. The combustor liners are manfactured from cast B1900+Hf nickel-hafnium superalloy with a casing made from cast IN100. The high pressure and intermediate pressure turbine blades and vanes are made from single-crystal IN718 nickel-chromium superalloy with a thermal barrier coating. The high pressure and intermediate pressure turbine blades feature combined convective and film cooling using high-pressure bleed air tapped off from the compressor. The high and intermediate pressure turbine disks as well as the power turbine blades, vanes, and disks employ cast IN713 nickel- chromium superalloy. Unlike the high and intermediate pressure turbines the power turbine stages do not feature any cooling. The turbine casing is made from cast IN100 alloy. The engine employs a multi-lobed mixer-ejector nozzle system which exhausts the hot air from the gas generator section of the engine through 11 equally spaced radial lobes located just forward of the propellor section. The lobed nozzle system facilitates highly effective mixing of the hot jet exhaust with cooler ambient air for reducing jet noise, lowering the engine's infrared signature, and reducing the temperature of the exhaust that impinges on the spinning propeller blades. The counter-rotating propellers with 6 blades each employ thin, highly swept propellor blades made from hollow superplastic forming and diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) titanium alloy spars with an outer fiberglass shell.

The T430 includes a dual-channel full authority digital electronic control system (FADEC). Control modes include independent control of blade pitch and propellor speed allowing variable synchrophasing control of each propfan engine to minimize engine noise and vibration, protective measures for regulating turbine-inlet temperature and preventing inadvertent engine overspeed or overtorque, and fault modes allowing for propellor blade feathering and gas generator compressor/turbine section windmilling if an engine fails or has to be shut down in flight. The FADEC control system is housed in a dual-channel electronic control unit containing circuitry connected to various engine sensors whose inputs are used by the FADEC system to control fuel flow, propeller pitch, variable compressor vanes and stators, bleed air flow, and other systems to optimize the performance of the engine throughout the flight envelope. Sensors are additionally linked together to the aircraft's control through a dual redundant fiber-optical data bank which integrates engine status and diagnostics with the aircraft's flight control system.


Avionics:
SN/APY-13 Advanced Airborne Surveillance Radar: The SN/APY-13 AARS is an advanced three-element omnidirectional active phased array radar system operating in the UHF band (400-500 MHz) which is mounted in a triangular shaped fiberglass radome at the rear of the aircraft. The AARS system consists of three linear-phased array antennas and provides long range, 360 degree surveillance of air and surface targets for all-weather airborne early warning (AEW) control capability. A co-aligned 36 element IFF array is built into each phased array antenna face to enable long range IFF interrogation of air and surface contacts. The antenna employs GaN (Gallium Nitride)-on-diamond based monolithic microwave Integrated circuit T/R modules. The antenna radiates with an average power of 160 kW and can detect a 1 m2 RCS airborne target at 650 kilometers, low-RCS sea-skimming cruise missiles out to 300 km, and ballistic missile targets out to 1,000+ km. Up to 2,000 airborne targets can be tracked by the system with the ability to control intercepts to up to 40 simultaneous targets. The heat from the radar system is managed by the radar pressurization and cooling system (RPCS) which employs a hybrid jet impingement and microchannel two-phase vapor-cycle cooling system using HFE 1700 (methoxy-nonafluorobutane) dielectric coolant to remove heat from the radar antenna and other high-power electronocs. Power for the radar and cooling system is provided by a 1,300 kW SDI T800 helicopter turboshaft engine located in the fuselage which drives a gearbox mounted generator unit to provide electrical power to the radar and additionally acts as the aircraft's auxiliary power unit (APU).

SN/ALQ-227 ESM System: The AN/ALQ-227 Electronic Support Measures (ESM) system is a digital strategic grade ESM and ELINT (Electronic Intelligence) sensor system designed to provide passive 360° detection, identification, and geolocation of emitting radars. The ALQ-227 system consists of a central receiver/processor unit, a nose mounted active front end (AFE) antenna, port and starboard active front end (AFE) antenna mounted on either side of the fuselage, and an aft active front end (AFE) antenna mounted in the tail. The receiver unit receives RF energy from the four active front ends (AFE) assemblies and divides RF energy into low, mid and high bands covering the 0.2-40 GHz range for detection, identification, and analysis purposes.

SN/ASN-171 INS/GPS System: The SN/ASN-171 is a combined inertial navigation system and global positioning system (INS/GPS) which provides autonomous long-range navigation capability for the aircraft. TheASN-171 combines dual 6-axis strap-down inertial measurement units (IMU) with three fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOG) and three-axis solid-state silicon micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) accelerometers each with a 24 channel, Selective Availability/Anti-Spoofing Module (SAASM) based zero-age differential global positioning system (ZDGPS) anti-jam GPS receiver system. GPS only, INS only, and blended GPS/INS navigation modes are available with the ASN-171 navigation system.

SN/AAR-64 Missile Approach Warning System: The SN/AAR-64 is a passive missile warning system installed in the aircraft which provides warning of incoming threat missiles. The AAR-64 system employs four optical sensor heads with integral optical signal converters mounted in the nose and tail cone of the aircraft which provide combined 360 degree azimuth coverage, a central processor which inputs and analyses signals from the four sensor heads to detect and classify threats, and a central control unit located in the cockpit which provides visual and aural threat warning to the crew and allows for control of the system. Each AAR-64 sensor heads contains an ultra-violet (UV) single-pixel quadrant sensors with an adjunct UV sensor for improved dynamic blanking, a laser warning sensor, and a multi-color short-wave infrared (SWIR) camera which provide detection and tracking of incoming missiles and rockets and warns the crew when the aircraft is being illuminated by a laser designator/illuminator/rangefinder or if the aircraft is being targeted by a laser beam-riding missile. An additional hostile-fire indicator (HFI) capability provides detection of muzzle flashes and detection and tracking of incoming tracer projectiles fired at the aircraft. An interface with the aircraft's ALQ-229 radar warning system allows the AAR-64 system to distinguish between radar and infrared guided missile threats and to automatically queue the countermeasures system to dispense flares when the system identifies an oncoming IR guided missile.

SN/ALE-75 Fiber Optic Towed Decoy System: The SN/ALE-75 is a radio-frequency towed decoy system which when integrated with the aircraft's ALQ-229 electronic countermeasures system is intended to suppress and/or deceive hostile radar systems to prevent them from acquiring ad tracking the host aircraft. The ALE-75 system employs a towed decoy equipped with dual high-power traveling wave tubes (TWT) based jammers designed to counter coherent pulse-Doppler and continuous-wave (CW) radars and is connected to the host aircraft using a fiber-optic line. Two reel-in/reel-out deployed units are located underneath the aircraft's wingtip ECM pods and are capable of deploying and reeling back in the decoys during flight as necessary. RF threats are detected and analyzed by the aircraft's ALQ-227 ECM system which then sends an appropriate jamming signal through the fiber-optic line to the towed jammer through an electronic frequency converter (EFC) which converts the RF signals from the planes ECM suite into optical signals which are transmitted through the fiber-optic line. The signals are the converted back to RF using an electronic frequency converter on the decoy unit where the towed decoy then emits the jamming waveform to prevent or impede the hostile radar's ability to track the aircraft.


Cockpit:
The Sentinel features a pressurized, fully 'glass' cockpit containing a crew of 5; a pilit, copilot, radar officer (RO), combat information center officer (CICO), and aircraft control officer (ACO) The pilot sits in the left forward seat, the co-pilot in the right forward seat, and the combat information center officer, air control officer and radar operator sit facing sideways in crew stations located inside the fuselage. All five crew are seated on zero/zero (zero altitude/zero speed) capable ejection seats. The tactical glass cockpit system is fully outfitted with an electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) and employs three 34 x 27 centimeter color LCD primary flight displays (PFDs) for the pilot and co-pilot. The two rear seats employ interchangeable SDI multi-function display/control system (MFDCS) crew stations with 51 cm multi-function color LCD displays which enable display of sensor outputs and control for the aircraft's various sensor, navigation, and communication systems.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Thu Mar 04, 2021 6:25 pm, edited 13 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Tue May 30, 2017 11:27 pm

Image

MH-90 Phantom

General Characteristics:
  • Role: Utility helicopter
  • Crew: 4 (2 pilots, 2 crew chiefs)
  • Capacity: 12 seated troops/2,400 kg of internal payload or up to 4,500 kg of external payload
  • Length: 16.5 m
  • Rotor Diameter: 15.0 m
  • Height: 4.7 m
  • Disc area: 176 m2
  • Empty Weight: 7,070 kg
  • Fuel Weight: 2,100 kg
  • Max Takeoff Weight: 13,600 kg
  • Powerplant: 2x SDI T600 turboshaft engines, 4,850 kW each
Performance:
  • Maximum speed: 250 knots (460 km/h)
  • Cruise speed: 230 knots (425 km/h)
  • Combat range: 1,500 km
  • Ferry range: 3,200 km
  • Service ceiling: 9,000 m
  • Rate of climb: 25 m/s
  • Disc loading: 77.3 kg/m2
Armament:
Avionics:
  • SN/APQ-190 Multi-mode Terrain Following Radar
  • SN/AAQ-59 FLIR System
  • SN/AAR-64 Missile Approach Warning System
  • SN/APR-56 Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) System
  • SN/ALE-58 Countermeasures Dispenser System
  • SN/AAQ-13 Directional Infrared Countermeasure (DIRCM) System


Overview:
The MH-90 Sea Phantom is a medium-sized, twin-engine, compound troop transport helicopter designed by SDI Aerospace Systems.


Design & Construction:
The Phantom employs a single-piece, composite semi-monocoque fuselage constructed from graphite/epoxy and kevlar/epoxy laminates and honeycomb sandwich composites which combined constitute approximately 80% of the airframe weight. Ballistically resistant kevlar/epoxy laminates and kevlar/epoxy honeycomb sandwich strictures are used for the majority of the external fuselage while graphite/epoxy composite structures are used for the majority of the internal load bearing structures. An aluminium wire mesh is laminated into the outer composite skin panels to provide lightning strike protection. The main fuselage structure consists of kevlar/epoxy laminate skin with kevlar/epoxy honeycomb skin stiffeners and internal graphite/epoxy honeycomb sandwich panel stringers, beams and frames. The floor of the helicopter contains kevlar/epoxy honeycomb crush structures designed to deform and absorb energy upon impact and are designed to absorb the impact of a 12 m/s vertical velocity crash landing. Kevlar/epoxy laminates with rubber backed boron carbide (B4C) embedded into the epoxy resin are used around the cockpit structure and in the crew seats of the helicopter which provide multi-hit protection against 14.5 mm AP ammunition at 100 meters range. The fuel cells are located in the fuselage and are supported with fiber-reinforced ballistic foam. The tailcone structure is built as a single co-cured component and is constructed from filament wound graphite/epoxy composite and contains a set of blow-out panels designed to relieve the internal pressure caused by the internal detonation of a 30 mm high explosive incendiary (HEI) projectile. The tail cone section is also designed to break off during crashes to minimize the weight the fuselage crush-structures have to absorb on impact. The empennage structure consist of a horizontal stabilizer with outboard inward cranked vertical tail fins and a single ventral rudder and is constructed from kevlar/epoxy sandwich composite skins with internal tubular spars constructed from filament wound graphite/epoxy composites designed to withstand the overpressure of a 30 mm HEI round detonation.


Propulsion:
  • Name: T600
  • Type: Turboshaft
  • Length: 1,196 mm
  • Diameter: 616 mm
  • Dry Weight: 377 kg
  • Compressor: 7 stage axial, 1 stage centrifugal
  • Combustor: annular counter-flow combustor
  • Turbine: 12 HPT, 2 stage PT
  • Maximum power output: 4,850 kW
  • Overall pressure ratio: 9.3:1
  • Power-to-weight ratio: : 12.8 kW/kg
  • Specific fuel consumption: 0.28 kg/kW-hr

Engines The Phantom is powered by two SDI T600 turboshaft engines each with 4,850 kW of maximum rated power. The T600 employs a seven stage transonic axial-flow and one stage centrifugal-flow compressor. The seven transonic axial-flow stages employ single piece Ti-1100 betal titanium alloy blisks with highly swept airfoils. The single centrifugal stage is constructed from Ti-62222S alpha-beta titanium alloy. A set of variable inlet guide vanes (VIGV) are located in front of the first compressor stage automatically adjust in-flight as a function of compressor RPM and inlet temperature to ensure an adequate surge margin for the engine. A diffuser channel straightens out the airflow from the centrifugal compressor where it then enters into a series of swirl ducts which reverse the direction of the flow. The air then enters the reverse-flow combustion chamber where a series of dual orifice, fuel­-atomizing nozzles which combusts the air with fuel. The hot combustion products are then passed into a another set of swirl ducts which again reverse the flow before it enters a two-stage nozzle which directs the flow into the two-stage high pressure (HP) turbine which drives the compressor spool. The turbine blades of the high pressure turbine stages are constructed from monolithic single crystal castings and employ impingement and film cooling using bleed-air from the sixth axial compressor stage. After exiting the second high pressure turbine stage the gases flow into the two-stage power turbine which extracts most of the remaining energy of the hot combustion gasses to drive the aircraft's rotors. The two-stage power turbine employs two rows of uncooled superalloy blades and two monolithic superalloy turbine disks. After the gases have passed through the power turbine section the gases are vented upwards into the atmosphere through the engine exhaust duct.

Transmission system: The transmission system of the helicopter is rated for 9,700 kW (13,000 PS) and transfers power from the turboshaft engines to the coaxial main rotors, the pusher propeller, and the accessory drive system. The main gearbox of the transmission system is constructed from magnesium to reduce weight and provides a speed reduction between the turboshaft engine and the pusher propeller and coaxial rotor drive shafts and is connected to the fuselage using four elastomeric isolator mounts which provide vibration isolation in the roll, pitch, and yaw directions. Power enters the transmission from two turboshaft-to-gearbox drive shafts fitted with flexible couplings that allow for slight misalignment between the engine output shaft and the gearbox housing. Inside the gearbox the two engine output shafts are combined using a combiner gearbox with the output connected to an overrunning clutch which connects to the pusher propeller shaft and to a spiral bevel gear reduction set which rotates the power output 90 degrees from horizontal to vertical and then connects to a compound spur planetary gear reduction set which drives the twin coaxial main rotors. The upper rotor is driven by the lower planetary ring gear and rotates counter-clockwise while the lower rotor is driven by the lower planetary carrier and rotates clockwise. A differential rotor speed drive located inside the main gearbox is used to transfer torque from the yaw control motor to the upper planetary ring gear and permits differential rotor rpm to produce differential torque about the yaw axis. A spur gear connected to the ring gear drives an oil lubricated rotary vane pump and provides cooling oil flow to the gears and bearings of the main gearbox. Power take-off from the transmission system is also used to drive two 30 kW 270VDC oil-cooled electric generators and two 3,000 psi hydraulic pumps which provide electrical and hydraulic power for the aircraft and two HPMGs (Hydraulic Permanent Magnet Generators) which power the flight control computers. The rear pusher propeller is driven by an composite drive shaft constructed from transversely wound carbon fiber reinforced PEEK (Polyether ether ketone) and which runs from the main gearbox and connects to the pusher propeller gearbox located in the tail of the aircraft. A disconnecting clutch is contained in the pusher propeller gearbox which allows the pusher propeller to be disengaged for hovering or low-speed flight. The overruning clutch located in the main gearbox activates past a certain rotor RPM and disengages the rotor drive system from the gearbox, transferring all the engine power to the pusher propeller and letting the main rotors auto-rotate for high speed forward flight.

Rotor system: The aircraft uses SDI's compound coaxial helicopter propulsion system which employs a lift-offset coaxial rotor design with two contra-rotating rigid main rotors and a clutchable pusher propeller assembly. The lift-offset rotor design offloads the lift from the retreating blades by using the aerodynamic lift of the advancing blade, eliminating the potential of stall of the retreating blades and thus allowing for higher speed horizontal flight. In addition the two contra-rotating coaxial rotors produce opposing torques, eliminating the need for a tail rotor. Each of the coaxial main rotors is 15 meters in diameter and and has four rigid wide-chord active rotor blades attached to the rotor hub using a series of elastomeric pitch bearings. The rotor blades are tapered in thickness from the tip to root and employ a continuous wound carbon fiber skin bonded to a hollow graphite/epoxy honeycomb composite structure. An additional polyurethene abrasion strip is bonded to the leading edge of each rotor blade. Each hollow blade additionally contains a graphite/epoxy composite flexbeam which extends from the rotor hub to the mid-span of the blade which provides ballistic tolerance to internal detonations of HEI rounds up to 30 mm in caliber and increases the rigidity and flapping stiffness of the rotor blade to allow for closer spacing of the coaxial rotors to minimize drag in forward flight. Each rotor blade features an active vibration control system (AVCS) consisting of a trailing edge flap on each rotor blade actuated by double X-frame actuator with four single-crystal piezoelectric stack columns embedded in each rotor blade capable of defecting the trailing edge flap +/- 3°. The active flaps allow the lift generated by each rotor blade to be varied and blade-vortex interaction (BVI) induced noise and vibration to be significantly reduced by eliminating pressure fluctuations on the leading edges of the blades. A composite fairing covers each rotor hub to reduce parasitic drag in flight. Each coaxial rotor is fitted with its own rotor control system which are located concentric with the twin coaxial rotors. Each rotor control system contains four electro-mechanical servomotor actuators and a swashplate and pitch control rod assembly used to adjust the pitch of the four rotor blades of each rotor in flight. A noise and vibration reducing electronic synchrophaser mechanism is located inside the rotor control system assembly and matches the rpm and phase of both coaxial rotors by adjusting the speed of each rotor and the relative positions of each individual blade.


Avionics:
SN/APQ-190 Multi-Mode Terrain Following Radar: The SN/APQ-190 is a multimode, active electronically scanned, Ku band, forward-looking radar that integrates terrain-following and terrain-avoidance features, synthetic aperture ground-mapping, ground moving target indication (GMTI) and dismount moving target indication (DMTI) capability, weather detection and avoidance, and beacon interrogation modes of operation which when combined with the aircraft's multispectral FLIR sensor helps the pilots clear terrain obstacles and avoid threats, provides a high-quality image of terrain features to give the crew an accurate picture of the flight path and serves to provide for effective low-level navigation capability and the ability to locate small drop zones and deliver personnel and/or equipment with high accuracy at high speeds and under all weather conditions. The electronically scanned array of the APQ-190 is mounted on a rotating mechanical gimbaled repositioner which gives the APQ-190 a 100° field of view on either side of the nose. The APQ-190 provides two SAR modes: strip and spot. In strip mode the radar produced medium resolution imagery either parallel to the aircraft flight vector or along a specified ground path independent of the aircraft's current flight path while in spot mode the radar produces a high resolution image at a specific geographic patch. In the GMTI modes the radar provides moving target locations overlaid on a digital map. The weather detection ability of the APQ-190 is designed to detect wins shear and turbulence conditions and can automatically interface to the autopilot to re-route the aircraft around hazardous weather conditions. Maximum range of the APQ-190 is 370 km in SAR and GMTI modes and 590 km for weather detection.

SN/ALQ-216 Integrated RF Countermeasure System: The SN/ALQ-216 is a comprehensive airborne electronic warfare suite which includes which includes wideband DRFM (Digital Radio Frequency Memory) jamming system and central electronic warfare control processor unit. The active jamming capability of the ALQ-216 includes a set of two low band and two high band solid state phased array (SSPA) DRFM jammers employing gallium nitride (GaN) lightweight circuit boards and conformal broad-band antenna units providing 360 degree jamming coverage around the aircraft covering the 0.7-40 GHz frequency bands and providing narrow beam, high power self-protection deceptive jamming capability effective against pulse Doppler, monopulse, and continuous wave radars. The DRFM jammer system employs phase front distortion, range gate pull-off (RGPO), velocity gate pull-off (VGPO), and other deceptive jamming techniques and includes an on-board threat library which identifies and prioritizes threat emitters and jams them order of perceived threat to the host aircraft. When threat signals are detected and identified by the systems radar interferometer sensors jamming of the emitter automatically begins and continues until the threat radar signal is no longer detected by the system's receiver arrays.

SN/AAR-64 Missile/Laser Warning System: The SN/AAR-64 is a combined missile and laser warning system installed in the aircraft which provides passive warning of incoming threat missiles and illumination by threat lasers. The AAR-64 system employs six optical sensor heads with integral optical signal converters mounted in the nose and tail of the aircraft which provide combined 360 degree spherical coverage around the aircraft, a central processor which inputs and analyses signals from the six sensor heads to detect and classify threats, and a central control unit located in the cockpit which provides visual and aural threat warning to the crew and allows for control of the system. Each AAR-64 sensor heads contains an ultra-violet (UV) single-pixel quadrant sensors with an adjunct UV sensor for improved dynamic blanking, a laser warning sensor which warns the crew when the aircraft is being illuminated by a laser designator/illuminator/rangefinder or if the aircraft is being targeted by a laser beam-riding missile, and a short-wave infrared (SWIR) camera which provide detection and tracking of incoming rocket and tracer ammunition. An interface with the aircraft's APR-56 radar warning system allows the AAR-64 system to distinguish between radar and infrared guided missile threats and to automatically queue the countermeasures system to dispense flares when the system identifies an oncoming IR guided missile.

SN/ALE-68 Countermeasures Dispenser System: The SN/ALE-68 is an airborne countermeasures dispenser system designed to dispense chaff, flares, and other expendable decoys to increase aircraft survivability. The SN/ALE-68 system consists of two tail mounted cartridge dispenser modules (CDMs) each capable of containing up to 32x 5.0 cm x 2.5 cm x 8.0 cm countermeasures each and a central defensive aids controller (DAC) unit with inputs from both the SN/AAR-64 missile/laser warning system and SN/ALQ-216 ECM system. When a threat missile is detected by the aircraft's SN/AAR-64 missile/laser warning system or SN/ALQ-216 ECM system the defensive aids controller of the ALE-68 automatically selects appropriate expendable countermeasures to be released by the system's dispensers to decoy or spoof away the incoming missile. Countermeasures supported including pyrophoric spectral flares for decoying IR missiles and chaff, and active digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) decoys for decoying RF guided missiles.

SN-300 Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System (INS/GPS): For navigation purposes the aircraft is equipped with an SDI designed SN-300 INS/GPS system which combines an inertial measurement unit (IMU) containing a 3-axis non-dithered laser-ring gyro (LRG), 3-axis pendulous integrating gyroscopic accelerometer (PIGA), and a 3-axis magnetometer with a GPS spatial temporal anti-jam receiver (GSTAR) system. The IMU provides linear and angular acceleration, velocity, linear and angular position, and magnetic and true heading outputs and provide continuous measurement of the aircraft's acceleration and roll rate which is combined with airspeed and altitude data from the aircraft's air-data system and then input to the aircraft's flight control software. IMU data including magnetic and true heading is also input to the aircraft's navigation software where the IMU data is combined with GPS data to provide highly accurate navigational capability for the aircraft. The IMU system also provides motion compensation capability for the aircraft's SN/APS-160 radar system. The GPS system consists of a GPS spatial temporal anti-jam receiver (GSTAR) including controlled reception pattern antenna (CRPA), high dynamic range RF (radiofrequency) front-end, digital beamformer and digital receiver unit. The GSTAR system includes a formal antenna with +/- 12 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth and supports up to 16 simultaneous beams with digital beam steering and nulling and features a 36-channel (24 military and 12 civilian) digital receiver unit. The GSTAR system supports both Y-code and M-code GPS and is highly jam resistant with greater than 125 dB jam/signal ratio tracking performance. The GSTAR receiver also supports wide area differential GPS (WADGPS) functionality with 0.5-2 meter 3-dimensional position accuracy in flight for navigation and weapon targeting functions

SDI OWLS (Obstacle Warning Laser System): The SDI OWLS or Obstacle Warning Laser System is an active LADAR (Laser Detection and Ranging) based sensor system designed to detect power lines, cables, and other small obstacles in front of the helicopter which are not readily detectable by the helicopter's FLIR or radar sensors .OWLS employs a 3-D LADAR sensor mounted in a box above the SN/AAS-54 FLIR turret in the helicopter's nose which contains an eye-safe 15 kW erbium fiber pulsed laser operating at 60 kHz. The 3D LADAR system scans +/- 18° in azimuth and +/- 21° in elevation in front of the helicopter and is capable of detecting a 5mm diameter wire at a range of 700 meters under normal atmospheric conditions. Obstacles detected by the OWLS sensor are superimposed into the AAS-54 FLIR feed and the pilot's helmet mounted display (HMD) and are accompanied by an aural warning tone in the cockpit when the system detects an obstacle in the helicopter's current flight path, enabling the crew to avoid to avoid them.


Cockpit & Flight Control:
Canopy: The cockpit canopy is constructed from two layers of acrylic/polycarbonate laminate with an optical grade thermoplastic polyurethane interlayer which provides high ballistic and thermal shock tolerance with high light transmittance and optical quality. A fogging/deicing system consisting of two layers of transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) coatings on either side of the polyurethane interlayer which are heated using an AC waveform to remove ice and fogging from the canopy. The indium tin oxide coating also provides electromagnetic shielding for the cockpit and prevents radar waves from entering the cockpit. The cockpit also features an outer anti-reflective dielectric coating which prevents static build up and collection of dust particles on the exterior of the cockpit glass. The two halves of the canopy are separated by a thin trapezoidal shaped graphite/epoxy windshield post which results in minimal visual obstruction for the flight crew.

Cockpit displays:The aircraft features a fully glass cockpit design which includes five 27 x 20 centimeter active matrix LCD multifunction displays (MFDs), a control display unit (CDU) with a 9 x 9 centimeter active matrix LCD display, a video processing module (VPM), data transfer unit (DTU), and an integrated vehicle health management system (IVHMS) with a crash survivable memory unit (CSMU). The five 27 x 20 centimeter displays feature 1024 x 768 pixel XGA resolution with 2D & 3D graphics capability and can be split into up to four separate video windows. The displays are each surrounded by a bezel with 17 push buttons and include dual redundant LED backlights which support both daytime high-sunlight and nighttime NVG/NVIS compatible operation modes. Below the row of five multifunction displays is the control display unit which includes an NVIS/NVG compatible 9 x 9 centimeter active matrix LCD display and a high tactile feedback full alphanumeric sealed keyboard which provides for centralized display and management of navigation and radio communication information for both pilots. The video processing module includes a general purpose processor and a dedicated graphics engine and provides analog and digital video management and mission computing and supports up to five analog video and six HDTV digital inputs while providing up to six 1.485 Gbit/s high-definition serial digital interface (HD-SDI) outputs. The data transfer unit is a microprocessor based mass memory storage unit which can record, store, and playback video and audio files with up to 548 GB of data storage capability. The data transfer unit also serves to store digital moving map data and can access and transfer digital map data files to the main flight displays in real time. The digital map storage capability of the DTU when combined with the aircraft's INS/GPS navigation system allows the aircraft's position to be continuously displayed in real time on 300 x 300 kilometer color 3-D digital terrain map with selectable 1:50,000, 1:250,000, 1:1,000,000, or 1:2,000,000 map scales.

Helmet mounted display: The aircraft is designed to be used with the SDI Nemesis-R Rotor-wing Helmet Mounted Display System (RHMDS), a rotary-wing optimized version of SDI's Nemesis Advanced Helmet Mounted Display System (AHMDS) which incorporates a curve wave guided holographic display (CWHD), built in night vision camera, high accuracy head and eye tracking system, laser eye protection, and a 3D-Audio/Active Noise Reduction system. The helmet is divided into two main assemblies; the outer helmet assembly where the holographic display visor, night vision camera, HMD umbilical connector, and hybrid optical tracker are mounted to, and the inner helmet assembly which contains the 3D audio and active noise reduction system, attachment points for the pilot's oxygen mask, and the helmet's custom fit protective liner (CFPL) which is created using a 3D scan of each pilots head. The panoramic, polarized display visor of the HMD is constructed from a polycarbonate laminate embedded with a nano-thin layer of tungsten oxide and tungsten bronze nanoparticles which provides both laser eye protection and anti-glare functions. The curve wave guided holographic display (CWHD) display of the Nemesis provides 80 x 40 degree field of view bi-occular imagery using two 1920 × 1200 pixel LCOS (Liquid Crystal on Silicon) projectors placed on either side of the helmet to display images at 60 Hz onto a holographic optical waveguide in front of each eye. For flying in low light conditions the Nemesis features a built in Electron Bombarded Active Pixel Sensor (EBAPS) based visible/near infrared (NIR) night vision camera with a 60 hertz refresh rate and a 1200 x 1600 pixel UXGA (Ultra Extended Graphics Array) resolution which incorporates advanced non-blooming, low halo technology with automatic gain control. The image from the night vision camera can be displayed directly onto the helmet’s visor, negating the need for the pilot to wear night vision goggles. The HMD supports combined vision system (CVS) capability which combines enhanced vision system (EVS) and synthetic vision system (SVS) capability. The combined vision system takes sensor fused FLIR and TV imagery from the aircraft's FLIR sensor system and projects it over synthetic 3D terrain imagery including buildings and terrain features generated using stored 3D topographic data from a 3-D digital moving map database which is then displayed into the the helmet's holographic display for flying high-speed terrain following flight profiles in reduced or zero-visibly weather conditions. A hybrid optical-based inertial tracker and a substrate-guided wave (SGW) based eye tracking system built into the HMD provides precise tracking of pilot head and eye movement. The Nemesis also features a built in 3D-Audio/Active Noise Reduction (ANR) system with an additional built in binaural based threat warning system which reduces pilot fatigue and hearing loss, improves the clarity of radio transmissions, and through an interface to the aircraft's missile, laser, and radar warning sensor provides directional aural warning tones to alert the pilot to threats around the aircraft.

Cognitive Decision–Aiding System (CDAS): The Cognitive Decision–Aiding System (CDAS) is an AI based information management and mission planning software system integrated into the aircraft's cockpit which is designed to reduce pilot workload. The CDAS system includes six different software modules; Data Fusion, External Situation Assessment (ESA), Internal Situation Assessment (ISA), Mission Planner, Cockpit Information Manager (CIM), and Mission Processor. The data fusion module of the CDAS suite is responsible for combining sensor and data feed from the aircraft's various surveillance, targeting and navigation sensors into a single unified situational awareness display (SAD) for the pilot on their multifunction cockpit displays. External Situation Assessment (ESA) uses information form the aircraft's targeting and surveillance sensors to create an external threat assessment for the aircraft. Internal Situation Assessment (ISA) interfaces with the aircraft's Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) sensors and other status-monitoring systems to create an internal health assessment of the aircraft. Data from the ESA and ISA software modules is then used by the system's mission planner module to present the pilot with route planning, survivability, communications, sensor management, and weapon system employment suggestions on their multifunction displays and/or heads up display. The Cockpit Information Manager (CIM) acts as the intelligent user interface (IUI) of the CDAS system and is responsible for displaying CDAS task and mission suggestions to the crew and for acting as the primary pilot interface to the CDAS system. The CIM will generate various pop up displays on the cockpit multifunction displays and in the pilot's HMD displaying threat location and type, route planning information, vehicle health status, etc. The CIM will also automatically change the moving map scale based on current mission tasks such a shifting to a wider scale for ingress/egress and shifting to a smaller, more detailed scale when maneuvering or engaging pop-up targets.

Flight Controls: The aircraft features two sets of identical flight controls which allow the aircraft to be piloted from either seat. Each pilot station features a sidestick cyclic pitch controllers on the left side of the seat and a center mounted active collective levers. The sidestick cylic controller features a thumb lever used to control the pitch of the tail pusher propeller which can pushed forward to provide positive thrust or pulled back to provide reverse thrust via negative prop pitch to slow the aircraft down. A thumb button on the cyclic controller also actuates the the pusher propeller clutch which when depressed disconnects the pusher propeller from the gearbox for hovering or for low speed flight. At higher flight speeds (past 180 knots) the main rotor system is disconnected using an overrunning clutch and the the collective control is locked into place, the aircraft then been flown exclusively with the cyclic side stick and rudder pedals. Both sets of flight controls input into a quadruplex (dual digital plus dual analog redundant) fly-by-wire system which consists of the twin cyclic sticks and active collective levers, two sets of rudder pedals, two air data computers (ADCs), two attitude and heading reference systems (AHRS), two GPS units, four flight control computers (FCC), and flight control actuators including twin coaxial rotor control systems, differential yaw control power system, twin rudder actuators, and elevator actuator. The flight controls are actuated using a dual redundant 3000 psi hydraulic system which uses twin hydraulic pumps driven by the rotor and pusher propeller transmission s which provide hydraulic power through two redundant hydraulic lines to drive the hydraulic actuators used by the elevator, twin rudders, and twin rotor control systems. The fly-by-wire flight control system features two default control settings; rate command/attitude hold (RCAH) mode which provides crisp, highly responsive flight control for high speed, low level flying in daylight VFR conditions and an attitude command/velocity hold (ACVH) mode with a more dampened flight control response for nighttime or IFR condition flying. Autopilot features of the flight control system include auto hover, automatic bob-up/bob-down, flight envelope cueing, automatic terrain- following/terrain-avoidance (TF/TA), and integrated fire and flight control (IFFC) with automatic evasive maneuvering and weapon launch capability.

Environmental control system: The environmental control system (ECS) provides NBC protection for the crew and provided cooled air flow filtered of any chemical contaminants to the cockpit and to the aircraft's avionics. The ECS takes high pressure bleed air from the APU and passes it through a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter and a dual bed self-purging pressure swing absorber (PSA) which removes any particulate matter, NBC contaminants, or water vapor from the bleed air before it enters the air cycle machine (ACM) which provides cool air flow into the cockpit to cool the cockpit and various cockpit avionics. The air cycle machine also provides constant 0.5 psi overpressure to the crew cabin to prevent any potential NBC contaminants from entering the cockpit due to ballistic or environmental damage to the canopy glass or cockpit structure.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Tue Mar 02, 2021 7:32 pm, edited 21 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Fri Jun 23, 2017 11:19 pm

Image

SH-90 Sea Phantom

General Characteristics:
  • Role: ASW helicopter
  • Crew: 3-4 (2 pilots, 1-2 crew chiefs)
  • Capacity: Up to 5 passengers or up to 2,400 kg internal payload
  • Length: 16.5 m
  • Rotor Diameter: 15.0 m
  • Height: 4.7 m
  • Disc area: 176 m2
  • Empty weight: 7,070 kg
  • Fuel weight: 2,100 kg
  • Max takeoff weight: 13,600 kg
  • Powerplant: 2x SDI T600 turboshaft engines, 4,850 kW each
Performance:
  • Maximum speed: 250 knots (460 km/h)
  • Cruise speed: 230 knots (425 km/h)
  • Combat radius: 425 km
  • Ferry range: 3,200 km
  • Service ceiling: 9,000 m
  • Rate of climb: 25 m/s
  • Disc loading: 77.3 kg/m2
Armament:

Avionics:
  • SN/APS-160 Maritime Surveillance Radar
  • SN/AAS-59 FLIR System
  • SN/AQS-30 Helicopter Low Frequency Sonar
  • SN/ASQ-210 Towed Magnetic Anomaly Detector
  • SN/ARR-80 Sonobuoy Communications System
  • SN/ALQ-230 ESM System
  • SN/ALQ-216 Integrated RF Countermeasure System
  • SN/AAR-64 Missile Approach Warning System
  • SN/ALE-68 Countermeasures Dispenser System
  • SN/AAQ-13 Directional Infrared Countermeasure (DIRCM) System


Overview:
The SH-90 Sea Phantom is a multi-mission anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and anti-surface ship warfare (ASuW) helicopter designed by by SDI Aerospace Systems. The helicopter is a variant of SDI's MH-90 Phantom helicopter with the main modifications being automatic folding main rotor blades and and tail for shipboard operations. Additional missions the SH-90 can perform are vertical replenishment (VERTREP), search and rescue (SAR), combat search and rescue (CSAR), medical evacuation (MEDEVAC), troop transport, and mine laying.


Design & Construction:
The SH-90 employs a single-piece, composite semi-monocoque fuselage constructed from graphite/epoxy and kevlar/epoxy laminates and honeycomb sandwich composites which combined constitute approximately 80% of the airframe weight. Ballistically resistant kevlar/epoxy laminates and kevlar/epoxy honeycomb sandwich strictures are used for the majority of the external fuselage while graphite/epoxy composite structures are used for the majority of the internal load bearing structures. An aluminium wire mesh is laminated into the outer composite skin panels to provide lightning strike protection. The main fuselage structure consists of kevlar/epoxy laminate skin with kevlar/epoxy honeycomb skin stiffeners and internal graphite/epoxy honeycomb sandwich panel stringers, beams and frames. The floor of the helicopter contains kevlar/epoxy honeycomb crush structures designed to deform and absorb energy upon impact and are designed to absorb the impact of a 12 m/s vertical velocity crash landing. Kevlar/epoxy laminates with rubber backed boron carbide (B4C) embedded into the epoxy resin are used around the cockpit structure and in the crew seats of the helicopter which provide multi-hit protection against 14.5 mm AP ammunition at 100 meters range. The fuel cells are located in the fuselage and are supported with fiber-reinforced ballistic foam. The tailcone structure is built as a single co-cured component and is constructed from filament wound graphite/epoxy composite and contains a set of blow-out panels designed to relieve the internal pressure caused by the internal detonation of a 30 mm high explosive incendiary (HEI) projectile. The tail cone section is also designed to break off during crashes to minimize the weight the fuselage crush-structures have to absorb on impact. The empennage structure consist of a horizontal stabilizer with outboard inward cranked vertical tail fins and a single ventral rudder and is constructed from kevlar/epoxy sandwich composite skins with internal tubular spars constructed from filament wound graphite/epoxy composites designed to withstand the overpressure of a 30 mm HEI round detonation.


Propulsion:
  • Name: T600
  • Type: Turboshaft
  • Length: 1,196 mm
  • Diameter: 616 mm
  • Dry Weight: 377 kg
  • Compressor: 7 stage axial, 1 stage centrifugal
  • Combustor: annular counter-flow combustor
  • Turbine: 12 HPT, 2 stage PT
  • Maximum power output: 4,850 kW
  • Overall pressure ratio: 9.3:1
  • Power-to-weight ratio: : 12.8 kW/kg
  • Specific fuel consumption: 0.28 kg/kW-hr

Engines The Phantom is powered by two SDI T600 turboshaft engines each with 4,850 kW of maximum rated power. The T600 employs a seven stage transonic axial-flow and one stage centrifugal-flow compressor. The seven transonic axial-flow stages employ single piece Ti-1100 betal titanium alloy blisks with highly swept airfoils. The single centrifugal stage is constructed from Ti-62222S alpha-beta titanium alloy. A set of variable inlet guide vanes (VIGV) are located in front of the first compressor stage automatically adjust in-flight as a function of compressor RPM and inlet temperature to ensure an adequate surge margin for the engine. A diffuser channel straightens out the airflow from the centrifugal compressor where it then enters into a series of swirl ducts which reverse the direction of the flow. The air then enters the reverse-flow combustion chamber where a series of dual orifice, fuel­-atomizing nozzles which combusts the air with fuel. The hot combustion products are then passed into a another set of swirl ducts which again reverse the flow before it enters a two-stage nozzle which directs the flow into the two-stage high pressure (HP) turbine which drives the compressor spool. The turbine blades of the high pressure turbine stages are constructed from monolithic single crystal castings and employ impingement and film cooling using bleed-air from the sixth axial compressor stage. After exiting the second high pressure turbine stage the gases flow into the two-stage power turbine which extracts most of the remaining energy of the hot combustion gasses to drive the aircraft's rotors. The two-stage power turbine employs two rows of uncooled superalloy blades and two monolithic superalloy turbine disks. After the gases have passed through the power turbine section the gases are vented upwards into the atmosphere through the engine exhaust duct.

Transmission system: The transmission system of the helicopter is rated for 9,700 kW (13,000 PS) and transfers power from the turboshaft engines to the coaxial main rotors, the pusher propeller, and the accessory drive system. The main gearbox of the transmission system is constructed from magnesium to reduce weight and provides a speed reduction between the turboshaft engine and the pusher propeller and coaxial rotor drive shafts and is connected to the fuselage using four elastomeric isolator mounts which provide vibration isolation in the roll, pitch, and yaw directions. Power enters the transmission from two turboshaft-to-gearbox drive shafts fitted with flexible couplings that allow for slight misalignment between the engine output shaft and the gearbox housing. Inside the gearbox the two engine output shafts are combined using a combiner gearbox with the output connected to an overrunning clutch which connects to the pusher propeller shaft and to a spiral bevel gear reduction set which rotates the power output 90 degrees from horizontal to vertical and then connects to a compound spur planetary gear reduction set which drives the twin coaxial main rotors. The upper rotor is driven by the lower planetary ring gear and rotates counter-clockwise while the lower rotor is driven by the lower planetary carrier and rotates clockwise. A differential rotor speed drive located inside the main gearbox is used to transfer torque from the yaw control motor to the upper planetary ring gear and permits differential rotor rpm to produce differential torque about the yaw axis. A spur gear connected to the ring gear drives an oil lubricated rotary vane pump and provides cooling oil flow to the gears and bearings of the main gearbox. Power take-off from the transmission system is also used to drive two 30 kW 270VDC oil-cooled electric generators and two 3,000 psi hydraulic pumps which provide electrical and hydraulic power for the aircraft and two HPMGs (Hydraulic Permanent Magnet Generators) which power the flight control computers. The rear pusher propeller is driven by an composite drive shaft constructed from transversely wound carbon fiber reinforced PEEK (Polyether ether ketone) and which runs from the main gearbox and connects to the pusher propeller gearbox located in the tail of the aircraft. A disconnecting clutch is contained in the pusher propeller gearbox which allows the pusher propeller to be disengaged for hovering or low-speed flight. The overruning clutch located in the main gearbox activates past a certain rotor RPM and disengages the rotor drive system from the gearbox, transferring all the engine power to the pusher propeller and letting the main rotors auto-rotate for high speed forward flight.

Rotor system: The aircraft uses SDI's compound coaxial helicopter propulsion system which employs a lift-offset coaxial rotor design with two contra-rotating rigid main rotors and a clutchable pusher propeller assembly. The lift-offset rotor design offloads the lift from the retreating blades by using the aerodynamic lift of the advancing blade, eliminating the potential of stall of the retreating blades and thus allowing for higher speed horizontal flight. In addition the two contra-rotating coaxial rotors produce opposing torques, eliminating the need for a tail rotor. Each of the coaxial main rotors is 15 meters in diameter and and has four rigid wide-chord active rotor blades attached to the rotor hub using a series of elastomeric pitch bearings. The rotor blades are tapered in thickness from the tip to root and employ a continuous wound carbon fiber skin bonded to a hollow graphite/epoxy honeycomb composite structure. An additional polyurethene abrasion strip is bonded to the leading edge of each rotor blade. Each hollow blade additionally contains a graphite/epoxy composite flexbeam which extends from the rotor hub to the mid-span of the blade which provides ballistic tolerance to internal detonations of HEI rounds up to 30 mm in caliber and increases the rigidity and flapping stiffness of the rotor blade to allow for closer spacing of the coaxial rotors to minimize drag in forward flight. Each rotor blade features an active vibration control system (AVCS) consisting of a trailing edge flap on each rotor blade actuated by double X-frame actuator with four single-crystal piezoelectric stack columns embedded in each rotor blade capable of defecting the trailing edge flap +/- 3°. The active flaps allow the lift generated by each rotor blade to be varied and blade-vortex interaction (BVI) induced noise and vibration to be significantly reduced by eliminating pressure fluctuations on the leading edges of the blades. A composite fairing covers each rotor hub to reduce parasitic drag in flight. Each coaxial rotor is fitted with its own rotor control system which are located concentric with the twin coaxial rotors. Each rotor control system contains four electro-mechanical servomotor actuators and a swashplate and pitch control rod assembly used to adjust the pitch of the four rotor blades of each rotor in flight. A noise and vibration reducing electronic synchrophaser mechanism is located inside the rotor control system assembly and matches the rpm and phase of both coaxial rotors by adjusting the speed of each rotor and the relative positions of each individual blade.


Avionics:
SN/APS-160 Maritime Surveillance Radar: The SN/APS-160 is an X band (9.3 -9.8 GHz) 360° multifunction active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar system mounted in a dome under the nose of the helicopter which provides long range surface search, low probability-of-intercept (LPOI) search, periscope detection, small target track, high resolution inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging, spot and strip SAR ground mapping, high resolution maritime, ground, and air moving target indicator (MTI), weapon guidance, beacon detection, and identification friend or foe (IFF) interrogator capability with simultaneous dual-mode operation of any two operating modes. The antenna system is capable of scanning a full 360° and is protected by a 2.0 meter diameter composite fairing mounted under the nose of the helicopter. The antenna employs air cooled gallium nitride (GaN) T/R modules and is scanned mechanically in azimuth and electronically in elevation with a nominal antenna rotation speed of 108 RPM. Complete weight of the system with stabilized antenna, IFF array, fairing, and processor LRUs is less than 90 kg. The radar is capable of tracking up to 200 targets in track-while-scan mode and has an instrumented range of 370 km in search modes and 600 km in weather detection mode. The search radar antenna is integrated with an IFF antenna and interrogator which provides IFF modes 1, 2, 3A, 4, and S for identifying friendly forces within the radar scan area. To accommodate the ASW and ASuW mission the radar features high instantaneous bandwidth and frequency agility, high scan rate, intrapulse frequency modulation and pulse compression, and track-before-detect functionality and supports constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection and tracking of small targets such as periscopes or lifeboats in high-clutter ocean environments and supports high range resolution (HRR) maritime moving target indicator (MMTI) and high-resolution Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) imaging modes to allow automatic target recognition (ATR) and target classification of maritime targets detected by the radar.

SN/AAS-59 FLIR System: The SN/AAS-59 Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) system is a multi-spectral surveillance and targeting sensor which provides day/night and all weather detection, identification, observation, and targeting of ground, sea, and air targets with AGM-193 missiles and other munitions. The AAS-59 system consists of a 4-axis stabilized and 6-axis vibration isolated sensor head containing a 1920 x 1080 pixel NIR/visible CCTV camera, 640 x 512 pixel InGaAs SWIR imager, 1280 x 720 pixel InSb MWIR (3-5 μm) imager, 830 nm laser illuminator, and 830 nm laser pointer 1.06 µm laser designator, 2.06 µm holmium-doped YLF laser rangefinder with 30 kilometer range and <2 meter resolution , 6-axis IMU, and GPS-based attitude (GPS/A) sensor. The SN/AAS-59 features five selectable fields of view including 34° x 45° ultra-wide field of view (UWFOV), 17° x 22 ° wide field of view (WFOV), 5.7° x 7.6° medium field of view (MFOV), 1.2° x 1.6° narrow field of view (NFOV), and 0.6° x 0.8° (SWIR/MWIR) or 0.21° x 0.27 ° (visible/NIR) ultra-narrow field of view (UNFOV) with up to 4x continuous electronic zoom capability. The software features of the SN/AAS-59 include sensor fusion of visible/NIR, SWIR, and MWIR outputs as well as moving target indicator (MTI) capability and both moving map and augmented reality overlay display capability. The SN/AAS-59 also includes far target location (FTL) capability using the laser rangefinder and an onboard 9-axis IMU and GPS-based attitude (GPS/A) sensor which allows the 10-digit GPS grid location of targets illuminated by the system's laser rangefinder to be generated. The SN/AAS-59 FLIR turret is mounted underneath the nose of the helicopter and is capable of traversing 360° in azimuth and +20 ° to -105°in elevation at a slew rate of up to 170°/s.

SN/AQS-30 Helicopter Low Frequency Sonar: The SN/AQS-30 Helicopter Low Frequency Sonar (HLFS) is a helicopter dipping sonar system designed by SDI Underwater Systems. The HLFS system consists of a Sonar Transducer Assembly (STA), Reeling Machine Assembly (RMA), Reeling Machine Control Unit (RMCU), Common Acoustic Processor, and system flat panel displays with a complete system weight of 340 kg. The low frequency sonar transducer assembly consists of a projector array 5.2 meters tall with 8 transmitters (7 sonar and 1 underwater telephone) below a 1.2 meter tall receive array with 8 receivers mounted onto 8 arms which fold out out to a diameter of 2.6 meters under hydraulic pressure as the array is lowered into the water. The sonar transmitters of the HLFS transmit at 1.311, 1.38 and 1.449 kHz with a 218dB source level and can operate in either frequency modulated (FM) mode with linear pulse widths of 0.156 to 5.0s or FM triplets with a pulse widths of 0.625 to 1.25s or can operate in continuous wave (CW) mode with pulse widths of 0.156 sec to 5.0 seconds. The array features electronic beam steering +/ -15 °above and below the array and has a maximum operating depth of 500 meters. The system is capable of tracking up to 10 simultaneous undersea contacts which are displayed on the sonar control display with selectable range scales of 1.5, 2.5, 4, 6, 10, 16, 25, 40 and 60 nm. Detection performance at the system's maximum depth of 500 meters is out to the second sonar convergence zone (~60 nm/130 km).

SN/ASQ-210 Towed Magnetic Anomaly Detector: The SN/ASQ-210 Towed Magnetic Anomaly Detector is a miniaturized version of SDI's SN/ASQ-209 SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetic anomaly detector which is designed to detect and locate deeply submerged submarines by measuring subtle variations in the intensity of the local magnetic field caused by the hull of submarine. Unlike the tail boom mounted SN/ASQ-209 the smaller SN/ASQ-210 is housed in a non-magnetic tow body which is designed to be towed behind the aircraft using a 90 meter non-magnetic copper-beryllium tow cable. The SQUID magnetometer itself is 16 cm in diameter, 30 cm long, and weighs 2.25 kilograms and is housed in a tow body 18 cm in diameter and 153 cm long with a 60 cm diameter drag skirt which weighs 14 kilograms with the magnetometer. The towed body is launched from a reeling machine located on a pylon on the helicopters tial boom and is designed to be towed at a speed of 60 – 120 knots.

SN/ARR-80 Sonobuoy Communications System: The SN/ARR-80 is a radio receiver system designed for communicating and managing sonobuoys launched by the aircraft. The receiver system features four receiver units with 16 acoustic channels and 99 sonobuoy VHF channels each, an automatic direction finding (ADF) system, power supply module, pre-amplifier, receiver status indicator, and receiver control panel. VHF receiver channels (396 in total) are computer controlled using a microprocessor control unit which can command each receiver channel to any frequency within standard sonobuoy communication bands (136 MHz - 174 MHz). Simultaneous signal reception from up to 16 sonobuoys is supported by the four receiver system.

SN/ALQ-230 ESM System: The SN/ALQ-230 ESM (Electronic Support Measures) system is a combined ESM and ELINT system designed to provide threat warning and situational awareness of RF emitters to support electronic order-of-battle (EOB), anti-submarine warfare (ASW), anti-surface warfare (ASuW), suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD), and over-the-horizon missile and strike targeting capabilities. The ALQ-230 system consists of four wideband antenna assemblies and a central ESM processor and is designed to detect, identify, and locate radar emitters on land vehicles, surface vessels, submarines and aircraft. The four antenna assemblies are mounted on either side of the nose below the cockpit and on either side of the tail and each contain 2 low band and 2 high band spiral antenna elements. Each antenna assembly has a 100° FOV thus in turn giving the entire system overlapping 360° coverage around the aircraft. The processing capabilities of the system include emitter correlation, angle of arrival, emitter tracking and long-baseline interferometry geolocation. The threat warning capability of the system will alert the crew through their crew displays and through a pulsing tone in the crew cabin when the aircraft is being illuminated by a threat radar and can be set so automatically disperse countermeasures using the aircraft's SN/ALE-58 Countermeasures Dispenser System.

SN/ALQ-216 Integrated RF Countermeasure System: The SN/ALQ-216 is a comprehensive airborne electronic warfare suite which includes which includes wideband DRFM (Digital Radio Frequency Memory) jamming system and central electronic warfare control processor unit. The active jamming capability of the ALQ-216 includes a set of two low band and two high band solid state phased array (SSPA) DRFM jammers employing gallium nitride (GaN) lightweight circuit boards and conformal broad-band antenna units providing 360 degree jamming coverage around the aircraft covering the 0.7-40 GHz frequency bands and providing narrow beam, high power self-protection deceptive jamming capability effective against pulse Doppler, monopulse, and continuous wave radars. The DRFM jammer system employs phase front distortion, range gate pull-off (RGPO), velocity gate pull-off (VGPO), and other deceptive jamming techniques and includes an on-board threat library which identifies and prioritizes threat emitters and jams them order of perceived threat to the host aircraft. When threat signals are detected and identified by the systems radar interferometer sensors jamming of the emitter automatically begins and continues until the threat radar signal is no longer detected by the system's receiver arrays.

SN/AAR-64 Missile/Laser Warning System: The SN/AAR-64 is a combined missile and laser warning system installed in the aircraft which provides passive warning of incoming threat missiles and illumination by threat lasers. The AAR-64 system employs six optical sensor heads with integral optical signal converters mounted in the nose and tail of the aircraft which provide combined 360 degree spherical coverage around the aircraft, a central processor which inputs and analyses signals from the six sensor heads to detect and classify threats, and a central control unit located in the cockpit which provides visual and aural threat warning to the crew and allows for control of the system. Each AAR-64 sensor heads contains an ultra-violet (UV) single-pixel quadrant sensors with an adjunct UV sensor for improved dynamic blanking, a laser warning sensor which warns the crew when the aircraft is being illuminated by a laser designator/illuminator/rangefinder or if the aircraft is being targeted by a laser beam-riding missile, and a short-wave infrared (SWIR) camera which provide detection and tracking of incoming rocket and tracer ammunition. An interface with the aircraft's APR-56 radar warning system allows the AAR-64 system to distinguish between radar and infrared guided missile threats and to automatically queue the countermeasures system to dispense flares when the system identifies an oncoming IR guided missile.

SN/ALE-68 Countermeasures Dispenser System: The SN/ALE-68 is an airborne countermeasures dispenser system designed to dispense chaff, flares, and other expendable decoys to increase aircraft survivability. The SN/ALE-68 system consists of two tail mounted cartridge dispenser modules (CDMs) each capable of containing up to 32x 5.0 cm x 2.5 cm x 8.0 cm countermeasures each and a central defensive aids controller (DAC) unit with inputs from both the SN/AAR-64 missile/laser warning system and ALQ-230 ESM system. When a threat missile is detected by the aircraft's SN/AAR-64 missile/laser warning system or SN/ALQ-230 ESM system the defensive aids controller of the ALE-68 automatically selects appropriate expendable countermeasures to be released by the system's dispensers to decoy or spoof away the incoming missile. Countermeasures supported including pyrophoric spectral flares for decoying IR missiles and chaff, and active digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) decoys for decoying RF guided missiles.

SN-300 Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System (INS/GPS): For navigation purposes the aircraft is equipped with an SDI designed SN-300 INS/GPS system which combines an inertial measurement unit (IMU) containing a 3-axis non-dithered laser-ring gyro (LRG), 3-axis pendulous integrating gyroscopic accelerometer (PIGA), and a 3-axis magnetometer with a GPS spatial temporal anti-jam receiver (GSTAR) system. The IMU provides linear and angular acceleration, velocity, linear and angular position, and magnetic and true heading outputs and provide continuous measurement of the aircraft's acceleration and roll rate which is combined with airspeed and altitude data from the aircraft's air-data system and then input to the aircraft's flight control software. IMU data including magnetic and true heading is also input to the aircraft's navigation software where the IMU data is combined with GPS data to provide highly accurate navigational capability for the aircraft. The IMU system also provides motion compensation capability for the aircraft's SN/APS-160 radar system. The GPS system consists of a GPS spatial temporal anti-jam receiver (GSTAR) including controlled reception pattern antenna (CRPA), high dynamic range RF (radiofrequency) front-end, digital beamformer and digital receiver unit. The GSTAR system includes a formal antenna with +/- 12 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth and supports up to 16 simultaneous beams with digital beam steering and nulling and features a 36-channel (24 military and 12 civilian) digital receiver unit. The GSTAR system supports both Y-code and M-code GPS and is highly jam resistant with greater than 125 dB jam/signal ratio tracking performance. The GSTAR receiver also supports wide area differential GPS (WADGPS) functionality with 0.5-2 meter 3-dimensional position accuracy in flight for navigation and weapon targeting functions

SDI OWLS (Obstacle Warning Laser System): The SDI OWLS or Obstacle Warning Laser System is an active LADAR (Laser Detection and Ranging) based sensor system designed to detect power lines, cables, and other small obstacles in front of the helicopter which are not readily detectable by the helicopter's FLIR or radar sensors .OWLS employs a 3-D LADAR sensor mounted in a box above the SN/AAS-54 FLIR turret in the helicopter's nose which contains an eye-safe 15 kW erbium fiber pulsed laser operating at 60 kHz. The 3D LADAR system scans +/- 18° in azimuth and +/- 21° in elevation in front of the helicopter and is capable of detecting a 5mm diameter wire at a range of 700 meters under normal atmospheric conditions. Obstacles detected by the OWLS sensor are superimposed into the AAS-54 FLIR feed and the pilot's helmet mounted display (HMD) and are accompanied by an aural warning tone in the cockpit when the system detects an obstacle in the helicopter's current flight path, enabling the crew to avoid to avoid them.


Cockpit & Flight Control:
Canopy: The cockpit canopy is constructed from two layers of acrylic/polycarbonate laminate with an optical grade thermoplastic polyurethane interlayer which provides high ballistic and thermal shock tolerance with high light transmittance and optical quality. A fogging/deicing system consisting of two layers of transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) coatings on either side of the polyurethane interlayer which are heated using an AC waveform to remove ice and fogging from the canopy. The indium tin oxide coating also provides electromagnetic shielding for the cockpit and prevents radar waves from entering the cockpit. The cockpit also features an outer anti-reflective dielectric coating which prevents static build up and collection of dust particles on the exterior of the cockpit glass. The two halves of the canopy are separated by a thin trapezoidal shaped graphite/epoxy windshield post which results in minimal visual obstruction for the flight crew.

Cockpit displays:The aircraft features a fully glass cockpit design which includes five 27 x 20 centimeter active matrix LCD multifunction displays (MFDs), a control display unit (CDU) with a 9 x 9 centimeter active matrix LCD display, a video processing module (VPM), data transfer unit (DTU), and an integrated vehicle health management system (IVHMS) with a crash survivable memory unit (CSMU). The five 27 x 20 centimeter displays feature 1024 x 768 pixel XGA resolution with 2D & 3D graphics capability and can be split into up to four separate video windows. The displays are each surrounded by a bezel with 17 push buttons and include dual redundant LED backlights which support both daytime high-sunlight and nighttime NVG/NVIS compatible operation modes. Below the row of five multifunction displays is the control display unit which includes an NVIS/NVG compatible 9 x 9 centimeter active matrix LCD display and a high tactile feedback full alphanumeric sealed keyboard which provides for centralized display and management of navigation and radio communication information for both pilots. The video processing module includes a general purpose processor and a dedicated graphics engine and provides analog and digital video management and mission computing and supports up to five analog video and six HDTV digital inputs while providing up to six 1.485 Gbit/s high-definition serial digital interface (HD-SDI) outputs. The data transfer unit is a microprocessor based mass memory storage unit which can record, store, and playback video and audio files with up to 548 GB of data storage capability. The data transfer unit also serves to store digital moving map data and can access and transfer digital map data files to the main flight displays in real time. The digital map storage capability of the DTU when combined with the aircraft's INS/GPS navigation system allows the aircraft's position to be continuously displayed in real time on 300 x 300 kilometer color 3-D digital terrain map with selectable 1:50,000, 1:250,000, 1:1,000,000, or 1:2,000,000 map scales.

Helmet mounted display: The aircraft is designed to be used with the SDI Nemesis-R Rotor-wing Helmet Mounted Display System (RHMDS), a rotary-wing optimized version of SDI's Nemesis Advanced Helmet Mounted Display System (AHMDS) which incorporates a curve wave guided holographic display (CWHD), built in night vision camera, high accuracy head and eye tracking system, laser eye protection, and a 3D-Audio/Active Noise Reduction system. The helmet is divided into two main assemblies; the outer helmet assembly where the holographic display visor, night vision camera, HMD umbilical connector, and hybrid optical tracker are mounted to, and the inner helmet assembly which contains the 3D audio and active noise reduction system, attachment points for the pilot's oxygen mask, and the helmet's custom fit protective liner (CFPL) which is created using a 3D scan of each pilots head. The panoramic, polarized display visor of the HMD is constructed from a polycarbonate laminate embedded with a nano-thin layer of tungsten oxide and tungsten bronze nanoparticles which provides both laser eye protection and anti-glare functions. The curve wave guided holographic display (CWHD) display of the Nemesis provides 80 x 40 degree field of view bi-occular imagery using two 1920 × 1200 pixel LCOS (Liquid Crystal on Silicon) projectors placed on either side of the helmet to display images at 60 Hz onto a holographic optical waveguide in front of each eye. For flying in low light conditions the Nemesis features a built in Electron Bombarded Active Pixel Sensor (EBAPS) based visible/near infrared (NIR) night vision camera with a 60 hertz refresh rate and a 1200 x 1600 pixel UXGA (Ultra Extended Graphics Array) resolution which incorporates advanced non-blooming, low halo technology with automatic gain control. The image from the night vision camera can be displayed directly onto the helmet’s visor, negating the need for the pilot to wear night vision goggles. The HMD supports combined vision system (CVS) capability which combines enhanced vision system (EVS) and synthetic vision system (SVS) capability. The combined vision system takes sensor fused FLIR and TV imagery from the aircraft's FLIR sensor system and projects it over synthetic 3D terrain imagery including buildings and terrain features generated using stored 3D topographic data from a 3-D digital moving map database which is then displayed into the the helmet's holographic display for flying high-speed terrain following flight profiles in reduced or zero-visibly weather conditions. A hybrid optical-based inertial tracker and a substrate-guided wave (SGW) based eye tracking system built into the HMD provides precise tracking of pilot head and eye movement. The Nemesis also features a built in 3D-Audio/Active Noise Reduction (ANR) system with an additional built in binaural based threat warning system which reduces pilot fatigue and hearing loss, improves the clarity of radio transmissions, and through an interface to the aircraft's missile, laser, and radar warning sensor provides directional aural warning tones to alert the pilot to threats around the aircraft.

Cognitive Decision–Aiding System (CDAS): The Cognitive Decision–Aiding System (CDAS) is an AI based information management and mission planning software system integrated into the aircraft's cockpit which is designed to reduce pilot workload. The CDAS system includes six different software modules; Data Fusion, External Situation Assessment (ESA), Internal Situation Assessment (ISA), Mission Planner, Cockpit Information Manager (CIM), and Mission Processor. The data fusion module of the CDAS suite is responsible for combining sensor and data feed from the aircraft's various surveillance, targeting and navigation sensors into a single unified situational awareness display (SAD) for the pilot on their multifunction cockpit displays. External Situation Assessment (ESA) uses information form the aircraft's targeting and surveillance sensors to create an external threat assessment for the aircraft. Internal Situation Assessment (ISA) interfaces with the aircraft's Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) sensors and other status-monitoring systems to create an internal health assessment of the aircraft. Data from the ESA and ISA software modules is then used by the system's mission planner module to present the pilot with route planning, survivability, communications, sensor management, and weapon system employment suggestions on their multifunction displays and/or heads up display. The Cockpit Information Manager (CIM) acts as the intelligent user interface (IUI) of the CDAS system and is responsible for displaying CDAS task and mission suggestions to the crew and for acting as the primary pilot interface to the CDAS system. The CIM will generate various pop up displays on the cockpit multifunction displays and in the pilot's HMD displaying threat location and type, route planning information, vehicle health status, etc. The CIM will also automatically change the moving map scale based on current mission tasks such a shifting to a wider scale for ingress/egress and shifting to a smaller, more detailed scale when maneuvering or engaging pop-up targets.

Flight Controls: The aircraft features two sets of identical flight controls which allow the aircraft to be piloted from either seat. Each pilot station features a sidestick cyclic pitch controllers on the left side of the seat and a center mounted active collective levers. The sidestick cylic controller features a thumb lever used to control the pitch of the tail pusher propeller which can pushed forward to provide positive thrust or pulled back to provide reverse thrust via negative prop pitch to slow the aircraft down. A thumb button on the cyclic controller also actuates the the pusher propeller clutch which when depressed disconnects the pusher propeller from the gearbox for hovering or for low speed flight. At higher flight speeds (past 180 knots) the main rotor system is disconnected using an overrunning clutch and the the collective control is locked into place, the aircraft then been flown exclusively with the cyclic side stick and rudder pedals. Both sets of flight controls input into a quadruplex (dual digital plus dual analog redundant) fly-by-wire system which consists of the twin cyclic sticks and active collective levers, two sets of rudder pedals, two air data computers (ADCs), two attitude and heading reference systems (AHRS), two GPS units, four flight control computers (FCC), and flight control actuators including twin coaxial rotor control systems, differential yaw control power system, twin rudder actuators, and elevator actuator. The flight controls are actuated using a dual redundant 3000 psi hydraulic system which uses twin hydraulic pumps driven by the rotor and pusher propeller transmission s which provide hydraulic power through two redundant hydraulic lines to drive the hydraulic actuators used by the elevator, twin rudders, and twin rotor control systems. The fly-by-wire flight control system features two default control settings; rate command/attitude hold (RCAH) mode which provides crisp, highly responsive flight control for high speed, low level flying in daylight VFR conditions and an attitude command/velocity hold (ACVH) mode with a more dampened flight control response for nighttime or IFR condition flying. Autopilot features of the flight control system include auto hover, automatic bob-up/bob-down, flight envelope cueing, automatic terrain- following/terrain-avoidance (TF/TA), and integrated fire and flight control (IFFC) with automatic evasive maneuvering and weapon launch capability.

Environmental control system: The environmental control system (ECS) provides NBC protection for the crew and provided cooled air flow filtered of any chemical contaminants to the cockpit and to the aircraft's avionics. The ECS takes high pressure bleed air from the APU and passes it through a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter and a dual bed self-purging pressure swing absorber (PSA) which removes any particulate matter, NBC contaminants, or water vapor from the bleed air before it enters the air cycle machine (ACM) which provides cool air flow into the cockpit to cool the cockpit and various cockpit avionics. The air cycle machine also provides constant 0.5 psi overpressure to the crew cabin to prevent any potential NBC contaminants from entering the cockpit due to ballistic or environmental damage to the canopy glass or cockpit structure.


Armament:
External Stores Support System (ESSS): The SH-90 is fitted standard with two folding stub wings on either side of the fuselage together which form its External Stores Support System (ESSS). Each stub wing is fitted with two hardpoints which can each carry four ASM-93 anti-tank guided missiles on a 4-rail launcher, a single ASM-92 anti-ship missile, a single Viperfish ASW torpedo, a 150 kg depth charge, or a single 450l fuel tank for ferry missions.

In addition to the stub wings the SH-90 is fitted with twin pintle mounted MG45E general-purpose machine guns located on either side of the fuselage. Each gun is mounted on a flexible pintle mount and is fed from a box in the crew hold containing 500 rounds of ammunition.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Tue Mar 02, 2021 7:33 pm, edited 23 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Sun Jul 16, 2017 1:58 pm

Image

S-2000

General Characteristics:
  • Role: Supersonic Transport
  • Crew: 2
  • Seating: 300 passengers
  • Length: 96.0 m
  • Wingspan: 43.9 m
  • Height: 18.6 m
  • Wing area: 880 m2
  • Empty weight: 135,000 kg
  • Loaded weight: 226,800 kg
  • Fuel weight: 210,000 kg
  • Max takeoff weight: 350,000 kg
  • Powerplant:4x SDI400 variable-cycle turbofans, 290 kN each
Performance:
  • Cruise Speed: Mach 3.2
  • Range: 12,000 km
  • Service ceiling: 25,000 m
  • Rate of climb: 20 m/s
  • Wing loading: 397 kg/m2
  • Thrust/weight: 0.33
  • Takeoff distance: 3,300 m


Overview:
The S-2000 is a second generation supersonic transport designed by SDI Aerospace systems. The S-2000 is designed to cruise at Mach 3.2 at an altitude of over 20,000 meters with a range of 12,000 kilometres and can accommodate up to 300 passengers in a mixed-class seating layout. Compared to first generation supersonic transports the S-2000 iffers higher cruising speed, greater fuel efficiency (lower liter of fuel consumed per passenger per kilometer), and lower takeoff noise and sonic boom signature which allow the S-2000 to compete with current generation widebody subsonic airliners for long range intercontinental travel.


Airframe & Construction:
The S-2000 has a single-lobed, conically tapered fuselage, a cranked arrow wing, and highly swept horizontal and vertical empennage designed to maximize the aircraft's lift-to-drag (L/D) ratio at Mach 3.2 cruise conditions while still providing acceptable takeoff and landing performance. The highly area-ruled fuselage varies in diameter from 5.3 meters to 3.4 meters and is designed to produce minimum wave drag at Mach 3.2 cruise conditions. At the front of the fuselage is a double-jointed, needle-shaped nose which pivots 22° downwards during takeoff and landing to permit better pilot view of the runway. The double-swept delta or cranked arrow wing has an inboard leading edge sweep of 76°, outboard leading edge sweep of 67°, an aspect ratio of 1.54, and an area of 880 m2 and is sized and shaped to provide maximum lift-to-drag ratio during Mach 3.2 cruise conditions. Turbulent drag over the wing surface is minimized by a unique active laminar flow control (LFC) system which pulls the turbulent boundary layer air through a porous skin built into the upper mold line of the wing. The LFC system is powered by two sets of turbo-compressors in each wing driven by compressor bleed air from the aircraft's four engines. The aircraft's landing gear is a conventional tricycle arrangement with a dual wheel nose gear and main landing gear having two struts with six dual wheels each.

The S-2000 employs a semi-monocoque construction with load bearing honeycomb skins for the fuselage, wing, and empennage supported by internal frames, ribs, and spars. To withstand the high heat of sustained supersonic travel the majority of the aircraft including the wing and fuselage skins, wins spars and ribs, fuselage bulkheads and longerons, and the empennage skins, ribs, and spars is constructed from an SCS-8/RSR-Al metal-matrix composite honeycomb consisting of SCS-8 silicon carbide fibers embedded in a rapid solidification rate (RSR) aluminum alloy matrix. The aluminum metal matrix composite construction offers excellent specific strength and stiffness at temperatures up to and above 400° C and results in approximately 35% weight savings in the empty airframe mass over conventional titanium construction. Secondary wing and empennage structure including the control surfaces as well as the fuel tanks are constructed from high temperature graphite/polyimide honeycomb sandwich composites. Heat transfer to the cabin and wing fuel tanks is minimized by a passive thermal protection system using modularized multi-layer insulation (MMLI) which is used to insulate the cabin and wing fuel tanks. The MMLI consists of a nickel foil jacket covering multiple layers of thin nickel foil reflector shields spaced by wire mesh spacers, creating air gaps between the reflector shields which minimize heat transfer through the insulation. 5mm of MMLI is used to cover the external surface of the wing fuselage tanks followed by an approximately 10-15mm air gap between the insulation and the honeycomb wing skin which is designed to keep the internal fuel tank temperature below 90° C during cruise. The fuselage has 10-15mm of MMLI bonded to the inside surface of the honeycomb fuselage skin followed by an air gap between the MMLI and the cabin liner which is designed to keep the cabin liner at a temperature of around 25° C during cruise.


Vehicle Management System & Flight Control Surfaces:
Vehicle Management System (VMS): The S-2000 vehicle management system (VMS) is a quadruple redundant fully digital fly-by-wire control system responsible for controlling the aircraft in flight. The core of the VMS system are four vehicle management computers (VMCs) which interface using fiber-optic cables to the aircraft's control actuators, engines, cockpit controls, air data system, fuel system, and inertial navigation systems. The VMS system also includes a fuel-control system which can pump fuel from forward fuel tanks to aft ones and vice versa to allow the aircraft to change its CG and stability margin in flight.

Control surfaces: The control surfaces of the S-2000 include wing mounted inboard and outboard flaperons (combined flaps and ailerons) and spoilers, all moving horizontal tails, e, and a three-panel rudder. Roll control is provided by the wing mounted spoilers and flaperons. The spoilers are of the slot-deflector type and operate at all airspeeds. Both the inboard and outboard flaperons are used as both flaps and ailerons for low speed subsonic flight while at supersonic speed the outboard flaperons are locked in the inboard flapersons actuate to provide roll control. Pitch control is provided by two all moving horizontal tails two trailing edge trim tabs for longitudinal trim control. Yaw control is provided by a single rudder which is divided into three segments. For low speed subsonic flight all segments of the rudder operate while at supersonic speed the upper segment is locked and the bottom three segments used for yaw control. High-lift devices include full-span leading and trailing edge plain flaps. All control surfaces are actuated using a hydraulic system with the aircraft having four independent main hydraulic systems and one auxiliary system. The hydraulic system operates at 350 bar and uses eight pumps each rated at 300 liters per minute output with two pumps installed on each engine accessory drive gearbox.


Propulsion:
  • Name: SDI400
  • Type: Variable Cycle Turbofan
  • Length: 7,800 mm
  • Diameter: 1,900 mm
  • Dry Weight: 4,600 kg
  • Bypass Ratio: 0.2-0.6
  • Compressor: Two stage fan, core driven fan stage (CDFS), seven stage high pressure compressor
  • Combustor: annular combustor
  • Turbine: single stage HPT, counter rotating single stage LPT
  • Maximum Thrust: 290 kN
  • Overall Pressure ratio: 22:1
  • Specific fuel consumption: 50 g/Kn-s (cruise)
  • Thrust-to-Weight Ratio: 6.4:1
The S-2000 is powered by four SDI400 variable cycle turbofan engines each rated at 290 kN of static thrust. The engines are mounted in four identical nacelles attached with pylons to the aft section of the wing which include the asymmetrical intake, engine, and exhaust nozzle with thrust reverser and sound suppressor. Each nacelle uses a mixed-compression variable-geometry biconic inlet with a translating centerbody and variable bypass doors in the throat area of the inlet duct. The geometry of each inlet is controlled independently by an electro-hydraulic system which moves the centerbody and opens the throat bypass doors to provide stable airflow and optimal pressure recovery over the aircraft's speed range. The SDI400 engine itself is a twin-spool, un-augmented, double-bypass variable cycle engine with variable cycle features including variable inlet guide vanes, a split fan with inner and outer bypass duct and a fan variable area bypass injector (forward VABI), core driven fan stage, variable area low-pressure turbine, and variable area exhaust nozzle with an exhaust variable area bypass injector (aft VABI).The engine has two spools with the low pressure spool consisting of a single stage LPT driving a two stage fan and the high pressure spool consisting of a single stage HPC which drives the seven stage HPC and the core driven fan stage. The two stage fan features hollow fan blades fabricated from superplastic forming/diffusion bonded (SPF/DB) titanium. The HPC and core driven fan stage rotate counterclockwise to the fan with the core driven fan stage and first two HPC stages employing Ti-3AI-8V-6Cr-4Mo-4Zr beta titanium alloy construction integrally bladed rotors (IBRs) while the remaining five HPC stages employ IBRs constructed from inconel alloy. The combustor uses a floatwall design with a short annular combustion chamber containing a floated inconel liner with ceramic thermal barrier coating cooled with impingement and film cooling with a peak combustor temperature of over 2,200° C. The high pressure turbine is designed to operate with a turbine inlet temperature of 1,950° C and consists of a rotor constructed from sintered nickel-based superalloy with blades constructed from cast single crystal nickel-based superalloy with a ceramic thermal barrier coating. The high pressure turbine blades are hollow with multiple internal cooling passages and are cooled using tangential on-board injection (TOBI) with bleed air from the HPC supplied at 600°C. The LPT rotates opposite to the HPT and is made from nickel-based superalloy and operated uncooled at a low pressure temperature inlet temperature of 1,000°C.

The variable geometry features of the engine allow the engine to vary its bypass ratio and overall pressure ratio to optimize engine performance over the aircraft's entire speed range and can operate in either single-bypass mode for higher specific thrust or double-bypass mode for higher airflow and reduced exhaust velocity. In single bypass mode the forward VABI is closed and air from the two-stage fan exhausts directly into the core driven fan stage which then exhausts to both the inner bypass duct and to the HP compressor, effectively functioning as a conventional low-bypass turbofan with a three-stage fan. In double bypass mode the forward VABI is opened and a portion of the flow from two-stage fan exhausts into the outer bypass duct with the valve area of the forward VABI being varied as a function of engine speed to ensure the static pressure in the outer bypass duct matches the pressure in the inner bypass duct. The variable area low pressure turbine features variable stator vanes which allows the low pressure turbine to be matched with the high pressure turbine discharge flow across the engine's operating range. The rear VABI is designed to allow for independent control of the high pressure and low pressure spool speeds and opens and closes to vary the mach number of the bypass flow so that the static pressure of the inner and outer bypass duct are the same at the point where the bypass flow is mixed with the core exhaust. The axisymmetric plug nozzle has a translating plug which is axially translated by a hydraulic actuator to vary the nozzle throat area. During takeoff the engine operated in double bypass mode and flow from the outer bypass duct is diverted though struts in the nozzle which force the flow across the inner plug to have an inverted velocity profile, significantly reducing engine jet noise.

Each engine includes an accessory drive system which contains two hydraulic pumps and one electrical generator. Each electrical generator consists of an oil cooled variable-speed constant-frequency (VSCF) generator rated at 150 kVA, transformer, converter, and a generator control unit (GCU). Power from the four generators is transmitted to the electronic rack in the fuselage where it is converted to 115/200 VAC, 400 Hz three-phase power for distribution. The electrical system is designed to be highly fault tolerant and damage resistant with the ability to maintain all types of flight with two generators inoperative and maintain subsonic flight with up to three generators inoperative.

The aircraft's fuel system consists of four main fuel tanks and eight auxiliary fuel tanks located in the wing and in the aft fuselage which have a combined capacity of 210,000 kg of JP-7 thermally stable jet fuel (TSJF). Fuel tanks are pressurized and inserted with nitrogen gas. The engines are fed from the main tanks located in the wing which are replenished in flight using the auxiliary tanks. Aircraft CG management pumps fuel either to or from the aft fuselage mounted auxiliary tank which maintains aircraft balance as fuel is burned and as the aircraft center of pressure changes during flight. Heat from the vapor cycle environmental control system and from the aircraft's avionics is rejected to the fuel using fuel/coolant heat exchangers located in the fuel lines to the engine.


Cockpit and Cabin:
The S-2000 employs a glass cockpit instrumentation system which includes five 30 x 23 centimeter AMLCD (active-matrix liquid crystal display) touchscreen displays with 1600 × 1200 pixel UXGA resolution; two for each pilot which act as primary flight displays and one shared display mounted between the pilots on the center console. The cockpit also includes two digital heads up displays (HUDs) with a 35° x 26° field of view and 1280 X 1024 pixel resolution. The HUDs are used with the S-2000's enhanced vision system (EVS) which uses a tri-band short-wave infrared, long-wave infrared and visible high-resolution imager mounted in the nose to display a raster image on the HUD which is conformal to the outside scene, allowing the pilot to see runway lights and markings through fog, smoke,and other low-visibility conditions while on approach and on landing. The HUD also supports surface guidance system (SGS) capability which uses DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System) information to overlay runway, taxiway, and guidance line ques onto the heads up displays to allow the pilots to navigate during landing rollout and taxi operations in low visibility conditions.

The aircraft's interior cabin is designed to accommodate 300 passengers in a mixed-class seating layout including 30 first class seats, 90 business class seats, and 180 economy class seats. Alternatively the aircraft can be reconfigured in an all-business class arrangement with 239 seats or an all-economy class arrangement with 392 seats. Cabin width varies from 5.0 meters to 3.2 meters as the fuselage tapers with seat rows varying from four abreast (2-2) in first class to four abreast (2-2) and then six abreast (2-2-2) in business class and finally seven abreast (2-3-2) to five abreast (2-3) in economy class. First class seats are 51 cm wide with a 107 cm pitch, business class seats are 51 cm wide with a 97 cm pitch, and economy seats are 45 cm wide with a 81 cm pitch. Cabin windows measuring 11 cm wide by 15 cm wide are provided in each row. Each class has its own separate lavatories, coatrooms, galleys, and flight attendant positions with the standard 30-90-180 configuration having 32 galley carts, 10 lavatories, and 10 flight attendant positions. Four cabin doors are provided on each side of the fuselage with slide packs that deploy over the wing. Cabin air temperature is maintained at 20° C and cabin air pressure is maintained at 1,800 meters using an all-electric vapor cycle environmental control system.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Tue Nov 10, 2020 8:04 pm, edited 15 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Fri Sep 25, 2020 5:02 pm

Image


F/B-37 Spectre

General Characteristics:
  • Role: Fighter/Bomber
  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 32.2 m
  • Wingspan: 18.0 m
  • Height: 3.8 m
  • Wing area: 136.8m2
  • Empty weight: 23,500 kg
  • Loaded weight: 53,500 kg
  • Fuel weight: 24,000 kg
  • Max takeoff weight: 63,500 kg
  • Powerplant: 2x SDI F220 adaptive cycle afterburning turbofans, 205 kN each
Performance:
  • Maximum speed:
    • High altitude: Mach 2.6
    • Supercruise: Mach 2.2
  • Combat radius:
      2,200 km (Mach 2.2 @ 20,000 meters)
      3,300 km (Mach 0.85 @ 12,000 meters)
  • Ferry range: 7,400 km
  • Service ceiling: 21,200 m
  • Rate of climb: 205 m/s
  • Wing loading: 465 kg/m2
  • Thrust/weight: 0.66
  • Maximum g-loading: +7.5/-3.5 g
Armament:
Avionics:
  • SN/APG-96 X band AESA radar
  • SN/AAS-60 Advanced Infrared Search & Track System
  • SN/AAQ-80 Multispectral Distributed Aperture System
  • SN/ASQ-266 Electronic Warfare system
  • SN/ASQ-292 CNI system


Overview:
The F/B-37 Spectre is a twin engine, twin-seat supersonic stealth bomber aircraft designed by SDI Aerospace systems. The Spectre is derived from SDI's F/A-36A Seraph and features a heavily redesigned fuselage while sharing engines and most of the avionics with the F/A-36A Seraph. Compared to the Seraph the Spectre features a heavily lengthened and widened fuselage with significant greater internal fuel capacity and internal weapons bays which have been doubled in size to increase the aircraft's internal weapons load, giving the aircraft the capability to act act as a medium or regional bomber.


Airframe & Construction:
The Sepctre shares the same basic aerodynamic design as the Seraph with large, diamond shaped wings, highly angled all moving V-tail, and a highly area ruled fuselage designed to minimize transonic drag rise. Like the Seraph both the wing and V-tail of the Spectreh use supercritical airfoils designed to have favorable lift, stall, and pitching moment characteristics at high mach numbers. The clipped diamond wings have an aspect ratio of 2.0, the similarly clipped diamond V-tail an aspect ratio of 2.5, with both having a leading and trailing edges having a sweep of 45 degrees. The aggressively chined forward fuselage section, which has been greatly widened and extended compared to the Seraph, gives the aircraft a very low frontal frontal RCS and generates large amounts of vortex lift at supersonic speeds which offsets the rearward shift of the aerodynamic center as the aircraft goes supersonic. The aircraft's relatively high L/D ratio at both subsonic and supersonic speeds due to its unconventional blended wing-body shape also allows for efficient cruise performance at both subsonic speeds and in supercruise. The aircraft's structure uses a semi-monocoque design constructed almost entirely of composites including a combination of forged and machined titanium metal matrix composites (MMCs) which make up approximately 50% of the structural weight and graphite-polyiamide and graphite-epoxy polymer composites (PMCs) formed using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding which represent 25% of the aircraft's weight. The use of significant amount of composites in the airframe reduces weight, improves airframe heat resistance for sustained supersonic flight, and reduces the aircraft's radar and infrared signature while also enabling the Seraph to be less maintenance intensive than previous generations of aircraft. Traditional aircraft materials such as aluminum make up only approximately 15% of the aircraft's weight while the remaining 10% consists of other miscellaneous materials.

The internal structure of the aircraft is constructed primarily from SCS-8 silicon carbide fiber reinforced Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr (Ti-5-5-5-3) titanium metal matrix composite (MMC) structures. Compared to conventional titanium alloys the titanium metal matrix composite exhibits superior specific strength, specific stiffness, fracture toughness, wear resistance, creep and oxidation resistance which results in reduced airframe weight, superior resistance to ballistic damage, increased airframe durability and heat tolerance, and reduced maintenance requirements. The fuselage is constructed from eight titanium metal matrix longerons, five running on top of the wings and three along the bottom, which run from the front of the cockpit where they sweep either upward or downward and thicken at the intake and then run back all the way to the middle of the ruddervators. The fuselage is then divided longitudinally by nine titanium metal matrix bulkheads made from monolithic forgings which are directly connected to the longerons to better distribute structural loads. The bulkheads located in the middle of the fuselage are also joined to the titanium MMC spars in the wings. The monolithic forgings used for the fuselage and wing titanium MMC structures are additionally subject to Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) in order to eliminate any voids or gas pockets caused by the forging process before the components are joined together to create the airframe. The titanium MMC wing torsion-box spars are constructed from sinusoidal wave spars creating using super plastic forming and diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) which are connected to additional titanium MMC wing box frames. The titanium-MMC longerons, bulkheads, and wing spars are joined by a mixture of robotic laser welding using a pulsed Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet) fiber-optic laser and robotic friction-stir welding under an inert argon atmosphere.

The skin panels, inlet ducts, landing gear and weapons bay doors, forward fuselage longerons, outer wing spars, and V-tail structure of the aircraft are constructed from laser aligned honeycomb sandwich panels several millimeters thick made from a polymer matrix composite consisting of a 3D weave of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) reinforced carbon fibers embedded into a high temperature polymer matrix.The matrix material used is a radar transparent polyimide resin which has a service temperature in excess of 400 degrees C. The weapons bay doors, empennage ribs and spars, and rear wing ribs and spars are constructed out of the same style composite but with an epoxy matrix replacing the polyimide for applications where the high service temperature of the polyimide matrix are unnecessary.


Vehicle Management System & Flight Control Surfaces:
Vehicle Management System (VMS): The Spectre's vehicle management system (VMS) is identical to the one found in the Seraph and is a quadruple redundant fully digital fly-by-wire control system responsible for controlling the aircraft in flight. The core of the VMS system are four vehicle management computers (VMCs) which interface using fiber-optic cables to the aircraft's control actuators, engines, cockpit controls, air data system, fuel system, and inertial navigation systems. The sensor subsystem of the VMS includes four air data computers (ADCs) and a low observable pneumatic air data system (LOPADS) which consists of four flush mounted pitot tubes located above the radome in front of the cockit and four flush mounted static ports, two on each side of the fuselage, located aft of the radome above and below the forward fuselage chine and provides Mach, altitude, airspeed, angle-of-attack, and sideslip data to the VMS. The VMS system also includes a fuel-control system which can pump fuel from forward fuel tanks to aft ones and vice versa to allow the aircraft to change its CG and stability margin in flight.

Control surfaces: The control surfaces of the aircraft are identical to the Seraph and include twin all-moving V-tails, inboard and outboard variable camber flaperons (combined flaps and ailerons), and variable-camber leading edge flaps. The variable camber flaps and ailerons can be continuously deflected in flight to provide near-ideal wing camber for any flight condition and are smoothly blended into the wing to reduce both parasitic drag and the radar return of the control surfaces. The aircraft's control surfaces are controlled using a decoupled flight control architecture which the aircraft to maneuver in one plane without maneuvering in the other (such as turning without banking) and allows any of the aircraft's major control surfaces to provide any control surface function (roll, pirch, or yaw). Under normal flight conditions pitch is provided by deflecting the V-tails in opposite directions, yaw is provided by deflecting the V-tails in the same direction, and roll is provided by deflecting the wing ailerons in opposite directions. Yaw control can also be provided by differential thrust of the engines. The aircraft also features a virtual speedbrake capability achieved by deflecting the outboard flaperons up and deflecting the inboard flaperon and leading edge flaps down. The control surfaces of the Seraph are actuated using a series of self-contained electrohydrostatic actuators powered by the aircraft's electrical system and connected to the aircraft's vehicle management computers through fiber-optic cabling and replace the hydraulic actuators and pumps of a traditional fly-by-wire control system with self-contained actuators that convert the electrical power into localized hydraulic power for flight control purposes. Each control surface of the Seraph including left and right V-tails, inboard and outboard trailing edge flaperons, and leading edge flaps is independently actuated using a series of EHA-VPVM (electro-hydrostatic actuator with variable pump displacement and variable motor speed) actuators which employ variable speed brushless DC permanent magnet motors to drive a variable displacement servopump which is connected to the two chambers of a hydraulic cylinder that is used to actuate the aircraft's control surfaces.

Self-Repairing Flight Control System (SRFCS): A Self-Repairing Flight Control System (SRFCS) is integrated into the aircraft's Vehicle Management System is designed to detect damage or failure in the V-tails, flaperons, and leading edge flaps. When the system detects damage or loss of a flight control surface or actuator the system then compensates by reconfiguring the remaining flight control surfaces and changing the control laws of the flight control software so that aircraft remains controllable and can be landed safely by the pilot.The SRFCS displays all damage to flight control actuators and surfaces to the pilot through the multifunction display in the cockpit which indicates to the pilot the extent of the damage and any flight speed or maneuverability limitations imposed by the damage. The SRFCS combined with the Seraph's decoupled flight control system and lifting body fuselage allow the aircraft to potentially lose an entire wing or one of its V-tails and still maintain controlled flight. In the event all the aircraft's control surfaces are destroyed or disabled the vehicle management system can command increasing or decreasing engine thrust to pitch up or down (respectively) and differential engine thrust to turn, proving enough control to steer the aircraft to an airfield and perform a safe landing.


Propulsion:
  • Name: SDI F220
  • Type: Adaptive Cycle Afterburning Turbofan
  • Length: 5,080 mm
  • Diameter: 1,170 mm
  • Dry Weight: 1,800 kg
  • Bypass Ratio: variable
  • Compressor: Two stage fan, core driven fan stage (CDFS), five stage high pressure compressor
  • Combustor: Pressure-gain combustor
  • Turbine: single stage HPT, counter rotating single stage LPT
  • Maximum Thrust: 159 kN (dry), 205 kN (with afterburner)
  • Overall Pressure ratio: 26:1
  • Turbine inlet temperature: 1,980 °C
  • Specific fuel consumption: 20 g/Kn-s (dry), 40 g/Kn-s (afterburning)
  • Thrust-to-Weight Ratio: 9.0:1 (dry), 11.6:1 (with afterburner)
The Spectre is powered by a pair of SDI F220 afterburning turbofans, the same engines used in the Seraph, which each deliver up to 205 kN of thrust will full afterburner. The F220 engine is an advanced sixth generation engine which uses adaptive cycle engine (ACE) technology that allows the engine to change its overall bypass ratio and fan pressure ratio through the use of adaptive geometry devices. The F220 is a two-spool turbofan with a low pressure spool consisting of two stage fan and single stage low pressure turbine and a high pressure spool consisting of five stage high pressure compressor with core driven fan stage (CDFS) and a single stage high pressure turbine.

Like the Seraph the Spectre uses a pair of of ASIs (Advanced Supersonic Inlets) on either side of the fuselage to provide air to its twin F220 engines. The ASI is a divertless, three dimensional mixed compression inlets featuring a triangular shape designed to both maximize supersonic efficiency and minimize incident radar reflections. The ASI is similar in design to traditional divertless supersonic inlet (DSI) designs, with a contoured bump that diverts low-energy boundary layer air, but unlike the DSI which features external compression the ASI is a mixed-compression design with both external and internal supersonic compression. As mixed-compression inlets feature less drag and improved efficiency past supersonic mach numbers of 2.0 or higher the ASI, with a design mach number of approximately 2.5, allows for highly efficiency supersonic cruise at high mach numbers past the operating envelope of a simpler external compression diverterless inlet. In addition to the ASI's the aircraft has a a pair of auxiliary inlets located above the wing on either side of the fuselage. The inlet ducts are an S shaped and feature a spill door behind the engine face which vents above the wing. The exhausts are 2-D single expansion ramp nozzles (SERN) blended into the upper rear fuselage to reduce their radar signature and minimize the IR signature of the exhaust. The nozzle has a variable upper flap and a fixed lower half and is non-thrust vectoring. The nozzle troughs are made superplastic formed and diffusion bonded (SPF/DB) Ti-48Al-2Cr-Nb gamma titanium-aluminide (TiAL) alloy cooled using high pressure bypass air from the FLADE duct of each engine.


Power & Thermal Management:
The Adaptive Power and Thermal Management System (APTMS) of the Spectre is derived from the system installed on the Seraph and combines the functions of an auxiliary power unit (APU), emergency power unit (EPU), environmental control system (ECS), and thermal management system (TMS), and electrical power generation system (EPGS) in one integrated, adaptive system which actively manages the aircraft's electrical power generation and cooling needs in real time across various flight conditions. The thermal management system (TMS) component of the APTMS employs a vapor cycle system (VCS) which handles the majority of the waste heat from the aircraft' avionics and other systems. The VCS employs a series of cooled cooling air heat exchanger (CCHX) modules located in the FLADE duct of each F220 engine which combined provide several megawatts of cooling capacity. Cooled air from both the the FLADE duct heat exchanger modules and from a fuel to air heat exchanger is incorporated into the vapor cycle system condenser and is used for cooling the working fluid in the refrigeration loop of the vapor cycle system with waste heat from the VCS transferred into the aircraft's internal fuel through a heat exchanger using polyalphaolefin (PAO) as the working fluid. Cooled working fluid from the VCS is used to cool the avionics and other electrical systems before being passed back into the VCS condenser, itself the heat-exchanger connected to the aircraft's fuel system. At subsonic speeds an interfuel tank recirculation loop is used to recirculate fuel between the colder wing tanks and the hotter internal fuel tanks which are used as a heat sink by the VCS system, the loop being closed off at supersonic speeds to allow the wing tanks to act as heat sink to absorb the heating loads on the wings during sustained supersonic flight.

Replacing both the APU and the ECS in the aircraft's adaptive power and thermal management system is an Integrated Power Turbomachine (IPTM), a miniature twin-spool turboshaft engine connected to a high-reactance permanent magnet machine (HRPMM) motor/generator unit which is initially used to start the IPTM and then used to generate power after the IPTM transitions to self-sustaining operation. Electrical power from the IPTM is then used to power the starter/generator units attached to each main engine in order to start both main engines. After starting both main engines the IPTMs transitions into cooling mode where the fuel flow to the IPTM is cut and the IPTM's compressor inlet is closed where thereafter electrical power from the main engine generators is used to power the IPTM's in closed-loop mode. Back EMF from the aircraft's hydroelectric control systems can also be used to drive the IPTM in order to temporarily offload the main engine generators. In closed loop mode air from the IPTM compressor is first passed through microchannel titanium heat exchangers located in the FLADE duct of each F220 engine and then through an air-fuel heat exchanger before then being passed back into the IPTM where it is then further cooled and expanded in the IPTM's cooling turbine. Cool air from the IPTM is then used to pressurize the cockpit and to provide cooling for both the cabin air and for the aircraft's fuel tanks. In emergency power mode the IPTM functions as an APU, the compressor inlet is opened and air is compressed by the compressor, combustive, and then uses to drive the power turbine which produces electrical power for critical avionics and for re-starting the main engines. To increase the ruggedness and efficiency of the system the IPTM itself employs self-acting hydrodynamic foil bearings , eliminating the need for lubricated bearings and associated oil pumps and filters, and a Variable Area Turbine Nozzle (VATN) which when operated as a turbogenerator maximizes the specific fuel consumption of the IPTM across a broad variety of operating conditions.


Stealth:
Like the Seraph the Spectre is designed to have an extremely low radar cross section across multiple bands through the combination of airframe shaping and advanced radar absorbing materials. The aircraft is designed with broadband, all-aspect stealth in mind and features a combination of shaping features and radar absorbing structures and materials designed to counter 0.1-1 GHz long-range surveillance radars, 1.0–3 GHz AWACS radars, and 8-12 GHz fighter radars illuminating the aircraft simultaneously and from multiple directions. The aircraft is shaped using smoothly blended external geometry with a continuously varying curvature designed to minimize surface currents and scatter radar waves that hit the aircraft across its entire aspect. The leading and trailing surfaces of the wings, intakes and V-tail are all aligned parallel to each other at a 45 degree angle which concentrates specular radar returns into thin, narrow spikes on either side of the aircraft that minimize the chance an incident radar will get a strong return signal. Like the Seraph the Spectre lacks leading edge extensions and instead uses vortex lift generating chines blended into the extended forward fuselage which eliminates presenting corner reflections or vertical sides to radars while eliminating circular radar returns from the fuselage. The aircraft's large V-tails are positioned to eliminate corner reflections with the fuselage and sized to eliminate resonance or Raleigh scattering effects at lower UHF or VHF radar frequencies. Weapons bay doors, landing gear doors, and other access panels of the aircraft feature a saw-tooth shape designed to eliminate radar returns from traveling waves across the surface of the aircraft. Gaps between panels and joints on the aircraft are sealed using a combination of flexible conductive form-in-place (CFIP) sealant, conductive bulb seals, and conductive tape which is placed around ready access panels and used to seal the gaps between the the wing and the control surfaces. Reduction of the radar signature from the aircraft's inlets is achieved through the use of diverterless inlets blended into the leasing edge of the aircraft which eliminate the radar reflections caused by a traditional boundary layer diverter or other inlet structures. The diverterless inlets combined with S-duct serpentine intakes also serves to prevent line-of-sight view of the engine's turbine blades from any exterior view. Further reduction of the aircraft's radar signature comes from a hybrid dielectric/magnetic fiber-mat radar absorbing material which is cured into the aircraft's honeycomb composite skin. The RAM consists of randomly oriented carbon fibers infused with multiwall carbon nanotubes coated with a magnetic FeNi nanopowder which are aligned and then cured into an thermoset exposy resin to form a fiber-mat panel which is cured into the aircraft's composite skin. The RAM is made in two layers, the first designed to reduce reflected radar waves by having a thickness intended to optimize internal reflections and a second, more electrically conductive layer with a higher density of CNTs infused into the carbon fibers which dissipates the remaining radar energy as heat and electrical energy. The impedance of the fiber-mat RAM is matched to air at its outer surface and creates essentially a black body absorber from the VHF through W radar bands (0.1 - 60 MHz). Arrangement of the CNTs in multiple orientations allows the RAM to simultaneously absorb incident radar waves from multiple radar source impinging at different incidence angles. The 3D weave is cured into the aircraft's skin panels using a vaccum assisted resin transfer molding process to create each of the individual layers of the RAM (two in total) which are embedded with the composite skin of the aircraft and act as an additional structural member of the skin in addition to functioning as a radar absorbing structure. The RAM does not cover the entire aircraft and is placed in areas where the radar signature can not be reduced through shaping methods such as the wing and tail leading and trailing edges, inside the engine inlet ducts, and on the sides and underside of the fuselage. With the combination of stealth shaping and advanced RAM the Spectre has a radar cross section of around -45 dBSM across the frontal arc, -30 dBSM from the sides, and -35 dBSM from the rear.

Like the Seraph the Spectre also features a variety of infrared signature management technologies. The carbon nanotube RAM coating on the aircraft also functions as a moderately effective infrared absorber due to the high infrared absorptivity of CNTs, reducing the aircraft's skin infrared signature in long-wave infrared wavelength (8–12 microns) by around half where the where the RAM is present. The 2D ejector nozzles of the aircraft also serve to reduce the infrared signature of the exhaust by promoting greater mixing of the hot exhaust with ambient air. The hot exhaust from the aircraft's engines is cooled using bypass air and additional secondary air inlets before exiting through exhaust trenches blended into the rear fuselage located between the twin V-tails. The exhaust trenches or tunnels are made of titanium-aluminum alloy coated with low-emissivity carbon/carbon (C/C) ceramic composite tiles and serve to shield direct view of the hot exhaust from the sides or from below the aircraft. To reduce the infrared signature of the airframe itself the fuel and bypass air streams are used as heatsinks for the avionics such as the radar and jamming system which by themselves generate a tremendous amount of heat when active. Further reduction of infrared signature is achieved by circulating fuel around the leading edges of the aircraft which also serves to reduce the heat buildup from sustained supersonic flight. The aircraft also features a series of deployable air scoops along the wings designed to provide cooling air to the engine and power and thermal management system and a set of air scoops located alongside the wing/fuselage junction to provide additional cooling air flow to the engine nacelles.


Avionics:
SN/APG-96 X band AESA Radar: The primary sensor of the Seraph is the SN/APG-96, a long range, low probability of intercept (LPI), fully digital multifunction X band (8-12 GHz) AESA radar which includes forward and side looking radar arrays mounted in the nose of the aircraft. The radar system supports air-to-air tracking and search with range while search (RWS), velocity search while ranging (VSR), and track while scan (TWS) capability, cruise missile detection and tracking, high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mapping, ground and maritime moving target tracking, ultra-high bandwidth directional communications, beacon mode, and high-gain electronics support measures (ESM) receiver and electronic-attack (EA) capability. The main array of the APG-96 employs 2,400 full-duplex, multi-channel, dual-polarized transmit and receive (T/R) modules which each employ a gallium nitride (GaN) on diamond monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) front end with a silicon germanium (SiGe) Bipolar CMOS (BiCMOS) core chip. The side cheek arrays are smaller than the main array and each employ 600 of the same T/R modules as the main array with a conformal antenna blended into the side of the forward fuselage. As opposed to older analog AESAs the APG-96 is fully digitized and includes a digital beam former (DBF) and digital receiver/exciter (DREX) module for every antenna element which contains a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and digital-to-analog converter (DAC) which enable a variety of adaptive and dynamic beam-forming techniques to increase beam-scanning accuracy and increase electronic countermeasures resistance. The ECCM functionality of the APG-96 include randomized burst-to-burst and pulse-to-pulse frequency-hopping, staggered multiple-PRF operation, randomized multiple-beam scan patterns designed to confuse hostile radar warning receivers, sidelobe blanking (SLB) and tapered illumination functions which reduces sidelobe emissions, adaptive null-steering and null-forming techniques for cancelling out directional jamming, and active jammer tracking on both elevation and azimuth. Low probability of interception/detection (LPD/LPI) operation is facilitated by frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) operation which adaptively reduces radar power to the minimum necessary level to continue tracking targets. Automatic target recognition (ATR) techniques supported by the APG-96 system include high range resolution profile (HRRP), inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging (ISAR), and jet engine modulation (JEM). Peak power output of the APG-96 is 48 kW and maximum detection range is 400 km for a 1m2 target and 130 km for a 0.01 1m2 target in single-target track (STT) mode. High resolution SAR imagery can be generated by the radar system out to 300 kilometers using enhanced real-beam ground map mode with optional doppler-beam sharpening for additional resolution improvement. The cooling system required to support the radar's high peak power output is a two-phase hydrofluoroether (HFE) based dielectric fluid based system using vapor chamber cold plates connected to the antenna modules which dumps the heat from the radar systems into the aircraft's vapor cycle system (VCS).

SN/APG-96 Multimode AESA Radar:The SN/APG-96 is a long range, low probability of intercept (LPI), multifunction X band (8-12 GHz) AESA radar system, identical to the one on the F/A-36 Seraph fighter aircraft, which includes forward and side looking radar arrays mounted in the nose of the aircraft. The APG-96 forms the core component of the aircraft's Offensive Avionics System (OAS) and supports variable-resolution synthetic aperture radar mapping, real-beam ground-mapping, Ground-Moving Target Indicate/Ground Moving Target Track (GMTI/GMTT), terrain following/terrain avoidance, weather detection, beacon search, air-to-air search, and airborne velocity and radar altimeter functions for precision weapons delivery. The main array of the APG-96 uses 2,400 full-duplex radio integrated circuit transmit and receive (T/R) modules (with 500 T/R modules for each side-array) which employ gallium nitride (GaN) complementary metal-oxide semiconductors (CMOS) on a diamond substrate integrated into 10-bit field-programmable gate array circuits for extremely high throughout processing and high-bandwidth data transferring. Using full-duplex radio integrated technology allows each transmit and receive module to simultaneously transmit and receive the same frequency, giving the radar twice the spectral efficiency of conventional half-duplex systems. The front and side-looking arrays are electronically scanned in both azimuth and elevation with +/- 60 degree vertical and horizontal scan capability which with the side-looking arrays allows for +/- 130 degree radar coverage on either side of the aircraft's center-line. Peak power output of the APG-96 is 48 kW. SAR imagery with <0.3 meter resolution can be generated out to 300 kilometers using enhanced real-beam ground map mode. The cooling system required to support the radar's high peak power output is a two-phase hydrofluoroether (HFE) based dielectric fluid based system using vapor chamber cold plates connected to the antenna modules which dumps the heat from the radar systems into the aircraft's vapor cycle system (VCS). The APG-96 uses a cognitive signal processing system which consists of a closed feedback loop between the radar transmitter and receiver as well as sensor fusion between the radar and the various other EW sensors of the aircraft. Radar returns are processed by various neuro-dynamic artificial intelligence algorithms using the aircraft's central integrated processors (CIPs) which fuze radar data with sensor data acquired by the aircraft's various other RF sensors to counter attempted barrage jamming attacks by shifting the radar waveform to unaffected frequencies in real time. LPI and ECCM functionality of the APG-96 includes randomized multiple-beam scan patterns designed to confuse hostile radar warning receivers, sidelobe cancellation (SLC), and a tapered illumination function which reduces sidelobe emissions to less than -45 dB.

SN/AAS-60 Advanced Infrared Search & Track System: Mounted in faceted low-RCS housings blended into the chines on either side of the radar system is the SN/AAS-60 Advanced Infrared Search & Track (AIRST) system which consists of twin two-axis stabilized mirror assemblies, four-panel conformal optical windows, and two high-magnification mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) starring focal plane array (FPA) imaging infrared (IIR) sensors providing entirely passive long-ranged electro-optical search and track capability. The 1280 × 1024 pixel HgCdTe array used in each sensor operates in both the MWIR (3–8 µm) and LWIR (8–15 µm) wavelengths and uses a hybrid complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) FPA architecture with telescope optics providing three step-wise field-of-views; 8° x 6.4° narrow field-of-view (NFOV), 16° x 12.8° medium field-of-view (MFOV), and 30° x 24° wide field-of-view (WFOV). Each infrared sensor system is cooled to 180 degrees K using a six-stage thermoelectric peltier cooler and is mounted on a vibration isolated gimbal system which provides each sensor with +/- 75 degree azimuth and +/- 75 elevation scan coverage, the two sensors being angled off the center line to provide the system with +/- 140 degree azimuth and +/- 75 elevation hyper-hemispherical coverage. The AIRST system supports both single and multiple-target tracking with track-while-scan (TWS) functions against up to 200 targets with < 0.25 mrad tracking accuracy and can also display infrared sensor feed at into the pilot's helmet mounted display or cockpit head-down display at a rate of up to 50 Hz rates to act as a FLIR for navigation or targeting purposes. Multi-Ship Infrared Search and Track (MSIRST) capability is also supported by the AIRST system which allows two or more Seraph aircraft to passively triangulate targets by sharing bearing and elevation data of target tracks from their AIRST systems using the aircraft's high speed tactical datalink enabling the generation of completely passive 3-D tracks of airborne targets. Maximum detection ranges for the AIRST are 130-200 kilometers depending on target type and aspect.

SN/AAQ-80 Multispectral Distributed Aperture System: the aircraft's SN/AAQ-80 Multispectral Distributed Aperture System (MDAS) consists of six 1280 × 1024 px mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) starring focal plane array IR imagers similar to the ones used in the ASQ-60 placed around the aircraft which provide 360 degree spherical situational awareness infrared search and track (SAIRST), missile approach warning (MAW), and 360 degree spherical day/night pilot vision. One sensor system is placed in the nose pointing forward, two in the nose pointing sideways, one aft of the cockpit pointing upwards, and two on the lower fuselage pointing downwards. The system allows for simultaneous 360 degree spherical tracking of air and surface targets, 360 degree spherical missile approach warning (MAW) capability, and 360 degree spherical pilot vision around the aircraft in all weather conditions. The MDAS is capable of simultaneously tracking enemy aircraft, surface and ground targets, surface to air, air to air, and ballistic missiles, can automatically cue appropriate missile countermeasures, and allows high off bore launching of missiles in any direction relative to the aircraft.

SN/ASQ-266 Integrated Electronic Warfare System The SN/ASQ-266 "Hammerhead" integrated electronic warfare system is a comprehensive offensive and defensive electronic warfare (EW) and electronic support measures (ESM) suite which combines passive radar warning receivers, countermeasures dispersal, and intelligent, adaptive phased array jamming functions. The combined radar warning receiver (RWR) and electronic support measures system (ESM) of the ASQ-266 consists of 24 conformal load-bearing antenna structures (CLAS) blended into the carbon-fiber composite skin of the fuselage, wings, and tails of the aircraft. The antennas include 18 mid/high band antennas covering the 2-40 GHz frequency range and six low band antennas covering the 0.1–2 GHz frequency range which feed into a network of ultra-wide bandwidth photonic digital receivers for signal processing of received radar signals and provides 360 degree spherical broadband, all aspect detection, identification, geolocation, and tracking of radar emissions in the 0.1-40 GHZ range with 40 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth combined with less than 1 degree RMS angle-of-arrival (AoA) precision through the use of dual-baseline interferometer and time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) direction-finding techniques. The high cruise altitude of the aircraft allows the passive receiver system to detect and track line-of-sight RF emissions from ground and ship radars out to 600 kilometers (radar horizon limited) and RF emissions from airborne radars out to over 1,000 kilometers. The passive receiver system also supports bistatic over-the-horizon RF intercept capability allowing RF signals from ground based radars which reflect off aircraft, missiles, satellites, or other air or space borne objects to be detected and tracked by the system at ranges exceeding 2,000 kilometers. The EW subsystem employs resource sharing of common hardware components to perform the simultaneous search, detection, RF measurement, signal analysis, direction finding, identification, geolocation, and tracking of RF signals while simultaneously supporting active jamming of radar threats through the use of adaptive emitter tuning in ECM heavy environments. Functions supported by the ASQ-266 passive radar receiver system include specific emitter identification and verification (SEI/SEV) and intentional modulation on pulse (IMOP) detection capability which provides signal detection and analysis and characterization of incident radar pulses in extremely heavy ECM environments. Precision location strike system (PLSS) capability is also supported by the system which allows up to three F/B-37 Spectre or F/A-36 Seraph aircraft operating together to geolocate RF emissions in real time through the use of the aircraft's tactical data link. To precisely locate emitters PLSS functionality uses time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) techniques to precisely geolocate threat emitters, direction-of-arrival (DOA) techniques to filter and identify specific threats ,and distance measuring equipment (DME) techniques to precisely determine the aircraft's position with the respect to the emitters.

The offensive EW capability of the ASQ-266 Hammerhead system includes 18 active ECM antennas, six low band transceiver antennas covering the 0.5–2 GHz frequency band, six mid-band transceiver antennas covering the 2–6 GHz frequency band, and six high-band transceiver antennas covering the 6–40 GHz frequency band located on the wingtips and leading and trailing edges of the aircraft's wings, and two receive-only broadband 8-arm spiral antennas located on the top and bottom of the fuselage covering the 0.1-40 GHZ frequency range. Each transceiver antenna employs GaN-on-diamond based active electronically scanned array (AESA) antenna technology with digital beam-forming and digital receiver/exciter units and provides 360 degree DRFM deception jamming of radar threats around the aircraft. Each antenna employs a frequency-selective surface (FSS) which consists of an organic honeycomb sandwich structure with embedded wideband end-fire phased arrays employing GaN-on-diamond T/R modules which are structurally integrated into the aircraft's skin panels, reducing drag and radar cross-section over conventional non-structurally embedded and external antenna. The ASQ-266 is a fully cognitive and adaptive system; by using emissions data collected from the ASQ-266s radar warning receiver the DRFM jammers can automatically adapt in real time to unknown waveform characteristics, dynamically synthesize countermeasures, and jam the waveform accordingly which allows the system to effectively jam digitally programmable LPI frequency modulation continuous wave radars employing highly agile waveforms. The DRFM Jammers of the system also include false target generation capability which takes incoming radar signals and injects a variable delay line into the signal before transmitting it back to the receiver, allowing false targets to be generated and their range and speed varied to simulate a real aircraft. The false target generator system can generate up to 32 simultaneous false targets at ranges from less than 150 meters to over 675 kilometers from the aircraft with RCS of false targets varying from near-invisible stealth targets to large size blimps to spoof hostile radar systems. Jet engine modulation (JEM) and high resolution range profile (HRRP) returns for false targets can also be synthesized in order to confuse and spoof hostile radar automatic target recognition (ATR) techniques. To prevent the jammer output from blinding the aircraft's own communications system the ASQ-266 includes an Interference Cancellation System (INCAS) located in the forward fuselage of the aircraft behind the radar which selectivity cancels out the jammer interference in the path of radiated signals. This is done by collecting a sample of the jammer interference signal and using it to create an anti-interference signal which it then mixes into the receive path for the protected transceiver to cancel out the interference from the jamming. For maximal modularity the INCAS system is built into self-contained LRUs and lacks the need for direct interface to either transmitter or receiver elements.

SN/ASQ-292 CNI system: The Seraph's SN/ASQ-292 CNI (Communications, Navigation, Identification) system is a multipurpose sensor suite which includes encrypted data links and communications systems, IFF system with combined interrogator/transponder, instrument landing system, GPS receiver, inertial navigation system, and radar altimeter system. The primary communications system of the CNI system is a software defined radio (SDR) proving multi-band, multi-mode capable, encrypted voice, data, and video communications between the aircraft and other platforms. The SDR supports up to 10 programmable 2 MHz - 2 GHz channels with 40 individual waveforms including UHF, EHF, and VHF demand assigned multiple access satellite communications (DAMA SATCOM), HF, UHF, and VHF line-of-sight airborne communications, enhanced position location reporting system (EPLRS), and tactical air navigation (TACAN) waveforms. The aircraft's IFF system consists of a combined interrogator/transponder unit with integrated cryptological computer supporting mode 5 elementary and enhanced surveillance (ELS and EHS) interrogation capability. For communicating in hostile airspace the CNI system includes an SDI penetrating tactical datalink (PTDL), an LPI/LPD fast switching narrow-beamwidth directional communications data link operating in the Ku band (14.5–15.5 GHz). The PTDL allows flights of F/A-36 to exchange information in flight such as targeting information, weapons remaining, and fuel status. Six conformal Ku band phased array antenna assemblies with 1 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth are blended into the outer surface of the aircraft to provide complete 360 degree spherical transmit and receive coverage around the aircraft. The PTDL employs frequency agility, randomized burst, spread spectrum techniques, emissions control, and low-power directional transmissions to minimize detection probability by hostile ECM/ELINT receivers. To minimize transmission distance and thus transmission power required the the PTDL employs a "daisy chain" transmission system where the communicating aircraft sends the directional signal to a second, closest aircraft which then relays the signals to a third next-closest aircraft, who then relays the signal to a fourth aircraft, and so on. Precise aircraft velocity and altitude above ground level (AGL) information is provided by a interferometric synthetic aperture radar altimeter (InSARA) system. Two C band (4.24 to 4.36 GHz) synethic aperture radar antenna blended into the lower surface of the aircraft's fuselage image the terrain underneath the aircraft; the two images then being correlated and the phase difference between the two images used to precisely determine the aircraft's elevation. The InSARA system also acts as an automatic ground-collision avoidance system (Auto-GCAS).

For navigation purposes the aircraft is equipped with a GPS spatial temporal anti-jam receiver (GSTAR) including controlled reception pattern antenna (CRPA), high dynamic range RF (radiofrequency) front-end, digital beamformer and digital receiver unit. The GSTAR system includes a formal antenna with +/- 12 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth and supports up to 16 simultaneous beams with digital beam steering and nulling and features a 36-channel (24 military and 12 civilian) digital receiver unit. The GSTAR system supports both Y-code and M-code GPS and is highly jam resistant with greater than 125 dB jam/signal ratio tracking performance. The GSTAR receiver also supports wide area differential GPS (WADGPS) functionality with 0.5-2 meter 3-dimensional position accuracy in flight for navigation and weapon targeting functions. The GSTAR receiver is coupled with two SDI designed SN-300 IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) systems each containing integrated 3-axis non-dithered laser-ring gyro (LRG), 3-axis pendulous integrating gyroscopic accelerometer (PIGA), and a 3-axis magnetometer which provide linear and angular acceleration, velocity, linear and angular position, and magnetic and true heading outputs. The two IMU units are placed on the aircraft's centerline directly aft of the radar assembly and are additionally operated off two separate data buses to provide independent measurement data. The IMUs provide continuous measurement of the aircraft's acceleration and roll rate which is combined with airspeed and altitude data from the aircraft's air-data system and then input to the aircraft's flight control software. IMU data including magnetic and true heading is also input to the aircraft's navigation software where the IMU data is combined with GPS data to provide highly accurate navigational capability for the aircraft. The IMU system also provides motion compensation capability for the APG-96 radar and AAS-60 AIRST system.


Cockpit:
Canopy:Like the Seraph the canopy of the Spectre is constructed from an organically modified sol-gel (ORMSOL) silica based nanocomposite which has excellent optical and thermal properties, high durability, high flexibility, and excellent ballistic performance at a substantially reduced weight compared to glass/polycarbonate laminates. ORMSOL is made from a crosslink oriented nanocomposite made from a silica gel which has a higher optical transmission, higher tensile strength, higher heat tolerance, and less weight per unit of thickness compared to standard glass/polymer laminates. The canopy is specifically designed to be resistant to bird strikes and is rated to survive strikes from a 1.8kg object traveling at 230 meters per second. The canopy also features a thin layer of indium-tin-oxide nano particles designed to reflect radar emissions.

Cockpit displays and controls: Both the pilot and WSO (Weapon System Operator) stations of the aircraft include a 50 x 20 centimeter Multifunction Colour Head Down Display (MCHDD) consisting of a panoramic 2560 x 1024 pixel active-matrix LCD (AMLCD) capacitive touch-screen display which can be configured to display relevant flight instrumentation, navigation, communication, and weapons system information and supports swipe and pinch-zoom capability with 5-point multi-touch capability allowing for the repositioning and enlarging or shrinking of the various display.The MCHDD also includes dual redundant LED backlights which support both daytime high-sunlight and nighttime NVG/NVIS compatible operation modes. Underneath the main MCHDD is an integrated control panel (ICP) which includes a keypad for entering entering communications, GPS, and autopilot data. The Spectre is also equipped with a direct voice input (DVI) system which allows the pilot and WSO to use voice commands to issue instructions to the flight control, navigation, communication, and/or weapon systems of the aircraft. The Spectre uses a right handed HOTAS (Hands on Throttle and Stick) layout with the control stick on the right and the throttle on the left of the cockpit.

Helmet mounted display: The pilot and WSO of the Spectre are equipped with the SDI Nemesis Advanced Helmet Mounted Display System (AHMDS), a fifth generation Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) which incorporates a curve wave guided holographic display (CWHD), built in night vision camera, high accuracy head and eye tracking system, laser eye protection, and a 3D-Audio/Active Noise Reduction system. The Nemesis features a shock absorbing liner made from a shear thickening non newtonian fluid and is constructed from a carbon nanotube reinforced carbon fiber composite which is custom molded to the head of each individual pilot. The panoramic, polarized visor of the nemesis is constructed from polycarbonate embedded with a nano-thin layer of tungsten oxide and tungsten bronze nanoparticles which provides both laser eye protection and anti-glare functions. The curve wave guided holographic display (CWHD) display of the Nemesis provides 80 x 40 degree field of view, 2560 x 1024 pixel resolution bi-occular imagery uses two LCOS (Liquid Crystal on Silicon) 1280 x 1024 pixel active-matrix liquid-crystal displays (AMLCDs) placed on either side of the helmet to display images onto a holographic optical waveguide built into the polycarbonate visor. For flying in low light conditions the Nemesis features a built in Electron Bombarded Active Pixel Sensor (EBAPS) based visible/near infrared (NIR) night vision camera with a 60 hertz refresh rate and a 1200 x 1600 pixel UXGA (Ultra Extended Graphics Array) resolution which incorporates advanced non-blooming, low halo technology with automatic gain control. The image from the night vision camera can be displayed directly onto the helmet’s visor, negating the need for the pilot to wear night vision goggles. The display also includes an LED backlight designed to increase the readability of the display in high-brightness conditions. A 9-axis internal measurement unit (IMU) and a substrate-guided wave (SGW) based eye tracking system built into the HMD provides precise tracking of pilot head and eye movementand allows both the X band radar and IRST to be slaved to the pilot's vision. Stitched, sensor fused output from the aircraft’s Multispectral Distributed Aperture System (MDAS) infrared cameras can also be displayed into the HMD to provide the pilot with 360 degree spherical day-and-night synthetic vision around the aircraft. The Nemesis also features a built in 3D-Audio/Active Noise Reduction (ANR) system with an additional built in binaural based threat warning system which reduces pilot fatigue and hearing loss, improves the clarity of radio transmissions, and alerts the pilot to threats around the aircraft.

Flight suit & life support: Both the Spectre pilot and WSO wear a pneumatically controlled advanced anti-G-suit with partial-pressurization and assisted positive pressure breathing system that allows the pilot to briefly endure 9+ g turns without suffering g induced loss of consciousness as well as maintain breathing ability at altitudes exceeding 20,000 meters. The aircraft's life support system includes an on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS) to generate oxygen for the pilot during flight. The OBOGS works by taking filtered engine bleed-air and passing it through a pressure-reducing valve to reduce the air to ambient pressure where the air is then passed over a zeolite-filled bed that absorbs the nitrogen molecules in the air which are purged from the bed and vented overboard . The 95% pure oxygen generated by the OBOGS is then fed into the pilot's breathing regulator. A back-up tank of liquid oxygen attached to the ejection seat is used to provide oxygen in case of an OBOGS or upon pilot ejection from the aircraft. Pilot and RSO ejection in the Seraph is via a SDI ARES (Advanced Rocket Ejection Seat), a rocket powered zero/zero (capable of ejecting at zero airspeed and zero altitude) ejection seat capable of ejection at any altitude from 0 to 30,000 meters and speed from 0 to mach 3.


Armament:
The Spectre has four internal weapons bays, two located in tandem along the underside of the fuselage separated by a removable bulkhead and two bays located on the sides of the air intakes. The twin ventral bays are 4.5 meters long and have two hardpoints rated at 1,250 kg each which can accommodate a single GBU-1000 guided glide bomb, CBU-1000 guided cluster bomb, ASM-A-87 Corvus subsonic cruise missile, ASM-N-110 Scimitar supersonic anti-ship missiles, or a hex launcher which can carry six GBU-100 miniature glide bombs or six ASM-A-90 Hornet miniature loitering cruise. The twin ventral bays are separated by a removable bulkhead which when removed allows the two ventral bays to be combined into a single weapons bay which can accommodate two munitions weighing up to 2,500 kg including the GBU-2000 guided glide bomb or ASM-N-95 Blacksword supersonic cruise missile. Each side bay has two hardpoints rated at 250 kg each which are designed to accommodate a single AAM-A-100 HLRAAM missile. In addition to the internal weapons bays the aircraft also has four external hardpoints, two on each wing, which are each rated at 2,500 kg.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Wed Apr 21, 2021 6:52 pm, edited 11 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Tue Oct 13, 2020 3:07 pm

Image

C-44 Albatross

General Characteristics:
  • Role: Strategic and tactical airlifter
  • Crew: 3 (pilot, copilot, loadmaster)
  • Capacity: 80,000 kg of of cargo
  • Cargo hold: 31.1 m long x 5.3 m wide x 3.6 m tall
  • Length: 57.6 m
  • Wingspan: 56.4 m
  • Height: 14.2 m
  • Wing area: 350 m2
  • Empty weight: 105,000 kg
  • Fuel weight: 75,000 kg
  • Max takeoff weight: 260,000 kg
  • Powerplant: 4x SDI T110 Propfans, 15,400 kW each
  • Propellers: 16-bladed 4.8 m diameter counter-rotating (8-bladed forward, 8-bladed rear)
Performance:
  • Maximum speed: Mach 0.80
  • Cruise speed: Mach 0.75
  • Range:
      5,000 km with 80 t payload
      10,000 km with 50 t payload
  • Ferry range: 13,000 km
  • Service ceiling: 12,000 m
  • Wing loading: 740 kg/m2
  • Power/mass: 0.24 kW/kg
  • Takeoff distance: 1,500 m with max payload
Avionics:
  • SN/APS-163 Weather Radar
  • SN/AAR-64 Missile Approach Warning System
  • SN/ALR-79 Radar Warning Receiver System
  • SN/ALE-68 Countermeasures Dispenser System
  • SN/AAQ-13 Advanced Infrared Countermeasure (AIRCM) System


Overview
The C-44 Albatross is a combined strategic and tactical airlifter design by SDI. The C-44 combines the ability to transport large cargo intercontinental distances with rough field handling and short takeoff and landing (STOL) capability, allowing the aircraft to perform both strategic and tactical airlift missions. In addition to cargo missions the C-44 can also be configured for medical evacuation and airdrop roles.


Design & Construction:
The C-44 employs a conventional design for a cargo aircraft with a cylindrical fuselage, high-mounted straight wing, and T-tail empennage. Payload is loaded into the fuselage through an aft mounted door. The high aspect ratio wing has a 25° sweep angle and uses a supercritical airfoil to reduce transonic drag and features winglets which improve handling and decrease lift-induced drag. Control surfaces include wing mounted ailerons and spoilers and a split rudder and variable-incidence tailplane with inboard and outboard elevators in the T-tail empennage. Wing high lift devices include 30% chord double slotted fowler trailing edge flaps and full-span 10% chord leading edge slats. The fuselage has a diameter of 6.6 meters and encloses the cargo bay which measures 31.1 meters long by 5.3 meters wide by 3.6 meters tall. The landing gear system consists of a two-wheel steerable nose gear which retracts forward into the nose, a twin-tandem single strut four-wheel center gear which retracts into the central fuselage, and two tandem twin-strut six-wheel gears that retract into sponsons along the sides of fuselage. The aircraft's 18 tires feature a central tire inflation system (CTIS) which allows tire pressure to be changed in the cockpit by the pilot to accommodate operations from unpaved runways. To operate from small and austere airfields the C-44 is designed to have excellent ground handling capability for a aircraft of its size and can complete a 180-degree three-point on a runway less than 27 meters wide and can reverse on sloped up to 2 percent gradient using reverse thrust from its propellers. r

Most of the aircraft is made from conventional metal alloys with the majority of the aircraft being constructed from 2198-T8 aluminium–lithium (Al–Li) alloy. Forged Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al beta titanium alloy is used for landing gear structures and for some high-stress wing components. Approximately 30% of the aircraft's airframe is constructed from composite materials which include graphite/epoxy composite structures used for the wing flaps and ailerons, engine nacelles and pylons, landing gear sponsons, and empennage structure and control surfaces.


Propulsion:
  • Name: SDI T110
  • Type: Propfan
  • Length: 2,240 mm
  • Diameter: 941 0 mm
  • Dry Weight: 970 kg (gas generator), 2,370 kg (with gearbox and propeller)
  • Compressor: five stage LPC, seven stage HPC
  • Combustor: annular combustor
  • Turbine: single stage HPT, counter rotating single stage LPT, four stage PT
  • Maximum power output: 15,400 kW
  • Overall Pressure ratio: 40:1
  • Specific fuel consumption: 0.183 kg/kW-hr
  • Power-to-weight ratio:: 6.5 kW/kg
The Albatross is powered by four SDI T110 propfan engines each rated at 15,300 kW shaft horsepower and providing up to 140 kN of thrust at takeoff. The T110 engine is a three-spool engine which consists of a two spool gas generator core and a free power turbine driven power shaft which drives two counter-rotating propellers through a reduction gear assembly. The low pressure spool consists of a five stage axial low pressure compressor (LPC) with a 5:1 pressure ratiowhich is driven by a single stage low cooled pressure turbine (LPT) while the high pressure spool consists of a seven stage axial high pressure compressor (HPC) with an 8:1 pressure ratio driven by a single stage cooled high pressure turbine (HPT). Behind single stage cooled high pressure turbine (HPT) an uncooled four-stage free power turbine drives the power shaft. The combustor is a two-stage annular vortex combustor with a design combustor exit temperature of 1,800° C. The power shaft inputs into a two-stage epicycic gear reduction assembly with an 8.24 overall gear ratio with counter-rotating output shafts that drive both counter-rotating propellers. The counter-rotating propellers are each 4.8 meters in diameter with a design tip speed of 240 m/s and and employ eight highly swept propeller blades each constructed from a graphite/epoxy honeycomb airfoil shell with a titanium leading edge and a hollow superplastic forming and diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) titanium spar.

The T110 includes a dual-channel full authority digital electronic control system (FADEC). Control modes include independent control of blade pitch and propellor speed allowing variable synchrophasing control of each propfan engine to minimize engine noise and vibration, protective measures for regulating turbine-inlet temperature and preventing inadvertent engine overspeed or overtorque, and fault modes allowing for propellor blade feathering and gas generator compressor/turbine section windmilling if an engine fails or has to be shut down in flight. The FADEC control system is housed in a dual-channel electronic control unit containing circuitry connected to various engine sensors whose inputs are used by the FADEC system to control fuel flow, propeller pitch, variable compressor vanes and stators, bleed air flow, and other systems to optimize the performance of the engine throughout the flight envelope. Sensors are additionally linked together to the aircraft's control through a dual redundant fiber-optical data bank which integrates engine status and diagnostics with the aircraft's flight control system.


Avionics:
SN/APS-163 Weather Radar: The SN/APS-163 is an X band (9.375 GHz) 3D color weather radar which provides weather detection along with air-to-air detection and high-resolution ground mapping (HRGM) doppler beam sharpening precision ground mapping (PGM) synethic aperture radar (SAR) modes. The SN/APS-163 radar uses a solid state transmitter mounted on a to-axis gimbal in the nose of the aircraft with a maximum transmit power of 917 watts. Weather detection modes includes predictive wind shear (PWS), turbulence detection out to 110 kilometers, predictive lightning, predictive hail, and ​rain echo attenuation compensation technique (REACT) with the ability to automatically detect and avoid weather at ranges up to 600 kilometers from the aircraft. The APS-163 also supports ground mapping capability with the ability to image terrain at ranges up to 150 kilometres from the aircraft with doppler beam sharpening providing X2 and X4 zoom modes for producing detailed imagery of terrain and geographical features.

SN/AAR-64 Missile Approach Warning System: The SN/AAR-64 is a passive missile warning system installed in the aircraft which provides warning of incoming threat missiles. The AAR-64 system employs four optical sensor heads with integral optical signal converters mounted around the aircraft which provide combined 360 degree azimuth coverage, a central processor which inputs and analyses signals from the four sensor heads to detect and classify threats, and a central control unit located in the cockpit which provides visual and aural threat warning to the crew and allows for control of the system. Each AAR-64 sensor heads contains an ultra-violet (UV) single-pixel quadrant sensors with an adjunct UV sensor for improved dynamic blanking, a laser warning sensor which warns the crew when the aircraft is being illuminated by a laser designator/illuminator/rangefinder or if the aircraft is being targeted by a laser beam-riding missile, and a short-wave infrared (SWIR) camera which provide detection and tracking of incoming rocket and tracer ammunition. An interface with the aircraft's APR-56 radar warning system allows the AAR-64 system to distinguish between radar and infrared guided missile threats and to automatically queue the countermeasures system to dispense flares when the system identifies an oncoming IR guided missile.

SN/ALR-79 Radar Warning Receiver System: The ALR-79 Radar Warning Receiver is a digital radar warning system which alerts the crew the aircraft is being illuminated by a threat radar. The SN/ALR-79 provides 360 detection of radar signals in the 0.5-40 MHz range and employs two 2-20 Mhz and two 2-40 MHz spiral antenna and a 0.5- 2 MHz blade antenna which feed into four wideband superheterodyne digital quadrant receivers connected to a electronic warfare processor. The SN/ALR-79 system continuously detects and intercept RF signals including both continuous wave and pulse-doppler around the aircraft and displays threat signals to crew on a cockpit display unit along with warning tones which warn the crew when the system detects the aircraft is being illuminated by a hostile radar. Data from the SN/ALR-79 system is automatically transmitted to the aircraft's SN/ALE-58 countermeasures dispenser system which can be set to automatically disperse chaff and expendable active radar decoys when the SN/ALR-79 system detects the aircraft is being targeted by radar guided missiles.

SN/ALE-68 Countermeasures Dispenser System: The SN/ALE-58 is an airborne countermeasures dispenser system designed to dispense chaff, flares, and other expendable decoys to increase aircraft survivability. The SN/ALE-68 system consists of multiple tail mounted cartridge dispenser modules (CDMs) each capable of containing up to 32 5.0 cm x 2.5 cm x 8.0 cm countermeasures each and a central defensive aids controller (DAC) unit with inputs from both the SN/AAR-64 missile/laser warning system and SN/ALR-79 system. When a threat missile is detected by the aircraft's SN/AAR-64 missile/laser warning system or SN/ALR-79 RWR systems the defensive aids controller of the ALE-68 automatically selects appropriate expendable countermeasures to be released by the system's dispensers to decoy or spoof away the incoming missile. Countermeasures supported including pyrophoric spectral flares for decoying IR missiles and chaff, and active digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) decoys for decoying RF guided missiles.

SN/AAQ-13 Advanced Infrared Countermeasure (AIRCM) System: The SN/AAQ-13 is a directional infrared countermeasure system which employs tunable multi-band quantum cascade laser (QCL) laser dazzlers to counter infrared man portable air defense system (IR MANPADS) threats. The AAQ-13 system consists of missile warning system interface, central control unit processor, and three laser pointer/tracker units, two on either side of the forward fuselage and one under the tail, which provide combined 360 degree coverage around the aircraft. The missile warning system interface uses the UV and IR sensors of the SN/AAR-64 system to detect and incoming missiles and cue the laser pointer/tracker to track and then jam the incoming missile. Each laser pointer/tracker weighs 16 kilograms and consists of quantum cascade laser (QCL) based optical emitter assembly and a beam steering assembly consisting of a clear hemispherical housing 14 centimeters in diameter containing a laser mirror mounted on a servomotor actuated 2-axis gimbal with a strap-down inertial sensor which provides 360° continuous azimuth and -10°/+ 90°degree elevation coverage with a maximum slew rate of 1200°/s. The gimbal has a maximum slew time of less than 300 milliseconds and can track targets up to 30°/s with less than 0.3 milliradians pointing accuracy. The quantum cascade laser (QCL) used in the AAQ-13 system employs a GaInAs/AlInAs (gallium-indium arsenide/aluminium indium arsenide) lattice on an InP (indium phosphide) substrate which provides high continuous-wave power output at room temperature and which covers both the mid and long-wave infrared bands used by typical infrared missile seekers (3-12 μm) allowing simultaneous break-lock jamming of infrared guided missiles in multiple infrared spectrum bands. The entire AAQ-13 system installed in the C-44 consumes less than 850 watts of peak power and is relatively light and compact with a total weight of less than 56 kilograms including three laser pointer/tracker assemblies and central processor unit.


Cockpit:
The C-44 features a pressurized, fully 'glass' cockpit with pilot, co-pilot and two observer positions. The cockpit includes two night-vision-goggle compatible 40 x 30 degree FOV 1,280 x 1,024 pixel super XGA resolution heads up displays for both the pilot and co-pilot and five 30.5 x 23 cm centimeter 1,600 x 1,200 pixel UXGA resolution multi-function AMLCD (Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display) capacitive touchscreen displays with DVI and HDMI inputs with two displays for each pilot and a central console mounted display shared by both pilots. The heads up displays include enhanced flight vision system (EFVS) capability using a cooled 1280 x 960 pixel InSb (Indium Antimonide) focal plane array sensor mounted in the nose of the aircraft operating in the SWIR (1.4 – 2.5 μm) and MWIR (3.5 – 5.0 μm) wavelengths which projects fused SWIR and MWIR video imagery onto each pilot's heads up display for flying at night or through fog, haze, precipitation, and other degraded visual environment conditions. Each pilot station also includes a 20 x 13 centimeter 1024 x 768 pixel XGA touchscreen electronic flight bags (EFB). An SDI Digital Map Module (DMM) with 512 GB of removable memory is included in the cockpit which features dual channel digital map capability and supports DTED (Digital Terrain Elevation Data) level 2 (~30 m resolution) and controlled image base 10 meter (CIB-10) resolution satellite imagery maps which support color moving map display capability on the cockpit's multi-function AMLCD displays. The console has four throttles with each pilot having a control stick which is connected to the aircraft's quadruple-redundant electronic flight control system.

The C-44 cockpit includes an on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS) to generate oxygen for the pilots during flight which removes the need to store liquid oxygen bottles in the cockpit. The OBOGS works by taking filtered engine bleed-air and passing it through a pressure-reducing valve to reduce the air to ambient pressure where the air is then passed over a zeolite-filled bed that absorbs the nitrogen molecules in the air which are purged from the bed and vented overboard. Behind the cockpit is a rest area which includes two bunks, two seats, a galley, and a lavatory.


Cargo Compartment:
The C-44's cargo compartment measures measures 31.1 meters long by 5.3 meters wide by 3.6 meters tall. The compartment includes a cargo handling system with a series of rollers running the length of the cargo compartment for loading and offloading palletized cargo which can be flipped to provide a flat surface for vehicle cargo. Cargo is loaded through a hinged aft door, the top section hinging up into the payload bay and the bottom ramp section which hinges down. The cargo compartment can hold up to 18 pallets (2.23m x 2.74m) and has 27 fixed flip-up seats on each side of the cargo bay which can seat 54 troops with room for 13 cargo pallets in the center between the seats. 48 more seats can be installed in the center line of the cargo bay in the form of 8 sets of 6 back-to-back seats which combined with the sidewall seats can seat up to 102 fully equipped soldiers (including paratroopers). Alternatively up to 80 seats on 8 pallet can be installed in the cargo bay allowing for up to 134 troops to be carried. For medevac missions the cargo bay can accommodate 48 stretchers or 36 stretchers and 54 ambulatory patients in the sidewall seats. The C-44 can airdrop up to 102 paratroopers, 40 containers weighing up to 1,000 kg each, single loads weighing up to 30,000 kg, and sequential loads weighing up to 50,000 kg.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Thu Mar 04, 2021 6:48 pm, edited 15 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Tue Oct 27, 2020 6:00 pm

Image

RQ-37 Mantis

General Characteristics:
  • Role: Unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV)
  • Crew: none
  • Length: 11.0 m
  • Wingspan: 15.0 m
  • Height: 1.8 m
  • Wing area: 90 m2
  • Empty weight: 8,250 kg
  • Fuel weight: 6,350 kg
  • Max takeoff weight: 17,000 kg
  • Powerplant: 1x SDI F440 turbofan, 89 kN
Performance:
  • Maximum speed: Mach 0.90
  • Cruise speed: Mach 0.85
  • Combat Radius: 2,400 km
  • Ferry Range: 6,500 km
  • Service ceiling: 12,000 m
  • Wing loading: 190 kg/m2
  • Thrust/weight: 0.54
Armament:
  • 2,400 kg of ordinance in two internal weapons bays with provisions to carry combinations of:
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Tue Mar 02, 2021 7:36 pm, edited 1 time in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Sat Oct 31, 2020 1:56 pm

Image

P-13 Proteus

General Characteristics:
  • Role: Maritime patrol aircraft
  • Crew: 10
  • Length: 34.3 m
  • Wingspan: 32.5 m
  • Height: 10.0 m
  • Wing area: 133.6 m2
  • Empty weight: 47,600 kg
  • Loaded weight: 74,800 kg
  • Fuel weight: 30,100 kg
  • Max takeoff weight: 77,700 kg
  • Powerplant: 4x SDI T409 turboprops, 4,500 kW each
  • Propellers: 5-bladed 4.5m diameter fully-feathering reversible propellers
Performance:
  • Maximum Speed: 410 knots (Mach 0.65)
  • Cruise Speed: 330 knots (Mach 0.55)
  • Combat Radius: 3,900 km
  • Ferry Range: 9,000 km
  • Service ceiling: 15,200 m
  • Wing loading: 580 kg/m2
  • Power/mass: 0.23 kW/kg
Payload:
Avionics:
  • SN/APS-192 Multifunction Surveillance Radar
  • SN/APS-160 Advanced Surveillance Radar System
  • SN/ASX-8 Multispectral Imaging System
  • SN/ASQ-209 Advanced Magnetic Anomaly Detector
  • SN/ARR-80 Sonobuoy Communications System
  • SN/ASN-171 INS/GPS System
  • SN/ALQ-229 RWR/ESM/ELINT Sensor System
  • SN/AAR-64 Missile Approach Warning System
  • SN/ALE-68 Countermeasures Dispenser System
  • SN/AAQ-13 Advanced Infrared Countermeasure (AIRCM) System


Propulsion:
  • Name: SDI T409
  • Type: Turboprop
  • Length: 2,020 mm
  • Diameter: 690 mm
  • Dry Weight: 500 kg
  • Compressor: five stage axial plus one stage centrifugal HPC
  • Combustor: annular flow-through combustor
  • Turbine: two stage HPT, three stage PT
  • Maximum power output: 4,500 kW
  • Overall Pressure ratio: 22:1
  • Specific fuel consumption: 0.21 kg/kW-hr
  • Power-to-weight ratio:: 9.0 kW/kg
The P-13 is powered by four 4,500 kW SDI T409 turboprop engines. The T409 is a two spool engine with a gas generator spool consisting of compressor with five axial stages and one centrifugal stage driven by a two stage gas generator turbine. The five axial stages of the compressor employ blisks constructed from AM355 chromium-nickel=molybdenum stainless steel alloy with variable inlet guide vanes on the first two compressor stages. The centrifugal compressor consists of an impeller, shroud, diffuser, and deswirl cascade made from 403 alloy martensitic stainless steel. The combustor is of the annular flow-through type and includes a cooled combustion liner, 15 radial fuel injection nozzles, and both inner and outer combustor case and deswirlers. The gas generator turbine drives the compressor through a silicon carbide fiber reinforced titanium shaft and has two stages using A286 iron-nickel-chromium alloy turbine wheels with cast single crystal M252 nickel-chromium alloy blades cooled using high pressure compressor bleed air. The power turbine employs three tip-shrouded stages and uses iron-chromium alloy turbine wheels with uncooled A286 alloy turbine blades and drives the propeller gearbox mounted at the front of the engine through the power shaft. The propeller gearbox is a two stage compound idler reduction unit with a 15:1 overall reduction ratio. The propeller gearbox uses a flexibly mounted pinion gear connected to the input power shaft which drives two compound idler gears that in turn driver the propeller shaft epicyclic spur gear. As a weight reduction feature the T409 propeller gearbox casing is constructed from molded graphite/epoxy composite rather than conventional cast aluminum. The propeller gearbox includes its own self-contained oil system with an external air/oil heat exchanger which us used for gearbox lubrication and for the propeller pitch change overspeed governor hydraulic systems. The propeller gearbox drives the aircraft's 5-bladed 4.5 meter diameter constan-speed propellers with blade feathering and reversing capability. The propeller blades are constructed from a glass and carbon fiber reinforced epoxy sandwiching an inner polyurethane foam core and are actuated using a variable pitch change mechanism which uses a double acting hydraulic piston contained within the propeller hub assembly. The accessory drive is mounted along the bottom of the T409 engine and includes the, engine hydro-mechanical control unit, fuel pump, oil system, and starter/generator which connect to the engine through a power takeoff assembly with a drive shaft bevel geared to the compressor/turbine rotor shaft. Other engine accessories include a continuous duty dual ignition system, redundant torque sensing system, inter-turbine thermocouple harness, anti-icing bleed air valve, fuel heater, vibration sensor, and diagnostic condition monitoring unit. The engine control system consists of dual redundant FADEC (Full Authority Digital Electronic Control) units, the hydro-mechanical control unit, and the propeller control unit and manages engine power, fuel flow, high and low pressure bleed air flow, variable inlet guide vane (VIGV) control, propeller speed and pitch, engine and propeller overspeed limiting, stall and flameout detection and recovery, and fault detection and isolation.


Avionics:
SN/APS-192 Multifunction Surveillance Radar: The SN/APS-192 is a pulse Doppler X band (9.0 to 10 GHz) multi-mission maritime and overland surveillance radar system mounted in the nose of the aircraft. The radar assembly consists of six modular line-replaceable units (LRUs); the antenna/pedestal, microwave front end, receiver/transmitter, signal transmitter, radar digital data recorder, and integrated identification friend or foe interrogator (IFFI). The antenna/pedestal assembly features dual pencil beam, flat-plate radiator antenna and a high-speed waveguide switch which allows for simultaneous dual-mode operation. The waveform used by the radar antenna is a linear-frequency modulated chirped pulse waveform with a bandwith of 1 GHz. The antenna assembly includes +/- 15 degree pitch and +/- 25 degree roll stabilization. The APS-192 supports multiple maritime and overland surveillance modes including wide-area surveillance (400 km, >300 targets), enhanced small-target detection (ESTD) for periscope/snorkel/LRCS (low radar cross section) target detection, air-to-air search (up to 400 km, 300 targets) ground moving target indicator (GMTI)/ground moving target track (GMTT), maritime moving target indicator (MMTI)/maritime moving target track (MMTT), weather mapping, coastline mapping/navigation, search and rescue transponder (SART) detection, and imaging modes including stripmap and spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) Imaging with up to 0.4 meter resolution, and seaspot or ISAR (inverse synthetic aperture radar) with up to 1 meter resolution against moving maritime targets. Doppler beam sharpening (DBS) options are available for imaging modes which uses space-time adaptive processing techniques to cancel clutter and increase image resolution. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) integral to the antenna is used to provide compensation for aircraft motion during imaging operations.

SN/APS-160 Advanced Surveillance Radar System: The SN/APS-160 is a side-looking, double-sided, wide-aperture active electronically-scanned array (AESA) surveillance radar system derived from SDI's SN/APY-13 Multirole Surveillance & Attack Radar System (MSARS). The APS-160 has moving target indicator (MTI), synthetic aperture (SAR), and inverse synthetic aperture (ISAR) capability and can be attached to the underside of the aircraft to give the aircraft moving target detection and tracking and high resolution radar mapping capability at standoff ranges. The APS-160 is mounted inside a pod attached to the underside of the aircraft using an extendable cradle which can raise and lower the pod in flight to give it a view obstructed by the aircraft's propellers. The radar employs a double-sided antenna array 8.0 meters long and 0.6 meters tall which employs GaN (gallium nitride)-on-diamond T/R modules with individual digital receiver/exciter modules and a digital beamformer unit and has a maximum radiated power of 30 kW. The radar supports enhanced synthetic aperture radar/fixed target indicator (ESAR/FTI) modes with 0.1 meter (spotlight SAR mode) or 0.3 meter resolution (striplight SAR mode) at ranges up to 250 km with the capability to identify ships, combat vehicles, artillery, ballistic missile, and SAM systems and provide accurate battle damage assessment (BDA) of targets, narrow and wide area high range resolution ground moving target indicator (HRR/GMTI) modes with the capability to track up to 1,000 simultaneous moving ground targets at ranges up to 350 km, and Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) moving-target imaging mode which allows targets tracked in GMTI mode to be imaged with <0.1 meter resolution by the radar system for identification. The radar also features airborne moving target indicator (AMTI) capability coupled to a weapons guidance mode which allows the radar to track ground targets and simultaneously guide ground, air, or sea launched missiles to targets it has detected, identified, and tracked. An inertial measuring unit (IMU) is mounted to the antenna assembly and is used to provide motion compensation for SAR and ISAR imaging. The SAR and ISAR capability of the radar is enhanced with automatic target recognition (ATR) capability which matches the RCS profile of moving or stationary targets detected and imaged in either ESAR or HRR/GMTI mode to an onboard library of targets and automatically identifies and geolocates detected targets in the current radar image. ATR information is displayed to the crew console as a color coded box around the target which a subtext includes target description (ie TEL), target x and y coordinates within the radar image, confidence rating for the target identification, target 10 digit grid coordinates, and a color for the box and text (either red, yellow, orange, green, or blue) which can be specified by the operator based on the target type. The radar also has radar responsive (R2) tag ability which allows moving and stationary targets inside the radar field of view to be manually tagged and geolocated by the radar system operators. The radar is supported by four 120 gigaflop, 1-gigabyte bandwidth, space-time adaptive processing (STAP) and displaced phase center antenna (DPCA) based common radar processor modules (CRPMs), one dedicated to GMTI and the other three for SAR/ISAR processing.

SN/ASX-116 Multispectral Imaging System: The SN/ASX-8 is a long-range, multisensor optical system mounted on a retractable turret behind and to the left the nose radome which is equipped with HD daylight and HD low-light electro-optical (EO) cameras, infrared imagers, and laser illuminator/rangefinder/designator systems which provides 360 degree continuous azimuth long range and high altitude day and night detection, identification, and tracking of surface targets. The payload of the ASX-8 comprises 9 sensors; a MWIR (3-5µm) staring array HD thermal imager with 1280 x 1024 pixel resolution and selectable FOV, daylight continuous zoom 5 megapixel color HD camera, low-light continuous zoom electron multiplied CCD camera, 2 megapixel color HD long-range spotter camera, SWIR spotter camera with FOV matched to the daylight spotter camera, 860nm continuous or pulsed selectable laser illuminator, selectable 1064nm/1570nm diode pumped Nd:Yag laser designator/laser rangefinder, and 1064nm quadrant detector laser spot tracker. The camera turret features full 5-axis stabilization and 6-axis vibration isolation with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) coupled to the optical bench assembly for maximum target pointing accuracy.

SN/ASQ-209 Advanced Magnetic Anomaly Detector: The SN/ASQ-209 is an advanced digital magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) employing a three-axis low-temperature superconducting (LTS) SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometer which is used to detect and locate deeply submerged submarines by measuring subtle variations in the intensity of the local magnetic field caused by the hull of submarine. The MAD sensor is housed in a retractable fiberglass tail boom which can be extended and retracted in flight. The niobium based LTS SQUID sensor is immersed in a liquid helium dewar contained inside the tail boom which maintains SQUID detector temperature at 4 degrees K. Digital electronics and microprocessos contained in a set of line-replaceable units (LRUs) are used to to compensate for magnetic noise caused by aircraft motion in flight. The MAD sensor provides automatic detection capability and warning with an aural detection tone for the operator with range, bearing, and detection confidence estimates displayed on crew stations for magnetic anomaly contacts.

SN/ARR-80 Sonobuoy Communications System: The SN/ARR-80 is a radio receiver system designed for communicating and managing sonobuoys launched by the aircraft. The receiver system features four receiver units with 16 acoustic channels and 99 sonobuoy VHF channels each, an automatic direction finding (ADF) system, power supply module, pre-amplifier, receiver status indicator, and receiver control panel. VHF receiver channels (396 in total) are computer controlled using a microprocessor control unit which can command each receiver channel to any frequency within standard sonobuoy communication bands (136 MHz - 174 MHz). Simultaneous signal reception from up to 16 sonobuoys is supported by the four receiver system.

SN/ASN-171 INS/GPS System: The SN/ASN-171 is a combined inertial navigation system and global positioning system (INS/GPS) which provides autonomous long-range navigation capability for the aircraft. The ASN-171 combines dual 6-axis strap-down inertial measurement units (IMU) with three fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOG) and three-axis solid-state silicon micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) accelerometers each with a 24 channel, Selective Availability/Anti-Spoofing Module (SAASM) based zero-age differential global positioning system (ZDGPS) anti-jam GPS receiver system. GPS only, INS only, and blended GPS/INS navigation modes are available with the ASN-171 navigation system.

SN/ALQ-229 RWR/ESM/ELINT Sensor System: the SN/ALQ-229 is an electronic warfare receiver system combining radar warning receiver (RWR), electronic support measures (ESM), and electronic intelligence (ELINT) functions and is designed to provide automatic omni-directional and simultaneous detection, identification, geo-location, and analysis of RF signals in high ECM environments. The ALQ-229 system when combined with the AAR-64 missile approach system and ALE-75 towed decoy system forms the core of the aircraft's integrated defensive countermeasure system (IDCM). The ALQ-229 system uses 8 broadband cavity-backed spiral antennas located in two wingtip pods providing 360 detection of RF signals in the 0.2-40 GHz range. The antennas feed into four digital channelized wide-band quadrant receiver units employing short and long baseline interferometer techniques and passive ranging algorithms to enable precise single-ship geolocation and over-the-horizon precision direction-finding and targeting of ground, sea, and air targets in high ECM environments. The system is configured to provide the aircrew with aural warnings of detected RF threats and and interface directly with countermeasures dispensers and missile warning sensors to provide automatic dispersal of countermeasures and can be linked to the aircraft's weapon and fire control systems to provide over-the-horizon targeting capability for anti-ship and/or anti-radiation missiles carried by the aircraft.

SN/AAR-64 Missile Approach Warning System: The SN/AAR-64 is a passive missile warning system installed in the aircraft which provides warning of incoming threat missiles. The AAR-64 system employs four optical sensor heads with integral optical signal converters mounted in the nose and tail cone of the aircraft which provide combined 360 degree azimuth coverage, a central processor which inputs and analyses signals from the four sensor heads to detect and classify threats, and a central control unit located in the cockpit which provides visual and aural threat warning to the crew and allows for control of the system. Each AAR-64 sensor heads contains an ultra-violet (UV) single-pixel quadrant sensors with an adjunct UV sensor for improved dynamic blanking, a laser warning sensor, and a multi-color short-wave infrared (SWIR) camera which provide detection and tracking of incoming missiles and rockets and warns the crew when the aircraft is being illuminated by a laser designator/illuminator/rangefinder or if the aircraft is being targeted by a laser beam-riding missile. An additional hostile-fire indicator (HFI) capability provides detection of muzzle flashes and detection and tracking of incoming tracer projectiles fired at the aircraft. An interface with the aircraft's ALQ-229 radar warning system allows the AAR-64 system to distinguish between radar and infrared guided missile threats and to automatically queue the countermeasures system to dispense flares when the system identifies an oncoming IR guided missile.

SN/ALE-68 Countermeasures Dispenser System: The SN/ALE-58 is an airborne countermeasures dispenser system designed to dispense chaff, flares, and other expendable decoys to increase aircraft survivability. The SN/ALE-68 system consists of four cartridge dispenser modules (CDMs) mounted on either side of the forward and aft fuselage each capable of containing up to 32 5.0 cm x 2.5 cm x 8.0 cm countermeasures each and a central defensive aids controller (DAC) unit with inputs from both the SN/AAR-64 missile/laser warning system and SN/ALQ-229 system. When a threat missile is detected by the aircraft's SN/AAR-64 missile/laser warning system or SN/ALQ-229 RWR systems the defensive aids controller of the ALE-68 automatically selects appropriate expendable countermeasures to be released by the system's dispensers to decoy or spoof away the incoming missile. Countermeasures supported including pyrophoric spectral flares for decoying IR missiles and chaff, and active digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) decoys for decoying RF guided missiles.

SN/AAQ-13 Advanced Infrared Countermeasure (AIRCM) System: The SN/AAQ-13 is a directional infrared countermeasure system which employs tunable multi-band quantum cascade laser (QCL) laser dazzlers to counter infrared man portable air defense systems (IR MANPADS) threats. The AAQ-13 system consists of missile warning system interface, central control unit processor, and and nose and tail mounted laser pointer/tracker units which provide combined 360 degree protection around the aircraft. The missile warning system interface uses the UV and IR sensors of the SN/AAR-64 system to detect and incoming missiles and cue the laser pointer/tracker to track and then jam the incoming missile. Each laser pointer/tracker weighs 16 kilograms and consists of quantum cascade laser (QCL) based optical emitter assembly and a beam steering assembly consisting of a clear hemispherical housing 14 centimeters in diameter containing a laser mirror mounted on a servomotor actuated 2-axis gimbal with a strap-down inertial sensor which provides 360° continuous azimuth and -10°/+ 90°degree elevation coverage with a maximum slew rate of 1200°/s. The gimbal has a maximum slew time of less than 300 milliseconds and can track targets up to 30°/s with less than 0.3 milliradians pointing accuracy. The quantum cascade laser (QCL) used in the AAQ-13 system employs a GaInAs/AlInAs (gallium-indium arsenide/aluminium indium arsenide) lattice on an InP (indium phosphide) substrate which provides high continuous-wave power output at room temperature and which covers both the mid and long-wave infrared bands used by typical infrared missile seekers (3-12 μm) allowing simultaneous break-lock jamming of infrared guided missiles in multiple infrared spectrum bands. The entire AAQ-13 system consumes less than 550 watts of peak power and is relatively light and compact with a total weight of less than 40 kilograms including twin laser pointer/tracker assemblies and central processor unit.


Cockpit:
The Proteus features a glass cockpit design with seven 20 x 20 centimeter LCD color displays for the pilot and two stowable HUDs for weapons delivery. Both the pilot and copilot stations are outfitted with a primary flight display and a navigation display with an engine display, systems display, and weapon display in the center shared by both pilots. The cabin is pressurized to 300 meters at altitudes below 6,000 meters and pressurized to 2,400 meters at altitudes from 6,000 meters up to the aircraft's ceiling of 11,000 meters, negating the need for oxygen masks for any of the crew members.


Armament:
Internal weapons bay: The Proteus contains an internal weapons bay located behind the cockpit with a length of 4.5 meters with four hardpoints each rated at 1,200 kilograms each. Each hardpoint can carry a single ejector rack with an ASM-N-110 anti-ship cruise missile,
AM70 bottom mine AM88 moored min , or a twin ejector rack for two Viperfish ASW torpedoes .

Wing hardpoints: In addition to the internal weapons bay the Proteus has twelve wing hardpoints; six hardpoints rated at 1,200 kg each located inboard of the inner turboprop nacelles and six hardpoints; one rated at 1,200 kg and two rated at 600 kg, located in between the wingtips and outboard turboprop nacelles.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Wed Apr 21, 2021 6:52 pm, edited 12 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Sat Nov 07, 2020 3:59 pm

Image

CH-97 Goshawk

General Characteristics:
  • Role: Heavy-lift cargo helicopter
  • Crew: 3 (2 pilots, 1 loadmaster)
  • Capacity: 64 troops or 20,000 kg payload
  • Length: 35.7 m
  • Rotor Diameter: 33.5 m
  • Height: 9.2 m
  • Disc area: 881 m2
  • Empty Weight: 43,770 kg
  • Fuel Weight: 8,850 kg
  • Max Takeoff Weight: 72,620 kg
  • Powerplant:3x SDI T460 turboshaft engines, 10,400 kW each
Performance:
  • Maximum Speed: 245 knots (453 km/h)
  • Cruise Speed: 230 knots (425 km/h)
  • Range: 900 km w/ max payload
  • Service ceiling: 6,000 m
  • Rate of climb: 20 m/s
  • Disc loading: 82.4 kg/m2
Armament:
Avionics:
  • SN/AAQ-59 FLIR System
  • SN/AAR-64 Missile Approach Warning System
  • SN/ALQ-216 Integrated RF Countermeasure System
  • SN/ALE-68 Countermeasures Dispenser System
  • SN/AAQ-13 Directional Infrared Countermeasure (DIRCM) System


Overview:
The CH-97 Goshawk is a large tripled engine heavy-lift cargo compound helicopter designed by SDI Aerospace Systems.


Propulsion:
  • Name: T460
  • Type: Turboshaft
  • Length: 1,940 mm
  • Diameter: 910 mm
  • Dry Weight: 660 kg
  • Compressor: 2 stage axial LPC, 10 stage axial HPC
  • Combustor: annular flow-through combustor
  • Turbine: 1 stage HPT, 1 stage IPT, 3 stage PT
  • Maximum power output: 10,400 kW
  • Overall pressure ratio: 38:1
  • Turbine inlet temperature: 1,600 °C
  • Specific fuel consumption: 0.21 kg/kW-hr
  • Power-to-weight ratio: : 15.8 kW/kg

Engines The Goshawk is powered by three SDI T460 turboshaft engines each rated at 10,400 kW of maximum power. The T460 uses a three spool design with a single stage HPT driving a 10 stage axial HPC, and single stage IPT deriving a two stage HPC, and a three stage free power turbine. Air first enters the engine's low pressure compressor (LPC) which employs Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V near alpha titanium alloy blisks with variable inlet guide vanes and variable stator vanes on both stages. The 10 stage high pressire compressor (HPC) employs Ti-1100 (Ti-6Al-2.8Sn4Zr-0.4Mo-0.4Si) titanium alloy blisks for the first eight stages and IN100 nickel-chromium superalloy alloy blisks for the last two compressor stages. The combustor is an annular flow through type combustor with a cooled float-wall combustion liner constructed from B1900+Hf nickel-hafnium superalloy with 18 radial fuel injection nozzles. The single stage high pressure turbine uses an A286 austenitic iron-nickel-chromium alloy turbine wheels with turbine blades constructed from cast generation single crystal nickel base super alloy (Ni-5Cr5.6Al-7Ta-6W-2Mo-3Re-0.03C-10Co-0.2Hf) which are cooled used high pressure compressor bleed air. The single stage low-pressure turbine employs gamma titanium-aluminide alloy blades with an A286 austenitic iron-nickel-chromium alloy turbine disk while the thee stage power turbine uses A286 alloy disks and blades. The accessory drive is mounted along the bottom of the T409 engine and includes the, engine hydro-mechanical control unit, fuel pump, oil system, and starter/generator which connect to the engine through a power takeoff assembly with a drive shaft bevel geared to the compressor/turbine rotor shaft. Other engine accessories include a continuous duty dual ignition system, redundant torque sensing system, inter-turbine thermocouple harness, anti-icing bleed air valve, fuel heater, vibration sensor, and diagnostic condition monitoring unit. The engine control system consists of dual redundant FADEC (Full Authority Digital Electronic Control) units, the hydro-mechanical control unit, and the propeller control unit and manages engine power, fuel flow, high and low pressure bleed air flow, variable inlet guide vane (VIGV) control, propeller speed and pitch, engine and rotor overspeed limiting, stall and flameout detection and recovery, and fault detection and isolation.

Transmission system: The transmission system of the helicopter is rated for 31,200 kW (42,400 PS) and transfers power from the three turboshaft engines to the coaxial main rotors, the two pusher propellers, and the accessory drive system. The main gearbox of the transmission system is constructed from magnesium to reduce weight and is connected to the fuselage using four elastomeric isolator mounts which provide vibration isolation in the roll, pitch, and yaw directions. Power enters the transmission from three turboshaft-to-gearbox drive shafts fitted with flexible couplings that allow for slight misalignment between the engine output shaft and the gearbox housing. Inside the gearbox the two engine output shafts are combined using a combiner gearbox with the output connected to an overrunning clutch which connects to the pusher propeller shaft and to a spiral bevel gear reduction set which rotates the power output 90 degrees from horizontal to vertical and then connects to a compound spur planetary gear reduction set which drives the twin coaxial main rotors. The upper rotor is driven by the lower planetary ring gear and rotates counter-clockwise while the lower rotor is driven by the lower planetary carrier and rotates clockwise. A differential rotor speed drive located inside the main gearbox is used to transfer torque from the yaw control motor to the upper planetary ring gear and permits differential rotor rpm to produce differential torque about the yaw axis. A spur gear connected to the ring gear drives an oil lubricated rotary vane pump and provides cooling oil flow to the gears and bearings of the main gearbox. Power take-off from the transmission system is also used to drive two 45KVA oil-cooled electric generators and two 27.6 MPa (4,000 psi) hydraulic pumps which provide electrical and hydraulic power for the aircraft and two HPMGs (Hydraulic Permanent Magnet Generators) which power the flight control computers. The two 1.8 meter diameter pusher propellers are driven by two composite drive shafts constructed from unidirectional wound carbon fiber reinforced PEEK (Polyether ether ketone) which connect through bevel gears to a pair of disconnecting clutches in the main gearbox which allow the pusher propellers to be disengaged for hovering or low-speed flight. The overruning clutch located in the main gearbox activates past a certain rotor RPM and disengages the rotor drive system from the gearbox, transferring all the engine power to the pusher propellers and letting the main rotors auto-rotate for high speed forward flight.

Rotor system: The aircraft uses SDI's compound coaxial helicopter propulsion system which employs a lift-offset coaxial rotor design with two contra-rotating rigid main rotors and twin clutchable pusher propellers. The lift-offset rotor design offloads the lift from the retreating blades by using the aerodynamic lift of the advancing blade, eliminating the potential of stall of the retreating blades and thus allowing for higher speed horizontal flight. In addition the two contra-rotating coaxial rotors produce opposing torques, eliminating the need for a tail rotor. Each of the coaxial main rotors is 33.5 meters in diameter and and has four rigid wide-chord active rotor blades attached to the rotor hub using a series of elastomeric pitch bearings. The rotor blades are tapered in thickness from the tip to root and employ a continuous wound carbon fiber skin bonded to a hollow graphite/epoxy honeycomb composite structure. An additional polyurethene abrasion strip is bonded to the leading edge of each rotor blade. Each hollow blade additionally contains a graphite/epoxy composite flexbeam which extends from the rotor hub to the mid-span of the blade which provides ballistic tolerance to internal detonations of HEI rounds up to 30 mm in caliber and increases the rigidity and flapping stiffness of the rotor blade to allow for closer spacing of the coaxial rotors to minimize drag in forward flight. Each rotor blade features an active vibration control system (AVCS) consisting of a trailing edge flap on each rotor blade actuated by double X-frame actuator with four single-crystal piezoelectric stack columns embedded in each rotor blade capable of defecting the trailing edge flap +/- 3°. The active flaps allow the lift generated by each rotor blade to be varied and blade-vortex interaction (BVI) induced noise and vibration to be significantly reduced by eliminating pressure fluctuations on the leading edges of the blades. A composite fairing covers each rotor hub to reduce parasitic drag in flight. Each coaxial rotor is fitted with its own rotor control system which are located concentric with the twin coaxial rotors. Each rotor control system contains four electro-mechanical servomotor actuators and a swashplate and pitch control rod assembly used to adjust the pitch of the four rotor blades of each rotor in flight. A noise and vibration reducing electronic synchrophaser mechanism is located inside the rotor control system assembly and matches the rpm and phase of both coaxial rotors by adjusting the speed of each rotor and the relative positions of each individual blade.


Avionics:
SN/ALQ-216 Integrated RF Countermeasure System: The SN/ALQ-216 is a comprehensive airborne electronic warfare suite which includes which includes wideband DRFM (Digital Radio Frequency Memory) jamming system and central electronic warfare control processor unit. The active jamming capability of the ALQ-216 includes a set of two low band and two high band solid state phased array (SSPA) DRFM jammers employing gallium nitride (GaN) lightweight circuit boards and conformal broad-band antenna units providing 360 degree jamming coverage around the aircraft covering the 0.7-40 GHz frequency bands and providing narrow beam, high power self-protection deceptive jamming capability effective against pulse Doppler, monopulse, and continuous wave radars. The DRFM jammer system employs phase front distortion, range gate pull-off (RGPO), velocity gate pull-off (VGPO), and other deceptive jamming techniques and includes an on-board threat library which identifies and prioritizes threat emitters and jams them order of perceived threat to the host aircraft. When threat signals are detected and identified by the systems radar interferometer sensors jamming of the emitter automatically begins and continues until the threat radar signal is no longer detected by the system's receiver arrays.

SN/AAR-64 Missile/Laser Warning System: The SN/AAR-64 is a combined missile and laser warning system installed in the aircraft which provides passive warning of incoming threat missiles and illumination by threat lasers. The AAR-64 system employs six optical sensor heads with integral optical signal converters mounted in the nose and tail of the aircraft which provide combined 360 degree spherical coverage around the aircraft, a central processor which inputs and analyses signals from the six sensor heads to detect and classify threats, and a central control unit located in the cockpit which provides visual and aural threat warning to the crew and allows for control of the system. Each AAR-64 sensor heads contains an ultra-violet (UV) single-pixel quadrant sensors with an adjunct UV sensor for improved dynamic blanking, a laser warning sensor which warns the crew when the aircraft is being illuminated by a laser designator/illuminator/rangefinder or if the aircraft is being targeted by a laser beam-riding missile, and a short-wave infrared (SWIR) camera which provide detection and tracking of incoming rocket and tracer ammunition. An interface with the aircraft's APR-56 radar warning system allows the AAR-64 system to distinguish between radar and infrared guided missile threats and to automatically queue the countermeasures system to dispense flares when the system identifies an oncoming IR guided missile.

SN/ALE-68 Countermeasures Dispenser System: The SN/ALE-68 is an airborne countermeasures dispenser system designed to dispense chaff, flares, and other expendable decoys to increase aircraft survivability. The SN/ALE-68 system consists of two tail mounted cartridge dispenser modules (CDMs) each capable of containing up to 32x 5.0 cm x 2.5 cm x 8.0 cm countermeasures each and a central defensive aids controller (DAC) unit with inputs from both the SN/AAR-64 missile/laser warning system and SN/ALQ-216 ECM system. When a threat missile is detected by the aircraft's SN/AAR-64 missile/laser warning system or SN/ALQ-216 ECM system the defensive aids controller of the ALE-68 automatically selects appropriate expendable countermeasures to be released by the system's dispensers to decoy or spoof away the incoming missile. Countermeasures supported including pyrophoric spectral flares for decoying IR missiles and chaff, and active digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) decoys for decoying RF guided missiles.

SN-300 Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System (INS/GPS): For navigation purposes the aircraft is equipped with an SDI designed SN-300 INS/GPS system which combines an inertial measurement unit (IMU) containing a 3-axis non-dithered laser-ring gyro (LRG), 3-axis pendulous integrating gyroscopic accelerometer (PIGA), and a 3-axis magnetometer with a GPS spatial temporal anti-jam receiver (GSTAR) system. The IMU provides linear and angular acceleration, velocity, linear and angular position, and magnetic and true heading outputs and provide continuous measurement of the aircraft's acceleration and roll rate which is combined with airspeed and altitude data from the aircraft's air-data system and then input to the aircraft's flight control software. IMU data including magnetic and true heading is also input to the aircraft's navigation software where the IMU data is combined with GPS data to provide highly accurate navigational capability for the aircraft. The IMU system also provides motion compensation capability for the aircraft's SN/APS-160 radar system. The GPS system consists of a GPS spatial temporal anti-jam receiver (GSTAR) including controlled reception pattern antenna (CRPA), high dynamic range RF (radiofrequency) front-end, digital beamformer and digital receiver unit. The GSTAR system includes a formal antenna with +/- 12 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth and supports up to 16 simultaneous beams with digital beam steering and nulling and features a 36-channel (24 military and 12 civilian) digital receiver unit. The GSTAR system supports both Y-code and M-code GPS and is highly jam resistant with greater than 125 dB jam/signal ratio tracking performance. The GSTAR receiver also supports wide area differential GPS (WADGPS) functionality with 0.5-2 meter 3-dimensional position accuracy in flight for navigation and weapon targeting functions

SDI OWLS (Obstacle Warning Laser System): The SDI OWLS or Obstacle Warning Laser System is an active LADAR (Laser Detection and Ranging) based sensor system designed to detect power lines, cables, and other small obstacles in front of the helicopter which are not readily detectable by the helicopter's FLIR or radar sensors .OWLS employs a 3-D LADAR sensor mounted in a box above the SN/AAS-54 FLIR turret in the helicopter's nose which contains an eye-safe 15 kW erbium fiber pulsed laser operating at 60 kHz. The 3D LADAR system scans +/- 18° in azimuth and +/- 21° in elevation in front of the helicopter and is capable of detecting a 5mm diameter wire at a range of 700 meters under normal atmospheric conditions. Obstacles detected by the OWLS sensor are superimposed into the AAS-54 FLIR feed and the pilot's helmet mounted display (HMD) and are accompanied by an aural warning tone in the cockpit when the system detects an obstacle in the helicopter's current flight path, enabling the crew to avoid to avoid them.


Cockpit & Flight Control:
Canopy: The cockpit canopy is constructed from two layers of acrylic/polycarbonate laminate with an optical grade thermoplastic polyurethane interlayer which provides high ballistic and thermal shock tolerance with high light transmittance and optical quality. A fogging/deicing system consisting of two layers of transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) coatings on either side of the polyurethane interlayer which are heated using an AC waveform to remove ice and fogging from the canopy. The indium tin oxide coating also provides electromagnetic shielding for the cockpit and prevents radar waves from entering the cockpit. The cockpit also features an outer anti-reflective dielectric coating which prevents static build up and collection of dust particles on the exterior of the cockpit glass. The two halves of the canopy are separated by a thin trapezoidal shaped graphite/epoxy windshield post which results in minimal visual obstruction for the flight crew.

Cockpit displays:The aircraft features a fully glass cockpit design which includes five 27 x 20 centimeter active matrix LCD multifunction displays (MFDs), a control display unit (CDU) with a 9 x 9 centimeter active matrix LCD display, a video processing module (VPM), data transfer unit (DTU), and an integrated vehicle health management system (IVHMS) with a crash survivable memory unit (CSMU). The five 27 x 20 centimeter displays feature 1024 x 768 pixel XGA resolution with 2D & 3D graphics capability and can be split into up to four separate video windows. The displays are each surrounded by a bezel with 17 push buttons and include dual redundant LED backlights which support both daytime high-sunlight and nighttime NVG/NVIS compatible operation modes. Below the row of five multifunction displays is the control display unit which includes an NVIS/NVG compatible 9 x 9 centimeter active matrix LCD display and a high tactile feedback full alphanumeric sealed keyboard which provides for centralized display and management of navigation and radio communication information for both pilots. The video processing module includes a general purpose processor and a dedicated graphics engine and provides analog and digital video management and mission computing and supports up to five analog video and six HDTV digital inputs while providing up to six 1.485 Gbit/s high-definition serial digital interface (HD-SDI) outputs. The data transfer unit is a microprocessor based mass memory storage unit which can record, store, and playback video and audio files with up to 548 GB of data storage capability. The data transfer unit also serves to store digital moving map data and can access and transfer digital map data files to the main flight displays in real time. The digital map storage capability of the DTU when combined with the aircraft's INS/GPS navigation system allows the aircraft's position to be continuously displayed in real time on 300 x 300 kilometer color 3-D digital terrain map with selectable 1:50,000, 1:250,000, 1:1,000,000, or 1:2,000,000 map scales.

Flight Controls: The aircraft features two sets of identical flight controls which allow the aircraft to be piloted from either seat. Each pilot station features a sidestick cyclic pitch controllers on the left side of the seat and a center mounted active collective levers. The sidestick cylic controller features a thumb lever used to control the pitch of the tail pusher propeller which can pushed forward to provide positive thrust or pulled back to provide reverse thrust via negative prop pitch to slow the aircraft down. A thumb button on the cyclic controller also actuates the the pusher propeller clutch which when depressed disconnects the pusher propeller from the gearbox for hovering or for low speed flight. At higher flight speeds (past 180 knots) the main rotor system is disconnected using an overrunning clutch and the the collective control is locked into place, the aircraft then been flown exclusively with the cyclic side stick and rudder pedals. Both sets of flight controls input into a quadruplex (dual digital plus dual analog redundant) fly-by-wire system which consists of the twin cyclic sticks and active collective levers, two sets of rudder pedals, two air data computers (ADCs), two attitude and heading reference systems (AHRS), two GPS units, four flight control computers (FCC), and flight control actuators including twin coaxial rotor control systems, differential yaw control power system, twin rudder actuators, and elevator actuator. The flight controls are actuated using a dual redundant 3000 psi hydraulic system which uses twin hydraulic pumps driven by the rotor and pusher propeller transmission s which provide hydraulic power through two redundant hydraulic lines to drive the hydraulic actuators used by the elevator, twin rudders, and twin rotor control systems. The fly-by-wire flight control system features two default control settings; rate command/attitude hold (RCAH) mode which provides crisp, highly responsive flight control for high speed, low level flying in daylight VFR conditions and an attitude command/velocity hold (ACVH) mode with a more dampened flight control response for nighttime or IFR condition flying. Autopilot features of the flight control system include auto hover, automatic bob-up/bob-down, flight envelope cueing, automatic terrain- following/terrain-avoidance (TF/TA), and integrated fire and flight control (IFFC) with automatic evasive maneuvering and weapon launch capability.

Environmental control system: The environmental control system (ECS) provides NBC protection for the crew and provided cooled air flow filtered of any chemical contaminants to the cockpit and to the aircraft's avionics. The ECS takes high pressure bleed air from the APU and passes it through a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter and a dual bed self-purging pressure swing absorber (PSA) which removes any particulate matter, NBC contaminants, or water vapor from the bleed air before it enters the air cycle machine (ACM) which provides cool air flow into the cockpit to cool the cockpit and various cockpit avionics. The air cycle machine also provides constant 0.5 psi overpressure to the crew cabin to prevent any potential NBC contaminants from entering the cockpit due to ballistic or environmental damage to the canopy glass or cockpit structure.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Wed Mar 03, 2021 5:42 pm, edited 12 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Mon Nov 09, 2020 3:55 pm

Image

MQ-38 Condor

General Characteristics:
  • Role: Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAV
  • Crew: 0 onboard, up to 2 remote (1 pilot, 1 sensor operator)
  • Length: 16.50 m
  • Wingspan: 26.0 m
  • Height: 6.0 m
  • Wing area: 40 m2
  • Empty weight: 3,200 kg
  • Max takeoff weight: 11,000 kg
  • Fuel weight: 5,500 kg
  • Powerplant: 2x SDI T86 turboprops, 950 kW each
Performance:
  • Maximum speed: 500 km/h (270 knots)
  • Cruise speed: 370 km/h (200 knots)
  • Flight Endurance: 40 hours
  • Ferry Range: 23,000 km
  • Service ceiling: 15,200 m
  • Wing loading: 275 kg/m2
  • Power/mass: 0.17 kW/kg
Payload:
  • 2,300 kg of weapons and/or sensor pods on one fuselage and four wing hardpoints
Avionics:
  • SN/ASX-8 Multispectral Imaging System
  • SN/ZPY-9 Multi-Mode Radar System


Overview:
The MQ-38 Condor is a medium altitude long endurance (MALE) UAV designed by SDI Aerospace systems to meet an Arcaenian Air Force requirement for a long endurance turboprop powered surveillance UAV. The MQ-39 combines an extended flight range with 40 hours of flight endurance and with the ability to carry a variety of sensor payloads suited for border surveillance, maritime patrol, search and rescue operations, disaster response, and weather reconnaissance missions. Equipped with hardpoints that can carry missile and guided bomb weapons the MQ-38 is also capable of hunter-killer operations in permissive airspace in support of counter-insurgency or low-intensity conflict operations.


Airframe & Construction:


Propulsion:
  • Name: T86
  • Type: Turboprop
  • Length: 1,880 mm
  • Diameter: 470 mm
  • Dry Weight: 233 kg
  • Compressor: 4-stage axial + 1-stage centrifugal HPC
  • Combustor: Reverse-flow combustor
  • Turbine: 1 stage HPT, 2 stage PT
  • Maximum power output: 950 kW
  • Overall pressure ratio: 10.8:1
  • Power-to-weight ratio: 4.15 kW/kg
  • Turbine inlet temperature: 1,070 °C
  • Specific fuel consumption: 0.31 kg/kW-hr
The MQ-38 is powered by twin SDI T86 turboprop engines each rated at 840 kW of maximum shaft power. The T86 is a twin-spool turboprop with a 39,000 RPM gas generator spool consisting of a single stage high pressure turbine (HPT) driving a high pressure compressor (HPC) with four axial stages and one centrifugal stage and a 30,000 RPM power spool consisting of a two-stage free power turbine which drives the rear mounted (pusher configuration) two-stage planetary reduction gearbox through a power turbine output shaft. The combustor is a reverse-flow design with a deswirler and annular combustion chamber containing 14 fuel nozzles, twin spark igniters, and the floated inconel alloy combustion liner. The compressor employs integral bladed rotors (IBRs) on the four axial stages with axial and centrifugal compressor rotors constructed from titanium alloy. Variable inlet guide vanes (VIGVs) are positioned in front of the first axial compressor stage with variable stator vanes after each axial compressor stage. The single stage high pressure turbine has a design turbine inlet temperature of 1,070 °C and employs an inconel alloy turbine disk with cast single-crystal nickel superalloy bladescooled using high pressure bleed air from the third axial compressor stage. The power turbine employs two rows of cast nickel superalloy blades and is not cooled. The power turbine inputs through the power turbine output shaft into reduction gearbox mounted at the rear of the engine containing a two-stage planetary reduction system and a built-in hydro-mechanical torque measurement system which drive's a five-bladed 2.5 meter diameter variable pitch propeller mounted in a pusher configuration. Engine accessories include a compressor driven accessory gearbox containing a fuel pump and fuel control unit, starter-generator, oil pumps, tachogenerator, and dual channel FADEC system.


Avionics
SN/ASX-8 Multispectral Imaging System: The SN/ASX-8 is a long-range, multisensor optical system equipped with HD daylight and HD low-light electro-optical (EO) cameras, infrared imagers, and laser illuminator/rangefinder/designator systems which is mounted underneath the nose of the aircraft and provides 360° continuous azimuth long range and high altitude day and night detection, identification, and tracking of ground and surface targets. The payload of the ASX-8 comprises 9 sensors; a MWIR (3-5µm) staring array HD thermal imager with 1280 x 1024 px resolution and electable 31.5° WFOV (wide field of view), 6.4° MFOV (medium field of view), 1.3° NFOV (narrow field of view), and 0.86°UNFOV (ultra-narrow field of view) fields of view, 5 megapixel daylight continuous zoom color HD camera with 2.8° to 40.5° field of view, low-light continuous zoom electron multiplied CCD camera, 2 megapixel color HD long-range spotter camera, SWIR spotter camera with FOV matched to the daylight spotter camera, 860nm continuous or pulsed selectable laser illuminator, selectable 1064nm/1570nm diode pumped Nd:Yag laser designator/laser rangefinder, and 1064nm quadrant detector laser spot tracker. The camera turret features full 5-axis stabilization and 6-axis vibration isolation with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) coupled to the optical bench assembly for maximum target pointing accuracy.

SN/ZPY-9 Multi-Mode Radar System: The SN/ZPY-9 Multi-Mode Radar System is Ku band (15.2 GHz to 18.2 GHz) high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mounted in the aircraft's nose radome which provides high-resolution all-weather radar imaging and ground target tracking capability to complement the SN/ASX-8 electro-optical sensor system. The ZPY-9 has a slant range of 3 to 45 kilometers (30 km in 4 mm/hr rain) and provides both spotlight mode and stripmap mode synthetic aperture radar imaging capability with a 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode. Both SAR modes support coherent change detection (CCD) using the UAV ground control station which can interfere two SAR images of the same scene and measure any decorrelation in pixels between the two images in order to detect subtle changes in the two scenes.The radar also includes a ground/dismount moving target indicator (GMTI/DMTI) mode with the ability to detect and track vehicles moving over 10 kph and individual persons moving over 1 kph at ranges of 4 to 25 kilometers with the ability toc ross-cue to the SN/ASX-8 electro-optical sensor sensor in narrow FOV modes to provide visual identification of tracked targets. The SN/ZPY-9 hardware mounted in the aircraft includes a radar electronics assembly (REA) containing a Ku-band waveform generator, RF interconnect, digital receiver, ADC, and signal processing computers and the gimbal assembly containing a 3-axis stabilized gimbal with the antenna transmitter traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA) and a 6-axis fiber optic gyro based IMU and carrier phase GPS navigation and motion compensation system. The traveling-wave tube amplifier antenna transmits with a maximum power of 320 watts and is capable of scanning +/- 135° on either side of the aircraft's centerline.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Fri Nov 20, 2020 8:59 pm, edited 8 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Tue Nov 10, 2020 12:19 pm

Image


S-1070

General Characteristics:
  • Role: Wide-body airliner
  • Crew: 2 pilots
  • Seating: 349 passengers (3-class)
  • Length: 76.5 m
  • Wingspan: 71.8 m
  • Height: 19.7 m
  • Wing area: 517 m2
  • Empty Weight: 145,000 kg
  • Fuel Weight: 159,000 kg
  • Max Takeoff Weight: 344,000 kg
  • Powerplant: 2x SDI800 turbofans, 490 kN each
Performance:
  • Maximum Speed: Mach 0.87
  • Cruise Speed: Mach 0.84
  • Range: 17,560 km
  • Service ceiling: 13,100 m
  • Wing loading: 665 kg/m2


Overview:

The S-1070 is a large, widebody, ultra long range, subsonic airliner designed by SDI Aerospace systems. The S-1070 is designed for high long range cruising efficiency and features innovating features such as a primarily composite fuselage and wing structure, bleedless ultra-high bypass turbofan engines, self contained electrohydraulic (EH) and electromechanical (EM) servoactuator based flight control surface actuation system, and adaptive variable camber flap control system. The S-1070 is available in two versions; the base passenger version which can accommodate 407 passengers in a 3-class layout and the S-1070F freighter version which can transport up to 102.8 metric tons of cargo.


Design & Construction:
The S-1070 features a conventional design for an airliner with a tubular fuselage, low mounted wing, and empennage with two horizontal and single vertical stabilizers. The tubular fuselage has a diameter of 6.2 meters and tapers at the rear of the aircraft into a blade-shaped tail cone which contains the aircraft's auxiliary power unit. The wing uses supercritical airfoils and has a 10:1 aspect ratio with distinct raked wingtips to increase the effective wing aspect ratio and reduce wingtip vortex formation. The landing gear includes a twin wheel nose gear and two six-wheel main landing gear bogies.

The S-1070 is constructed by weight from 50% graphite-epoxy and glass-epoxy composites, 20% aluminum-lithium alloy, 15% titanium alloys, 10% steel alloys, and 5% other materials. Graphite reinforced epoxy and fiberglass composites are used for the fuselage and wing structure with aluminum-lithium alloys used for the wing and empennage leading edges, titanium alloys used for the wingbox structure, engine nacelles, and fasteners, and steel alloys including 18Ni maraging steel used for the landing gear and other various structures. The 6.2 meter diameter fuselage is constructed from carbon fibre–reinforced epoxy and consists of monolithic barrel structures formed using vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) which are joined together to create the final fuselage assembly. Lightning strike protection, a potential issue for all-composite aircraft structures, is addressed through an aluminum micro-wire grid embedded into the skin of the composite fuselage and wing structure which renders it electrically conductive.


Propulsion
  • Name:SDI800
  • Type:Geared turbofan
  • Length: 7,280 mm
  • Diameter: 3,770 mm
  • Dry Weight: 8,760 kg
  • Bypass ratio: 25:1
  • Compressor:1 stage geared fan, 5 stage LPC, 6 stage HPC
  • Combustor:Annular combustor
  • Turbine: single stage HPT, 4 stage LPT
  • Maximum thrust: 490 kN
  • Overall pressure ratio: 75:1
  • Specific fuel consumption: 10 g/kN-s (cruise)
  • Turbine inlet temperature: 1,760 °C
  • Thrust-to-weight ratio: 5.7:1

The S-1070 is powered by two SDI800 ultra-high bypass geared turbofan engines which each provide a maximum of 490 kN of sea level static thrust. The SDI800 uses a twin-spool geared turbofan architecture with a single stage HPT driving an 11 stage HPC and a 6 stage LPT driving both a 3 stage LPC and single stage fan with variable-pitch fan blades which is driven through a 4:1 gear ratio planetary gearbox in between the fan and HPC. The fan has a diameter of 3.55 meters with a design fan pressure ratio of 1.3:1 and employs 18 wide chord fan blades constructed from hollow 3-D woven carbon fiber reinforced composite (CFRP) with Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy reinforcement along the leading edges. The fan employs a novel variable pitch fan system which allows the pitch of the fan blades to be optimized for each phase of flight and removes the need for a variable fan nozzle or a conventional thrust reverser mechanism. The variable-pitch mechanism is completely encloses by the fan centerbody and consists of a central rotary actuator with a pitch change collector ring connected using pitch arms to high strength composite fan blade tension/torsion retention straps constricteed from carbon fiber reinforced PEEK (polyether ether ketone) which support the centrifugal load of each fan blade and are attached using pins to a grooved disk which acts as the blade pivot center. A hydraulic motor is used to actuate the pitch change collector ring through a worm gear drive which provided high magnification of the hydraulic motor output torque and prevents back-driving of the pitch change mechanism. The pitch change mechanism allows the incidence angle of each flan blade to be varied across a 100° range, allowing the fan blade incidence angles to be decreased at low aircraft speeds to avoid fan stall flutter and allowing the blades to be feathered or rotated past the feather position to provide reverse thrust upon landing. The 5 stage low pressure compressor has a pressure ratio of 6.0:1 and employs five Ti-48Al-2Cr-Nb titanium alloy integrally bladed rotors (IBRs) with highly swept, highly loaded blades. The 6-stage high pressure compressor (HPC) has a pressure ratio of 10.0:1 and employs integrally bladed rotors with highly swept, highly loaded blades constructed from a high temperature metal matrix composite (MMC) consisting of Ti-48Al-2Cr-Nb titanium alloy reinforced with 30% by volume high strength (>3450 Mpa), high modulus high modulus (380 Gpa) SiC (silicon carbide) fibers. The combustor section of the engine employs a twin annular premixing swirler (TAPS) combustor with 20 fuel spray nozzles and a floatwall silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) ceramic matrix composite combustor liner with a with a zirconia (ZrO2) environmental barrier coating which provides high combustion efficiency and reduced NOx emission. Air exists the compositor at design combustor exit temperature of 1,760 °C where it then enters the single stage high pressure turbine which drives the high pressure compressor. The high pressure turbine employs silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) ceramic matrix composite turbine blades with a zirconia (ZrO2) environmental barrier coating which are convention and film cooled using high pressure bleed-air from the high pressure compressor. After exiting the high pressure turbine the air drives the 4-stage low-pressure turbine (LPT) which uses 4 rows of uncooled Ti-48Al-2Cr-Nb gamma titanium-aluminide (TiAL) alloy blades. The low-pressure turbine directly drives the low pressure compressor and also drives the single stage variable-pitch fan through an 80 centimetre diameter 4:1 gear ratio planetary gearbox rated at 100,000 kW of input shaft power. Both spools are mounted on SiC (silicon carbide) reinforced Ti-6Al-4V titanium metal matrix composite shafts supported by silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramic bearings. Each engine includes an oil-cooled AC permanent-magnet variable frequency starter-generator (VFSG) mounted on the cold side of the engine concentrically to the high pressure turbine shaft which when direct driven at 9,000 RPM by the high pressure turbine provides 600 kVA of 235 VAC electrical power for the aircraft's onboard electrical systems. Starting power for both engines is provided by an SDI SGT3200 variable-speed bleedless APU rated at 1,300 kW (1,737 PS) of shaft power which can be started at any altitude from sea level to 13,100 meters and is used to drive an additional oil-cooled AC permanent-magnet starter-generator providing 600 kVA of 235 Vac electrical power.

Each engine is controlled using a two-channel dual redundant FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) system with one active and one standby channel. The FADEC system is mounted to the fan case of each engine and is powered by a permanent magnetic alternator driven by the aircraft's electrical system. The FADEC system provides centralized control of engine fuel flow, variable-pitch fan blade incidence angle control, compressor variable inlet guide vane (VIGV) and variable stator vane (VSV) actuation control, high and low pressure spool overspeed protection control, exhaust gas temperature (EGT) monmitoring, engine thrust and power management control, engine starting sequence control, and transmission of engine parameters and FADEC system status to the cockpit displays.


Cockpit and Cabin:
The S-1070 employs a glass cockpit instrumentation system which includes five 30 x 23 centimeter AMLCD (active-matrix liquid crystal display) touchscreen displays with 1600 × 1200 pixel UXGA resolution; two for each pilot which act as primary flight displays and one shared display mounted between the pilots on the center console. The cockpit also includes two digital heads up displays (HUDs) with a 35° x 26° field of view and 1280 x 1024 pixel resolution. The HUDs are used with the aircraft's SDI enhanced vision system (EVS) which uses a tri-band short-wave infrared, long-wave infrared and visible high-resolution imager mounted in the nose to display a 1280 x 1024 pixel raster image on the HUD which is conformal to the outside scene, allowing the pilot to see runway lights and markings through fog, smoke,and other low-visibility conditions while on approach and on landing. The HUD also supports surface guidance system (SGS) capability which uses DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System) information to overlay runway, taxiway, and guidance line ques onto the heads up displays to allow the pilots to navigate during landing rollout and taxi operations in low visibility conditions.
Last edited by The Technocratic Syndicalists on Fri Nov 20, 2020 3:15 pm, edited 11 times in total.
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

User avatar
The Technocratic Syndicalists
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1972
Founded: May 27, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby The Technocratic Syndicalists » Thu Nov 12, 2020 1:25 pm

Image

C-47 Titan

General Characteristics:
  • Role: Strategic airlifter
  • Crew: 4 (pilot, copilot, two loadmasters)
  • Length: 87.2 m
  • Wingspan: 87.9 m
  • Height: 20.5 m
  • Wing area: 730 m2
  • Empty weight: 173,400 kg
  • Fuel weight: 115,000 kg
  • Max payload Weight: 175,000 kg
  • Cargo hold: 56.3 m long x 8.3 m wide x 4.3 m tall
  • Max takeoff weight: 470,000 kg
  • Powerplant: 4x SDI700 Turbofans, 360 kN each
Performance:
  • Maximum speed: Mach 0.85
  • Cruise speed: Mach 0.80
  • Range: 7,400 km (maximum payload)
  • Ferry range: 19,000 km
  • Service ceiling: 12,000 m
  • Wing loading: 643 kg/m2
  • Thrust/weight: 0.22
  • Takeoff distance: 2,500 m with max payload
Avionics:
  • SN/APS-163 Weather radar
SDI AG
Arcaenian Military Factbook
Task Force Atlas
International Freedom Coalition


OOC: Call me Techno for Short
IC: The Federal Republic of Arcaenia

Next

Advertisement

Remove ads

Return to Global Economics and Trade

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: Drifterica, Qhevak

Advertisement

Remove ads