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Passed General Assembly Resolutions

Where WA members debate how to improve the world, one resolution at a time.

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World Assembly Resolution #174

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Wed Dec 28, 2011 5:28 pm

Right to Petition
A resolution to increase democratic freedoms.

Category: Furtherment of Democracy
Strength: Mild
Proposed by: Knootoss

Description: The World Assembly,

BELIEVES that individuals should have the right to petition without fear of reprisal;

DEFINES a petition as: a written observation, suggestion, request, criticism or complaint that relates to an issue of public or private interest;

RESOLVES that citizens and residents of World Assembly Member States, acting alone or as part of a group, have the right to send petitions to officials and institutions that claim jurisdiction over their person, and extends this right equally to companies, organisations and associations that have their headquarters in a World Assembly Member State;

BANS Member States from enacting punishment or reprisals against anyone for making use of their right to petition.

OBLIGES officials and institutions to pass petitions that do not fall within their field of activity on to a more appropriate or competent official or government institution, whenever possible;

Votes For: 8,647
Votes Against: 2,318

Implemented Thu Dec 15 2011

[WAR174 on NS] [WAR174 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]

Author: 1 SC and 28 GA resolutions
Maintainer: GA Passed Resolutions
Developer: Communiqué and InfoEurope
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World Assembly Resolution #175 [REPEALED]

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Wed Dec 28, 2011 5:30 pm

Organ and Blood Donations Act [Struck out by Resolution #215]
A resolution to reduce income inequality and increase basic welfare.

Category: Social Justice
Strength: Significant
Proposed by: Christian Democrats

Description: The General Assembly,

Applauding modern medicine for saving countless lives by such means as organ transplantations and blood transfusions,

Believing there should be minimum safety standards in these areas,

Concerned that there are a number of false rumors about the donation of organs, tissues, and blood that decrease donation rates,

Recognizing that low rates of organ, tissue, and blood donations can increase the mortality rates of member states,

Convinced that promotion of the inalienable right to life and the right to health necessitate measures that benefit public health,

Seeking to protect, enhance, and extend the lives of the people of member states,

1. Legalizes the donation, transplantation, and transfusion of organs, tissues, blood, and components thereof in all member states;

2. Prohibits the removal of organs, tissues, blood, and components thereof from live patients without informed consent unless otherwise dictated in another one of this Assembly's resolutions;

3. Urges every member state to adopt an opt-out system of post-mortem organ donation, or organ harvesting;

4. Mandates the use of sterile needles for all blood donations and transfusions;

5. Orders that compatibility testing be done regarding all blood donations and transfusions in order to prevent negative transfusion reactions resulting from incompatible blood types;

6. Requires that all donated blood, organs, tissues, and components thereof be tested for transferable infections and diseases;

7. Forbids transplantation or transfusion of infected and/or diseased blood, organs, tissues, or components thereof from one person (a donor) to another person (a recipient);

8. Decrees that every member state shall enact legislation establishing minimum safety standards for the storage of organs, tissues, blood, and components thereof;

9. Encourages the healthcare systems of member states to donate surpluses of organs, tissues, blood, and components thereof to other nations;

10. Directs the World Health Authority to make information about organ, tissue, and blood donations available to the people of member states in order to dispel any false rumors that may reduce donation rates; and

11. Calls upon the World Health Authority to promote research regarding artificial blood and organs.

Votes For: 7,954
Votes Against: 3,791


Implemented Fri Dec 23 2011

[WAR175 on NS] [WAR175 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]
Last edited by Omigodtheykilledkenny on Sun Sep 09, 2012 5:44 pm, edited 1 time in total.

Author: 1 SC and 28 GA resolutions
Maintainer: GA Passed Resolutions
Developer: Communiqué and InfoEurope
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World Assembly Resolution #176

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Wed Dec 28, 2011 5:33 pm

Disability Welfare Act
A resolution to reduce income inequality and increase basic welfare.

Category: Social Justice
Strength: Significant
Proposed by: Sanctaria

Description: The General Assembly,

RE-AFFIRMING its belief that there exist various human rights, including those to shelter, food, and education,

ACKNOWLEDGING that many achieve the means to enjoy those rights through work and employment,

SADDENED by the reality that there often exists the unreconcilable impediment to work and employment that is disability,

BELIEVING that this threatens the ability for some to achieve their aforementioned rights,

CONVINCED that nations should help those who are at a disadvantage due to a disability,

Hereby

DEFINES, for the purposes of this resolution, a disability as an arduous, constant and debilitating physical or mental affliction which renders one incapable and ineffectual in terms of work and employment;

DIRECTS nations to create a system, or systems, of welfare to assist those who are disabled;

DEMANDS that those who have been rendered disabled, as defined by this resolution, be granted adequate benefit(s) from or by the aforementioned system(s) which equate to, at the least, the minimum amount required to attain the same level of well-being and dignity a working, able person would otherwise be entitled to enjoy;

REQUIRES nations to, when determining what constitutes adequate benefits based on the above, take into account the average cost of day-to-day expenses including, but not limited to, food, shelter, healthcare for the disabled, and education;

RECOMMENDS that nations, unless already achieved, build on their system(s) of welfare to include in its remit those who in need yet are not disabled;

ENCOURAGES nations to put in place systems whereby those who have a disability but could work, providing the correct infrastructure and/or assistance is in place, are given the opportunity to do so.

Votes For: 6,753
Votes Against: 2,531

Implemented Tue Dec 27 2011

[WAR176 on NS] [WAR176 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]
Last edited by Omigodtheykilledkenny on Sun Feb 19, 2012 9:39 am, edited 2 times in total.

Author: 1 SC and 28 GA resolutions
Maintainer: GA Passed Resolutions
Developer: Communiqué and InfoEurope
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World Assembly Resolution #177

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sun Feb 19, 2012 9:43 am

Concerning Financial Fraud
A resolution to reduce barriers to free trade and commerce.

Category: Free Trade
Strength: Significant
Proposed by: Connopolis

Description: The General Assembly,

NOTING the existence of financial fraud, especially against public and state institutions, and its pervasive strain on the economies of many nations,

CONCERNED that a lack of attention to this issue could cause damage not only to the economies of nations in which such crimes take place but also to the economies of other nations to which they are, to varying degrees, connected,

DETERMINED to bring an end to this practice in the interests of global economic stability,

The World Assembly therefore resolves:

1. "Financial fraud" shall be defined as the procurement of fiscal and/or material assets by deceptive means, either by way of intentional misrepresentation of fact or deliberate and outright statement of false information,

2. For the purposes of this resolution, the term "victim(s) of fraud" shall be disambiguated to refer to any individual, public or private entity, national or international body or any group thereof that suffers a loss of fiscal and/or material assets due to financial fraud,

3. Member-states shall take all practical, effective preventative measures, including the creation of domestic laws, in order to eliminate financial fraud,

4. Member-state shall ensure that all victims of fraud shall receive compensation for their loss equal to or greater than the value of the loss and that this compensation shall be derived from the fiscal and/or material assets of the perpetrator of the act of financial fraud which resulted in the loss,

5. Member-states are encouraged to share information on those who have been convicted of financial fraud upon request and co-operate with each other on the prevention of further acts of financial fraud by all possible means.

Co-authored by Ossitania

Votes For: 6,215
Votes Against: 4,363

Implemented Sat Jan 7 2012

[WAR177 on NS] [WAR177 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]

Author: 1 SC and 28 GA resolutions
Maintainer: GA Passed Resolutions
Developer: Communiqué and InfoEurope
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World Assembly Resolution #178

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sun Feb 19, 2012 9:49 am

Repeal "Legalizing Prostitution"
A resolution to repeal previously passed legislation

Category: Repeal
Resolution: #167
Proposed by: Alqania

Description: WA Resolution #167: Legalizing Prostitution (Category: Free Trade; Strength: Significant) shall be struck out and rendered null and void.

Argument: THE WORLD ASSEMBLY:

APPLAUDS this resolution's intention of reducing barriers to free trade and commerce and improving the legal protection sapient beings have from abuse and disease and to further their civil rights,

REGRETS that this resolution equates the criminalization of prostitution with the criminalization of prostitutes, which may lead to incorrect assumptions with regards to the effects of criminalization,

AFFIRMS that the age, fame, infamy or notoriety of an act, practice or profession is not, and should not be, considered in itself a valid basis for determining its legal status, and is rather irrelevant in the arena of international law,

NOTES that the legalization of prostitution applies to "all member states residing with the World Assembly." This can be exploited should member states define themselves as residing within their own sovereign territory rather than territory which is under direct World Assembly sovereignty. The operative clause can in this manner be rendered completely ineffective,

WORRIES that while this resolution mandates that prostitutes be made fully aware of the "health or other specific risk (sic)" connected to prostitution, no such information is required to be made available to clients. Risks to clients may include:

  • Sexually transmitted infections,
  • Other infectious diseases, such as respiratory diseases, which may be transmitted through talking, kissing or other non-sexual contact between prostitute(s) and client(s),
  • Unwanted pregnancy and parenthood,
  • Injury, death and psychological trauma,
  • Social stigma, family and work issues,
  • Robbery and blackmail,

ACKNOWLEDGES that the "Sexual Privacy Act" outlaws non-consensual sexual acts, which would include those between prostitute(s) and client(s) as well as between any other persons. Protection from non-consensual sexual acts would remain without "Legalizing Prostitution",

SPECIFIES that the confines of previously passed international law are broad enough to allow a member state to effectively stop sapient beings from working as prostitutes in spite of the operative clauses of this resolution, rendering it completely ineffective,

REALIZES that this resolution fails to take into account the diversity of economic systems among member states and specifically fails to recognize systems in which businesses operate without profit,

QUESTIONS the resolution's assertion that brothels are beneficial to the safety of the prostitute as there is no factual basis for this statement,

CONCLUDES that "Legalizing Prostitution" is flawed to the point of being ineffective and therefore fails to achieve its goals;

HEREBY:

REPEALS Resolution #167, "Legalizing Prostitution".

Votes For: 6,501
Votes Against: 4,631

Implemented Fri Jan 20 2012

[WAR178 on NS] [WAR178 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]

Author: 1 SC and 28 GA resolutions
Maintainer: GA Passed Resolutions
Developer: Communiqué and InfoEurope
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World Assembly Resolution #179

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sun Feb 19, 2012 9:56 am

Clean Prostitute Act
A resolution to reduce barriers to free trade and commerce.

Category: Free Trade
Strength: Mild
Proposed by: Flibbleites

Description: NOTING that prostitution is a controversial subject,

REALIZING that constantly passing and repealing resolutions dealing with prostitution is a waste of the World Assembly’s time,

DECIDING to end the madness once and for all,

The World Assembly,

DECREES that the decision regarding whether or not to legalize prostitution shall be left to member nations to make within the confines of international law,

REQUIRES that prostitutes working in nations choosing to allow prostitution be regularly screened for sexually transmitted infections and further stipulates that any prostitutes who are diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection abstain from their work until their infection has been cured.

Votes For: 10,639
Votes Against: 1,309

Implemented Sat Jan 28 2012

[WAR179 on NS] [WAR179 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]

Author: 1 SC and 28 GA resolutions
Maintainer: GA Passed Resolutions
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World Assembly Resolution #180

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sun Feb 19, 2012 10:00 am

A Decriminalization of Suicide
A resolution to improve worldwide human and civil rights.

Category: Human Rights
Strength: Significant
Proposed by: Unibotian WA Mission

Description: The General Assembly,

Noting that modern psychiatry has come to recognize suicidal tendencies as a common response to depression or a symptom of mental illness,

Believing that the religious or moral prohibitions of “self-murder” are not strong enough to justify the sentencing and incarceration of those who attempt and fail to commit suicide, since this punishment may only further damage the subject’s mental state,

Hereby:

Affirms that the act of intentionally ending one’s own life, hereby defined as “suicide”, shall not be a criminal offense or breach of law in any member-nation;

a. Additionally, the act of attempting to commit suicide shall not be a criminal offense or breach of law in any member-nation;

b. Member-states shall not impose taxation on suicide or attempted suicide (see cl.3);

c. Member-states shall not withhold inheritance, tax credit or other benefits on the basis that one died specifically by suicide. However, if a member-state is an insurer it may withhold life insurance to beneficiaries if the insured died by suicide;

d. Any ongoing punishment for breaching laws that do not comply with this resolution shall cease immediately;

Requests that member-states and their respective legal systems take care in distinguishing between activities of a potentially careless and/or life-threatening nature (e.g., recreational substance use, failure to use safety equipment) and specific acts that are intended by one to end one's own life;

Demands a state shall not respond to someone who has attempted suicide as it would respond to a criminal offender simply because they acted to end their own life;

a. If a subject committed criminal offenses in the course of an attempted suicide, the subject could be convicted for those offenses but the actual act of attempted suicide would not be a criminal offense;

b. If a subject's suicide attempt directly affects the health and safety of others (e.g., suicide bombing), the subject may be convicted for posing a harm to others but the actual act of attempted suicide would not be a criminal offense;

c. If a suicidal person has not breached the law but is to be institutionalized, this institution must be a dedicated mental health facility, separate from the criminal justice system or penitentiaries;

Recognizes a desire to attempt suicide motivated by many of the common underlying motivations behind suicide (e.g., despair, depression, substance abuse) is a medical emergency which demands therapy and treatment;

Clarifies that nothing in this act shall impact whether member-nations can criminalize the forcing, assistance, aid or abetment of suicide.

Votes For: 10,179
Votes Against: 1,962

Implemented Wed Feb 1 2012

[WAR180 on NS] [WAR180 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]

Author: 1 SC and 28 GA resolutions
Maintainer: GA Passed Resolutions
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World Assembly Resolution #181

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sun Feb 19, 2012 10:06 am

Repeal "Medical Blockade Restriction"
A resolution to repeal previously passed legislation

Category: Repeal
Resolution: #74
Proposed by: Conopolis

Description: WA Resolution #74: Medical Blockade Restriction (Category: Free Trade; Strength: Strong) shall be struck out and rendered null and void.

Argument: The General Assembly,

LAUDING the intent of GAR#74 - that being, to allow medical supplies and personnel to freely pass through blockades in order to ensure that individuals are not harmed as a result of political conflict,

WHOLLY AGREEING with the assertion that "[L]ife is fundamentally more important than political or international affairs,"

YET ASTUTELY AWARE that no amount of meritorious intent can compensate for the flaws of any text,

ACKNOWLEDGING that GAR#74 stated, in relevant part:

"REQUIRES any blocking force or forces to grant vessels carrying medical supplies and personnel passage."

APPALLED that such a provision effectively negates the purpose of a blockade, in the sense that any vessel, regardless of its intended content, can be granted free passage through a blockade, so long as it contains medical supplies and personnel.

PERPLEXED by how a World Assembly Statue can be used to guide the searching of delivery vessels, and further contending that such searches are ineffective given that passage cannot be prevented as long as the vessel contains medical supplies and/or personnel, regardless of its other contents.

DESIROUS of a resolution that effectively ensures the transportation of necessities of sapient life, such as medical supplies, while simultaneously allowing nations to enforce their blockades.

Due to these enumerated reasons,

THE WORLD ASSEMBLY THEREFORE REPEALS GAR#74.

Votes For: 9,091
Votes Against: 2,429

Implemented Sun Feb 5 2012

[WAR181 on NS] [WAR181 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]
Last edited by Omigodtheykilledkenny on Sun Feb 19, 2012 10:07 am, edited 2 times in total.

Author: 1 SC and 28 GA resolutions
Maintainer: GA Passed Resolutions
Developer: Communiqué and InfoEurope
Delegate for Europe
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World Assembly Resolution #182 [REPEALED]

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sat Mar 24, 2012 4:23 pm

Renewable Research Commitment [Struck out by Resolution #353]
A resolution to increase the quality of the world's environment, at the expense of industry.

Category: Environmental
Industry Affected: All Businesses
Proposed by: Delegate Vinage

Description: Description: A proposal to encourage nations to fund renewable energy research.

ARGUMENT:

AWARE that the use of fossil fuels and fossil fuel related products depletes the limited reserves upon planets

UNDERSTANDS that the burning of fossil fuels such as coal to produce electricity releases the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide that contributes to global warming as well as other noxious compounds that can later cause acid rain as well as other environmental issues,

CONCERNED that this rapid depletion would leave no way to produce energy for future generations,

KNOWS that there are other ways to generate electricity without using fossil fuels. These include, but is not limited to, solar, wind, geothermal, and hydro,

HEREBY:

1) Instructs World Assembly nations to devote sufficient funding in order to make a meaningful and good faith effort towards researching renewable energy
2) Encourages nations to enact policies on fossil-fuel burning power plants to commit a minimum 5% from their expenditure to further renewable energy research and to develop ways to better utilize alternative energy sources
3) Urges nations to take into account and implement results from the renewable energy research

IN ORDER to allow future generations to produce electricity without further polluting the atmosphere.

Co-Authored By The Holy Red Land of Individuality-ness

Votes For: 8,115
Votes Against: 3,499


Implemented Mon Feb 20 2012

[WAR182 on NS] [Official Debate Topic]
Last edited by Omigodtheykilledkenny on Sun Jan 03, 2016 12:53 pm, edited 2 times in total.

Author: 1 SC and 28 GA resolutions
Maintainer: GA Passed Resolutions
Developer: Communiqué and InfoEurope
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World Assembly Resolution #183

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sat Mar 24, 2012 4:26 pm

Defense of Self and Others [Struck out by Resolution #314]
A resolution to improve worldwide human and civil rights.

Category: Human Rights
Strength: Significant
Proposed by: Ossitania

Description: The World Assembly,

NOTING the existence of persons who threaten the safety and/or life of other persons,

RECOGNISING that such threats may require those threatened or others to respond with force in order to protect themselves or others,

BELIEVING that those who use such force to protect themselves or others should not be punished for this,

ACKNOWLEDGING the possibility that forceful responses in the defense of self or others may be excessive,

Hereby

DEFINES "reasonable force" as an amount of force within a reasonable degree of the smallest amount of force necessary to protect one's self or others from an imminent threat to safety and/or health by another person or group of persons,

DECLARES that no person who uses reasonable force to defend themselves or others from another person or group of persons shall face persecution or prosecution for the use of this force,

PLACES the duty of ascertaining whether the force used in such situations was reasonable or not in the hands of the judiciary.

Votes For: 8,566
Votes Against: 3,185


Implemented Fri Feb 24 2012

[WAR183 on NS] [WAR183 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]
Last edited by Omigodtheykilledkenny on Sat Mar 14, 2015 2:05 pm, edited 1 time in total.

Author: 1 SC and 28 GA resolutions
Maintainer: GA Passed Resolutions
Developer: Communiqué and InfoEurope
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World Assembly Resolution #184

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sat Mar 24, 2012 4:30 pm

Repeal "Habeas Corpus"
A resolution to repeal previously passed legislation

Category: Repeal
Resolution: #67
Proposed by: Quelesh

Description: WA Resolution #67: Habeas Corpus (Category: Human Rights; Strength: Significant) shall be struck out and rendered null and void.

Argument: The Assembled Nations of the World,

CONVINCED of the right of individuals to be free from illegal or unjust detention;

APPLAUDING the intent of this body to uphold that right when it passed General Assembly Resolution #67, "Habeas Corpus;"

however, DEEPLY TROUBLED by several flaws in the aforementioned resolution that render it ineffective in several areas;

TERRIBLY VEXED that the aforementioned resolution explicitly allows double jeopardy, the practice of trying an individual more than once for the same offense;

FURTHER VEXED that the aforementioned resolution imposes minimal obstacles to the unfettered use of double jeopardy, merely requiring the approval of a person who is "duly authorised by the legal system" to grant a "full legal authorisation for a retrial," essentially allowing for indefinite retrials, continuing to detain the individual all the while, until the court hands down a verdict favorable to the state;

DISTURBED that the aforementioned resolution allows the arbitrary detention, with no suspicion of wrongdoing, of an individual for up to twenty-four hours in any week, with minimal restrictions and with nothing to prevent repeated arbitrary detention for twenty four hours during every week indefinitely as a form of harassment or extra-legal punishment;

STUNNED that the aforementioned resolution does absolutely nothing to prohibit the continued detention, possibly indefinitely, of an individual after an acquittal;

FLABBERGASTED that the aforementioned resolution does absolutely nothing to prohibit the continued detention, possibly indefinitely, of an individual after his or her criminal sentence has been completed;

NOTING WITH CONSTERNATION that the aforementioned resolution does not actually require member states to allow detained individuals to challenge their detention, much less set any standards for such challenges;

DESIROUS of a resolution that effectively grants the right of habeas corpus to every individual under World Assembly jurisdiction, but cognizant that such a resolution cannot be passed until GAR67 is repealed;

hereby REPEAL General Assembly Resolution #67, "Habeas Corpus."

Votes For: 8,419
Votes Against: 2,560

Implemented Tue Feb 28 2012

[WAR184 on NS] [WAR184 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]

Author: 1 SC and 28 GA resolutions
Maintainer: GA Passed Resolutions
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World Assembly Resolution #185

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sat Mar 24, 2012 4:35 pm

Repeal "WA Copyright Charter"
A resolution to repeal previously passed legislation

Category: Repeal
Resolution: #61
Proposed by: Embolalia

Description: WA Resolution #61: WA Copyright Charter (Category: Education and Creativity; Area of Effect: Artistic) shall be struck out and rendered null and void.

Argument: BELIEVING the people have a right to partake in their own culture

UNDERSTANDING that the primary purpose of copyright is to promote the creation of new works;

NOTING that it is very difficult to motivate people who have been dead for a quarter century;

PUZZLED why the World Assembly nonetheless insists upon this as the minimum term for copyright;

CONCERNED that the wording of the resolution forces a system of guilt until proven innocence in the case of fair use, which runs contrary to the legal systems of many member nations;

WHOLEHEARTEDLY BELIEVING that, other than the aforementioned flaws, the resolution is well written and strikes a decent balance between the rights of the people and the promotion of creativity;

HOPING a similar resolution will be promptly passed, with the aforementioned flaws addressed;

The World Assembly hereby repeals Resolution #61, “World Assembly Copyright Charter”.

Votes For: 8,880
Votes Against: 1,851

Implemented Wed Mar 7 2012

[WAR185 on NS] [WAR185 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]

Author: 1 SC and 28 GA resolutions
Maintainer: GA Passed Resolutions
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World Assembly Resolution #186

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sat Mar 24, 2012 4:39 pm

Medical Provisions in Blockade
A resolution to reduce barriers to free trade and commerce.

Category: Free Trade
Strength: Significant
Proposed by: Damanucus

Description: The General Assembly,

UNDERSTANDING that, in the course of international politics and trade, nations may at times place blockades on other nations,

HESITANTLY ACKNOWLEDGING that this unregulated practice may serve as a detriment to those living within an embargoed nation, insofar as member-states may not be able to effectively provide quality healthcare for their citizens.

ASSERTING that sapient life should be considered a higher priority than international politics,

The World Assembly therefore;

DEFINES, for the purposes of this resolution:

  • "Medical supplies" as any item or collection of items that are used in the delivery of medical advice and/or analysis, as well as the maintenance of general health, inclusive of, but not limited to : medications, medicinal clothing, apparel, surgical equipment, medical examination devices, and medical reference;

  • "Professional medical personnel" as any qualified individual (or group thereof) that delivers medical advice, assistance and/or examination as a primary part of their job.
PROHIBITS the blocking of any transport that is conveying medical supplies and/or professional medical personnel; however, any transport that is attempting to convey any product besides the aforementioned is not covered under the provisions of this resolution.

MANDATES that member-nations, on the occasion where medical supplies and/or professional medical personnel are transported alongside other items during a blockade, to arrange the collection and transport into national borders of said medical supplies and/or professional medical personnel, at an agreed point close to, but on their originating side of, the nation's borders.

CHARGES the World Health Authority and national health organizations with the following duties:
a. Assuring the safe transportation of medical supplies and professional medical personnel to and in blockaded member-nations; and
b. Dispensing medical supplies and professional medical personnel transported under these terms among the populace of the blockaded member-nation on a per-needs basis, ensuring that said medical supplies are used for non-military, medical purposes, and said professional medical personnel are not assigned to military positions.

MANDATES that governments of blockaded member-nations do not interfere with transportation and dispensation of medical supplies and professional medical personnel within their borders, unless assisting in the transportation and dispensation under the supervision and direction of the World Health Authority and national health authorities.

Co-authored by Connopolis.

Votes For: 9,583
Votes Against: 1,699

Implemented Mon Mar 12 2012

[WAR186 on NS] [WAR186 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]

Author: 1 SC and 28 GA resolutions
Maintainer: GA Passed Resolutions
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World Assembly Resolution #187 [REPEALED]

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sat Mar 24, 2012 4:43 pm

Double Jeopardy Prohibition [Struck out by Resolution #193]
A resolution to improve worldwide human and civil rights.

Category: Human Rights
Strength: Significant
Proposed by: Quelesh

Description: The World Assembly,

APPALLED by the practice of double jeopardy, or trying an individual more than once for the same alleged offense;

CONVINCED that freedom from this unjust practice is a cornerstone of any fair criminal justice system;

SEEKING to put an end to this injustice;

hereby MANDATES the following, subject to any limitations existing in prior international law:

1. Once an individual has been acquitted of a crime, member states shall not try that individual for the same alleged criminal act again.

2. Member states may vacate an individual's conviction of a crime and grant the individual a new trial for that crime. If the individual is again convicted of the crime, the new sentence shall not be more severe than the old sentence, and any conditions of the old sentence that have been met shall count toward the completion of the new sentence.

3. Member states may choose to not pursue a retrial of an individual whose conviction of a crime has been vacated in accordance with clause 2. In such cases, the individual's criminal sentence for the crime must be immediately terminated;

4. Once an individual has been convicted of a crime, member states shall not try that individual for the same alleged criminal act again without vacating the individual's conviction in accordance with clause 2.

Votes For: 5,947
Votes Against: 5,247


Implemented Fri Mar 16 2012

[WAR187 on NS] [WAR187 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]
Last edited by Omigodtheykilledkenny on Sat Jun 09, 2012 5:24 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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World Assembly Resolution #188

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sat Mar 24, 2012 4:50 pm

Repeal "A Model World Assembly"
A resolution to repeal previously passed legislation

Category: Repeal
Resolution: #165
Proposed by: Mallorea and Riva

Description: WA Resolution #165: A Model World Assembly (Category: Education and Creativity; Area of Effect: Educational) shall be struck out and rendered null and void.

Argument: The World Assembly,

Applauds that this resolution was geared towards the betterment of mankind,

Realizes, however, that no matter the noble intentions, this resolution is neither necessary nor effective,

Recognizes the following flaws in GAR 165:

  • The General Assembly already dictates that nations must teach their students about international and national affairs, meaning students are already taught about the World Assembly as dictated by GAR #80, A Promotion of Basic Education,

  • The resolution does not even effect any mild level of change upon national educational systems as it merely "encourages individual schools in nations to implement (these) in their school," although it may cause significant problems when nations' educational philosophies are based around other methods of learning,

  • The financial costs and logistical considerations involved in introducing and implementing simulated conferences on the local, national, and international level far outweigh the insignificant benefits that could be accorded by the limited merits of this resolution's purpose,

  • The clause which requires the transporting of children to the WAHQ for the purposes of an international conference would be problematic, should GAR#8 World Assembly Headquarters ever be repealed,

  • The clause which "requires member nations to educate people" is so vague that it is unclear as to whether "people" refers to the entire population or to only a select group of individuals; this loophole only technically requires member states educate at least 2 of their people on the subject,
Specifies that the lack of clarity within the resolution's text effectively negates its intended purpose, which was "[T]o improve the world..." - and instead, creates a layer of useless, aimless bureaucracy,

Highlights that the WA has suffered from a distinct lack of common sense on many past occasions; as such, simulation of it may not set a good example for students,

Due to these enumerated reasons,

The World Assembly hereby repeals GAR 165, 'A Model World Assembly'

Co-authored by Mousebumples

Votes For: 8,787
Votes Against: 2,249

Implemented Tue Mar 20 2012

[WAR188 on NS] [WAR188 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]

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World Assembly Resolution #189

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sat May 05, 2012 12:39 pm

Repeal "For the Detained and Convicted"
A resolution to repeal previously passed legislation

Category: Repeal
Resolution: #62
Proposed by: Mousebumples

Description: WA Resolution #62: For the Detained and Convicted (Category: Human Rights; Strength: Significant) shall be struck out and rendered null and void.

Argument: THE WORLD ASSEMBLY:

UNDERSTANDS that all individuals who are accused of a crime should be accorded certain rights and protections under international law;

REALIZES that the current resolution on the subject contains a number of flaws that make it ineffective, at best, and detrimental to WA member nations and their citizens, at worst;

REGRETS that clauses within this resolution’s text allow for the abuse of these rights under the guise of upholding them;

NOTES that Clause 1a proclaims that all who are detained are “considered the accused until proven guilty;” yet the resolution does not make any attempt to ensure that innocence is presumed of all accused until proven otherwise. As such, any accusation, no matter how spurious, may follow individuals throughout the rest of their lives, even if they are never convicted of the crimes in question;

QUESTIONS the details of Clause 1c, as “outside and inside threats” are referenced but not given any further elaboration. Such a lack of clarity may be exploited by nations wishing to evade compliance with this clause's intent;

HIGHLIGHTS an additional shortcoming of the resolution's text, in that WA member states are not required to protect convicts from outside threats as Clause 2d only ensures protection for the convicted “from inside threats”, which fails to protect the convicted from the following:

  • Natural disasters and other potentially hazardous weather conditions, such as extreme temperatures, and

  • Civil unrest that threatens the lives and well-being of convicts;
BELIEVES that misconduct, as detailed in Clause 2g(i), should also have the potential to result in the temporary loss or reduction of exercise time, which is not permitted under the terms of this flawed resolution;

ENCOURAGES the drafting of further proposals on this subject to ensure the protection of all who are accused, charged, and convicted of crimes within WA member nations;

REPEALS GA#62, “For the Detained and Convicted.”

Votes For: 9,756
Votes Against: 1,434

Implemented Thu Apr 5 2012

[WAR189 on NS] [WAR189 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]
Last edited by Omigodtheykilledkenny on Sat May 05, 2012 12:47 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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World Assembly Resolution #190 [REPEALED]

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sat May 05, 2012 12:47 pm

Habeas Corpus Act [Struck out by Resolution #195]
A resolution to improve worldwide human and civil rights.

Category: Human Rights
Strength: Strong
Proposed by: Quelesh

Description: The World Assembly,

ALARMED by the practice of arbitrary or indefinite detention of individuals;

DISTURBED by the continued detention of individuals after being cleared of wrongdoing or after serving their criminal sentences;

RESOLVED to prevent such practices and to grant relief to individuals being unjustly detained;

hereby MANDATES the following, subject to any limitations existing in prior international law:

1. Member states shall not detain any individual, without suspecting that individual of a criminal offense, for more than two hours in any seven-day period. Member states may extend by a maximum of four additional hours the aforementioned two hour time limit if and only if doing so is necessary to protect the public safety or the safety of the individual being detained;

2. Member states shall not detain any individual, solely on the suspicion that the individual has committed a criminal offense, for more than 36 hours without formally charging the individual with the offense. Periods of time in which the authorities responsible for formally charging the individual with a crime are not available to do so may be added to the aforementioned 36 hour time limit, to a maximum of 96 additional hours;

3. Multiple separate detentions on suspicion of the same alleged criminal act shall cumulatively count towards the time limit in clause 2;

4. Member states shall not detain any individual who has been formally charged with a crime, but who has not been convicted of that crime, for any longer than is necessary to provide that individual with a speedy trial in accordance with international law. If the charge is dismissed prior to the conclusion of the trial, member states shall no longer detain the individual on that charge, unless the charge is lawfully refiled;

5. Member states shall not detain any individual for a particular criminal offense after that individual has been acquitted of that criminal offense unless, in accordance with international law, (1) the individual's acquittal has been lawfully vacated and (2) the detention is for the purpose of a lawful retrial on the same charge;

6. Member states shall not detain any individual for a particular criminal offense in excess of the individual's lawful criminal sentence for that offense;

7. Member states must allow all detained individuals to formally challenge the legality of their detention before an impartial adjudicator; should the adjudicator deem the individual's detention to be in violation of either the member state's domestic law or international law, the member state must immediately cure the illegality, including releasing the individual if necessary;

and CLARIFIES that nothing in this resolution shall be interpreted as prohibiting any of the following:

8. Voluntary protective custody, with the fully informed, uncoerced consent of the individual in custody;

9. Involuntary psychiatric commitment of mentally ill patients;

10. The practice of double jeopardy or the ability of this Assembly to legislate on that topic;

11. The detention of prisoners of war in accordance with international law; and

12. Medical quarantines necessary to prevent a pandemic caused by an infectious pathogen.

Votes For: 8,166
Votes Against: 2,714


Implemented Tue Apr 10 2012

[WAR190 on NS] [WAR190 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]
Last edited by Omigodtheykilledkenny on Sat Jun 09, 2012 6:20 pm, edited 3 times in total.

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World Assembly Resolution #191

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sat May 05, 2012 12:55 pm

Repeal "Animal Cruelty Prevention"
A resolution to repeal previously passed legislation

Category: Repeal
Resolution: #145
Proposed by: Sciongrad

Description: WA Resolution #145: Animal Cruelty Prevention (Category: Moral Decency; Strength: Mild) shall be struck out and rendered null and void.

Argument: The World Assembly,

DETERMINING that "Animal Cruelty Prevention" does not address certain complexities, and that it neglects to place safeguards on certain exceptions that it grants:

  • "Animal Cruelty Prevention" considers any "reasonable person" qualified to determine the degree of care appropriate for an animal, rather than relying on expert advice that might be offered by a professional, such as a veterinarian;

  • Anyone is allowed to mistreat an animal, so long as the mistreatment is for religious reasons;

  • The definition of domestic animals can also be applied to humans, thus legalizing the sacrifice of human beings and other sapient creatures;

  • "Wild animals" may be abused or mistreated with impunity;
BELIEVING that these flaws may lead to grave and unintended consequences;

ASSERTING that it is in its best interest to repeal ineffective legislation, such as resolution #145;

Hereby,

REPEALS General Assembly Resolution #145, "Animal Cruelty Prevention."

Co-authored by: Knootoss.

Votes For: 5,780
Votes Against: 5,174

Implemented Wed Apr 18 2012

[WAR191 on NS] [WAR191 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]

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World Assembly Resolution #192

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sat May 05, 2012 1:02 pm

Repeal "Right to Privacy"
A resolution to repeal previously passed legislation

Category: Repeal
Resolution: #58
Proposed by: Weed

Description: WA Resolution #58: Right to Privacy (Category: Human Rights; Strength: Strong) shall be struck out and rendered null and void.

Argument: The General Assembly,

Applauding the intent of General Assembly Resolution #58,

Regretting the resolution fails to account for certain aspects of the privacy issue,

Observing the text defines privacy, and establishes types of privacy, but does not specifically state that a person has a right to privacy, or that the government cannot infringe on all of those types of privacy,

Believing the text should clearly state that 'consent' to infringe on ones privacy can be considered given by seeking to enter a secure location or someone else's property, or by trying to use services like transportation or hospitals,

Realizing the resolution forbids secret espionage programs that monitor citizens or gathers their personal information, but then adds "unless authorized by law" which removes all protection for citizens from such programs,

Noticing the resolution creates no restrictions on when a government can make private information pubic which it finds in the course of an investigation,

Understanding a more effective resolution is needed to fully provide the protection of personal privacy,

Hereby repeals General Assembly Resolution #58 Right to Privacy.

Votes For: 6,354
Votes Against: 4,003

Implemented Sun Apr 22 2012

[WAR192 on NS] [WAR192 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]

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World Assembly Resolution #193

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sat May 05, 2012 1:10 pm

Repeal "Double Jeopardy Prohibition"
A resolution to repeal previously passed legislation

Category: Repeal
Resolution: #187
Proposed by: Mousebumples

Description: WA Resolution #187: Double Jeopardy Prohibition (Category: Human Rights; Strength: Significant) shall be struck out and rendered null and void.

Argument: The World Assembly:

APPLAUDS the aim of GAR #187, Double Jeopardy Prohibition, which was to ban the deplorable practice of Double Jeopardy within WA member states;

REGRETS that the resolution ultimately overstepped its intended purpose and made it much more difficult for WA member states to ensure that those individuals who have committed a crime are appropriately punished;

NOTES that the resolution's text includes the following statement: "1. Once an individual has been acquitted of a crime, member states shall not try that individual for the same alleged criminal act again.";

CLARIFIES that the term "acquitted" in the aforementioned clause is not the same as a final judgment of innocence, which in turn creates a number of legal problems for WA member states;

DETAILS that this restriction outlaws a number of otherwise fair and necessary judicial proceedings such as:

  1. Trial de novo, which is a common civil law occurrence in which a trial is essentially redone,

  2. Concurrent jurisdiction, which may exist on both on the international and national level and may result in local politics playing a role in determining where an individual is tried in order to impact the outcome of the trial,

  3. Prosecution appeal, which may be necessary in the event of any or all of the following:

    a. Learning of judge or jury bias during the original proceedings,

    b. Tampering with evidence, or

    c. Discovering new evidence that may have changed the outcome of the case;
BELIEVES that such an absolute ban is neither wise nor prudent due to the compelling need for WA member states to run their judicial systems in a just and reasonable manner through having access to the previously mentioned appeal proceedings;

REPEALS GAR #187, Double Jeopardy Prohibition.

Co-Authored by: Mallorea and Riva

Votes For: 9,388
Votes Against: 1,755

Implemented: Thu Apr 26 2012

[WAR193 on NS] [WAR193 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]

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World Assembly Resolution #194

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sat May 05, 2012 1:16 pm

Treatment of Inmates
A resolution to improve worldwide human and civil rights.

Category: Human Rights
Strength: Significant
Proposed by: Moronist Decisions

Description: RECOGNIZES that those detained by police and judicial authorities either while awaiting adjudication or investigation, or while serving a penal sentence, may be vulnerable to abuse.

WORRIES that those members of society who have been accused but not yet found guilty may be forced to endure worse treatment than those whose guilt has been determined.

THE WORLD ASSEMBLY:

1. DEFINES:

  1. "detainee" as a person who is in custody while subjected to questioning, criminal proceedings and/or trial, but for whom either (a) a verdict has not yet been determined at a trial, or (b) whose guilt is determined but is awaiting a punishment to be pronounced.

  2. "convict" as a person who is serving a custodial sentence after guilt has been pronounced.
2. STIPULATES that all detainees must be presumed to be innocent until a formal verdict is determined at a trial.

3. REQUIRES all member nations to provide the following, at a minimum, to all detainees and convicts:

  1. Sufficient and appropriate living space.

  2. Regular access to physical activity.

  3. A diet sufficient to sustain life.

  4. Appropriate clothing for extant environmental conditions as deemed necessary for the inmate.

  5. Prevention of abuse, with the proviso that effects that are directly due to the loss of freedom, such as isolation, shall not be considered abuse.

  6. Access to correspondence and visitation with consenting family members and friends from the outside community on a regular, reasonably frequent basis, in a manner consistent with the safety and security of the institution, institutional staff and inmates.
4. PERMITS member nations to temporarily suspend the services detailed in clauses 3b and 3f above for a reasonably short period of time, as punishment for misbehavior after a reasonable judgment is made.

5. MANDATES that member nations shall each establish national standards jointly with the World Assembly Commission on Human Rights for all services listed in clause 3 above, and further requires member nations to meet or exceed such standards.

6. ALLOWS member nations to monitor inmates who are taking advantage of the services listed above in order to maintain institutional security and order, except as otherwise regulated by extant or future international law.

7. OBLIGATES all nations to additionally provide detainees with:

  1. Conditions, privileges, and rights that are no worse than those accorded to convicts who pose a similar risk to institutional safety and security.

  2. Notification of the reason for their detention.

  3. Access to legal documentation relevant to their trial, in a form accessible to the detainee.

  4. The right to prepare for their own defense.
8. OBLIGES member nations to provide oversight of convict and detainee care beyond that exercised by the direct management of the correctional institution

9. GRANTS all detainees and convicts the right to have appeals of conditions of detainment heard by oversight institutions specified in clause 8.

10. FORBIDS member nations from arranging to house their detainees and/or convicts at facilities in outside nations for the purposes of evading compliance with this resolution.

Votes For: 8,271
Votes Against: 3,026

Implemented Mon Apr 30 2012

[WAR194 on NS] [WAR194 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]

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World Assembly Resolution #195

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sat May 05, 2012 1:23 pm

Repeal "Habeas Corpus Act"
A resolution to repeal previously passed legislation

Category: Repeal
Resolution: #190
Proposed by: Mousebumples

Description: WA Resolution #190: Habeas Corpus Act (Category: Human Rights; Strength: Strong) shall be struck out and rendered null and void.

Argument: THE WORLD ASSEMBLY:

APPLAUDS the aim of protecting individuals from unreasonable detainment practices.

REALIZES, however, that the specific time limits listed within the resolution's text may risk the safety and prosperity of WA member nations; for example:

  1. Clause 1 may require WA member nations to criminalize otherwise non-criminal offenses for the purposes of public safety.

    a. Government-provided child protective services would be severely limited to a maximum of 6 hours per 7 day period, due to shortcomings in GAR#19, Child Protection Act, in combination with GAR#190. This limit would apply to, for example, children who are removed from their homes due to suspicions of parental/guardian abuse.

    b. Non-criminal detainment of intoxicated individuals is limited to a maximum of 6 hours per 7 day period. This may not be sufficient to allow individuals to be held for the duration of their intoxication.

    c. Six hours of administrative detainment for illegal immigrants may be insufficient to accurately determine where such individuals originated from prior to their deportation.

  2. There are no exceptions granted for Clauses 1 & 2 with regards to “special circumstances.”

    a. Some suspects may be considered a “flight risk” if they are not detained while sufficient evidence is collected and compiled for the purposes of charging them with a crime. This process may take longer than the maximum time allowed.

    b. Some crimes, such as terrorist attacks or serial killings, may be especially complicated, which would require additional detainment time before charges can be formally filed. Such a circumstance is outlawed.
DETAILS that Clause 6 outlaws any detainment for criminal offenses that are only punishable by a fine, which may require WA member nations to change their penal code to include the possibility of jail time for such offenses.

QUOTES the following line in the resolution’s text, which reads: “CLARIFIES that nothing in this resolution shall be interpreted as prohibiting any of the following,” and

SPECIFIES that the aforementioned phrasing does not in any way exempt the following items from any of the preceding clauses of the resolution. Therefore, “Involuntary psychiatric commitment” and “Medical quarantines” are not prohibited but are limited, such that they are only allowed for up to 6 hours within 7 days in the absence of criminal suspicion. As a result:

  1. Individuals who undergo “involuntary psychiatric commitment” must be treated and released after 6 hours. Most psychiatric treatments take multiple days, if not weeks or months, to be fully effective. This 6 hour limit prevents WA member nations from providing effective treatment to these individuals.

  2. An individual cannot be “medical(ly) quarantine(d)” for more than 6 hours. This negates the quarantining efforts as, even with appropriate treatment, individuals will typically remain contagious after such a short period of time.
NOTES that Clause 12 unintentionally bans all medical quarantines for infections that are not at risk of causing a pandemic but do have the potential to cause widespread harm within a limited geographic area, even though such quarantines may be in the best interests of overall public health.

HOPES that an improved version of the Habeas Corpus protections will be considered by this Assembly.

REPEALS GAR#190, Habeas Corpus Act.

Votes For: 8,944
Votes Against: 1,775

Implemented Fri May 4 2012

[WAR195 on NS] [WAR195 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]

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World Assembly Resolution #196

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sat Jun 09, 2012 5:49 pm

Freedom of Information Act
A resolution to increase democratic freedoms.

Category: Furtherment of Democracy
Strength: Significant
Proposed by: Auralia

Description: Emphasizing the importance of openness, transparency and accountability in government,

Believing that every citizen should have access to the official documents and records of their government, within reason,

The General Assembly,

  1. Mandates that all World Assembly (WA) member nations release any official government documents or records requested by their citizens at minimal or no charge;

  2. Clarifies that WA member nations may fulfill these obligations either on a per-request basis or through the general availability of one or more publications containing this information, or some combination of the two, so long as the information remains easily and readily accessible;

  3. Permits WA member nations and the WA itself to place restrictions on the release of official government documents or records based on reasonable, legitimate and non-arbitrary criteria, such as the protection of privacy or national security interests;

  4. Requests that WA member nations redact information from documents or records restricted under the above clause rather than prevent their distribution to the public;

  5. Requires WA member nations to implement a fair judicial appeals process where their citizens may challenge these restrictions.
Co-authored by: Quadrimmina

Votes For: 6,396
Votes Against: 5,168

Implemented Tue May 8 2012

[WAR196 on NS] [WAR196 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]

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World Assembly Resolution #197

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sat Jun 09, 2012 5:57 pm

Banning Extrajudicial Transfer
A resolution to improve worldwide human and civil rights.

Category: Human Rights
Strength: Significant
Proposed by: Quadrimmina

Description: THIS WORLD ASSEMBLY,

RECOGNIZING the loophole in international law regarding human rights, a loophole which allows for human rights to be violated by member nations by the simple transfer of individuals outside of WA territory.

FURTHER RECOGNIZING the treaties, alliances, and other associations made between WA and non-WA nations that could provide the means and opportunity for such violations to occur.

HEREBY bans in all member nations the willful, knowledgeable transfer of any individual from a member nation to another jurisdiction by an individual, organization, or member state for the purposes of denying or violating any of the political or civil rights that are guaranteed to that individual in the jurisdiction of the member state by law.

URGES member nations to take action to, in a way compatible with national security interests, the interests of the individual(s) involved, applicable law, and practicality, restore those rights that were denied due to the transfer with the consent of the individual in cases in which such a transfer has taken place prior to the enactment of this resolution.

Votes For: 7,810
Votes Against: 3,278

Implemented Sat May 12 2012

[WAR197 on NS] [WAR196 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]

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World Assembly Resolution #198

Postby Imperium Anglorum » Sat Jun 09, 2012 6:03 pm

Preventing Multiple Trials
A resolution to improve worldwide human and civil rights.

Category: Human Rights
Strength: Significant
Proposed by: Moronist Decisions

Description: RECOGNIZING the significant financial and psychological burden that criminal trials cause to innocent defendants.

DEPLORING the practice of trying individuals repeatedly for a single offense without valid justification,

NOTING the potential for governments to use multiple trials as a means of harassing defendants.

SEEKING to create a balance between preventing unjustified multiple trials of individuals while allowing nations to ensure justice through fair retrial,

THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY

  1. DEFINES "retrial", for the purpose of this resolution, as a prosecution-initiated re-trial of a defendant after a final verdict was previously passed on a legal case based on substantially the same alleged actions as the previous verdict.

  2. OUTLAWS retrials except where significant and compelling miscarriages of justice can result from allowing the verdict previously reached to stand, such as when proper legal procedure was not followed in the course of the previous trial.

  3. MANDATES that each member nation shall independently determine, for their nation's legal system:

    a. Specific circumstances, which qualify as significant miscarriages of justice, under which retrials are allowed.

    b. A reasonably low limit on the number of such retrials.

  4. FORBIDS retrials under all circumstances within a given nation except as allowed under clause 3.

  5. REQUIRES defendants to be provided with

    a. Written notification of the decision to seek a retrial and the reasons for doing so; and

    b. the right to appeal, before an impartial judge, the decision to retry the case.

  6. FORBIDS the filing of new criminal complaints on an individual based upon substantially the same facts as a previously concluded trial for the purpose of circumventing restrictions on retrials.

  7. CLARIFIES that nothing in this resolution shall affect a defendant’s right to appeal their conviction or sentence.
Co-Authored by Ossitania

Votes For: 7,757
Votes Against: 3,078

Implemented Sun May 20 2012

[WAR198 on NS] [WAR198 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]

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