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PASSED: Protection of Outer Space Act

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Stash Kroh
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PASSED: Protection of Outer Space Act

Postby Stash Kroh » Tue Aug 11, 2009 8:22 pm

GENERAL ASSEMBLY

Protection of Outer Space Act
A resolution to increase the quality of the world's environment, at the expense of industry.

Author: Stash Kroh | Category: Environment | Strength: All Business


The World Assembly abroad,

ACKNOWLEDGING the importance of maintaining Outer Space as an environment for all nations to explore in the safest manner possible,

UNDERSTANDING that the hazardous accumulation of space debris in recent years is contributed by space-voyaging nations,

CONCERNED that nations may pollute this internationally encompassing environment, as space debris that is uncontrolled will not remain in one area forever and may even gravitate towards celestial bodies or pose a hazard to satellites and astronauts,

DEFINING “Outer Space” as the void which occupies the largely empty areas of the universe outside the atmosphere of any planet, star or other celestial body, where the edge of any celestial body’s atmosphere is understood to be the specific position where a craft would have to travel faster than orbital velocity in order to receive sufficient aerodynamic lift from the atmosphere to support itself.

HEREBY:
1) Prohibits space-voyaging nations from damaging or polluting Outer Space unnecessarily.

2) Further Prohibits any unnatural addition of hazardous debris to a frequented travel route or within dangerous proximity to a celestial body where nations reside.

3) Forbids the intentional atmospheric reentry of any vessel, satellite, or object of non-weaponry purpose, if its reentry presents a substantial and unjustifiable risk to the health of any resident of a nation.

4) Stipulates that all vessels, and residences in Outer Space recycle and reuse waste material to the best of their ability, and dispose of it in a manner that is least likely to cause unnecessary risk.

5) Establishes the Coordination of Space Consortium (C.O.S.C), in order to:
I. Support peaceful scientific research carried out by member states regarding the environmental effects of interstellar travel and Outer Space in general.
II. Safely organize, and coordinate the trajectories and flight paths of space vessels and satellites belonging to nations that are willing to share such vital information.
III. Research and devise new technologies and methodologies to improve waste management systems in Outer Space as well as the longevity of satellites and other space equipment while minimalizng space travel's dependency on disposable space equipment such as rocket stages.

6) Encourages nations to adopt the C.O.S.C’s technological designs or environmental practices if applicable, or otherwise remain outside of Outer Space until their crafts and crew are compliant with its standards.


Draft 4.3, whadda yeh think?
Last edited by Sirocco on Sat Sep 19, 2009 3:06 pm, edited 47 times in total.
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Re: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby Bergnovinaia » Tue Aug 11, 2009 8:23 pm

It's okay I guess if you define outer space as an environment.
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Re: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby Lizardiar » Tue Aug 11, 2009 8:25 pm

What of the already placed colonies? Are they to just let their worst enemy to live with them? Also, pollution of space? Space is limitless, I think we don't have to worry about pollution.
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Re: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby Stash Kroh » Tue Aug 11, 2009 8:54 pm

What of the already placed colonies?


Colonies of Empty Space? They're just nations claiming sectors of vacuumed area whose conceited property claims obstruct travel routes when they should belong to everyone. Yes, it would no longer "belong" to them.

Also it should be noted, Outer Space by this proposal's definition does not apply to celestial bodies like astroiods, planets, stars and such... so if you meant colonies there, this proposal does not effect those.

Are they to just let their worst enemy to live with them?


If their worst enemy, is their worst enemy. Surely the feelings would be mutual?

So, two opposing forces could attack if they both agree to it. They also, have the right to go on their merry way if they like it, or keep as far away as possible from each other.

Or, they could just leave the WA.

Also, pollution of space? Space is limitless, I think we don't have to worry about pollution.


Space Debris has a funny way of making it back to celestial bodies as if something was pulling it there. This "pollution" could be the size of a small moon, so you might want to reconsider what your government worries about falling from the sky!

Also this pollution can be obstructive to travel routes, and a dangerous hazard. No one wants to lose astronauts lives, well, atleast that seems to be the general opinion.
Last edited by Stash Kroh on Tue Aug 11, 2009 8:56 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby King Zhaoxiang of Qin » Tue Aug 11, 2009 9:55 pm

We at King Zhaoxiang of Qin feel that this is very good, but we would offer some changes, just based on our own preferences and insights.

Demands that Outer Space be free from entitlement, lawful jurisdiction or property claims, as it is an environment shared by all, and owned by none.

No lawful jursidiction? Not even the WA's? So the bill is trying to set laws on something, and then removes it's own jurisdiction over the area it's trying to set laws on.

This would be more preferable to us, or something along these lines.

"Demands that Outer Space be free from property claims, as it is an environment shared by all and owned by none.

Notes that all international and nation criminal laws regarding arrest, detainment, extradition, prosecution, trial and punishment should apply in Outer Space as they do in the WA otherwise"

Not in those words, cuz those words don't sound very good, but something to that effect.

And also ...

Encourages nations to adopt the C.O.S.D’s technological designs or environmental practices if applicable, or otherwise remain outside of Outer Space until their crafts and crew are compliant with its standards.

King Zhaoxiang of Qin would prefer a stronger verb. If the point of the bill is to ensure the non-pollution of Outer Space, it doesn't make sense to not have standards that prevent wrecked ships which, in King Zhaoxiang of Qin's opinion, could be a major contributor to space pollution. We would support "requires" or "demands" instead of "encourages".

We would not support the bill without the first change, since it would condemn Outer Space to be a barren, crime-ridden hellhole of anarchy. We might support the bill without the second change.
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Stash Kroh
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Re: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby Stash Kroh » Tue Aug 11, 2009 10:13 pm

Ms. Gliemann nodded,

"Very well, how about this clause instead...?"

Demands that Outer Space be free from entitlement, lawful jurisdiction or property claims by member-states, as it is an environment shared by all, and owned by none.


"and I must say I've have been debating your second point in my own head before I had even written the proposal ! I came to the conclusion that prohibiting nations with potentially environmentally harmful space equipment would be discrimination. In some nations, space travel has been privatized for years. Imagine the "rich" space-travelers or fancy space hotels being able to upgrade their ships and go on their merry way after this legislation is passed, and the poorer space travelers having to hang up their coats as astronauts or space tourists. That's not the kind of economic atmosphere I'd like to encourage with my proposal so I've made it an encourage line, because I also feel having the WA pump lots of money into this to supply poorer space travelers with adequate equipment, would be a good way to waste WA funds and make this resolution a big target for taxpaying repealers!"
Last edited by Stash Kroh on Tue Aug 11, 2009 10:17 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby King Zhaoxiang of Qin » Tue Aug 11, 2009 10:38 pm

Stash Kroh wrote:Ms. Gliemann nodded,

"Very well, how about this clause instead...?"

Demands that Outer Space be free from entitlement, lawful jurisdiction or property claims by member-states, as it is an environment shared by all, and owned by none.

"and I must say I've have been debating your second point in my own head before I had even written the proposal ! I came to the conclusion that prohibiting nations with potentially environmentally harmful space equipment would be discrimination. In some nations, space travel has been privatized for years. Imagine the "rich" space-travelers or fancy space hotels being able to upgrade their ships and go on their merry way after this legislation is passed, and the poorer space travelers having to hang up their coats as astronauts or space tourists. That's not the kind of economic atmosphere I'd like to encourage with my proposal so I've made it an encourage line, because I also feel having the WA pump lots of money into this to supply poorer space travelers with adequate equipment, would be a good way to waste WA funds and make this resolution a big target for taxpaying repealers!"


"Demands that Outer Space be free from entitlement, lawful jurisdiction or property claims by member-states, as it is an environment shared by all, and owned by none."

So then who enforces the law in outer space if the member states dont? The WA?

Is it assumed that GAR's are followed by all member states because one of the default rules is that all WA members have to follow the rules? Is there no need to establish who enforces these resolutions?

We would say to establish an Outer Space Security Council to oversee criminal concerns, but we don't know if that will help or harm the bill because we aren't sure about the rules on that.

As re: the second point, we fully agree, and we retract the suggestion.
Last edited by King Zhaoxiang of Qin on Tue Aug 11, 2009 10:38 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Stash Kroh
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Re: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby Stash Kroh » Tue Aug 11, 2009 10:45 pm

So then who enforces the law in outer space if the member states dont? The WA?

Is it assumed that GAR's are followed by all member states because one of the default rules is that all WA members have to follow the rules? Is there no need to establish who enforces these resolutions?

We would say to establish an Outer Space Security Council to oversee criminal concerns, but we don't know if that will help or harm the bill because we aren't sure about the rules on that.


"I see... hhmm...

I think this will satisfy what I want to accomplish with this proposal,
Demands that Outer Space be free from entitlement, national law or property claims by member-states, as it is an environment shared by all, and owned by none.


As the WA is international law.

I've also added an new clause to 'beef' the proposal's power without touching on any discriminative subjects, as keeping travel paths and atmospheres safe from hazardous space junk is obviously one of the most important issues to deal with."
Last edited by Stash Kroh on Tue Aug 11, 2009 10:46 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby King Zhaoxiang of Qin » Tue Aug 11, 2009 10:56 pm

Stash Kroh wrote:
"I see... hhmm...

I think this will satisfy what I want to accomplish with this proposal,
Demands that Outer Space be free from entitlement, national law or property claims by member-states, as it is an environment shared by all, and owned by none.


As the WA is international law.

I've also added an new clause to 'beef' the proposal's power without touching on any discriminative subjects, as keeping travel paths and atmospheres safe from hazardous space junk is obviously one of the most important issues to deal with."


We think that it is the case that enforcement does not need to be specified. We have been consulting past GAR resolutions and none that we have found specify any enforcement issues. It is a prevailing rule that all member nations must follow the rules, and thus the rules themselves are sufficient.

The mighty Allied States of King Zhaoxiang of Qin support the resolution as it appears in Version 1.7.
Last edited by King Zhaoxiang of Qin on Tue Aug 11, 2009 10:58 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: [Draft] The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby Stash Kroh » Tue Aug 11, 2009 11:00 pm

Thank you for the approval,

I must ask my fellow ambassadors if they feel this clause in particular is neccessary?
Entitles any member nation the right to voyage through Outer Space as they please without persecution or assailment.


Seems to me, it might cause problems down the road for the proposal - in the form of a repeal. As well, it isn't exactly in sync with the rest of the proposal (an environmental one), however I wouldn't mind keeping it because its a good cause and seems to fit in I suppose with the whole 'sharing the place' concept, maybe. I'm iffy on this clause, as you can tell, I like it, but just don't know.... your advice is welcome.

Space Pirating was already covered in a past resolution by the way.
Last edited by Stash Kroh on Tue Aug 11, 2009 11:03 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: [Draft] The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby King Zhaoxiang of Qin » Tue Aug 11, 2009 11:05 pm

Stash Kroh wrote:Thank you for the approval,

I must ask my fellow ambassadors if they feel this clause in particular is neccessary?
Entitles any member nation the right to voyage through Outer Space as they please without persecution or assailment.


Seems to me, it might cause problems down the road for the proposal - in the form of a repeal. As well, it isn't exactly in sync with the rest of the proposal (an environmental one), however I wouldn't mind keeping it because its a good cause and seems to fit in I suppose with the whole 'sharing the place' concept, maybe. I'm iffy on this clause, as you can tell, I like it, but just don't know.... your advice is welcome.

Space Pirating was already covered in a past resolution by the way.


There was a past resolution, but your sentence is in line with the goals of that bill. It's not in contradiction. So it shouldn't be a reason for an appeal.

But is it necessary? Probably not. But it sounds good.

Bottom line, King Zhaoxiang of Qin has no opinion and stands by its approval.
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Re: Draft: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby Bears Armed » Wed Aug 12, 2009 3:45 am

OOC: the suggested "no lawful jurisdiction" clause might be [illegally] incompatible with Resolution #20's clauses encouraging member nations to suppress international piracy in any areas that aren't under any nation's control, and to attack international pirates' bases "wherever those are located"... The nations would have to be using their own 'jurisdiction' (as recognised under that Resolution) as the basis for for such actions, because the rule against the WA having any police/military of its own means that they couldn't be acting as its agents on its behalf & on the basis of any 'jurisdiction' that it might possess there...
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Re: Draft: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby Rutianas » Wed Aug 12, 2009 4:17 am

It's a damned good thing that the Imperial Republic left when we did. What is it with all the 'Free Outer Space' and 'No Weapons in Space' junk? Do people truly not realise that there are space faring nations out there and that they have the right to claim and protect the space surrounding their planets from invasion?

In fact, this is the same tripe that was out there a while back, only in slightly different wording. This is forcing space faring nations to have their borders set for them. Now, why don't I write up a proposal that states that undeveloped land is not subject to any nation's jurisdiction? Why? Because it's an environment to be shared by all. Kind of stupid, isn't it? Well, that's exactly what's going on here.

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Re: Draft: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby Meekinos » Wed Aug 12, 2009 4:38 am

This is in the wisdom of the Prophets of Profit unprofitable. Why restrict the ability of nations to expand if space itself is indeed unlimited? Wouldn't it be better to grant easements in occupied sectors controlled by member nations of the WA? It would create a fairer compromise. Nations that engage in interstellar travel and colonization would not be restricted in their activities while other member nations through virtue of being part of the WA would receive an easement right.
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Re: Draft: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby Rutianas » Wed Aug 12, 2009 4:59 am

Meekinos wrote:This is in the wisdom of the Prophets of Profit unprofitable. Why restrict the ability of nations to expand if space itself is indeed unlimited? Wouldn't it be better to grant easements in occupied sectors controlled by member nations of the WA? It would create a fairer compromise. Nations that engage in interstellar travel and colonization would not be restricted in their activities while other member nations through virtue of being part of the WA would receive an easement right.


Why? If people want to cross our borders, all they have to do is ask. If we're not at war or upset with the nation, we're likely to agree, with some restrictions. If at any point we believe they're carrying something dangerous, we have the right to board them and make sure it's either properly secured, or removed, as the case may be. Why should we give up our rights to do that? Or are you saying that space faring nations just shouldn't have the same rights as land based nations?

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Re: Draft: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby Flibbleites » Wed Aug 12, 2009 8:01 am

Stash Kroh wrote:
GENERAL ASSEMBLY

The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Author: Stash Kroh | Category: Environment | Strength: All Business


The World Assembly abroad,

Acknowledges that Outer Space is an impossible location for some nations to even dream of exploring, let alone colonizing,

Conversely Acknowledges that it is an area frequently used by space-voyaging nations, who in many cases leave behind a hazardous trail of space debris, garbage and remains of warfare,

Utterly disappointed that nations feel they have the right to claim, and pollute this internationally encompassing environment,

Hereby

Defines “Outer Space” as a large void which occupies the rather empty areas of the universe outside the atmosphere of any planet, star or other celestial body.

Further Defines the edge of any celestial body’s atmosphere at the specific position where a craft would have to travel faster than orbital velocity in order to receive sufficient aerodynamic lift from the atmosphere to support itself.

Demands that Outer Space be free from entitlement, national law or property claims, as it is an environment shared by all, and owned by none.

Entitles any member nation the right to voyage through Outer Space as they please without persecution or assailment.

Prohibits space-voyaging nations from damaging or polluting Outer Space unnecessarily, as it is a communal environment.

Further Prohibits travelers from leaving hazardous debris near a frequented travel route or within dangerous proximity to a celestial body where nations reside.

Establishes the Coordination of Space Division (C.O.S.D) to analyze the effects of interstellar travel on Outer Space, and to devise new technologies and methodologies to lower the environment footprint of space traveling if their examination concludes that the current voyaging is having adverse effects on the environment.

Encourages nations to adopt the C.O.S.D’s technological designs or environmental practices if applicable, or otherwise remain outside of Outer Space until their crafts and crew are compliant with its standards.


Draft 1.7, whadda yeh think?

I think I wouldn't trust the WA to coordinate my socks, let alone outer space.

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Re: Draft: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby Meekinos » Wed Aug 12, 2009 8:31 am

Rutianas wrote:
Meekinos wrote:This is in the wisdom of the Prophets of Profit unprofitable. Why restrict the ability of nations to expand if space itself is indeed unlimited? Wouldn't it be better to grant easements in occupied sectors controlled by member nations of the WA? It would create a fairer compromise. Nations that engage in interstellar travel and colonization would not be restricted in their activities while other member nations through virtue of being part of the WA would receive an easement right.


Why? If people want to cross our borders, all they have to do is ask. If we're not at war or upset with the nation, we're likely to agree, with some restrictions. If at any point we believe they're carrying something dangerous, we have the right to board them and make sure it's either properly secured, or removed, as the case may be. Why should we give up our rights to do that? Or are you saying that space faring nations just shouldn't have the same rights as land based nations?

Paula Jenner, Rutianas Ambassador

They should be entitled to full rights. As for the suggestion of an easement, the other could go on the outside border of a sector, allowing for the most direct route that would respect borders. We realise that it may be a concern if there is an easement but looking at the proposal as it is, it is far more extreme than our neutral suggestion of an easement that would allow for the two sides to reach a common ground. Having an easement shouldn't remove sovereign rights to board and search vessels which may be suspected of carrying dangerous goods.
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Re: Draft: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby Veilyonia » Wed Aug 12, 2009 8:44 am

Utterly disappointed that nations feel they have the right to claim, and pollute this internationally encompassing environment,

Demands that Outer Space be free from entitlement, national law or property claims, as it is an environment shared by all, and owned by none.


Any law that prohibits claims in space will greatly reduce the drive to explore territory beyond Earth. Opposed.

The desire to claim strongholds in space is what drives exploration. It arguably drove the space race, the greatest period of extraterrestrial discovery in history. Since that period, the world has focused more on satellite TV and GPS, failing to make any further manned missions to the moon.

In addition, I can only imagine how nations with interstellar claims will respond to this.
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Re: Draft: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby Stash Kroh » Wed Aug 12, 2009 10:09 am

OOC: the suggested "no lawful jurisdiction" clause might be [illegally] incompatible with Resolution #20's clauses encouraging member nations to suppress international piracy in any areas that aren't under any nation's control, and to attack international pirates' bases "wherever those are located"... The nations would have to be using their own 'jurisdiction' (as recognised under that Resolution) as the basis for for such actions, because the rule against the WA having any police/military of its own means that they couldn't be acting as its agents on its behalf & on the basis of any 'jurisdiction' that it might possess there...


OOC: Hhhmm, correct. In the newest draft I use the wording "National Law", as opposed to "International Law". Would that be satisfactory?

It's a damned good thing that the Imperial Republic left when we did. What is it with all the 'Free Outer Space' and 'No Weapons in Space' junk? Do people truly not realise that there are space faring nations out there and that they have the right to claim and protect the space surrounding their planets from invasion?

In fact, this is the same tripe that was out there a while back, only in slightly different wording. This is forcing space faring nations to have their borders set for them. Now, why don't I write up a proposal that states that undeveloped land is not subject to any nation's jurisdiction? Why? Because it's an environment to be shared by all. Kind of stupid, isn't it? Well, that's exactly what's going on here.

IC:
That was something that had not occurred to me, and another reason to strike this clause....
Entitles any member nation the right to voyage through Outer Space as they please without persecution or assailment.


I was thinking earlier that as the proposal grants no one the right to enter outside of the borders of Outer Space as they please, that the atmospheres of celestial bodies were safe from such things. But what about large weaponry sitting outside, or satellites spying on other planets. Alas this might the final straw for that clause.

I shall let the "Harmony of Outer Space" be a good global disarmament, political stability or international security proposal in the future.

That clause has been stricken from the proposal.

I must however wonder why you feel that space debris is not a problem and should be dealt with accordingly, flouting debris can be large enough to wipe whole existences off innocent planets and is extremely hazardous to travel routes.
Last edited by Stash Kroh on Wed Aug 12, 2009 10:12 am, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Draft: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby Bears Armed » Wed Aug 12, 2009 11:57 am

Stash Kroh wrote:
OOC: the suggested "no lawful jurisdiction" clause might be [illegally] incompatible with Resolution #20's clauses encouraging member nations to suppress international piracy in any areas that aren't under any nation's control, and to attack international pirates' bases "wherever those are located"... The nations would have to be using their own 'jurisdiction' (as recognised under that Resolution) as the basis for for such actions, because the rule against the WA having any police/military of its own means that they couldn't be acting as its agents on its behalf & on the basis of any 'jurisdiction' that it might possess there...


OOC: Hhhmm, correct. In the newest draft I use the wording "National Law", as opposed to "International Law". Would that be satisfactory?

OOC: Not that I particularly support this concept anyway, but I think that "no lawful jurisdiction, except as might be specified within other WA resolutions" might be the best approach to this aspect of it.
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Re: Draft: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby Stash Kroh » Wed Aug 12, 2009 12:07 pm

I've changed the clause to say...

Demands that Outer Space be free from entitlement, property claims or lawful jurisdiction as it is an environment shared by all, and owned by none. Exceptions regarding jurisdiction may be specified within other WA resolutions.


I've also (hopefully) have clarified problems stated earlier with a new edition to the text,
Clarifies that an unnatural, or constructed structure is not by definition "Outer Space", and therefore spacecrafts and other structures occupying the void of Outer Space can be claimed by national law, or as property.
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Re: Draft: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby Charlotte Ryberg » Wed Aug 12, 2009 1:15 pm

A consortium rather than a division, where member states may join in, would be a good idea. The Space Consortium should seek to further the world's knowledge of outer space and support the peaceful scientific research carried out by member states.

Simple committee names can be attractive but keep being creative, honoured ambassador.
Last edited by Charlotte Ryberg on Wed Aug 12, 2009 1:15 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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Stash Kroh
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Founded: Jun 25, 2008
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Re: Draft: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby Stash Kroh » Wed Aug 12, 2009 1:51 pm

I like the idea of a consortium, ambassador, would this suffice?

Version 2.1 wrote:Establishes the Coordination of Space Consortium (C.O.S.C) between interested member nations to analyze the effects of interstellar travel on Outer Space, and to devise new technologies and methodologies to lower the environment footprint of space traveling if their examination concludes that the current voyaging is having adverse effects on the environment.

Encourages nations to adopt the C.O.S.C’s technological designs or environmental practices if applicable, or otherwise remain outside of Outer Space until their crafts and crew are compliant with its standards.


Or would you prefer a full redraft of those clauses to include more about the exploration of Outer Space. (I'm leaning towards that, I just don't have a foggy clue where to start)

Things that could be beneficial include research for finding alternative travel routes for safety and pragmatism;
And methods to clean, and dispose of the existing space debris.
Ambassador Adelinda Gliemann
The Clockwork Forge of Stash Kroh
WA Security Council Liaison

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Charlotte Ryberg
The Muse of the Westcountry
 
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Founded: Mar 14, 2007
Civil Rights Lovefest

Re: Draft: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby Charlotte Ryberg » Wed Aug 12, 2009 1:58 pm

Exploration of outer space is really valuable to education and science. Member states won't really know the facts until they've seen it, honoured ambassador.

Oh, and don't forget the furtherment of technology as a result of space research, too.
Last edited by Charlotte Ryberg on Wed Aug 12, 2009 2:00 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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Stash Kroh
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Founded: Jun 25, 2008
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Re: Draft: The Coordination of Outer Space Act

Postby Stash Kroh » Wed Aug 12, 2009 2:02 pm

Okay I'm considering adding something like this...

Establishes the Coordination of Space Consortium (C.O.S.C) between interested member nations,

I. To support peaceful scientific research carried out by member states regarding Outer Space,
II. To analyze the effects of interstellar travel on Outer Space,
III. To locate alternative travel routes for safety and pragmatism,
IV. To develop and conduct methods to clean, and dispose of any existing space debris deemed hazardous,
And V. To devise new technologies and methodologies to lower the environment footprint of space traveling if their examinations conclude that the current voyaging is having adverse effects on the environment.


But I fear this will put me over the Word Count.
Ambassador Adelinda Gliemann
The Clockwork Forge of Stash Kroh
WA Security Council Liaison

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