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GD International Military Academy <closed> Attn: GD

Where nations come together and discuss matters of varying degrees of importance. [In character]
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Lamoni
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GD International Military Academy <closed> Attn: GD

Postby Lamoni » Thu Jun 02, 2016 7:02 am

Greater Dienstad International Military Academy

Established since 1850



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INTRODUCTION


Welcome to the Greater Dienstad International Military Academy! Inside these hallowed halls, students from all over Greater Dienstad take up defense studies and military science in an integrated curriculum intended to produce the thinkers and doers of tomorrow. Established in 1850, the GDIMA was originally established to provide for both a common standard of military education and training, as well as allowing officers and officer cadets from different nations in Greater Dienstad the chance to mix and meet with officers and officer cadets from other nations in the region, establishing strong ties between nations that might not otherwise have been formed.

GDIMA is divided into three institutes, said division allowing GDIMA to better serve the interests and needs of all who study and do research inside its halls. The First Institute is dedicated to turning officer cadets from all over Greater Dienstad into officers who can be immediately commissioned into their parent armed forces. The First Institute offers a four-year training program, with those who complete the training receiving a Bachelors Degree, as well as a commission into the service branch of their choice in their nation.

The Second Institute is dedicated to providing relevant training courses to those officers who have already been commissioned into the armed forces of their nation, including those officers at the highest levels in their parent armed forces. Further studies in advanced military science, as well as international relations are offered in order to produce well-rounded, thinking officers who are better equipped to perform their duties in an increasingly challenging international world.

The Third Institute is dedicated to Research and Development into the fields of Military Science, and International Relations. Researchers, Instructors, and Military and Political Leaders from all over Greater Dienstad are offered the chance to work together, in order to better prepare the region for military conflict through increased contact with their peers from all over the region, as well as the identification of shared objectives and research.

In order to promote active and accurate communication between the students, faculty, staff, researchers, and other officials of the GDIMA, the language of instruction for GDIMA is English. All students, faculty, staff, researchers, and other officials of the GDIMA who do not already speak the language at a proficient level will be offered classes in the English language, at no cost, allowing a common and clear line of communication to form all-over the academy.

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Officer Cadets in parade uniform while studying at the academy.

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Mission and Vision statement


It is the Out of Character (OOC) mission and vision of the Greater Dienstad International Military Academy:

1.) To empower all nations both within and without the region of Greater Dienstad, based on both RL and NS military experience, history, doctrine, and other factors in order to educate said nations with the knowledge required to RP a proper combined arms military force.

2.) To provide a platform upon which military-related discussions on multiple subjects can be held, allowing all involved to maintain, build, and distribute relevant military skills and knowledge.

3.) To help create, improve, and promote a high-quality RP environment throughout the NS forums.


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Members of an Officer Cadet marching band practicing their skills.

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Rules and Regulations


1.) This thread is for GD and invited others only. The purpose of this thread is to help educate RPers on military matters. Spammers, trolls, and other disruptions make it more difficult for us to fulfill this purpose.

2.) As always, standard NS rules apply.

3.) This thread is both an IC roleplay, and an OOC roleplaying community platform.

4.) The materials produced for this thread are the intellectual property of those who created them. We would highly appreciate it if permission is obtained from the author of the materials which you wish to use before you publish them in whole or in part, outside of the GDIMA thread itself. Plagiarism is a serious matter, and appropriate actions will be taken, if such a case occurs. Otherwise, please feel free to read and learn from the materials published here.

Questions and Answers


1.) I am here now. How can I participate?

Just by reading the knowledge contained within the thread and learning from it, you are already participating. Greater Dienstad members who have knowledge on particular subjects that have not yet been covered are welcome to write lectures on these subjects, though contributions from those outside the region may be allowed as time goes on, at the discretion of the region.

2.) Is this an IC or OOC?

This part of the GDIMA is considered OOC, though lectures can be written in either an IC or OOC manner, or even both. An IC component of the academy might open in the future, if there is sufficient demand.

3.) How does the academy function?

For the moment, the academy is a repository for open lectures/seminars, where GD members with knowledge in relevant fields can contribute materials on these subjects. If there is sufficient interest for an IC component to the GDIMA in the future, then an RP of the Officer Cadet Training Program can be run. We will attempt to keep the structure of the thread adaptable, in order to more effectively serve needs and interests, both now and in the future.

4.) I'm not in GD, can I participate?

While there might be more options for non-GD members in the future, for now non-GDers should feel free to read and learn from the open lectures/seminars in this thread, as they are open to all RPers on the Nationstates website. If you have questions, or want to join-in on a discussion, please feel free to TG the person running the open lecture/seminar in question, and they will answer your question(s) as best they can.

5.) Is this a roleplay version of the NS Military Realism Consultation Thread?

Thank you for noticing the similarities between the two! Like the Mil Realism thread, the purpose of the GDIMA is to disseminate accurate information which will help others to learn more about how military forces operate, as well as improving the quality of military roleplaying on NS. Greater Dienstad has always been committed to helping others to improve their roleplaying capabilities, and this extends to the military sphere as well.

6.) I have a suggestion. Whom should I contact?

Feel free to pass any questions or suggestions that you might have to nations in Greater Dienstad, particularly those who are involved in this thread.

7.) Where did you guys get all of your information from?

There are quite a few avid readers on multiple military and related subjects in GD. Thus most of our knowledge comes from places like libraries, the internet, various official publications, schooling, and other reputable sources. Some GD members have active or reserve military experience, which also contributes to our collective pool of knowledge.

Guidelines for Contributing Members


1.) Good academic writing, with good spelling and grammar, while still being clear for those with little to no knowledge of the subject matter at hand.

2.) Please proofread, revise, and make any needed edits before final publication.

3.) Further expansion, edition, rewrite or review shall be conducted to all existing course materials over time, in order to ensure an enduring high level of quality.
Last edited by Lamoni on Thu Jun 02, 2016 11:06 pm, edited 1 time in total.
National Anthem
Resides in Greater Dienstad. (Former) Mayor of Equilism.
I'm a Senior N&I RP Mentor. Questions? TG me!
Licana on the M-21A2 MBT: "Well, it is one of the most badass tanks on NS."


Vortiaganica: Lamoni I understand fully, of course. The two (Lamoni & Lyras) are more inseparable than the Clinton family and politics.


Triplebaconation: Lamoni commands a quiet respect that carries its own authority. He is the Mandela of NS.

Part of the Meow family in Gameplay, and a GORRAM GAME MOD!

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Lamoni
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Postby Lamoni » Fri Jun 03, 2016 2:17 am

Ground Forces


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Macabeean Nakil 1A3, historically one of the most used tanks on NS.

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Ground Forces Topics


<tbd>





Aerospace


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Lyran LY909 Sparrowhawk light multi-role fighter aircraft.

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Aerospace Topics


<tbd>





Naval


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Lamonian Lamia-class DDGN.

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Naval Topics


<tbd>





History and Theory


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WWII era USMC recruitment poster.

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History and Theory Topics


<tbd>





Joint Ops (if it doesn't fit elsewhere, it is here)


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Rosie the Riveter, used as propaganda to drive up production on the American homefront in WWII.

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Joint Ops Topics


1.) Roleplaying Violent non - state actors:; Terrorism, Warlords, Assymetric warfare? by New Aeyariss
2.) Military Radio Voice Procedures by Lamoni
Last edited by Lamoni on Wed Jun 15, 2016 5:12 am, edited 6 times in total.
National Anthem
Resides in Greater Dienstad. (Former) Mayor of Equilism.
I'm a Senior N&I RP Mentor. Questions? TG me!
Licana on the M-21A2 MBT: "Well, it is one of the most badass tanks on NS."


Vortiaganica: Lamoni I understand fully, of course. The two (Lamoni & Lyras) are more inseparable than the Clinton family and politics.


Triplebaconation: Lamoni commands a quiet respect that carries its own authority. He is the Mandela of NS.

Part of the Meow family in Gameplay, and a GORRAM GAME MOD!

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Lamoni
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Posts: 8184
Founded: Antiquity
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Postby Lamoni » Fri Jun 03, 2016 2:35 am

Roleplaying Violent non - state actors:; Terrorism, Warlords, Assymetric warfare?
By: New Aeyariss
Dec 16, 2015

Welcome, NS world Fair! At first, before I begin my lecture, let me thank several people whom I owe thanks to. Let me thank, at first, to Lamoni, who asked me to do this lecture in here. Then, let me thank the Macabees, an amazing RPing mentor who proven to be both awesome friend and high quality writer. Then, let me thank guys from Santiago Anti - Communist Treaty Organization, my alliance on II: Especially Riysa, Ayeariss, Common Territories or Dewhurst Narcuilis, and many more who made this site so unique. Let me also thank Christ for giving me strength to write it and all knowledge I have.

Many people, for a long time, were asking me to write a guide about role playing so called violent non - state actors - because that is how, so called "terrorists", guerillas and many other paramilitary formations are called in professional language. Few people actually took liberty to research into those groups and see how they differ among each other. In lecture below, I will be portraying basic knowledge about how such groups should be role played.

Please pay in mind, every detail portrayed in here is common knowledge; and nothing in here will say "how to make bomb and blow up your neighbor school."


Many people on NS tried to RP asymmetric warfare, but failed, now knowing laws it judges itself. However we name it - with names ranging from insurgency to asymmetric or hybrid warfare - it is a valid phenomena that on large scale appeared in mid - XX century. Certainly, it changed one of basic laws of statesmanship - that after peace of Westphalia, the state claimed monopoly of violence, because wars became too costly for mercenaries to wage on their own, and profit was not proportional. After The 30 Years war, a new type of professional soldier emerged; with clearly defined military culture and drill required to maneuvering in lines and columns when the fire from muskets rained on them. This type of soldiers was costly, thus the commanders usually kept them with big distances between each soldier, to prevent the enemy from simply killing men that were worth a lot by one salvo. Battles became exchanges of salvos, with occasional bayonet charge. This type of warfare persisted upon French Revolution, where the Jacobins introduced concept of "mass mobilization" and begun to destroy the professional armies by using early version of human wave attack, using holes between soldiers and the fact that firearms at that time took several seconds to recharge to rip the arrays by entering inside the holes. "Mass army" model became common after Napoleonic wars, and wars remained primary exchanges of fire, with rule "whoever has bigger guns, wins."

This type of fighting was prevalent even in World War I, when it became apparent, that old style infantry charges are obsolete because firepower of that time guns, introduction of MGs and other lethal weaponry made human mass unable to get to the enemy's close range without being mowed down in process. The war became series of "sitting fights" which stalled, because no side had chance to break through firepower means of the enemy. I won't go further in that, but the further we went, the bigger the guns grew. They turned from simple horse pulled, front loaded cannons, into massive anti bunker mortars of WW I, Railway Canons of WWII, and later into modern Precision Guided Munitions (PGM), tactical ballistic missiles, multiple rocket launchers and various other designs that could saturate entire kilometers within seconds. Not without impact is also appearance of air power, capable of destroying the enemy from above and limiting hiding capability.

Not to however speak more, the phenomena appeared in XX century as counter for the "big guns" that enemies utilized. There were many schools, but I will attempt to explain it briefly, in detail.

Why Guerilla wars happen?

Guerilla warfare is as social phenomena as political or military one; one that is always dictated by the fact that certain social group, be it workers, muslims, communists, nazis, tailors (there was such situation, though not in modern era) etc. are willing to use violence to achieve political goals. Their goal has to be supported by at as many people as possible. Pay in mind: In every conflict, 80% of people will sit idly and do nothing, because they won't be able to fight. Roughly 18%-19% will engage themselves in various kinds of support activity - sheltering the guerrillas, providing them with needed materials, etc. Only less than 1%-2% will actively resist with gun in hand, and very often it is less than 1%. At one point, total membership of IRA's armed wing were just 300 terrorists, and roughly 10 000 men went through IRA's ranks between 1968 and 1998 (out of 2 million country). The numbers will, however, vary depending on popularity and control over the area.

Very often irregulars have some political backing - for example Sin Fein and IRA. The population itself can also be inclined to riot, which is actually common tactic.

Where Guerillas operate?

First question that many NS RPers RPing guerrilla operations fail to get, is where guerrilla wars happen. No, I do not mean third world here - because cause of that are often social problems in that areas. However the point is, for guerrillas to operate there needs to be sufficient terrain to operate in - hardly accessible areas, such as mountains, dense forests, etc. Ironically, guerilla groups that are in terrain not possessing those characteristics moved into urban areas - the cities. This was for example insurgency of Irish Republican Army (IRA) in northern Ireland, or modern Iraqi insurgency before 2014 ISIL war. Point was, guerillas exist where terrain allows them to operate without being detected and destroyed by enemy's supporting arms. Going with guerillas into open desert is a way to get them killed instantly.

How guerillas supply themselves?

We all heard stories about drug trading Colombian partisans from either FARC or AUC. Why are they trading drugs? Frankly, because they had to. UVF had to spend several millions to sustain one day of combat activities. In such case, asymmetric combatants need money, which never grows on trees and has to be earned. How? Tactics vary. In Malaya, local communists introduced revolutionary tax, but this begun turning population against them, thus other methods had to be applied. In Northern Ireland, local paramilitaries went to rob banks instead, while in Colombia paramilitaries engaged in drug trade. The "criminal - paramilitary oneness" happens often in order to secure funds for Guerilla campaign. Another tactic includes operating proxy companies, or printing money illegally (employed by Al - Queda).

Money is just, however one thing guerillas need. Full formula is MMWAE, which means:

Money: To get remaining items.

Mechanization: tanks, or other conventional vehicles, are useless in guerrilla warfare because they are too easy to detect. Vehicles should be civilian - in modern day, due to heavy traffic even in third world nobody cares about another car, motorcycle, pickup or lorry. Colombian cartels effectively employed two man crewed motorcycle crews, which combined with huge firepower of Ingram MC10 allowed the cartel hitmen to successfully eliminate the target, then vanish among the slums.

Weapons: Weapons category is limited by transportability. Guerrillas operating in city will always rely on short, easy to transport arms - AKS-74U, various SMGs such as Uzi or Ingram MC10, many forms of pistols, etc. are preferred by asymmetric combatants in Urban areas due to being able to be easily concealed. This does not forbid, however, from using heavier weaponry as long as it is transportable. Rural based guerrillas will use more conventional armaments, found often in gear of armies they fight.

Ammunition: Weapons don't shoot alone. Guerrilla logistics have several limitations. Not everything will be obtained by smuggling - very often guerillas resupply on their enemies, using enemy's weapons. What is ironic, homemade weapons are often as efficient as officially made one: such as homemade by Polish mafia SMG or IRA barrack buster mortar.

Explosives: Those are a bit harder to obtain, but easily home made by the guerrillas.

I have to also note that barriers between terrorist, guerilla and criminal are very loose, and terrorists differ from criminals only that they fight for some ideology. Narco-insurgencies are popular problems in Latin America, and according to common definition, guerilla can be only separated from terrorist when first one respects international law while carrying his attacks (t.m. attacks purely military targets). The definition is very mobile and very often "terrorists" are used as propaganda term.

How guerillas fight?

I have to say it here, not like conventional armies.

There is no element of defense in guerrilla operations because forces aren't proportional. If guerrillas attempt to defend themselves, they are going to be finished quickly. Therefore, only chance for defense is escape.

Assymetric combatants profit on the fact that they are unknown, and disappear among the crowds of the people. That is why they often wear masks - to prevent the security services from identifying them.

Continuing, major value for guerilla operations is surprise. No irregular will attack if he does not has clear surprise ready for his enemy. Whole point is to shoot using the fact that the enemy is confused, then leave before he gets to himself and can mount up effective resistance.

This of course creates type of organization unknown for conventional forces: we have so called "solid core" group with created structure modeled after the military and with centralized command directly giving orders, and "soft core" groups that operate with decentralized command formulating strategy and local elements operating independently on local level. Advantage of "soft core" system is that it decreases chances of being caught, but creates problems with coordinating operations. A good example of solid core structure are structured are the Italian red Brigades, which were divided into "fronts": "Mass Work" (Propaganda), "Logistical" and "Military". Soft Core structures were utilized by Al Queda, and Neo Nazi groups in US, which even adapted idea of "leaderless resistance" bound only by common ideology.

Important aspect of this type of operation are psychological and political actions; Guerillas ALWAYS fight for some idea. A good example would be how groups of hippies, capitalizing on damage VietCong managed to inflict on US forces, managed to put US military out of VietNam. Al Queda, by attacking WTC, attempted to cause a "global war between Islam and Infidels", which, however, failed. Therefore, if a target is struck, it has to be important enough for people to start speaking about it.

Conclusion:

Guerilla wars offer good alternative for huge war RPs. Urban insurgencies, due to their limited scale, allow for better description of characters and individual action. When RPing them, one has to pay attention to details in small units more importantly than in huge war RPs. Additionally, RPers should remember that besides the "armed conflict" there will be also "political conflict" with irregulars attempting to influence policies of said nation's government or even seize power. Such conflicts are complex and require good, mature RPers, but when RPed properly give amazing results.

WarriorSaint, known also as New Aeyariss or El Cuscatlan is long time denizen of II and member of Greater Dienstad region and Santiago Anti - Communist Treaty Organisation alliance. In real life he leads Paramilitary in Poland and is involved in topics of national security; his aim is to provide high - class military roleplaying and promote defense knowledge in fun and interesting way.
Last edited by Lamoni on Fri Jun 03, 2016 2:39 am, edited 2 times in total.
National Anthem
Resides in Greater Dienstad. (Former) Mayor of Equilism.
I'm a Senior N&I RP Mentor. Questions? TG me!
Licana on the M-21A2 MBT: "Well, it is one of the most badass tanks on NS."


Vortiaganica: Lamoni I understand fully, of course. The two (Lamoni & Lyras) are more inseparable than the Clinton family and politics.


Triplebaconation: Lamoni commands a quiet respect that carries its own authority. He is the Mandela of NS.

Part of the Meow family in Gameplay, and a GORRAM GAME MOD!

User avatar
Lamoni
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Posts: 8184
Founded: Antiquity
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby Lamoni » Tue Jun 07, 2016 5:17 am

Military Radio Voice Procedures
By: Lamoni
June 7, 2016

One of the key principles in military radio work is the concept of COMSEC, or Communications Security. You must assume that the enemy is listening to everything that is sent, that they will attempt to insert false traffic, or simply jam you, by continuous use of a frequency. All military voice communications via radio follow a set format, used to achieve speed and clarity of meaning when using voice radio communications systems in the battlefield. They also use a range of "set" words and phrases. These are known as "Prowords" which is the abbreviation of the phrase "Procedural Words."

One security method includes making it difficult to distinguish one station from another, by using set voice procedures. This helps to make everyone sound much the same, as well as with keeping messages short. This helps to speed and classify communications, while still making it difficult for the enemy, especially irregular ones, not used to this kind of radio work.

Each radio will have a short string of letters and numbers. This is known as a CALL SIGN, and it identifies the station, not the operator. The United States Army uses fixed station call signs which begin with W, such as WAR, used by U.S. Army Headquarters. Tactical call signs (which change at regular intervals) are often assigned to a company sized unit or higher. For example, the collective "Checkmate" might be assigned to an entire company and thus "Checkmate 1 Actual" would be the first platoon leader, "Checkmate 2 Actual" to the second platoon leader, etc. "Checkmate Actual" is the Company Commander and "Checkmate" is the captain's radio-telephone operator (or other designee, such as the XO).

This system can be extended to squad or fireteam level by adding another number, for example the squad leader of the second squad of the third platoon in Checkmate company would have the call sign "Checkmate 32," (pronounced "three-two"). Additionally, only the squad leader proper will answer to the call sign "Checkmate 32 Actual", whereas the squad leader's radio-telephone operator (or other designee) will answer to the call sign "Checkmate 32" (without the "Actual") as a matter of routine. Also, companies often have the letter they are designated by ('A', 'B', 'C' or 'D') be the first letter of their call sign. This means a 'C' Company could potentially have 'Checkmate' as its call sign. Do not use sir, ma'am, personal names, or use profanity on air as the enemy WILL be listening, and collecting intelligence.

A special note about enunciation:

* When speaking on a radio network, especially in combat, it is very easy to shout, gabble, and for the pitch of the voice to rise. All of these things will mean that your messages will not be understood. It is vital that you speak slowly, clearly, and never use contractions like "isn't", "I'll" or "they're". Contractions can be very easily lost or misunderstood. Put on your best "posh" speaking voice, it will save your life!

* Be aware that the numbers 3, 4, 5 and 9 are especially susceptible to readability issues. For example "five" can be confused for the word "fire". Therefore with the exception of 9, each is provided with an alternate expression for when reception is poor. Thus you also get "TREE", "FOWER" and "FIFE". Nine is always expressed as "NINER". Finally, never use "Oh" for the number 0, always use "ZERO".

* It is common for the word "shoot" to be substituted for the word "fire", leaving the latter for uses like "..MY VEHICLE IS ON FIRE, OUT!" This is especially true amongst former sea-going Marines or Naval personnel, because shouting "fire" while on board ship, may not quite get the expected result. However for ground forces, compounds like "open fire" and "cease fire" or "check your fire" are sufficiently distinct, not to require replacement. If faced with a conflagration, you should cry "Fire!, Fire!, Fire!", that should get you the correct result.

CAROT and CRAPSHOOT

The following two mnemonics CAROT and CRAPSHOOT are useful tips to good radio procedure, and it is recommended that your characters use them in the field as a personal aide memoir:

C.A.R.O.T.

* Concise: keep it short.
* Accuracy: be sure to pass all the information correctly.
* Relevancy: pass only the information required by the person to whom you are talking, do not pad out the message with unnecessary data.
* Objective: keep in mind what the intention or purpose of the message is, when you compose it.
* Timely: pass the message when it is needed.

C.R.A.P.S.H.O.O.T.

To send a message, use the following routine:

* COMPOSE your message in your head or if necessary write it down, and if time permits, rehearse it.
* RELAX, take a deep breath, listen to the channel, so you're not in a panic, nor are you trying to talk over someone else who is already on air; especially necessary when you, or they, are under fire.
* ACTIVATE the Push To Talk Button (PTT) on your radio, carefully and positively.
* PAUSE for one second before you talk. A common fault with excited or new operators is to talk as they begin to push the PTT button, which results in the first few words of your message being chopped off and not transmitted, requiring the other station to request that you repeat it.
* SPEAK slowly, clearly, with pauses and do not shout, so you can be easily understood. Remember NO contractions.
* "HAIL": hail the station or stations you want, by either using their CALL SIGNS twice, or alternatively use the Proword "HELLO", followed with a singular CALL SIGN. Then identify yourself with the Prowords "THIS IS" and your CALL SIGN. The double CALL SIGN or "HELLO" and CALL SIGN combination, functions as a sort of "bing-bong" pay attention people signal. This is an essential tool in the battlefield, where Marines (or other soldiers) attentions are often elsewhere and not on their radios. Modern practice is no longer to use the Proword "HELLO", but to give the called stations CALL SIGN twice, as not only does it perform the job of "bing-bong", it also doubles your chance that the correct station will hear it and respond quickly to your call.
* OVER: send the content of your message, using the Proword "OVER" at the end of each transmission. OVER means that you expect or need a reply, it is sometimes defined as a "receipt" or as an "invitation" to transmit.
* OUT: use "OUT" to formally end the communications session. OUT means "I have finished talking to you, no response is required, expected or desired". Therefore never use the classic error "over and out" as a combined Proword, its a contradiction in terms, meaning "I want you to talk to me and shut up!"
* TRAFFIC: having finished, keep listening for more incoming traffic, or move on to your next batch of traffic.

PROWORDS

These are the current NATO Prowords, as set out in the unclassified Allied Communications Publications PDF document ACP125F. Unlike ACP125F, the following tables come with expanded explanations, to make it easier to understand and memorize. Note that this list does not include those Prowords used with automated network control operations. It does include a small number of additional and commonly used, but obsolete Prowords like "HELLO," which is still used by British forces personnel.

They are set out below in four tables, each in alphabetical order, Table 1 contains the absolutely essential Prowords, Table 2 has the remaining General Purpose Prowords which you will need eventually. Table 3 covers those used in Fire Control orders, and Table 4 is concerned with sending and receiving written messages.

Finally, any words in brackets with a Proword are ones that are either optional, or their use is implicit.




Table 1: Essential Prowords


X ACTUAL / X SIX

Two terms used to designate when the sender wishes to converse directly with the unit commander (be it platoon, company, etc etc), where the X stands for the CALL SIGN of the unit in question. "SIX" is used in the US Military, while "ACTUAL" has been used in the Australian Military (though it is unknown at present if they still do this today).

AFFIRMATIVE

Used in place of the word yes, as it can be lost in transmission. See also "CORRECT", "NEGATIVE","ROGER" and "WRONG". For example:
"AFFIRMATIVE, OVER"
NB: the to and from CALL SIGNS have been omitted, because this is a mid conversation transmission wherein both parties know who's who.

ALL STATIONS

Used in place of an individual CALL SIGN when the signal is intended for every station on the network. For example:
"ALL STATIONS, ALL STATIONS, THIS IS FOXTROT SIX, I HAVE CONTROL, I SAY AGAIN, I HAVE CONTROL, STAND BY, OUT"

ANY STATION

Used in place of an individual CALL SIGN when the signal is intended to gain a response from any other random station on the network. For example when requesting a RADIO CHECK, as in: "HELLO, ANY STATION, THIS IS GOLF ONE, RADIO CHECK, OVER"

BREAK, BREAK, BREAK!

Using this PROWORD three times means that you have IMMEDIATE emergency radio traffic, and must break into any conversation currently ongoing on the radio net.

CALL SIGN

This Proword indicates that the following text is a CALL SIGN, that is the subject of the message, and that the station itself is not actually being called. For example:
"KILO THREE, KILO THREE, THIS IS KILO SIX, ADVISE CALL SIGN KILO TWO, THAT THEIR RADIO IS JAMMING CHANNEL EIGHT THREE SIX, OVER"

CHANNEL NUMBER

A reference to a standard channel (Public Mobile Radio frequency and privacy code combination), given as a two or three digit number, as in:
"HELLO, ALL STATIONS, GO TO CHANNEL THREE SEVEN, OUT"

CONTACT

Used to declare "contact" with an enemy. At this point all non-related traffic MUST stop to give priority to messages related to this engagement. Often repeated two or three times, replacing the more normal "HELLO", "ALL STATIONS" Prowords. If able you must provide useful intelligence, otherwise your message simply acts as a warning to other stations. Once the initial warning has been issued, either a FIRE CONTROL ORDER, a CONTACT REPORT or a SITREP should be given.

Here is a typical FIRE CONTROL ORDER:

"CONTACT, CONTACT, CONTACT, (THIS IS HOTEL TWO ONE), SIX O'CLOCK, TWO FIVE METRES, RIGHT SIDE OF BUILDING, SEVEN TANGOS APPROACHING FAST, ALL WEAPONS, OPEN FIRE, OUT."

Note the order in which the information is sent. It is done like this just in case the communications are cut off, giving the receiving stations their best chance of responding effectively.

* First the network gets a warning of the presence of the enemy.
* If time permits, next should come the stations CALL SIGN, so the unit knows who sent the message. Remember the enemy may try to deceive you.
* Then a direction in relation to the axis of march or observation, which is always 12 o'clock. Now the unit knows which way to look, in this case, behind them! This is always done first, as it significantly reduces the possible locations for the enemy, especially at short range, where time is critical.
* This is followed by a range estimation in meters, so the unit knows how far out the enemy is, here its twenty five meters.
* Then a brief description of where, what, how many, and their activity, so now the unit knows what to look for.
* Next is the order identifying which unit or units should shoot, in this case all of them.
* Then we have the actual order to shoot. This can be delayed with EXECUTE TO FOLLOW, STAND BY or WAIT ONE.
* And finally we have OUT, meaning I have finished, no need to respond, I'm busy.

Again if time permits, a commander may ask "....ENEMY SEEN, NOT SEEN?..." Meaning has everybody in the unit spotted the enemy, to which other stations, will respond with either "AFFIRMATIVE, ENEMY SEEN, CALL SIGN OUT" or "NEGATIVE, ENEMY NOT SEEN, CALL SIGN OVER". You should then provide further information to help the others find the enemy. Wherever possible, you should give as much detail as you can, including, TANGO Type#, weapons, antennas, uniforms and insignia, and attitude: relaxed, cautious, performing a particular tactical maneuver, like flanking right - it all helps prioritize the targets.

CORRECT

Used instead of the more common right. "RIGHT" is reserved for giving some kind of spacial directions. For example:
"QUEBEC SEVEN, THIS IS QUEBEC THREE, THAT IS CORRECT, OVER"
NB: Never use the word "incorrect" as this can be easily confused with "correct". Use "WRONG" instead.

CORRECTION

An error has been made in this transmission. Transmission will continue with the last word or specified portion correctly transmitted, for example:
"ALPHA FOUR ONE, THIS IS UNIFORM THREE TWO, MY CORRECTION IS...."

DECIMAL

Used to verbally marked the decimal point in a number to prevent confusion, for example:
""...SEVEN, SIX, DECIMAL, TWO, ONE..."

DISREGARD

"DISREGARD (THIS) (TRANSMISSION), OUT"
This transmission is in error. Disregard it. This Proword shall not be used to cancel any message that has been completely transmitted and for which an acknowledgement has been received. It is always ended with the "OUT" proword to close the message. For example:
"...BELIEVE ENEMY IS NEAR YOUR POSITION, DISREGARD, OUT"

DO NOT ANSWER

An instruction to one or more stations NOT to transmit or respond to a message for their own safety.
"WARLOCK FIVE, WARLOCK FIVE, THIS IS WARLOCK SIX, DO NOT ANSWER, EIGHT TANGOS AT POSITION SIERRA, OUT"
Often used by a Commander sending orders "in the blind", which is usually supported by a prearranged Authentication code.

ENDEX

"End Exercise" - The signal that is sent to end a military exercise. All units should acknowledge this message. The word "ENDEX" is often repeated two or three times before saying "OVER", for example:
"ENDEX, ENDEX, ENDEX, ALL STATIONS ACKNOWLEDGE, OVER"

HELLO X

Formerly used by the US Army, but still in use in the British Army as the opening word in a call to another station or stations. It acts as a verbal bing-bong or pay attention people, to alert all listeners that a message is about to be sent. The "X" is either the CALL SIGN of the target station, or either the"ALL STATIONS", "ANY STATION", or "UNKNOWN STATION" Prowords. It is always followed by the "THIS IS X" Proword set to identify the calling station, as follows:
"HELLO UNKNOWN STATION, THIS IS LIMA SIX, WHAT IS YOUR CALL SIGN, OVER"

INTERROGATIVE

A Radio Proword used before actually asking a question, so the person transmitting does not have to worry about tone of voice to actually convey that he is, indeed, asking a question.

I SAY AGAIN

I am saying my entire transmission again, or the portion indicated.
"ALL STATIONS, ALL STATIONS, THIS IS NETWORK CONTROL, I SAY AGAIN..."
DO NOT use the word "repeat", see "REPEAT" in Table 3 below, as this is a Fire Control Proword. See also "ALL AFTER X", "ALL BEFORE X" , "WORD AFTER X", "WORD BEFORE X", and "SAY AGAIN".

I SPELL

I shall spell the next word phonetically using the standard NATO Phonetic Code for extra clarity, for example:
"...THIS IS WARLOCK ONE, I SPELL WHICH, WHISKY INDIA TANGO CHARLIE HOTEL, OVER"

NEGATIVE

Used instead of the word no, as this can be lost in transmission. See also "AFFIRMATIVE", "CORRECT", "ROGER" and "WRONG".

OUT

Used to say, "I am finished talking, no response is needed/desired."

OVER

This is the end of my transmission to you and a response is necessary. Go ahead and transmit. NB: never used with "OUT" as in the incorrect signal "over and out", which is a contradiction in terms, essentially "talk to me and shut up".

RADIO CHECK

"Can anyone hear me?" "How loud/clear is my transmission?"

ROGER (THAT)

1. I have received and understood your last transmission satisfactorily.
2. Used in place of the words "that is right", to mean "yes" or "correct". The word "right" is exclusively used for giving some kind of spacial directions. For example:
"ROMEO ONE, THIS IS JULIET TWO, ROGER THAT, OUT"

NB: ROGER is never used with "WILCO", as in "roger, wilco", as the function of "ROGER" is implicit in the "WILCO" Proword.
NB: The addition of "THAT" is common practice, often being used in non-radio speech as an acknowledgement or agreement.
NB: ROGER was the former phonetic expression for the letter "R".
See also "AFFIRMATIVE", "CORRECT" and "WRONG".

SAY AGAIN

A request to another station to send either all of their last transmission, or that portion indicated by the "ALL AFTER X", "ALL BEFORE X", "WORD AFTER X" or "WORD BEFORE X" Prowords.
"OSCAR TWO FIVE, THIS IS OSCAR ACTUAL, SAY AGAIN, OVER"
NB: do NOT say "repeat", see "REPEAT" in Table 3 below, as this is a Fire Control Proword.

SIGNING OFF

Sent when the station is shutting down and ceasing radio operations altogether. Used as an acknowledgement to the instruction to "CLOSE DOWN". If there is a Network Control Station, or the station is part of an operational formation in the field, it is normal to seek permission to close down from the authorised station or commander. For example:
"HELLO NOVEMBER SIX, THIS IS NOVEMBER EIGHT, REQUEST PERMISSION TO CLOSE DOWN, OVER"
"NOVEMBER EIGHT, THIS IS NOVEMBER SIX, CLOSE DOWN IN FIVE MIKES, OVER"
"NOVEMBER SIX, THIS IS NOVEMBER EIGHT, WILCO, OUT".

And five minutes later:
"THIS IS NOVEMBER EIGHT, SIGNING OFF, OUT"

SILENCE

This Proword is repeated three or more times, and used to order the cessation of transmission on this channel/frequency immediately. Radio silence will be maintained until lifted. Used when absolute stealth is required for that network. When an authentication system is in force, the message imposing silence is to be provided with an Authentication Code. For example:
"ALL STATIONS, ALL STATIONS, THIS IS NETWORK CONTROL, SILENCE, SILENCE, SILENCE, AUTHENTICATION NOVEMBER ECHO, OUT"

SILENCE LIFTED

Radio silence is lifted, proceed with normal operations. When an authentication system is in force, the transmission lifting silence is to be provided with an Authentication Code.

SIT REP

A reference to, or a request for a "Situation Report", for example:
"ZULU ONE ONE, ZULU ONE ONE, SIT REP, OVER"

SPEAK SLOWER

Your transmission is at too fast a speed. Reduce speed of transmission.

SPELL X

Please spell the X word phonetically using the standard NATO Phonetic Code for extra clarity. If the word requiring spelling was unheard or unclear, use the Prowords "WORD BEFORE X" or "WORD AFTER X" to guide the operator to the required target word. For example:
"VICTOR THREE, THIS IS VICTOR ACTUAL, SPELL WORD AFTER INSIDE, OVER"

STAND BY

A request for a pause in the exchange. If followed by "OVER" the other station must acknowledge the request with "STANDING BY", and usually "OUT". If the message is "STAND BY, OUT", no acknowledgement is required, but it does require the other station to remain alert for the follow up transmission. This latter is used when an incoming signal could compromise the station's security, or the operator is too busy. For example
"ALPHA TWO SIX, THIS IS SIERRA THREE TWO, STAND BY, OVER"
See also "WAIT" and "WAIT ONE".

STANDING BY

The acknowledgement to the request "STAND BY, OVER", always finished with "OUT", as in:
"ALPHA TWO SIX, STANDING BY, OUT"

TANGO

Meaning "target", it is used as a label for enemy personnel. See "CONTACT"

THIS IS X

This transmission is from the station whose CALL SIGN immediately follows. See also "FROM X" and "TO X".

UNKNOWN STATION

The identity of the station with whom I am attempting to establish communication is unknown. Used at the start of a transmission in place of the CALL SIGN of a known station.

WAIT

A request to suspend the conversation for a few seconds. Used as an alternative to "STAND-BY", but more urgent. The other station must NOT attempt to recontact the original signaler, and MUST wait on standby until they return, or until concern for the unit's situation becomes critical, warranting the risk of breaking the implied radio silence. It can also be used at less critical moments when the operator needs literally just a few seconds to sort something out. They will begin transmitting again almost immediately. For example:
"CONTACT, WAIT, OUT"

WAIT ONE

As per "WAIT", but a request to suspend the conversation for one minute rather than a few seconds. The other station may attempt to recontact the original signaler after one minute has passed. Alternative numbers can also be used, as in "WAIT FIVE".

WILCO

I have received your signal, understand it, and will comply. To be used only by the station addressed. For example:
"ECHO TWO, THIS IS HOTEL SIX, WILCO, OUT"
Since the meaning of "ROGER" is included in that of WILCO, the two Prowords are never used together, as in "roger, wilco". See ROGER.

WRONG

The content in your last transmission was wrong. The CORRECT details are..." For example:
"ALPHA THREE, THIS IS DELTA SIX, THAT IS WRONG, THE CORRECT ROMEO VICTOR TIME IS..."
Do not say "that's not right", as the word "right" is exclusively reserved for giving some kind of spacial directions, and "that's" a contraction.
See also "AFFIRMATIVE", "CORRECT" and "ROGER"




Table 2: Other General Purpose Prowords


ACKNOWLEDGE

Used to demand and provide a response from one station to another when their operational status is in doubt. For example:
"ALPHA TWO ZERO, ALPHA TWO ZERO, THIS IS BRAVO ONE ZERO, ACKNOWLEDGE, OVER."
"BRAVO ONE ZERO, THIS IS ALPHA TWO ZERO, ACKNOWLEDGE, STAND BY, OUT."

ALL AFTER X

This is used to refer to a latter portion of a message. For example to request it's repetition. See also "SAY AGAIN".

ALL BEFORE X

This is used to refer to a previous portion of a message.For example to request it's repetition. See also "SAY AGAIN".

AUTHENTICATE X

A challenge to provide proof of authority to issue orders. Where "X" is the challenge. This procedure is used when the identity of the station is uncertain or suspect, and the orders or request's validity needs to be confirmed. See Table 6 below. For example: "OSCAR TWO ONE, OSCAR TWO ONE", THIS IS OSCAR TWO TWO, AUTHENTICATE X-RAY YANKEE, OVER"

AUTHENTICATION

The reply to the challenge "AUTHENTICATE", giving the correct authentication code. This procedure is used when the identity of the station is uncertain or suspect, and the orders or request's validity needs to be confirmed. For example:
"...(MY) AUTHENTICATION (IS) VICTOR OVER"
"...(I) AUTHENTICATE VICTOR, OVER"

CASEVAC

A request for casualty evacuation by any means. See also MEDEVAC.

CHANNEL UP/DOWN

A request to move either up or down ONE channel.

CLOSE DOWN

An order to shut down and turn off your radio, immediately or at the time specified. An acknowledgement is required.

EXECUTE

Carry out the purpose of the message or signal to which this applies. For example:
"....EXECUTE PLAN BRAVO IN TEN MIKES, OUT"

EXECUTE TO FOLLOW

Action on the message which proceeds or follows is to be carried out upon receipt of the Proword "EXECUTE". For Example:
...PREPARE TO SWITCH TO PLAN BRAVO, EXECUTE TO FOLLOW, OUT"

EXEMPT/EXCEPT

The CALL SIGNS immediately following are exempted from the collective call, as follows:
"ALL STATIONS, THIS IS OVERLORD, EXEMPT, YANKEE FOUR ONE, ZULU FOUR FIVE, IMMEDIATELY EXECUTE WINCHESTER, OUT.

GRID X

Used as a prefix to an alpha/numeric or simply a numeric string giving a map co-ordinate, where "X" is the co-ordinate. Used rather than FIGURES, so it is clear that the numbers being sent are positional data.

IMMEDIATELY EXECUTE

The action on the message or signal following is to be carried out immediately on completion of this transmission, without delay!

I VERIFY

That which follows has been verified at your request and is repeated. To be used only as a reply to "VERIFY". This is used to confirm the truth of a statement or a piece of intelligence.

MARK

Used to "mark" a precise moment in time, to ensure accuracy. Preceded by either "AT MY MARK" or "ON MY MARK", then "MARK". Used for example for synchronising watches or actions such as an attack.

MEDEVAC

A more specialized request for casualty evacuation, requiring a purpose built ambulance and medical crew. see also CASEVAC.

MINIMIZE

Please limit your transmissions to essential traffic. Emergency operational traffic is in progress. MINIMIZE is imposed by the Net Controller or by the Incident Commander.

MINIMIZE LIFTED

The "MINIMIZE" order is lifted by either the Net Controller or by the Incident Commander.

MORE TO FOLLOW

Transmitting station has additional traffic for the receiving station, please wait.

NOTHING HEARD (OVER)

Used when no reply is received from a called station, thus alerting others to the fact that you have not heard a return signal. This is important, as another station may be in range and able to hear the called station, and relay the messages, while others may simply presume that they heard nothing because they are out of range of the station being hailed.

RELAY TO X

Transmit this message to all "CALL SIGNS", or to the "CALL SIGN" immediately following this Proword. When the coverage of a set of stations overlap, messages can be passed along the line, far further than one radio can do by itself.

TIME CHECK

A request for the current correct time, given in 24 hour format for the time zone of the theatre of operations. "ZULU" equals GMT, and is the default time zone. ALPHA is the BST time zone. The time giver uses the "MARK" Proword to ensure accuracy, as follows:
"...THE TIME AT MY MARK, WILL BE FOURTEEN THIRTY SIX ZULU PRECISELY....MARK, OVER"

VERIFY

Verify entire message (or portion indicated) with the originator and send the correct version. Used when the receiving station has a doubt about the content of the original message.

WORD AFTER X

Used to refer to a word that follows the stated word in a message. See "ALL AFTER X", "ALL BEFORE X", "SAY AGAIN" and "WORD BEFORE X"

WORD BEFORE X

Used to refer to a word that proceeds the stated word in a message. See "ALL AFTER X", "ALL BEFORE X", "SAY AGAIN" and "WORD AFTER X"




Table 3: Fire Control Prowords


ADJUST YOUR FIRE

An instruction to adjust the point of impact by a set number of meters, defined by reference to the points of the compass. The firing of a second ranging round or burst of fire is implicit. Used with artillery or other indirect fire weapons like machine guns, grenade launchers and mortars. See also "FIRE FOR EFFECT"

CHECK YOUR FIRE

An order to stop shooting.

FIRE FOR EFFECT

An instruction to artillery or other indirect fire weapons such as machine guns, grenade launchers and mortars, to proceed with bombardment following the observation or adjustment of the fall of shot.

FIRE MISSION

A request for fire support from artillery or other indirect fire weapons such as machine guns, grenade launchers and mortars. Normally followed by the "GRID" Proword or a code name for a preregistered point, to define the position for the fall of shot. The instruction to fire the first round is implicit in this request. The full barrage is ONLY launched once the "FIRE FOR EFFECT" proword is given, which can be sent after the first round has been observed and no "ADJUST YOUR FIRE" instruction has to be given, or it may be appended to the end of the "FIRE MISSION GRID X"/code name sequence when speed and not safety is critical.

REPEAT

Specifically a "Fire Support" request: ordering a "repeat" of the barrage. For example a request to a machine gun group, a mortar team or artillery position. Do NOT use it to ask for information to be sent again, see "SAY AGAIN". Mistakes could be unfortunate!




Table 4: Messaging Prowords
The following Prowords are used in transmission of messages that must be written down by the receiver.


WORDS TWICE

The communications conditions are making it difficult for me to hear your message. Please transmit each phrase or each group twice. This Proword may be used as an order, a request, or as a piece of information, as in the conditions are bad I will transmit everything twice to help you.

MESSAGE

The Proword that tells another station that the sender has a message requiring to be recorded or written down, is waiting to be sent. For example:
"WHISKEY TWO FIVE, THIS IS WHISKEY TWO ONE, (I HAVE A) MESSAGE, OVER"
NB: the message itself is only transmitted once the receiving station gives the "SEND" signal, demonstrating that they are ready to record the data.

SEND (YOUR MESSAGE)

A response to a station that requires a message to be recorded, demonstrating that the station is ready to take the details down. Also can be said as "SEND MESSAGE" or "SEND YOUR MESSAGE".

MESSAGE FOLLOWS

Used to mark the start of the recordable message.

TO X

X being the station, address or person immediately following "TO" is the destination for the message.

FROM X

Used to identify the signaler or the originator of a recorded (written) message. This is indicated by the address/"CALL SIGN" designator "X"immediately following. It should NOT be used as an alternative to "THIS IS X".

TIME X

That which immediately follows the Proword "TIME" is the time or time and date, DATE TIME GROUP (DTG) of the message when sent by the originating source. This is expressed in the standard NATO DTG (Date Time Group) format.

FIGURES

Indicates that a list of numbers follow.

BREAK

I hereby indicate the separation of the text from other portions of the message. A verbal "paragraph break" used in giving a message that is being written down.

MESSAGE ENDS

Used to mark the end of the recordable message.

READ BACK

Read the entire message back to me exactly as received, including address etc.

MY READ BACK IS

The following is my response to your instructions to read back your message.




Table 5: The RST Signal Reporting Code

The Proword request "RADIO CHECK" meaning what is my signal strength and readability, that is "how well do you hear me?" is normally answered with an abbreviated version of the RST Code (Readability-Strength-Tone Code). The "T" for Tone was formally used in reporting upon Morse Code signals, and is not used in radio telephony. The use of the abbreviation RST is purely a continuation of historically established radio convention. You may use either the five numbers or their associated phrases as set out below. They are used to describe the incoming signal, always Strength first and Readability second (in voice communications), with the word "BY" in between. For example "FIVE BY FIVE", meaning "LOUD AND CLEAR", or you can use the actual Prowords "LOUD AND CLEAR" instead.


5: Strength Strong / Excellent Quality
4: Strength Good / Satisfactory Quality
3: Strength Weak / Unreadable Quality
2: Strength Very Weak / Distorted Quality
1: Strength Fading / Interference (or no) Quality




Table 6: Message Precedence


When running a station, where in messages are either written down, or verbally requested by a third party, each such message is given a Precedence code letter, and marked either Z, O, P, R, or S as a guide to it's urgency. These letters should be used instead of the word that it replaces.


Each precedence level listed below starts with the code letter, then precedence, then a short definition:

* Z: FLASH: a message that must be sent within no more than 10 minutes, and in advance of all levels.
* O: IMMEDIATE: a message that must be sent within no more than 30 minutes, and in advance of all lesser levels.
* P: Priority: a message that must be sent within no more than 3 hours, and in advance of all lesser levels.
* R: Routine: a message that must be sent no later than the beginning of the next duty day.
* S: Service: a message concerned with the running of the radio network, put out as and when convenient.




Table 7: NATO Phonetic Alphabet


For use by English speakers in order to help reduce errors in understanding by the message recipient.


Letter - Word - Pronunciation

A - Alpha - AL FAH
B - Bravo - BRAH VOH
C - Charlie - CHAR LEE
D - Delta - DELL TAH
E - Echo - ECK OH
F - Foxtrot - FOKS TROT
G - Golf - GOLF
H - Hotel - HOH TELL
I - India - IN DEE AH
J - Juliet - JEW LEE ET
K - Kilo - KEY LOH
L - Lima - LEE MAH
M - Mike - MIKE
N - November - NOVEMBER
O - Oscar - OSS CAH
P - Papa - PAH PAH
Q - Quebec - KEH BECK
R - Romeo - ROW ME OH
S - SIERRA - SEE AIR RAH
T - Tango - TANG OH
U - Uniform - YOU NEE FORM
V - Victor - VIC TAH
W - Whiskey - WISS KEY
X - Xray - ECKS RAY
Y - Yankee - YANG KEE
Z - Zulu - ZOO LOO




Table 8: NATO Phonetic Numerals


Number - Pronunciation


1 - WUN
2 - TOO
3 - TREE
4 - FOW-er
5 - FIFE
6 - SIX
7 - SEV-en
8 - AIT
9 - NIN-er
0 - ZERO




Encryption

Voice radio transmissions by themselves are still able to be heard and understood by the enemy. This problem is why voice communications are typically the least secure method of communication. With this problem in mind, various methods of encryption have been created and used since well before WWI, in an effort to protect radio transmissions from enemy interception. Some methods of securing your radio transmissions will be touched upon below.

DRYAD

The DRYAD Numeric Cipher/Authentication System (KTC 1400 D) is a simple, paper cartographic system employed by the U.S. military for authentication and for encryption of short, numerical messages. Each unit with a radio is given a set of matching DRYAD code sheets. A single sheet is valid for a limited time (e.g. 6 hours), called a cryptoperiod. While crude, the DRYAD Numeric Cipher/Authentication System has the advantage of being fast, relatively easy and requires no extra equipment (such as a pencil). It could be used both as a cipher, and an Authentication System.

BATCO

BATCO, short for Battle Code, is a hand-held, paper-based encryption system used at a low, front line (platoon, troop and section) level in the British Army. It was introduced along with the Clansman combat net radio in the early 1980s and was largely obsolete by 2010 due to the wide deployment of the secure Bowman radios. BATCO consists of a code, contained on a set of vocabulary cards, and cipher sheets for superencryption of the numeric code words. The cipher sheets, which are typically changed daily, also include an authentication table and a radio call sign protection system.

Codetalkers

The idea to use the Navajo language for secure communications came from Philip Johnston, the son of a missionary to the Navajos and one of the few non-Navajos who spoke their language fluently. Johnston, reared on the Navajo reservation, was a World War I veteran who knew of the military's search for a code that would withstand all attempts to decipher it. He also knew that Native American languages -- notably Choctaw -- had been used in World War I to encode messages.

Johnston believed Navajo answered the military requirement for an indecipherable code because Navajo is an unwritten language of extreme complexity. Its syntax and tonal qualities, not to mention dialects, make it unintelligible to anyone without extensive exposure and training. It has no alphabet or symbols, and is spoken only on the Navajo lands of the American Southwest. One estimate indicates that less than 30 non-Navajos, none of them Japanese, could understand the language at the outbreak of World War II.

When a Navajo code talker received a message, what he heard was a string of seemingly unrelated Navajo words. The code talker first had to translate each Navajo word into its English equivalent. Then he used only the first letter of the English equivalent in spelling an English word. Thus, the Navajo words "wol-la-chee" (ant), "be-la-sana" (apple) and "tse-nill" (axe) all stood for the letter "a." One way to say the word "Navy" in Navajo code would be "tsah (needle) wol-la-chee (ant) ah-keh-di- glini (victor) tsah-ah-dzoh (yucca)."

Most letters had more than one Navajo word representing them. Not all words had to be spelled out letter by letter. The developers of the original code assigned Navajo words to represent about 450 frequently used military terms that did not exist in the Navajo language.

Secure Voice

Secure voice (alternatively secure speech or ciphony) is a term in cryptography for the encryption of voice communication over a range of communication types such as radio, telephone or IP. This can be accomplished in multiple ways, with more recent solutions turning toward Network Centric Technology.




Radio Nets

Stations are grouped into nets according to requirements of the tactical situation. A Net is two or more stations in communications with each other, operating on the same frequency. Nets can be for voice and/or data communications. The types of tactical nets follow:

* Command Net (Command and control the unit’s maneuver).
* Intelligence Net (Communicate enemy information and develop situational awareness).
* Operations Net
* Administration and Logistics Net (Coordinate sustainment assets).

There are also different nets for units from the fireteam, all the way up to the division (or higher) levels, all of these nets operating on different assigned frequencies. All of these unit nets (from the company level and higher) have all of the above listed tactical nets.




Combat Net and Software Defined Radios

Combat Net Radio

Definition:

A radio operating in a network that (a) provides a half-duplex circuit and (b) uses either a single radio frequency or a discrete set of radio frequencies when in a frequency hopping mode. CNRs are primarily used for push-to-talk-operated radio nets for command and control of combat, combat support, and combat service support operations among ground, sea, and air forces.


Today, many (if not all) Combat Net Radios are also Software Defined Radios, which are why both are covered in a single section of this writing.

Software Defined Radio

Definition:

A definition that seems to encompass the essence of the Software Defined radio, SDR is that it has a generic hardware platform on which software runs to provide functions including modulation and demodulation, filtering (including bandwidth changes), and other functions such as frequency selection and if required frequency hopping. By re-configuring or changing the software, the performance of the radio is changed.

To achieve this the software defined radio technology uses software modules that run on a generic hardware platform consisting of digital signal processing (DSP) processors as well as general purpose processors to implement the radio functions to transmit and receive signals.


There are also different levels of SDRs, which are expressed in Tiers:

* Tier 0: A non-configurable hardware radio, i.e. one that cannot be changed by software.
* Tier 1: A software controlled radio where limited functions are controllable. These may be power levels, interconnections, etc. but not mode or frequency.
* Tier 2: In this tier of software defined radio there is significant proportion of the radio is software configurable. Often the term software controlled radio, SCR may be used. There is software control of parameters including frequency, modulation and waveform generation / detection, wide/narrow band operation, security, etc. The RF front end still remains hardware based and non-reconfigurable.
* Tier 3: The ideal software radio or ISR where the boundary between configurable and non-configurable elements exists very close to the antenna, and the "front end" is configurable. It could be said to have full programmability.
* Tier 4: The ultimate software radio or USR is a stage further on from the Ideal Software Radio, ISR. Not only does this form of software defined radio have full programmability, but it is also able to support a broad range of functions and frequencies at the same time. With many electronic items such as cellphones having many different radios and standards a software definable multi-function phone would fall into this category.

Although these SDR tiers are not binding in any way, they give a way of broadly summarizing the different levels of software defined radios that may exist.

SDR Security

Another area of growing importance is that of SDR security. Many military radios, and often many commercial radio systems will need to ensure the transmissions remain secure, and this is an issue that is important for all types of radio. However when using a software defined radio, SDR, there is another element of security, namely that of ensuring that the software within the radio is securely upgraded. With the growing use of the Internet, many SDRs will use this to medium to deliver their updates (though it is by no means the only or even a good, method of doing so!). This presents an opportunity for malicious software to be delivered that could modify the operation of the radio or prevent its operation altogether. Accordingly SDR software security needs to be considered wherever there could be security weaknesses that could be employed maliciously.




Multiservice Tactical Brevity Codes

Multiservice Tactical Brevity Codes are used in military communications. The codes are designed to quickly convey complex information with a few words or codes that can be understood by more than one military service, thereby further shortening the average radio message. Some terms are classified to the public. There are many such Brevity Codes, and it would not be within the scope of this writing to list them all.




Example Communication and Conclusions

PN 9 (you): "Papa November Wun (one), Papa November Wun, This is Papa November Niner, Come in, Over"
PN 1 (recipient): "Papa November Niner, This is Papa November Wun, Go Ahead, Over"
PN 9: "Papa November Wun, Authenticate X-ray Yankee, OVER"
PN 1: "Papa November Niner, Authenticate Victor, OVER"
PN 9: "This is Papa November Niner, Over and Out"

In this case, Papa November 9 (PN 9) was asking Papa November 1 (PN 1) to authenticate. Note that Authentication can also be used to ensure that all users on a net are authorized to be on that net, and are not the enemy. Also, the use of radio call signs allows everyone on the radio net to understand whom is addressing whom, thus cutting down on mistakes. Communicating this way might feel a little odd at first, but you'll soon get used to it. With practice it will start to feel natural.

Bulldog wun niner, this is Bulldog too niner. Request a recovery vehicle to grid 329966. Over.
Bulldog too niner, this is Bulldog wun niner. Roger. Over.
Bulldog wun niner, this is Bulldog too niner. MOVE TO GRID 329966. Over.
Bulldog too niner, this is Bulldog wun niner. WILCO. Over
Bulldog wun niner, this is Bulldog too niner. Roger. Out.

In this conversation, Bulldog 29 has requested a recovery vehicle head to a specified location (grid 329966). Bulldog 19 acknowledges the request, and advises Bulldog 29 to move to the specified location, with Bulldog 29 informing Bulldog 19 that he will comply. Bulldog 19 then ends the conversation.

Let us review certain things that we have learned:

1.) All exchanges on air follow a set format, with a beginning, middle and an end, and use a range of "set" words and phrases, used to achieve speed and clarity of meaning when using voice radio communications systems in the battlefield. These are known as "Prowords" which is the abbreviation of the phrase "Procedural Words."

2.) One of the key principles in military radio work is the concept of COMSEC, or Communications Security. You must assume that the enemy is listening to everything that is sent, that they will attempt to insert false traffic, or simply jam you, by working on your chosen frequencies.

3.) A very simple security method is to make it difficult to distinguish one station from another, by using set voice procedures, making everyone sound much the same, along with keeping the messages short. This also aides in speeding and clarifying communications. While still making it difficult for the enemy, especially irregular ones, not used to this kind of radio work.

4.) Each radio in the field and at base will have a CALL SIGN, which is a short string of letters and numbers that identifies that station, or sometimes the actual operator.

5.) Do not use sir, ma'am, or personal names on air as the enemy WILL be listening, and collecting intelligence.

6.) Do not use profanity on air.

7.) When speaking on a radio network, especially in combat, it is very easy to shout, gabble, and for the pitch of the voice to rise. All of these things will mean that your messages will not be understood. It is vital that you speak slowly, clearly, and never use contractions. Contractions can be very easily lost or misunderstood. Put on your best "posh" speaking voice, it will save your life!

8.) Be aware that the numbers 3, 4, 5 and 9 are especially susceptible to readability issues. For example "five" can be confused for the word "fire". Therefore with the exception of 9, each is provided with an alternate expression for when reception is poor. Thus you also get "TREE", "FOWER" and "FIFE". Nine is always expressed as "NINER". Finally, never use "Oh" for the number 0, always use "ZERO", "Oh" is after all a letter.

9.) It is common for the word "shoot" to be substituted for the word "fire", leaving the latter for uses like "..MY VEHICLE IS ON FIRE, OUT!" Mistakes can be costly!

10.) Remember the mnemonics CAROT and CRAPSHOOT.

11.) Remember to speak AFTER you have used the Push to Talk (PTT) button, so that your entire message is heard by the recipient.

12.) Always use the correct PROWORDS where appropriate.

13.) Remember how to respond to a radio check.

14.) Authentication is important, use it!

15.) Message Precedence codes.

16.) Various means of encryption can help to prevent the enemy from learning your location and killing you, giving you false orders, or jamming you. Know the difference between Secure Voice, and talking in the clear!

17.) Radio nets! Both Tactical and Unit.

18.) Phonetic Alphabet and Numerals.

19.) Tactical Brevity Codes.

If you remember the lessons contained within this writing, you too can make your military characters use the radio like they are actually in the military. Military voice radio procedures may seem complicated at first, but they do get easier as you use them, allowing you to transmit a good amount of valuable information in a short amount of time. Without these standardized procedures, military communications would grind to a halt, making modern military forces useless. They can also add to the realism of any RP which utilizes the military in some capacity. I would like to thank the readers of this article, without whom this article would not be written. It is my sincere hope that the article was interesting, and that you learned something from it. Thank you for reading!
Last edited by Lamoni on Fri Jun 17, 2016 3:24 am, edited 14 times in total.
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