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Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament System

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Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament System

Postby Vault 10 » Sat Jul 04, 2009 10:43 pm


This thread is not dead. Vault 1 will be replying from now on.

It may be passed on to another nation further. If you do not receive a reply within a week, consider it confirmed.

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Overview


Comprising a line of weapons ranging from PDW to full-size assault rifles, sniper rifles and machineguns, R2 is a result of a cost-no-object project run by the Brotherhood of Steel to increase the firepower of an individual Knight to that normally only available to a fire team or a mounted weapon.
This goal has been successfully achieved through a convergence of modern technologies, not previously used in firearms, but well proven in specialized applications. At first limited to use by Brotherhood Knights, this weapon has now been offered for restricted export.
The key advantages of R2 include:

* Tactical flexibility. The boltless action of R2 can accept caseless rounds of different length, from 25 to 63mm, by simply changing the magazine. Each shooter has simultaneous access to light low-recoil rounds for suppressive fire and high-power rounds for long-range sniping.
* Unified caliber. The same basic caliber (8mm) is used throughout the entire weapon range, from PDWs to machineguns, with different round length. This allows every soldier to use standard magazine, should the need arise.
* High power reserve. R2 has been developed as a response to increasingly heavy body armor developed by certain nations. It strips the enemy of any advantages of such armor by offering each serviceman a weapon that can penetrate any body armor with ease even at extreme ranges.
* Active recoil compensation. R2 includes a gas-operated system that actively counteracts the round's recoil and absorbs some of the energy, so even with high-power rounds, it remains more comfortable to shoot than even AR-15.
* Excellent ergonomics and moderate weight. Each weapon can be customized for the individual shooter, by varying the pistol grip position, trigger pull strength and length, and other characteristics. The use of a tensioned barrel system and innovative metal matrix composites makes R2 far lighter than any weapons of comparable firepower and comparable in weight to low-power rifles.
* A comprehensive accessory system. The chassis of R2 weapons contains 2 to 4 internal accessory channels and 3 to 6 rails for external accessories. An appropriately wide selection of accessories is offered, ranging from a semi-active sound suppression system to programmable airburst grenade launchers.


With this flexibility in every weapon, a shift to R2 could compared to introduction of assault rifles (which combined rifle and machinegun capability), offsetting the divergence that has occurred over the past forty years.

It should be understood that such performance does not come without a price, and it is not limited to procurement cost. R2 is a highly sophisticated modern weapon that bears only superficial resemblance to most contemporary rifles. The skill required for servicing it and infrastructure requirements for repairs are far in excess of those sufficient for legacy firearms.
A user can learn to shoot R2 in just a day, but prolonged training and experience are necessary to properly field service it and use all of its features. Such experience can not be gained during typical service terms in conscript or mercenary armies, limiting its practical use to fully professional militaries.
Furthermore, while it can work for a longer time without servicing than other rifles, mostly avoiding the need for field stripping, when the time for servicing comes, advanced maintenance infrastructure must be available. The rifle can only be safely disassembled in a cleanroom, with computer-controlled machines to perform operations such as lubricant replacement, and any repairs require a professional armorer specifically qualified to work with R2.
If such an infrastructure is not already present, it could be a reasonable decision to limit immediate adoption of this weapon system to special operations forces and elite units, since they would gain the most benefit from its features, while gradually preparing the rest of the military for the eventual shift.

The information below applies to all weapons of the armament system.
Currently the offers include:
- R2 Service Rifle
- R2L Lightweight Assault Rifle
- R2C Tactical Carbine
- R2GM General Purpose Machine Gun
- R2S Long-Range Sniper Rifle
- R2 Scout Lightweight Marksman Rifle (Upgraded R2.1 platform)
Detailed information on the variants can be found at the bottom.

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History

Over the last 60 years, military technology has been evolving at a rapid pace, passing through two revolutions that have greatly changed the construction and application of nearly all weapons. Firearms, however, remained an exception to this rule. New technologies have been developed, tested, piling up, each adopted by one or another manufacturer, but never put together.

This situation lasted until 2006, when the accumulation of advancements finally broke through the dam of conservatism. The party responsible was the Brotherhood of Steel, an independent modern-day military order, dedicated to keeping peace in the wastelands of Vault Ten. Consisting of dedicated lifetime members rather than expendable grunts, the Brotherhood always kept its equipment up to the highest standard, and settling for the second best has never been an option.

Creating a partnership with the Aerospace Logistics Corporation, one of the leading manufacturers of deep space exploration systems, the Brotherhood has acquired access to technologies far in advance of those normally available to firearm manufacturers.

This opened an entirely new world of creative perspectives. Beryllium alloys, metal matrix composites and nanometer-structured fibers allowed for design with far more freedom in regard to materials strength, being nearly an order of magnitude more weight-efficient than conventional materials. Phase-shift cooling systems, providing nearly zero thermal resistance, revolutionized the approach to heat management. Fully computerized Aerospace Logistics manufacturing equipment, capable of nanometric precision, made possible new structural forms, not achievable with traditional manufacturing methods. Monocrystalline gold-indium conductors, solid-state molecular film supercapacitors and gallium arsenide semiconductors made self-powered and highly reliable electric ignition systems a reality. Seamless multi-structured carbon monocomposites created the possibility of nearly eliminating internal friction, and thus the need for lubrication, excluding major dirt and fouling related failure points from the design.

The end result of applying these technologies in a synergetic alliance is the R2 Infantry Armament System.

Despite having little in common with most rifles in technology used, R2 remains a firearm in principle. It still defeats its targets by launching a projectile at them, and still uses gas operation for its main action. While this is where the similarities end, it is enough to make the transition to R2 relatively simple, requiring few specific new skills, and allowing for a short learning curve for all personnel. The younger troopers will find R2 far more in touch with the times than other rifles and exceptionally user-friendly; while the experienced soldiers will appreciate its ability to precisely adjust to their shooting style and make full use of their marksmanship skills.

None of these capabilities come at the price of durability. The high-energy design of R2 puts high demands on the materials, and they are met with some of the best available options. Calling a weapon unbreakable is never proper, because for every nail there's a hammer; however, built predominantly of metal matrix composites, combining strength, ductility and light weight, R2 may be the closest firearms have gotten so far. One of the most significant reasons for weapon failures is cost-driven compromises in design and manufacturing, but no such compromises have been made with R2.


[ OOC: In case you're wondering, its Fallout equivalent is the heavily fictionalized version of XL70E3 found in Fallout 2. Now, if you are interested in some actual information rather than gun porn sales pitch, please read below. ]


Ergonomics



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R2 has been designed around the user from the very beginning, and ergonomics were thus the first priority. Whenever user comfort conflicted with ease of manufacturing, the situation was always resolved in favor of ergonomics.

First of all, the straight-lined shape, traditional for bullpups, has been rejected in favor of a more complex curved shape that incorporates an integral cheek rest. In order to avoid the weapon getting tangled, the exterior is almost entirely smooth, without any unnecessary protruding parts. One of the common inconveniences, external Picatinny rails, has been replaced by a combination of internalized VTS-105 rails and an internal accessory system.

To carry the weapon conveniently, it has to be as short as practical. To ensure that, most variants of R2 include a telescopic stock and a special collapsible flash hider that slides over the barrel; although the greatest contribution to length reduction comes from the bullpup configuration. A further length reduction is achieved by the boltless design applied. As a result, the complete high-power R2 rifle with its 630mm barrel is only as long as the XM177 carbine.

Each rifle's receiver, stock, trigger, grips, selectors, cheek rest, and other ergonomic parts are typically produced or installed individually, matching the user's anatomical measurements and shooting preferences. The customized dimensions include, among others, pistol grip position and angle, buttstock shape, dampening material choice, trigger configuration, cheek rest position, forward grip dimensions, fire selector switch position and shape.

Since the rifles are individualized, they are usually permanently configured as right- or left-handed, although some ambidextrous variants are also produced, mostly for gun shows and public shooting ranges.

Some ergonomic detail can be easily adjusted by the user after the rifle is built as well. The user can calibrate the entire curve of the trigger pull, select up to five pull settings and response to them, assign burst length and rate of fire to the three available controlled fire modes, or extend the selection up to nine fire modes. Every control on the rifle has adjustable sensitivity and resistance. The gas operation and recoil compensation system can be controlled on the fly, setting it to balance muzzle climb and vibrations to the optimal degree.

Last but far from least, the ergonomics are significantly improved by the four-stage active recoil compensation system (ARCS), which reduces the felt recoil of the powerful 8-millimeter rounds to that comparable to a conventional rifle.

R2 isn't the very first user-centered military weapon, however. This title belongs to the Steyr ACR, which has pioneered the highly ergonomic shape, roots of which can be seen in this rifle, and aggressive recoil reduction.



Mechanical operation



For the main action, R2 utilizes a vertically moving chamber, a concept previously used in Steyr ACR and R1. There is no bolt. The operation is very simple compared to most weapons. Caseless or cased ammunition is pushed inside the chamber from the rear or from the front. If a cased round is used or the caseless round fails, the brass is pushed out by the new round through the opposite side. The same operation can be done in reverse.

To operate the mechanics, two large-area pistons are used, a part of the recoil compensation system, located symmetrically around the barrel, usually top/bottom or left/right (depending on the specific model). No parts of the mechanism start to move until the round leaves the barrel entirely, avoiding negative effects on accuracy. Neither propellant gases, nor any other foreign objects do not at any point enter the receiver, which in an assembled rifle is actually airtight.

In order to simplify it, the mechanism is designed as inherently automatic, not select-fire. Single and burst fire is performed by not igniting the next round.
A special Accuracy Mode is available, where the mechanism is disabled entirely, and each round is cycled manually. This gives the accuracy advantage of a bolt action rifle with still rapid reloading.



Active Recoil Compensation System

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Recoil is the main detriment to accuracy, the ability to fire on the move, and the ease of use. This problem would normally be exacerbated in the R2 due to the use of high-power 8mm rounds.
There are two measures of recoil: impulse and force. The impulse is generated by the round and can only be reduced very slightly, but force is what the shooter actually feels, and it is in inverse proportion to weapon's mass. Increasing the weapon's mass directly would be impractical, but it's possible to increase its effective inertia.

To achieve such a result, R2 utilizes a unique four-stage system, counteracting recoil on all levels where it is possible.
The first stage is fairly common - redirection of the propellant gases backwards. It is implemented by having the flash hider, the action and the sound suppression system integrated, all producing a slight muzzle brake effect. Thanks to sound suppression, this results in the effects of a muzzle brake without additional noise.

The second stage is the Active Recoil Compensation System itself, or ARCS, unique to R2. It consists of two, three or four (depending on the model) pistons in channels located symmetrically around the barrel, operated by gas pressure near the muzzle. These pistons, loaded with additional weights, accelerate backwards as the weapon fires, producing an impulse equal and opposite to the bullet's, negating it.
Since the pistons' cross-section significantly exceeds the barrel's, to work well with all rounds, the gas system is regulated on the fly by varying the electric circuit impedance.

The third stage is, while utilizing the same ARCS pistons, a distinct one, working on the later part of the cycle. Normally, recoil absorbing pistons would be pushed back by springs, transferring an increased impulse on rebound, and making the weapon jerk. This effect is avoided due to the electric Energy Recovery System, detailed below, which gradually slows down the pistons, and allows them to return just in time to match the selected rate of fire. The recoil energy is physically reduced at this stage, and recovered as electricity to charge the weapon's power system.

Finally, the telescoping stock is extended on two shock absorbers, which allow the entire rifle to slow down the transfer of force, recoiling in a more controlled manner, further reducing the force on the shooter and improving the steadiness.

Of most interest are the second and the third stage, forming the ARCS and ERS. Due to them, the weapon reacts to recoil in a different way than expected - most of the recoil is temporarily redirected to the motion of ARCS pistons. This increases the practical inertia, and in effect, the rifle behaves as if it was much heavier.
The exact increase depends on the system's tuning and the use of automatic or single fire. Even in the lightest tune, the effective inertial mass is increased from 4kg to 8kg for automatic fire or to 12kg for single fire, compared to a weapon that already has all conventional anti-recoil systems, including a muzzle brake and a telescopic stock.
In its heaviest setting, designed to deal with the recoil of 8-63 anti-materiel rounds, the effective mass can be increased further to about 20kg, with less than 1kg of actual weight added to the weapon (at 5kg total weight), although this does not apply to automatic fire.



Ignition system

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R2 combines two methods of ignition: mechanical and electro-thermal. While the mechanical striker system remains perfectly functional in order to provide backward-compatibility with 7.62mm rounds, it is not normally used, unless explicitly switched on by the user.

Modern CL8 rounds are rather ignited with a low-energy electro-thermal system. A very small amount of air is simultaneously ionized, heated and shot at a high velocity from a special nozzle, igniting the propellant. Ignition units are located at the front and the back of the chamber, to allow for use of multiple igniters if burn has to be accelerated.

Electric ignition has a significant number of advantages over mechanical systems, which were critical in achieving the R2's level of performance.
* It is inherently reliable and easy to maintain, containing no moving parts.
* The lack of moving parts also contributes to accuracy, bringing the lock time (delay between trigger pull and firing) to zero. This is particularly useful in precision fire against moving targets.
* The plasma jet can ignite nearly anything that can burn at all, including rounds too damaged or too wet for regular primers.
* Propellants with extremely high ignition temperature can be used, preventing cook-offs even in a very hot chamber - even with caseless ammunition.
* Electric ignition provides a more even burn, allowing for slightly increased muzzle energy. High expansion velocity propellants further increase it.
* Primerless, caseless rounds can be produced at reduced costs, starting at just a few cents a piece, making very extensive training affordable.

While the ignition does require a small amount of energy, battery drain is not a problem, since R2 extracts the required energy from the firing process itself, as detailed below.



Electric Energy Recovery System



Whenever a weapon using any electrics is considered for infantry use, the question that sinks it is always "what if the battery dies?". But this argument doesn't apply to R2. With EER integrated, it eliminates the need for batteries altogether by producing its own electrical energy.
This does not involve any special fuel. The energy is taken from where no one will miss it - the weapon's own recoil and excess propellant gas.

As the ARCS pistons are pushed backwards by the gas pressure, their movement is opposed and slowed down by linear electric generators. The rare earth magnet arrays within the pistons produce a current in the generators as they move, and this current charges the embedded supercapacitors.

While it may seem complicated, this system is actually extremely simple, containing predominantly wires, and is in fact more reliable than mechanics, being non-susceptible to fouling, dirt, wear and tear, jamming, or any other problems inherent with complicated moving parts. No complicated semiconductor electronics that could glitch are involved - rather, it is more comparable to a piezoelectric-ignited cigarette lighter, with its weak point, the button, eliminated as well.
Apart from reducing recoil and improving accuracy, ARCS and EER have an additional effect of significantly reducing muzzle flash and noise. Both flash and noise are a result of high muzzle pressures. As the pressure is relieved and the excess energy spent powering the ERS, far less is left to produce demasking visual and sound effects.

While the energy extracted depends on the round, about 140 joules of energy can be produced with regular CL8-25 rounds, enough to keep all systems ready to fire for 18 hours even without the battery.
If all internal reserves are depleted, the initial energy to ignite the first round is provided by pulling the charging handle. It may need to be repeated a few times to also power other systems. Pulling the charging handle is also a simple way of checking the energy reserve: if it is good, the handle has very little resistance.

Forces and units who rarely have to open fire can switch the rifle to safety mode 2. In this case, counterweight springs are set to the lowest stiffness, and as the weapon is carried, the movement keeps it charging at a slow, but steady rate, similar to how an automatic watch self-winds.

In practice, as long as the auxiliary battery is in place, the shooter doesn't need to worry about the energy, since the battery will always have a reserve. It takes over a year of disuse for it to self-discharge fully, and as long as the weapon is fired or carried at least occasionally, it stays charged. Once the battery is discharged, it simply needs to be recharged; long-term degradation is minor.
In the older R1 rifle, the lack of a charging handle generator and its less efficient recoil power extraction prompted the use of a piezoelectric generator in the trigger and an automatic electric/mechanical ignition switching system. No such devices are needed in R2, with electric failures being rare, so the trigger pull is always smooth and comfortable.

The internal power generator only supplies the rifle and the sight. High-power accessories such as tactical lights rather have to carry their own batteries or, preferably, plug into the Central Accessory Power System.



Central Accessory Power System



Since the accessories tend to require more power than the EER can provide, the rifle is fitted with a more conventional battery-based power system, CAPS.

CAPS has four main components: the fixed battery, the replaceable auxiliary battery in the pistol grip, the universal inverter, and the power distribution controller.

The fixed battery is a set of non-aqueous nickel-sodium units, optimized with alloying elements for lower temperatures. This battery can operate between -80°C and 400°C, with no self-discharge at room temperature, and no damage up to 650°C (briefly). It can store up to 40kJ of energy when charged, and has a nearly unlimited cycle and storage time.

The auxiliary battery, described in more detail in the Accessories section, can be a rechargeable lithium-polymer type or a disposable lithium thionyl chloride battery. Additional batteries can be mounted on VTS-105 rails or in the internal slots.

Since the battery needs to be recharged, usually from external sources, a universal inverter unit is included. A universal inverter is an electronic power conversion device that can take in direct or alternating current of nearly any voltage, convert it to a fixed-voltage alternating current, and then produce from it a direct or alternating current of desired voltage. While the efficiency tends to be mediocre, it's of no concern in this case.
Two posts with wire rolls are included in the rifle, accessible after the stock is telescoped. Thanks to the universal inverter, they can be connected to any power source between 10 volts (car battery) and 3,000 volts (train power wires), and the inverter will produce the required current to charge the internal battery.
Furthermore, two output sockets are included. Selecting any voltage between 1.5 and 42 volts DC (in the DC socket) and 42 to 240 volts AC (in the AC socket), one can use it to charge the batteries in any electronic device.

As can be seen by now, the rifle has essentially two independent power systems: the supercapacitor with linear generators for ignition, and the battery system with a universal inverter for the accessories.

Sometimes, it's useful to transfer power between them. That's what the Power Distribution Controller is designed for. This programmable device can transfer excess energy from the generator to charge the battery, or, more commonly, do the opposite, charge the ignition supercapacitor.
All power needs are prioritized. The ignition system is given the first priority, the second being the scope illumination, and low-draw accessories like NVS, DACS, TS3 or ARD-02 a distant third. A further distant fourth and fifth are the high-draw systems like Electric Action Assist and accessories like tactical lights.




Electric Action Assist

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All versions of R2 include the Electric Action Assist and Control System - a set of actuators that can improve the operation of the main gas-powered action by smoothing its motion, assisting it if extra force is needed, seamlessly replacing the gas power in case of misfires, and automating normally manual operations. EACS actuators do not actually contact the moving parts, rather using the induction principle, and no main functions of the weapon require EACS to work.

One of the most noticeable features of EACS is rapid magazine change, that can be switched by a selector near the magazine ejection button to Full Assistance, Charging Only, or Off modes. If Full Assistance is active, as soon as the magazine is spent, it falls out of the gun, so the shooter only needs to insert the new magazine. Once inserted, the electric assist immediately charges the gun and prepares it to fire, the entire operation taking 4-5 times less time than when done by the shooter.
A feature harder to notice is the lack of jams with even the worst ammunition - whenever action can't proceed normally, EACS attempts to fix the problem, by ejecting a misfired round, or removing a damaged round that can jam the action by reverse motion. While not perfect, it saves precious time by correcting almost any problem without user interference.

EACS also allows the rifle to use automatic fire with rounds that normally do not provide enough, or any gas at all for the action to cycle, including in particular blanks, less-lethal ammunition, and very light rounds used with chamber adapters. Such use relies on the accessory battery to function, as no gas energy for the action also means no energy to be recovered by the ARCS, but since such rounds are usually fired in controlled conditions, this is acceptable and unavoidable.



Sound suppression

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To reduce the noise produced, R2 incorporates a modular internal sound suppressor. Its modules are located in channels around the barrel, alongside the anti-recoil system, and from 2 to 6 suppressor modules can be installed. The modules can be replaced with relative ease, giving the user a choice between long-lasting, automatic fire suitable, low-maintenance units that provide 6-12 dB of reduction, or highly efficient modules that can reduce volume by as much as 24 dB, but heat up rapidly and have a limited lifespan. Special variants of R2 can also be fitted with the Total Sound Suppression System, a unique development of the Brotherhood of Steel, that can make the rifle virtually entirely silent, although only in single shots at a low rate.

On R1, the sound suppressor was activated by twisting the flash hider. This created a certain inconvenience if the barrel was hot and the shooter wasn't wearing gloves. As a small but welcome improvement, R2 has an insulated ring that performs the same function while staying cold.

All internal suppressor modules operate on the principle of sound wave cancellation, converting their energy to heat in a series of chambers tuned to different frequencies. The heat is subsequently carried away by the rifle's phase-shift cooling system.



Construction


Ultra-Lightweight Chamber

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Among the issues encountered in R1 were small mechanical vibrations of the weapon at very high rates of fire, caused by the movement of the relatively heavy chamber. They affected the accuracy in multiple shots. In order to avoid such an issue in R2, the ULWC, or Ultra-Lightweight Chamber was developed, using the new forged composite technology.

Regular carbon fiber composites, such as CFRP, use resins and polymers as their matrix. This is convenient, but the polymer's strength becomes the limiting issue to the overall composite strength. R2 utilizes the new forged metal matrix composite technology, originally developed for deep space probes. In such a composite, carbon fiber is encased in a metal rather than polymer matrix.

The matrix used, beryllium, is a metal known for rigidity, lightness, and high-heat performance - all characteristics perfect for use in a firearm. The application of beryllium is limited by its extreme cost, but it's still used where its properties are irreplaceable, such as in the Space Shuttle Main Engine.
While strong on its own, beryllium performs even better when reinforced with ultra-high-strength fibers. In this case, the fiber selected is multi-walled carbon nanotubes of 55 to 90mm length. Carbon nanotubes of such length are only produced in very small quantities and at an extreme cost, but their strength means only a very small quantity is required for the chamber.
To most effectively combine fibers with a metal, the chamber is built up gradually, in the forged composite process. A layer of carbon nanotubes is woven over a thin-walled beryllium tube, and covered by another thin layer of beryllium. The process is repeated to build up the thickness. Then, every few steps, the structure is cold-forged together under high pressure. The process is very slow and expensive; it takes 350 iterations to build the ultra-lightweight chamber with perfect cohesion between the metal and the nanotubes.

But the results pay off. The full-length 63-mm chamber, tested at a 450 ksi pressure, only weighs 12 grams, less than many of the rounds. Such a low weight decreases the weapon vibrations, allowing for very low spread in bursts. A chamber of the same strength made of high-strength steel or titanium would weigh over a kilogram, and be too bulky for the vertically moving chamber action.

To reduce heat buildup in such a light chamber, its inner surface is covered with a thin layer of a homogenous CMC, a ceramic matrix/ceramic fiber composite. Providing the same hardness, heat and friction resistance and heat insulation as ceramics, CMC also have their tensile strength comparable to their compressive strength, so they are not prone to cracking. The term "homogenous" means both the matrix and the fiber are chemically the same material, in this case a cubic boron nitride matrix, reinforced with nanoscale tubular boron fiber. Since the composite is anisotropic, it can rapidly conduct heat along the surface, keeping it safe from any thermal damage, but the heat can only penetrate across the tubular fibers at a very slow rate. The ceramic composite quickly releases the heat into the air, and rapidly cools as the chamber is vented, so the next round doesn't enter an overheated chamber. Low chamber mass also allows for a more rapid heat dissipation through contact with the action and the air inside.



Barrel construction

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Like its predecessor, the R2 rifle uses a tensioned barrel system, but with a composite structure throughout, in order to further improve the performance.

Ceramic lined barrels were considered for a while, but were ultimately rejected. Unlike the chamber, the barrel is heated by friction, not contact with hot gases, so a ceramic insulation would not keep it from heating. While ceramics have a great advantage over steel in wear resistance, if used as a liner, the difference in thermal expansion produces cracks over time, and the barrel can fail. It is more practical to replace or refurbish a steel barrel than to have a barrel with a theoretical lifetime of a million rounds that can fail unexpectedly at any time.

Therefore, a ferrous monocomposite was selected for the barrel, combining machining properties of steel with the strength of composites.
An iron-based material may seem out of place among the light alloys and carbon composites of R2, but the popular misconception of steel as a low-tech material is based solely on the cheap mild steels used in home appliances. In fact, the maximum theoretical strength of monocrystalline steel is second, out of known materials, only to carbon nanotubes, and reaches 24 GPa. Such strength can't be achieved in practice, but properly formed steel fibers have a strength as high as 5.5 GPa in continuous and 7.2 GPa in short form.

This steel is not cast or cut, but rather formed in a monocomposite form. A lesser-known form of composite materials, monocomposites consist of two or more allotropes of chemically identical or very similar substances. An example is ceramic fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites, which use the same material in fiber form to reinforce itself.
A similar process can be done for steel, and actually has been, without any understanding of the process, done by many armorers over the time. Any surface-hardened steel is technically a monocomposite, consisting of two iron-carbon phases. Conscious application of the process, however, can produce far more consistent and impressive results.

Consisting of high-strength steel fiber overwrapping a ductile semi-bainite matrix, cold-forged together, the R2 barrel material has between 3 and 5 times the ultimate strength of conventional barrel steels. This allows a barrel section as thin as 1.5mm to withstand a pressure as high as 1.1 GPa (150 ksi), so the barrel is machined down to the optimal thickness. In practice, the barrel is given a 2x strength reserve, and the minimum thickness is 2mm in order to avoid local effects. And still, the entire 630mm barrel weighs less than 500 grams.


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To stabilize the projectiles, variable geometry grooves are cut into the barrel. In the middle, they have what can be described as an intermediate cross-section between polygonal and regular rifling; this allows the gun to provide high accuracy to regular rounds, while minimizing the friction for high-velocity ammunition. Near the breech end, the cross-section is smooth and shallow, while it gets sharper towards the muzzle. Rifling twist depends on the rifle's purpose; while 1 in 250mm is common for general issue units, twists as tight as 1 in 100mm or as loose as 1 in 630mm are available. Barrels can be made with alternate groove profiles, all depending on the specific shooter's requirements.

Producing these variable-geometry grooves isn't possible neither with regular gunsmithing equipment, nor with hammer forging. To work around this restriction while minimizing the local stresses that could ruin the monocomposite barrel, a robotic micromechanical system is used. Instead of shear-cutting the groove at once, it rather uses thin diamond tools to remove a micrometric layer of material to a depth of hundreds of micrometers, effectively outlining the groove, and cutting the excess material off piece by piece.

Since a barrel of such relatively low thickness is not stiff enough for sniper-grade accuracy with high-power rounds, the designers had to resort to using a tensioned barrel structure, derived from benchrest shooting. Such a structure consists of two parts, the inner pressure vessel machined to the minimum thickness required to hold the pressure, and the outer tensioning system with a high moment of inertia that provides rigidity. A combination of these specialized elements produces a barrel that's lighter than even the lightest fluted barrels, but as stiff as a very thick bull barrel.

Normally, the tensioning system consists of a carbon fiber or titanium tubular sleeve. However, thermal requirements on one hand, and weight requirements on the other have called for better materials. In this regard, there's no competition to beryllium: while 2.6 times stiffer than titanium, it's 60% lighter, resulting in an impressive 9-fold stiffness improvement for equal weight. While its cost exceeds $4,000 per kilogram, only 270 grams are required to produce a tensioning structure with stiffness equal to a 3.5-kg steel barrel, resulting in an overall 80% weight savings compared to steel. The tensioning sleeve connects to the barrel by multiple frames, reinforcing it not only against bending under the stress of firing, but also against deformation under overpressure.

Outside, six stringers connect the rifle's chassis to the tensioning sleeve. The chassis is constructed of magnesium-lithium alloy, reinforced with non-woven carbon fiber using a physical vapor deposition process. This material was selected over beryllium for far lower cost, higher deformation limit, and being repairable, although it takes extreme force to even dent the MMC surface of R2.
The lightened version, R2L, substitutes some non-critical chassis parts for a carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite, like used in most modern assault rifles, which is lighter and cheaper, but not as resistant to damage.


Barrel cooling system

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In order to cool a barrel located so deep within the weapon, some special measures were required. This time, however, the solution is far less exotic, being based on phase-shift heat spreaders. A simple form of such heat spreaders is the heat pipes used in electronics cooling equipment.
In case of R2, the heat spreader is integral to the barrel. The tensioning frames are covered with metallic fiber, and the space between the barrel and the sleeve contains a small amount of phase-shifting cooling compound, creating a heat pipe. The sleeve itself and the walls that connect it to the outer chassis have micro-heatpipe exchanger plates inside, distributing heat all over the chassis.

To provide more rapid cooling of the barrel, these heat spreaders are complemented by a semi-active air cooling system. As the operating pistons are pushed back by the gas pressure, they displace hot air inside, which is in turn rapidly removed from the internal space. This is an improvement over R1, where all cooling was conducted through the receiver's outer surface, and the weapon could get dangerously hot during prolonged firing. R2 remains relatively cool at all but the hottest situations, and the hot air is directed away from the shooter.


Thanks to the power of the phase-shift cooling system, there's no need to change barrels even after prolonged continuous firing.
However, the older R1, despite using a less sophisticated but still effective system, has still been criticized for the use of a fixed barrel, for reasons concerning customization. This issue has been addressed in R2, and, although it is a workshop rather than a field operation, the inner barrel can now be removed and replaced. This allows for further individualization: marksmen can install barrels with a higher twist rate and groove profile, while others may opt for low-twist, low-profile rifling that sacrifices a bit of round stability in favor of higher muzzle velocities.



Finish


While most of the materials used are hard on their own, an increase in surface hardness is always welcome for a weapon, reducing wear rate and need for lubrication. For this purpose, a multi-layer carbon-based coating has been employed.

Just fifteen decades ago, the idea that diamonds could be synthesized would appear sacrilegious, if it wasn't so ridiculous. But only in a century, it became commercialized for technical diamond production.
A couple decades ago, the idea of diamonds existing in the form of a thin film was viewed as equally ridiculous. But a few years ago, the technology of growing synthetic diamond films has been refined for producing ultra-hard tools. In fact, without tooling using this technology, building R2 would cost even more than it does now.

To produce this diamond coating, a laser-assisted plasma deposition process is used, applying a combination of excimer, neodymium-yttrium and carbon dioxide lasers at multiple wavelengths. In a reaction zone shielded by an inert gas, a high-carbon gas mixture is directed at the coated part. Collimated laser beams are directed through the same magnetic nozzle as used for delivering the coating elements to the reaction zone. The energy provided by lasers near-instantly transforms the carbon into a layer of diamonds, its structure depending on the lasers used, energies involved, and initial gas pressure.

Such synthetic diamond finish is applied to all action parts of the rifle. In order to ensure minimum friction, it has three main layers: crystalline diamond next to the pre-treated surface, nanocrystalline diamond over it, and an amorphous diamond-like material on the surface. This structure provides an exceptionally flat surface, yet without a tendency to 'glue' to other similar surfaces.

Apart from reducing wear over an order of magnitude compared to conventional finishes, the multi-layer diamond coating has another important feature, provided primarily by the final layer: friction reduction. Even without any lubrication, it has less friction than an oiled raw stainless steel weapon. Thus, the need for lubrication is greatly reduced. The only lubricant used anywhere in the rifle is a mil-range layer of solid graphite lubricant.
For up to 120,000 rounds, the rifle parts' finish and initial graphite lubricant can maintain low friction as they are, provided there has been no dirt ingress removing the lubricant. After approximately 100,000 rounds, the parts' finish should be restored in factory conditions. To ensure the finish lasts and the lubricant is always properly applied, approximately every 10,000 rounds (20,000 maximum) old lubricant should be removed and the parts covered with a very thin layer of graphite lubricant. This is not a field procedure, but neither is it ever an urgent one, since the finish on its own provides an ample reserve for operation.


On the outside, the rifle is finished with a ceramic-based powder coat. Similar to polymer powder coats, but cured at a higher temperature, it provides a durable, no-gloss surface of the desired tone. Parts that contact the shooter have multi-layer coating to thoroughly insulate him from internal heat.

Image




Maintenance



R2 has been built with improved ease of field service and maintenance in mind, which were notoriously difficult with the R1. In this pursuit, R2 has achieved the feat of requiring even less maintenance time per shot than some traditional mechanically ignited weapons. There are no locking pins or other small components that can be easily lost, no narrow tubes that are difficult to clean, and, generally, few parts that require field servicing.

In order to disassemble the weapon, the user should fully extract the buttstock. Behind it, protected by rubber covers, there are two small levers that, when turned, unlock the side panel on the right side (or left in the left-handed variant). Once done, the panel slides back and can be removed.
It opens access to all user-serviceable components. The user can clean the feeding system, the dud ejection system, remove and clean the chamber, install chamber inserts, clean the ignition nozzles, check the basic electric system and the barrel cooling system. All this is done without actually disassembling the weapon or removing more than one major part at a time.


Reliability



While the weapon has an extensive set of features, it remains highly reliable on the basic level due to the simplicity and straightforwardness of its vertically moving chamber action. All advanced auxiliary features operate separately from the firing system.
There are just two key moving parts in the action: the chamber that goes up and down, and the round loading piston that goes backward and forward, both powered by the gas piston. There is no bolt, no hammer or striker, no ejection step.

High energies in the electric ignition system make it self-cleaning, vaporizing any debris, and the temperatures can ignite even the worst rounds that can possibly be ignited. The weapon needs no batteries, since it generates more energy from recoil and excess gases than it consumes to ignite the rounds, and has backup generation from the charging handle. The main ignition system doesn't involve any complex electronics, and consists mostly of coils and stretches of wire, which concentrate the energy from the gas piston into smaller time and area.
As a last resort, the mechanical ignition system can be switched on, completely bypassing all electronics.

It is very difficult to jam the action of R2 without an unusual combinations of factors. Whatever is in the magazine is simply pushed forward. If the round fails, the rifle's Electric Action Assist seamlessly ejects it and feeds the next round. Due to its simple tubular geometry, anything that can be pushed into the chamber, can be pushed out.
If the electric action assist is on, dud rounds don't even require manual cycling. Theoretically, with EACS active, one could even insert a magazine filled with one round and dirt into the weapon, and it would cycle the dirt through, until it finds and fires that one round (although, of course, requiring cleaning afterward).

The reliability of additional systems is not as exceptional as that of the primary functions, but still high even by military standards.
All wiring inside the rifle uses a specialized alloy of gold, palladium, silver and indium, which is immune to corrosion, highly conductive, heat-resistant and mechanically strong. The connections are welded rather than soldered or screwed, eliminating them as weak points. It is protected by ceramic fiber composite insulation, which does not decompose up to 1200°C, unlike more common polymer insulation. Every rifle's insulation is is tested by submerging the open rifle in saltwater and having electric currents run through the cables, detecting even the most minor leaks.

Electronic components, where present, use Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) instead of silicon as their base. While less practical in most regards, GaAs is capable of working at far greater temperatures than silicon, in some applications up to 700°C, and can tolerate overloads as high as an order of magnitude. Of course, the actual electronics used are limited to far lower temperatures; nonetheless, it ensures there is no risk of permanent damage from overheating during automatic fire, as long as the recommended rates of fire and burst durations are not exceeded.



Ammunition


Image



As mentioned above, the R2 rifle is designed to use caseless ammunition, but is also compatible with cased telescopic rounds. The feeding system is "ammo-blind": it works just the same whether there is a casing to extract or not, pushing out whatever remains in the chamber with the next round.

While the barrel diameter is fixed, the weapon is in fact capable of using three different calibers, switching between them by simply replacing the magazine. The trick is simple: all three calibers, CL8-25, CL8-40 and CL8-63, have all dimensions exactly the same, except for round length. Since the chamber is self-sealing, there is no need for round length to be the same as the chamber, and in fact the rounds can be any length between 25 and 63mm. Straight-through operation and caseless design prevent any problems with extraction, and the rifle's gas system is self-regulated through the ARCS, working equally well with lightweight and high-power rounds.

This feature is what allows the R2 to be either a light submachinegun or an anti-materiel rifle, whatever the shooter needs now - however, not at the same time, but with a magazine switch.

The specifications of CL8 caliber are as follows.

CL8 Caseless Ammunition
Diameter between grooves: 8.00mm +/-0.01mm
Diameter between lands: 7.80mm +/-0.15mm
Bullet diameter: 8.00mm +0.01mm -0.28mm
Complete round diameter: 14.00mm +0 -0.10mm
Minimum round length: 15mm
Maximum round length: Not limited, but 63mm in standard R2
Recommended round lengths: 16mm, 25mm, 40mm, 63mm, 80mm, 100mm

CT8 Cased Telescopic ammunition with the same dimensions is also available, but not recommended except for handloading purposes. The active cooling system of R2, heat-resistant construction and electric ignition system are explicitly designed to handle continuous firing of caseless ammunition without cookoffs or other issues.

Apart from its native CL8 rounds, all rear-fed versions of the weapon (including R2 and R2L) can fire 7.62x39, 7.62x51 and 7.62x54R ammunition. It requires opening the rifle and installing a special magazine adapter kit, which is supplied with the weapon and stored within the receiver until needed.
This feature is only intended for field use, if CL8 ammunition is not available, but 7.62mm rounds can be found in the field. It is not intended for reusing old ammunition stockpiles, neither for warfare, nor as target practice supplies, as the accuracy is degraded by over an order of magnitude. The only ammunition properly usable with R2 is 7.62mm blanks.


In older weapons, common concerns cited against caseless ammunition were vulnerability to moisture and risk of cookoff. Both have been successfully defeated in the R2 design.

The standard propellant used, VHITP X2, is a polymer-bonded explosive-based solid emulsion. It contains 80% of HMX, 8% of polyalkylene oxides, 3% of triol, 4% of diisocyanate, and 5% of elastomer binder, all energetic compounds with high thermal resistance. Since the solid phase is a hydrophobic polymer (rather than the main propellant as usually), ductile enough not to crack, the round has nowhere for water to enter. VHITP X2 rounds can be stored in water for months, and then simply wiped to remove it.

This propellant has a very high ignition temperature and is too insensitive to ignite with primers in regular weapons. However, it's easily set off when hit by the plasma jet of the electro-thermal system. Due to this, cookoff is virtually impossible at any practical temperature.

There's a wide variety of ammunition available for all intents and purposes, of different lengths and with different loads. One bullet type is described here.

To make the rifle effective against all targets, a special versatile bullet has been developed, used as standard for CL8-24, CL8-25 and CL8-40 rounds.

It consists of a mild steel body in a full polymer-coated copper jacket, rapidly thinning towards the tip, with a conical tungsten post in the center. The round's most important detail is the tip design, providing different behavior on contact with solids and liquids. Body armor creates compressive force that collapses the surrounding steel around the central post, providing for a hardened steel armor piercing shape. But, when entering a liquid, the pressure is distributed uniformly, creating very high drag within the cavity, pushing the bullet to rapid expansion.

These effects aren't combined; after penetrating hard armor, the bullet loses most of its expansion capability. However, the tungsten cone in the center, acting as a wedge, increases expansion in liquids, and the conical section behind the cavity helps to tear the steel, also providing for limited expansion after solid object penetration.

Overall, while the soft-target effectiveness of the versatile bullet is slightly lower than of an equivalent energy large-caliber bullet, the expansion effectively utilizes high velocity, saving weight. Performance-wise, it exceeds both 7.62x51 and .50AE in effectiveness, providing high penetration and expansion diameter reaching 35mm. The bullet delivers high terminal effect, known as stopping power, for either fast termination or rapid incapacitation with non-lethal shots.
This structure is illustrated below.

Image



Cost-benefit analysis


Indeed, with all the advantages of R2, it has one inevitable drawback: cost. Designed with no regard for the expenses, this weapon has to be built using advanced materials and technologies, which can't be produced on the cheap. But what does one get for that money?

One gets a weapon that can withstand extended firing pressures and deliver anti-materiel performance in an assault rifle sized package. The R2GP machinegun, at just 6.5kg, can be carried as a personal weapon, yet can be a replacement for a .50 caliber M2HB machinegun. Deploying R2 negates any advantage the opponent might achieve by fielding heavy body armor (or even powered armor in PMT). Most light APC and IFV are also defeated by the CL8-63 rounds at least in the side, rear and top arcs. At the same time, thanks to the seamless multi-caliber capability, lightweight rounds like CL8-25 can be used most of the time, only switching to high-power rounds when they are actually required.

While specialized variants exist, the standard R2 rifle can deliver accuracy performance of a designated marksman rifle, or select-fire capability and low recoil of an assault rifle, or anti-armor performance of M82, or sustained automatic fire capability of a light machinegun (however, not all at once). If the soldier is trained in the use of multiple weapons, he can have any of them at his disposal by just changing the magazine and flipping the fire selector. This means the squad will always have the exact kind of weapon for the job in the hands of every soldier.

In a sense, this is what assault rifles were intended to do originally, and used to do for a while, but later the growing requirements split them back into specialized weapons.

For a proper cost-benefit analysis, it is incorrect to compare the cost of a gun against a gun. In firepower delivery, the rifle is like the water nozzle on a fire truck - it is what ultimately shoots water, but without the hose, the pump, the water supply, and the firefighters themselves it is useless. Similarly, just because an AKM may cost $200, it doesn't mean that 400 AKMs can be fielded instead of one R2, unless they come with shooters attached. An army can only field as many soldiers as it can recruit and train.

For armies limited by personnel, even if the budget is a concern, R2 may be worth its price. The more firepower an individual soldier has, the fewer soldiers are required for a mission. Fielding R2 can allow a 20-man light infantry platoon to do the job of a 25-man one - and for a high-grade army, the initial expense will pay off in a short time.

For instance, the US Army spends about $55 billion in personnel-related expenses alone for 540,000 men. The complete budget, excluding Army's AFV, aircraft, missiles, R&D, and other non-infantry expenses, is about $106 billion. This arrives at each soldier costing $200,000 per year. And when put into this context, the one-time investment of $80,000 no longer over seems so great. R2 is only particularly expensive compared to other personal firearms, which keep using century old technology, but not to the typical costs borne by the militaries.

The above only applies to developed nations with high per capita GDP, the needs of which R2 has been designed to fulfill. If a military has to choose between several cheap rifles and one good one, the former is always better. The purpose of R2 is to let each soldier to be as effective as he or she can be.
Last edited by Vault 10 on Tue Aug 31, 2010 11:34 pm, edited 18 times in total.
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby Vault 10 » Sat Jul 04, 2009 10:48 pm

Options and accessories


However impressive the capabilities of the weapon in its stock form, it would never be complete without an ample selection of accessories and special options.
While R1, with its two rails, was not behind others in this regard, R2 takes accessorizing options to a new high.

Mounting

External


For a while, the Picatinny rail has been the common means of mounting accessories. While indeed serving its purpose, by now it has become somewhat dated. For its bulk, it offers limited functionality and stiffness. In the Brotherhood, it has been occasionally replaced by various alternate systems, and, finally, in 2004 the most successful of them has been standardized in the VTS-105 document.

The VTS-105 internal rail has been explicitly designed for the modern firearms that tend to have a full-length chassis or shroud, and thus an external rail is unnecessary and inconvenient for them. VTS-105 also takes advantage of the modern alloys with better control over heat expansion and lighter weight, allowing some rails to be built without slots. Certain scopes, thus, can to be designed to slide during recoil, returning to the old position, rather than be kept too far from the eye.

A VTS-105 rail system can be narrow-type or wide-type, the latter prevailing. The most common wide type has the same basic dimensions as the Picatinny rail, but standardizes the dimensions of the accessory's rail-grabber. The narrow type differs in only having a single rail on the accessory, and is designed for accessories with low mounting strength requirements, like tactical lights, laser designators, and magazine holders; any narrow-type accessory can be mounted into both the narrow and the wide rail.

Accessories are always affixed by sliding them into the rail. The accessory's rails interlock with the VTS-105 rail on all sides, providing stiffer mounting than offered by the Picatinny rail, enabling, for instance, bayonets to be mounted right on the main rail without a special lug. Once the accessory is in place, a lever or a screw on it is rotated, locking it along the length by pressing two toothed friction pads against the fixed rail.

The VTS-105 rail offers limited backwards compatibility with the Picatinny rail. All VTS-105 accessories can be mounted on a Picatinny or Weaver rail, and most standard-conforming Picatinny rail accessories can be mounted on a VTS-105 rail (wide type). For those that can't, adapters are readily available and included at no additional cost.

Beside mechanical mounting, the VTS-105 rail also incorporates 12 electric rails. These rails consist of durable gold-silver alloy stripes with soft gold plating for improved contact, and are covered by a protective insulation of self-sealing polymer. The accessories' contacts penetrate the insulation when they are installed.
Of them, three are used for the accessory power system, three are command rails, another two form the data bus, and the rest 4 are reserved for future expansion. The command rails, while similar in function to data rails, operate in a completely different way - they carry on/off signals and impulses to directly control simple accessories, for instance, ignite the UGL rounds.

Thanks to the command rails, the accessories don't have to contain any active electronics to be centrally controlled. Furthermore, multiple accessories can be mounted on the same rail, and still be controlled separately.


Internal


What's really new in R2's accessory system, however, is the ability to mount additional equipment internally. The six channels around the barrel, the walls of which serve as its stiffening assembly, also offer space to mount additional accessories. These can be circular (up to 25mm in diameter) or of a trapezoid cross-section matched to the channel shape. Two of these channels, however, are permanently taken by the action and ARCS, leaving 4 for accessories. Electric rails are also installed in the channels.

Internally-mounted accessories are usually of a more permanent variety than externally-mounted ones.

A list of some of the accessories available follows below.


Basic Accessories


* Extended accessory battery
One of the simplest internally-mounted accessories is an extended battery. It's not required for the main weapon operation, only to power additional attachments and functions. Due to different requirements, there are multiple available types.
The standard accessory battery is mounted inside the pistol grip, and quickly replaceable, similar to a pistol's magazine. The usual supplied variant is a rechargeable high-density thin-film lithium-polymer unit, but non-rechargeable batteries can be used as well.
The batteries can be recharged using the dedicated charger (included) or the weapon's built-in Auxiliary Power System inverter unit, using any voltage from 12V to 400V, DC or AC.

Like all lithium batteries, the rechargeable option's lifetime is rapidly degraded by heat. In arctic and subarctic climates, the battery is expected to last for 15 years or even more in storage. However, in very hot equatorial or tropical climates, the lifetime can be reduced to as little as a single year. In that case, it is by far preferable to use non-rechargeable lithium thionyl chloride batteries, which are not substantially affected by heat.

Standard accessory battery specifications:
Rechargeable
Chemistry: Thin-film lithium ion polymer
Voltage: 12V nominal, 14V at full charge
Weight: 92g
Capacity: 102 kJ (28 Wh)
Service life: 1-15 years
Cost: 2 included, additional batteries $200 each

Non-rechargeable
Chemistry: Lithium thionyl chloride
Voltage: 12.8V stable
Weight: 110g
Capacity: 340 kJ (94 Wh)
Shelf life: 50 years (expected)
Cost: $25 each

* ARL-030D LED Tactical Light
Thanks to the weapon's accessory power control system, the standard tactical light doesn't actually require a separate module, but can be fitted on top of some fully internal modules, such as sound suppressors and recoil compensators. Usually, however, it's mounted on top of the extended battery module. Nonetheless, due to this ease of mounting, an external version has been deemed unnecessary.

The ARL-030D high-power tactical light can work in infrared, visible, or ultraviolet spectrum, and has settings to select infrared, infrared+red, red, blue, green, or white color. Each has its specific use. Red preserves user's night vision in case it has to be turned off, blue is the least noticeable in the night by the enemy, and green allows to see the most detail. Infrared is used in conjunction with night vision devices (one of which is the rifle's own scope). Ultraviolet light is a rarely-used feature, also requiring a special device, but useful if the enemy is known to be equipped with night vision devices that can see in infrared. Ultraviolet devices are extremely rare, since they are useless without active high-power illumination.

To save battery power, ARL utilizes last-generation high-efficiency LED arrays, achieving up to 160 lumens per watt - 10-20 times more than typical incandescent lamps used in flashlights. At full power of 30 watts (only possible for white light), the light output is 25 times higher than achieved by typical tactical lights. The peak efficiency is achieved between 0.5 and 10 watts. Apart from continuous light, ARL can produce a stroboscopic effect, useful in some tactical situations.

All control over the functions is electronic, and can be performed by sensor buttons on the forward grip or, if DACS is installed, by voice activation (usually on police models).

Specifications
Mounting: Internal, depth 50mm
Weight: 80 grams (without batteries)
Power consumption: 0.1 - 30 watt, 2 watt typical
Light output: 12 - 4,200 lumens, 320 lumens typical
Beam width: adjustable, 0.3 - 15 degrees (full power only available at 5 to 15 degrees)
Cost: $800

* ARL-150X Xenon Tactical Light
ARL-150X can produce more light output than ARL-030D, but has a drawback of being limited to white light and having lower efficiency. Instead of LEDs, high-density Xenon lamps are used, for their better heat dissipation. At full power, it generates 16,000 lumens, comparable to the headlights of a rally car. Focus control is manual, performed by rotating a ring. If focused into a tight beam, ARL-150X can be used to temporarily blind the opponent for less-lethal combat scenarios. A stroboscopic mode is also available.

Due to its more limited use and larger size, ARL-150X is mounted externally, attached or detached with a single move using the VTS-105 rail. An extended battery system is necessary to be able to cope with the power load.

Specifications
Mounting: External, any type VTS-105 rail or Picatinny rail
Weight, without batteries: 350 grams
Weight, with a 200 Wh (0.5-40 hours) battery: 600 grams
Power consumption: 5 - 150 watt
Light output: 500 - 16,000 lumens
Beam width: adjustable, 2 - 15 degrees (full power available at any angle).
Cost: $300

* ARD-02 Laser Designator Module
The ARD-02 module is a versatile laser designator for missile guidance.

Specifications
Mounting: Internal
Weight: 160 grams (without batteries)
Power consumption: 5-40 watt
Light output: Variable
Beam width: 0.001 degrees
Cost: $1,100

* ARB-037 Lightweight bipod
The Model ARB-037 lightweight telescopic bipod is normally used with the light machinegun, sniper and marksman versions of R2. In order to save weight without compromising strength, it has a composite construction, using carbon fiber sandwiched between two layers of aluminium-lithium alloy, providing higher strength than a steel bipod and high durability. Mounted on the VTS-105 rail, it's strong enough to safely lean into, even with legs fully extended.
The bipod has its length adjustable between 220 and 375mm, and can open up to 120 degrees in 5-degree increments. Thanks to the construction, it only weighs 195 grams.
Cost: Included with R2S, R2M, R2MG and R2H at no extra cost.
$320 retail (for non-R2 weapons), $300 replacement cost.

* ARB-023 Lightweight bipod
For regular riflemen, if the ARB-037 is excessive, an even lighter alternative, ARB-025, is offered. Sharing a similar construction, it's adjustable between 145 and 235mm in length, and weighs 140 grams.
Cost: Included with all variants (other than the ones with ARB-037) at no extra cost.
$240 retail (for non-R2 weapons), $220 replacement cost.
Last edited by Vault 10 on Wed Jun 02, 2010 11:04 am, edited 7 times in total.
There is a line most people say they will never cross. It is usually something they have done long ago when they thought no one was watching.




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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Comp

Postby Vault 10 » Sat Jul 04, 2009 10:53 pm

Advanced Accessories


ARPS-05 Solar Auxiliary Power System

In order to supply power to high-consumption accessories without the need to recharge or replace the batteries, the rifle can be equipped with a photovoltaic system. It is installed as a semi-flexible film, covering the parts of the rifle where it's acceptable, and connected to the rifle's accessory power controller, or can be built-in as part of the weapon.

The photovoltaics used are specialized for the application in three ways.
First, space-grade solar cells are used, employing gallium arsenide multi-junction design. Apart from maximizing solar efficiency, these cells can handle temperatures up to 350°C, degrade much slower with time, and so are best suited for this application.
Second, the surface has a matte black rather than glossy appearance, to prevent demasking the user. For most part, the weapon looks the same, only a deeper shade of black.
Third, the cells are protected by a wear and scratch resistant multi-layer coating of polymer films and sapphire, reinforced with alumina fiber.

Such high-durability construction, while increasing the cost, also minimizes the wear and keeps the cells operating near full efficiency for the entire lifetime. This doesn't mean the cells are not subject to wear, but the expected lifetime of the system with minimal maintenance is 25 years, including 2 years of combat deployment (typical scenario), or up to 5 years of combat deployment in desert conditions (worst-case scenario). With full maintenance, the coating is restored during the overhauls, providing for full 25 years of service even in the worst conditions, before the cells have to be replaced.

Depending on the model and coverage extent, the system can cover between 1,000 and 1,900 cm^2. The output outdoors, depending on latitude and angle, ranges between 1.5 and 24 watts. While the momentary output is fairly low, in sunny regions it can produce up to 230 watt-hours per day, an equivalent of 60 AA batteries.

In practical field testing, 15,000 soldiers serving in armed forces of 43 allied nations around the world were given R2 rifles with ARPS-04 and built-in recording meters. One third had been familiar with R1 and trained with R2, one third only had the standard manual, and one third wasn't aware at all that the weapon had a solar power system. 95% of all tested weapons have generated between 8 and 195 watt-hours per day with a median of 45, and no less than 18 watt-hours in the first group.

The use of ARPS is most practical for special operations forces, deployed for a long time autonomously, away from readily available power. Working via the R2's built-in power distribution system, it can produce a wide range of voltages, and recharge the batteries for radios, night vision devices, field computers, and other electronic equipment. Equipping all firearms in a platoon with ARPS-04 can replace a portable generator and 40 liters of gasoline over four weeks, freeing up two soldiers who would otherwise carry them for combat roles.

Since some improvements in solar technology have been made over the course of R2 development, we are now offering the ARPS-05 system with moderately increased minimum output and lifetime.

R2 Scout uses the ARPS-05A version, with slightly decreased maximum output due to lower available surface, but improved photovoltaic cells providing lower cost and the same low-light output.

Specifications

Maximum output: 60W
Typical output
ARPS-05: 1.5W to 24W
ARPS-05A: 1.5W to 18W
Weight increase: 120-200 grams
Cost:
Standard installation: $8,000
Custom installation: $8,500-$11,000
ARPS-05A for R2 Scout: $6,000


TS3 "Soundlock" Total Sound Suppression System

Issues of firearm sound suppression

A firearm produces noise in multiple ways, but absolutely dominating and the most distinctive among them is the sound of the propellant gases expanding at a supersonic velocity as they leave the barrel, producing shockwaves.

Sound suppressors work by providing space for some of the gas to expand in a slower manner. This method, however, is far from perfect, since too large a proportion of gas follows the bullet, and the expansion in the suppressor still generates noise. A way to achieve a near-complete elimination of sound, used in some special purpose weapons, is to seal the entirety of the expanded gas within the round's brass. However, limited casing integrity and round length lead to low muzzle velocities and difficulty in reloading the weapon, so such weapons are only effective at point blank range. A way to overcome this shortcoming would be to use the entire barrel and seal the gas in it without any additional implements.

Such a method has been for a long time considered impossible, which is why the Brotherhood of Steel developers have decided to pursue it.

The reason it is so difficult to achieve is that in a perfectly tuned mechanical system, even if a single grain of gunpowder fails to burn in time, the bullet will hit the valve, destroying it, and likely ruining the barrel. If one of the grains ignites sooner than usual, the valve will close when most propellant gases have already escaped, achieving a reduction of only a few decibels. Even if cartridge was perfect, the same thing would happen if the weapon is just one degree hotter or colder, slowing down or accelerating the bullet just by the fraction of a millisecond that separates hit from miss. Thus, only a completely electronic system can consistently perform the described feat.

Single-stage Soundlock system


In order to do that, the system utilizes three redundant ultra-rapid pulse laser rangefinders to measure the bullet's position and velocity, directed into the barrel by reflective surfaces. The controller predicts the exact moment to close the valve with a resolution of 10 nanoseconds. At each activation of the system, before firing, the valve is recalibrated in order to ensure it operates properly and adjust for its delay.
As the moment comes, a high-acceleration contact-less linear motor moves the valve upwards at a speed reaching 500m/s, and a linear generator at the opposite end rapidly stops it. It takes 20 microseconds from the moment the valve reaches the barrel and until it is completely sealed. In that time, a subsonic bullet can only move 5mm, or 4mm for a boat-tailed bullet.

To achieve such rapid closure, the valve plate has to be extremely light, but at the same time very strong, even at extreme temperatures. This problem has been solved by using an anisotropic non-woven nanotube composite in a beryllium matrix. The valve, weighing 110 milligrams, is tested to withstand a pressure force of 5.2 metric tons at a temperature of 1200°C. Such a low weight reduces the load on the motor, and cuts power consumption of the system down to 40J per shot.
Before closing, the valve is held by an electromagnetic bearing to avoid any mechanical friction with parts of the system.

While trapping between 99.2% and 99.9% of the propellant gas inside, the single stage is still not perfect. Due to the escaping gas, if the valve was the the only element, the reduction would be limited to 40-60 dB - an improvement over even the largest high-end traditional suppressors on the market, but still well audible. Fortunately, further reduction can be easily achieved by traditional means.

Thus, traditional sound suppressor baffles are not completely eliminated from the design, but their required size (for a given volume reduction) is reduced dramatically. As the escaping gas continues to move forward, it passes through a small sound suppressor, where it expands into a series of out-of-phase baffles and chambers, achieving a further 24-30 dB volume reduction. For higher durability, the suppressor is constructed out of titanium alloy with beryllium coating and a beryllium blast baffle, rather than steel. Only 80mm long and 32mm in diameter, this suppressor nonetheless performs it role as well as thick, barrel-long units, since the amount of gas to trap is 100-500 times smaller.
Small size permits the system to work without restricting the use of internal accessories, even such large ones as an integrated grenade launcher.

Complete, the single-stage TS3 system achieves a volume reduction of 65 to 80 dB, depending on the round used. The loudest noise, at this level of reduction, would be the sound of the striker - but it's not present, since the rounds are ignited electrically.

There is a payback, however. The propellant gas, trapped inside the barrel, has to be removed at some point. To do that quietly, the gas has to be cooled. Traditional cooling through the barrel is a fairly time-consuming process, only suitable for occasional single fire.
A major help in cooling is the ARCS, which forces the gas to perform work as it expands, converting the pressure energy into electric power and lowering the pressure 20-40 times. Gas temperature is lowered by as much as 200°C, shortening the cooldown time down to a few seconds. To help the shooter make a decision about gas release, internal temperature and pressure are measured by a sensor, and displayed in a visual and digital form in the corner of the field of view of the scope.

Such a system, of course, is not simply threaded onto the barrel. Installing TSS requires removing the standard flash suppressor (which becomes needless anyway) and installing a short support block into the lowermost internal accessory channel, which houses the capacitor system for the valve motor. The system is secured at five points, by a thread in the barrel stiffening structure, clamping to the barrel, and locks in the channel.

Triple-stage Soundlock II system


A single-stage system is sufficient for weapons that are only occasionally used for covert operations. If even lower noise or silent automatic fire - or both - are required, a more comprehensive three-stage system is installed. The installation of a three-stage system involves significant weapon modification, to the point of basically becoming a different version, so it's only done at the factory.

In a three-stage system, after passing through the first valve, the escaped gas enters a large suppressor chamber, which has another valve at its end, and another suppressor chamber again. This way, about 99.9% to 99.95% of the propellant gas is trapped, with the final suppressor chamber completely eliminating the firing noise, achieving a total reduction of up to 120 dB. A further reduction would not be practical, since the bullet itself can not be made completely silent.

More importantly, the three-stage system also addresses the problem of storing, cooling and releasing the propellant gas (the third stage) in a more comprehensive way. All six accessory channels of the rifle are taken by integrated sound and recoil suppression modules, and a multiple-port regulated gas system is installed. These modules each have two pistons that act in succession at different velocities to achieve maximum energy absorption, and high-efficiency generators to avoid losses back to heat. The gas system can open each of the modules individually or together, and lock them at maximum gas expansion.

This allows for automatic fire by cycling between the modules. In a burst of 6-rounds (or two 3-round bursts), all the gas is trapped within the rifle until deemed safe to release or the next burst is required. In fully automatic fire, the chambers have some time to cool before releasing the gas. Burst sound suppression is up to 95 dB.
During automatic fire, the main valves remain closed except to allow the bullet passage, forming an airlock and preventing noticeable noise even with a heated barrel.

After cooling down in the modules, the gas is released not through the normal suppressor, but through separate valves in the modules. There it follows a circular route through a specialized sound suppressor device in front of the barrel. This suppressor, highly effective due to the lack of need to leave a hole for the bullet, slows down the gas by creating high drag and absorbing sound energy. A gas-driven impeller is used to further absorb the energy and distribute the gas around the suppressor. Finally, the gas is released into a shroud with holes spread around the perimeter, distributing the release points over a large area and mixing it with outside air to minimize sound, heat, and infrared signature. Since the system is designed for automatic fire, all suppressors are constructed of beryllium to avoid wear and allow for higher operating temperatures.

Total sound reduction during fully automatic fire reaches 70 dB at 750rpm, 75 dB at 600rpm, and 80 dB at 300 rpm - as quiet compared to a regular sound suppressor as it is compared to a standard weapon.

Prolonged fire or high-power rounds can lesser the sound suppression effect, but it remains at 60 dB or better even during continuous firing from a belt, a 20 dB improvement over the best automatic fire capable traditional suppressors.


Specifications

System weight:
Single-stage - 400-600 grams
Triple-stage - 1500-1800 grams
Exact weight depends on the auxiliary suppressor used (one is included).

Length increase:
Single-stage - 150-250 mm
Triple-stage - 250-400 mm
Exact length depends on the auxiliary suppressor used (one is included).

System cost:
Single-stage - $12,000
Triple-stage - $30,000
An auxiliary suppressor of choice is included.


Digital Access Control System

Note: This is an option primarily for civilian and law enforcement versions, and is not normally present in the military version.

Apart from better efficiency and firepower, electric ignition has presented the designers with another opportunity: preventing the weapon from being used without the owner's permission.
The Digital Access Control System not only protects against unauthorized access, but also introduces significant new functionality to the rifle or pistol equipped.

To recognize the owner or the licensed users, DACS uses a laser fingerprint scanner built into the trigger and/or a retinal scanner built into the scope (any of the scopes designed for R2). The scan results are compared against the database on the internal flash drives.

The system is fully programmable via a computer port, protected from the elements inside the rifle, and can be set to any behavior, from just requiring one touch of the trigger or glance into the scope to disable safety, to only firing when all biometrics match. This way, the user is not limited to specific scopes or restricted from using gloves.
DACS can automatically recognize up to 4,090 users, and have a separate set of permissions and rules for each. The law enforcement version, with maximum flash drives capacity, can recognize up to 16 million users (with group permissions) and synchronize with a server, so the weapons can, for instance, be set to work for any police officer, but no one else. Such a large number of users, though, requires voice name input or RFID to speed up the search and avoid false positives.

If using R2-approved scopes, the DACS can even recognize the aim point, with LightCom GPS and the laser rangefinder, and react respectively – for instance, shooting ranges and gun shows can only permit it to fire at the designated targets. DACS can analyze and record all the shots made, including the shooter ID, his and target location, time, scope-view photos, aim and hit points, and keep track of them for later downloading, or report them via radio or satellite. This allows for a radically improved capability of both incident investigation and special operations coordination.

With such capabilities, one would, of course, immediately raise the question of reliability. The answer is mixed. All parts of DACS are sealed and not susceptible to dirt and corrosion, even if they do get inside the receiver. The hardware is military-grade, and well tested for reliability. The cables and modules are EMP-shielded and decoupled, except for the communications module's antenna, so they can survive any impulse short of a nuclear one. Hardening it to survive any nuclear blast that wouldn't vaporize the shooter, like the main action electrics, would make the already complex DACS system not only too expensive, but also too bulky to possibly fit into anything smaller than a tank. In effect, this means that DACS is sufficiently reliable to be used, but far less reliable than any other component, and is best left for low-intensity warfare scenarios.

DACS can not only improve safety, but also protect against theft. The system is heavily tamper-proofed, and in police and civilian versions it completely reroutes the electrics, controlling them via digital circuits, so its removal would render the weapon useless. Additionally, if tampering or weapon's removal from storage without owner's permission are detected, a GPS tracker with a self-contained battery is activated. The tracker is hardened against EMP tampering and can not be removed without cutting and welding the barrel assembly.
The anti-theft function is optional. The downside is that in case it is destroyed (for instance, due to a nearby nuclear explosion), the weapon becomes inoperable. Therefore, in the military variant of DACS, the system is normally installed alongside the standard electric system, allowing the rifle's main functions to be restored in the field, although anti-theft can still be installed if preventing the enemy from seizing the weapon is a concern.

Voice control is an optional function of the DACS system, requiring a link to an external headset or microphone. If it's installed, working together with the electric action assist, the user can control not only all DACS features, but also the normal functions of the rifle, such as fire mode selection.

Specifications
Cost:
Civilian version - $6,000
Police or military versions with communication capabilities - $10,000


Extended Magazine System

While for the purpose of lighter loaded weight R2 is designed to use 20- to 60-round box magazines, some shooters always prefer more ammunition in the weapon, so the ability to use high-capacity magazines was introduced.

These magazines are loaded into the weapon from the muzzle end, using the free accessory channels, and fed into the chamber from the front, with duds ejected from the regular rear magazine port. On models with mid-mounted main magazine, the ability to use box magazines is temporarily lost, although can be reenabled in the field by opening the side panel and switching some parts. With rear-mounted main magazine, it's possible to switch between the ammunition.

The installation of this system is a significant modification, and, if desired, the weapon should be ordered with it in the first place. Aftermarket installation is possible, but labor-intensive, as it requires enlarging the receiver. Drawbacks include the ergonomics being slightly compromised by the widened receiver and 350 grams of additional weight per magazine channel, rounds not included. The regular R2 can only support two channels, always of the same type, while the R2MG and R2H versions can use four, of different types, and select between them.

All extended magazines are of the tubular type with multiple rounds in each layer - a rotating helical magazine would not be feasible in the confined space of the accessory channel. The layers are only rotated inside the feeding system.

Two extended magazine options are available: magazine-type with regular circular rounds, and clip-type with special rounded-triangle round clips.
The triangular rounds (similar in shape to a Wankel rotor) are as small as suitable to fit into the chamber, so high-power rounds aren't available in such clips. These systems aren't compatible, and each channel can only be configured to use one of them. Both options use electric actuators, since a mechanical system would be exceedingly bulky and unreliable. It should be noted that the complexity present still decreases the reliability of the system; however, the standard feeding system is not removed.

In the circular round type system, the skeleton-like aluminium magazine (plastic can't be used due to the high temperatures) contains a compressed spring that pushes the rounds, separated by thin plates, towards the rear, where plates are rotated by the feeding system, and rounds are pushed out of the side. These magazines are reusable and can easily be reloaded with any CL8 class ammunition, cased or caseless.

In the clip type, the triangular ammunition is stored tightly packed in simple disposable fiberglass clips, held together by tension. To use them, one has to first open the lid sealing the channel, insert the clip till the end, where it is cut by a built-in blade, remove the emptied clip, and close the lid. This channel lid contains the longitudinal feeding system - a spring-pushed plate, controlled and rewound by an electric motor via a wire. Once a layer is in the rearmost part of the channel, it is separated by a sliding plate as to hold the rest, and the rounds, switched by a rotating plate, are picked by the main feeding system.

Six round types are available in this form.

** Extended Magazine rounds:

CL8-25T: The classic round with performance and accuracy slightly above the ever-popular 5.56x45mm NATO.
Round mass: 5.2 grams
Bullet mass: 3.6 gram FMJ, JHP, AP, or P-type Hybrid
Bullet diameter: 6.3mm saboted
Muzzle velocity: 1,100 m/s
Armor penetration: NIJ class III (AP type only), no STANAG rated armors

CL8-40T: When performance is not to be sacrificed for ammunition capacity. A comparable performer to the 7.62x51mm NATO and .308, but with better armor penetration.
Round mass: 10.5 grams
Bullet mass: 8.0 gram tungsten carbide core AP
Bullet diameter: 7.98mm
Muzzle velocity: 1,150 m/s
Armor penetration: STANAG level II, NIJ class IV

CL8-63T: The highest-performance round available in high-capacity clips. Almost a match for the cylindrical CL8-40.
Round mass: 14.5 grams
Bullet mass: 10.0 gram tungsten core AP
Bullet diameter: 7.98mm
Muzzle velocity: 1,250 m/s
Armor penetration: STANAG level III

CL8-20T: This round is designed primarily for suppressive automatic fire, rather than for offensive combat. The propellant load is the minimum sufficient to cycle the rifle's action and power the ignition and feeding systems.
Round mass: 3.4 gram
Bullet mass: 2.1 gram steel FMJ
Bullet diameter: 6.3mm saboted
Muzzle velocity: 1,100 m/s
Armor penetration: NIJ Class IIIA (soft), no STANAG rated armors

CL8-40TMB: A purely suppressive-fire multi-bullet round, 8-40TMB is cheap, relatively clean, and minimizes rifle wear and fouling. To increase spread, all bullets are simple mild steel balls, slightly undersized so as not to engage the rifling fully. However, the round is still much more accurate and long-ranged than shotguns, and a sufficient danger to make an opponent keep their head down.
Round mass: 12.8 grams
Bullet mass: 5x1.85 gram steel ball
Bullet diameter: 7.75mm
Muzzle velocity: 750 m/s
Armor penetration: NIJ class IIA

CL8-40TMF: This advanced suppressive-fire round addresses the 8-40TMB's issues of low armor penetration and significant recoil. A pressure-supported disintegrating plastic sabot houses seven 1.4-mm high-velocity flechettes that travel at a flat trajectory and can penetrate even heavy body armor.
Round mass: 8.5 grams
Bullet mass: 7x0.7 gram tungsten carbide tipped steel flechette
Bullet diameter: 1.4mm
Muzzle velocity: 1,300 m/s
Armor penetration: STANAG level II, NIJ class IV, 15mm RHA
Last edited by Vault 10 on Mon Aug 23, 2010 10:18 pm, edited 18 times in total.

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Vault 10
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Syst

Postby Vault 10 » Sat Jul 04, 2009 10:54 pm

Variants


As mentioned in the beginning, the standard variants include:
- R2 Service Rifle
- R2L Lightweight Assault Rifle
- R2C Tactical Carbine
- R2GM General Purpose Machine Gun
- R2S Sniper Rifle
Additionally, the CLAP caseless automatic pistol complements the series, being compatible with the same basic caliber as used in R2 rifles.

With R2.1 Series Update, another variant is added:
- R2 Scout

R2 Service Rifle

Image


R2 is the standard variant, reasonably suitable for all roles - from marksman work to light fire support. It's reasonably light and most versatile.

When a deployment package is ordered, the most important addition is a telescopic sight. There are two options offered:
* Brotherhood of Steel HPTS-2 - day/night telescopic sight with 40mm objective, 1x-6x optical magnification, with 4th generation analog night vision, prismatic input-output for electronics (not included), and double MMC casing for mechanical protection.
* M.A.C TA/FCS - Digital fire control system, with 2x optical magnification, 1x-4x digital magnification (2x-8x total), digital night vision, automatic firing solution calculator, OLED reticle and in-view display, in titanium casing (made in Anghele).

The TA/FCS scope, manufactured by a partner company, M.A.C|Defense, offers higher performance and more features, but requires certain care and draws power whenever used. HPTS-2 is a more traditional optical scope with low-power night vision tube, but its main advantage is the extreme durability - the metal matrix composite outer shell can be hit by a sledgehammer, and still not deform enough to damage the inner scope or knock it out of alignment. This ensures that even under the toughest conditions, the user won't have to resort to iron sights.

Since both systems have their compelling advantages, and cost the same, it wasn't possible to make a definitive choice, and it was left to the end user. The old-school marksmen have complained about the digital image of TA/FCS being not as detailed as with optical scopes and feeling unnatural, the electronic assistance unnecessary, and the system altogether simply too unfamiliar. At the same time, most newly-trained "playstation generation" shooters were fascinated with the "one-click aiming", the ability of TA/FCS to automatically set optimal magnification and elevation adjustment using its laser rangefinder.
It should be noted that neither of these scopes is intended for long-range sniping, so the issues raised by either side have little actual effect on performance and have more to do with ergonomics. Overall, HTPS-2 is a safer choice, but forces with heavy electronic aids usage could make better use of TA/FCS. It's not necessary to have all the variants come with the same scope variant, of course; unless the type is specified explicitly, we supply them according to the preferences of individual units, as inquired.


Detailed Specifications

Length, compacted: 860mm
Length, maximum: 980mm
Weight, empty: 3.60 kg
Weight, with scope, loaded with 40 rounds: 4.35 kg
Barrel length, with chamber: 630mm
Rounds supported: CL8-15 to CL8-40, CL8-63*

Fire modes: Safety, single, burst (2 to 6 rounds selectable), full auto.
Selector type: 4-position main lever switch
2-position additional switch
3-position pressure-sensitive trigger

Rate of fire, burst: Selectable, 300 to 1,800 rounds per minute (2-rd bursts only), 300 to 1,200 rpm (3..6-rd bursts)
Rate of fire, semi-sustained: Selectable, up to 300 rpm with CL8-63*, 600 rpm with CL8-40, 900 rpm with CL8-25
*Not all CL8-63 rounds supported for automatic fire
Semi-sustained rate of fire is limited to no more than five 40-round magazines with cooldown during change, or one magazine for CL8-63.

More prolonged automatic fire or higher rates of fire may be possible or not possible, depending on weather conditions, rounds used, cooldown time and firing position. Possible damage caused to the weapon is not covered by warranty. The self-diagnostic system will warn the shooter about overheat by trigger resistance stiffening and an orange indicator in the scope. In training weapons, the system can be switched to disable the weapon altogether.


Muzzle velocity: Round-dependent, 290m/s...1,750m/s
Muzzle energy: Round-dependent, 900J...16,000J

Accuracy, benchrested, with match grade CL8-40:
0.55 MOA (16mm) at 100m
0.75 MOA (105mm) at 500m
0.95 MOA (270mm) at 1,000m
1.3 MOA (550mm) at 1,500m
Specified for the worst 5-round group out of 10 groups in controlled conditions, after adjustment.
Every single rifle is individually tested, and guaranteed to reproduce the results within 25% tolerance, or be repaired or replaced if it can't.* Additionally, for match grade ammunition, every 5 rounds in each 1,000 are tested to deliver the stated accuracy with a test rifle.

Accuracy, practical median:
0.8 MOA at 100 to 250m
1.3 MOA at 250 to 750m
2.2 MOA at 750m to 1500m
Derived from service testing by shooters with 2 to 5 years experience, year-round, varying firing conditions, varying weapon condition, varying rounds used.

Accurate range:
550m with CL8-25
900m with CL8-40
Defined as 400mm groups and sub-250mm CEP in practical low wind conditions.

Maximum effective range:
1,100m with CL8-25
2,800m with CL8-40
Defined as retaining supersonic velocity and potential lethality.
Note: The weapon is not actually effective at such distances due to the impossibility of targeting. It is only the distance at which a hit would be effective, even if it can only occur accidentally.

Armor penetration at 500m and 30 degrees:
See armor protection standards
With 8x24L - STANAG level I (NIJ class 3)
With 8x25mm - STANAG level II (NIJ class 4)
With 8x40mm - STANAG level III
With 8x63mm - STANAG level III+ at short range
With 8x63mm flechettes - STANAG level III+
Specified for armor-piercing ammunition.

Pricing:
Minimum package
Includes no accessories, no rounds, electronic documentation, limited warranty*.
Iron sights are provided, and a variety of other sights can be mounted.
Price:
Retail - $50,300
Bulk (starting at 1 million units) - $45,000

Deployment package
Includes:
- R2 rifle
- A telescopic sight of customer choice:
* Brotherhood of Steel HPTS-2 - day/night telescopic sight with 40mm objective, 1x-6x optical magnification, with 4th generation analog night vision, prismatic input-output for electronics (not included), and double metal matrix composite casing for mechanical protection.
* M.A.C. TA/FCS - Digital fire control system, with 2x optical magnification, 1x-4x digital magnification (2x-8x total), digital night vision, automatic firing solution calculator, OLED reticle and in-view display (made in Anghele)
- ARL-030D internal tactical light
- ARGL-25I integrated programmable airburst grenade launcher (muzzle-loaded)
- Integrated laser targeting system
- 370mm or 230mm lightweight bipod
- Detachable vertical forward grip
- Stanhope survival knife with bayonet mounting provision (made in Pontinia)
- Kevlar three-point Ching sling
- 7.62mm temporary conversion kit
- Cleaning and maintenance kit
- Lifetime supply of solid lubricant
- Servicing instructions and detailed information in printed and digital form
- 2 thin-film lithium rechargeable accessory batteries
(on request, for hot climates, 16 non-rechargeable batteries may be provided instead)
- 1 versatile electric cord for accessory battery charging system
- 1 lightweight clamp-terminated electric cord
- 40 fiberglass magazines with round samples for initial training
- 6 reusable aluminium magazines
- Rapid magazine reloading device and custom round casting die set
- 4 rail-mounted magazine holders
- Fiberglass storage and transporting case
- Additional accessories if requested
- Full lifetime warranty

Price:
Retail - $76,200
Bulk (starting at 1 million units) - $70,000

* Full warranty for delivering the stated performance for every weapon throughout the lifetime applies only for the Deployment Package (in any orders) or for individual retail customers.
Under the limited warranty conditions, a 10% tolerance is applied, plus allowance for normal wear. Absence of manufacturing defects is still guaranteed, but the user is responsible for further maintenance and repairs.


Rounds and magazines



CL8-24L
CL8-24L (or colloquially 8-24) is the basic caseless round for work against unarmored or lightly armored targets, designed primarily to be as compact as possible. In cross-section, the round is a circle with top and the bottom cut off.
The round is 24.8mm long, 14mm wide, and 8mm tall. As a result, the entire 40-round magazine (fiberglass, 2-row) is only 180mm long, 35mm wide, and 40mm long, weighing 250 grams.
CL8-24L delivers a muzzle energy of 2,600 joules, propelling its 3.6-gram polymer-saboted 6.3 mm projectile at 1,200 m/s. Apart from the projectile, it contains 1.6 grams of solid propellant, the 0.2 gram sabot, and the 0.18-gram backup mechanically-ignited primer.
Round mass: 5.18 grams
Bullet mass: 3.6 gram FMJ, JHP, AP, or Hybrid
Bullet diameter: 6.3mm saboted
Muzzle velocity: 1,200 m/s
Armor penetration: NIJ class III, STANAG level I (AP type only)
Cost per round, bulk: $0.28

In essence, CL8-24L replicates the performance of the 6.3mm rifle within the 8mm caliber. It is a more powerful replacement for 5.56x45, with comparable penetration power, but greater stopping power.
It is supplied with JHP, tip-hardened AP, and hybrid bullets, all ballistically matched.

CL8-15L
CL8-15L (or colloquially 8-15) is the smallest round that can be used with R2. To be fired from the full-sized R2, it requires a charged battery, as the round's recoil is too weak to power the weapon. There's no such requirement for R2C and R2-PDW, as their power systems are tuned for lower power.
15x14x8mm in size, the entire round weighs just 3.6 grams. The 2.4-gram saboted projectile is propelled at 1,100 m/s, producing 1,400 J of muzzle energy.
This round is, power-wise, between 4.7mm and 5.45x39.
In general, the only reason to use this round in normal configuration is warning fire.
Round mass: 3.6 grams
Bullet mass: 2.4 gram FMJ
Bullet diameter: 4.8mm saboted
Muzzle velocity: 1,200 m/s
Armor penetration: NIJ class IIIA (Kevlar vest), no STANAG rated armors
Cost per round, bulk: $0.18

CL8-25
There's nothing to say about it: 8-25 is as standard as it gets.
The round offers a balance of performance against both unarmored and armored targets, designed primarily to be as compact as possible. The round has a cross-section of a very rounded rectangle (12.8x12.8mm, r=3.6mm), designed to fit into magazines in a compact manner, and have no weak points that could cause eventual deformation.

CL8-25 uses a rapid-burning propellant, which allows to reduce muzzle pressure and required propellant mass. High velocity decreases wind drift and improves accuracy, while keeping low recoil. The round still contains a 0.18-gram backup mechanically-ignited primer. A match version without mechanical primer and with strict tolerances is also produced.

Length: 25.0mm
Round mass: 9.98 grams
Bullet mass: 6.0 gram AP, APTC or Hybrid
Bullet diameter: 7.98mm
Muzzle velocity: 1,520 m/s regular
1,570m/s match
Armor penetration:
AP (entire round) and Hybrid's core - NIJ class III, STANAG level I
APTC, core only - NIJ class IV, STANAG level II
Cost per round, bulk: $0.45 regular
$1.80 match

CL8-40
Balanced Match/Marksman round for high-precision work.
Loaded with regular or tungsten-core precision-machined Very Low Drag bullets. No backup mechanical primer is included, as it would harm the consistency and performance.
Both the civilian and the military version are ballistically matched, but the civilian version is designed to minimize penetration for competition purposes, while the military version rather has a tungsten core and a hard alloy front for maximum penetration.

Round mass: 16.0 grams
Bullet mass: 10.0 gram VLD or tungsten-core hardened AP VLD
Bullet diameter: 7.98mm
Muzzle velocity:
1,470 m/s from R2
1,580 m/s from R2S/800mm
1,640m/s from R2S/1000mm
Muzzle energy: 11,000J
Armor penetration (military): STANAG level III
Cost per round, bulk: $6.00 match (civilian)
$7.50 marksman tungsten-core (military)

CL8-40FL:
This round is designed to deliver high velocity with low recoil and mass. A pressure-supported disintegrating plastic sabot houses a 2-mm high-velocity tungsten flechette that can penetrate even unusually heavy body armor and light armored vehicles.

Round mass: 4.0 grams
Bullet mass: 1.6-gram tungsten carbide tipped steel flechette
Bullet diameter: 2.0mm
Muzzle velocity: 2,000 m/s
Armor penetration: STANAG level III, NIJ class IV, 40mm RHA
Cost per round, bulk: $3.00

CL8-63
CL8-63 are the only rounds that use the entire chamber of R2, and its entire firepower delivery capability. They are designed for extreme armor penetration, to defeat the heaviest armors that can possibly be worn, including potential powered armors possible within the near future, as well as light and medium APC. The best-penetrating one, CL8-63FL, has been tested to pierce 75mm of RHA at 500m, over twice more than .50BMG penetrates at point blank range. Even the non-saboted CL8-63AP can go through 60mm of armor. Such penetrating capability is the result of concentrating the energy of .50BMG on a much smaller area.
Of course, firing CL8-63AP from a regular rifle would be a recipe for a broken shoulder. It's the recoil of these rounds the ARCS was designed to alleviate in the first place.

CL8-63
Round mass: 24.0 grams
Bullet mass: 14.0 grams tungsten core AP VLD
Bullet diameter: 7.98mm
Muzzle velocity: 1,620 m/s
Armor penetration: STANAG level III+ up to 1km
STANAG level IV at close ranges
Cost per round, bulk: $12.00

CL8-63FL
Round mass: 14.2 grams
Bullet mass: 5-gram tungsten carbide tipped steel flechette
Bullet diameter: 2.55mm
Muzzle velocity: 2,290 m/s
Armor penetration: STANAG level III+
Cost per round, bulk: $8.00



R2L Lightweight Assault Rifle


Specifications
For ones not mentioned, see R2 Service Rifle.
Length, compacted: 800mm
Length, maximum: 920mm
Weight, empty: 2.95 kg
Weight, with holosight, loaded with 40 rounds: 3.45 kg
Barrel length, with chamber: 612mm
Rounds supported: CL8-15 to CL8-40

Rate of fire, burst: Selectable, 300...1,200 rounds per minute
Rate of fire, sustained: N/A
Rate of fire, semi-sustained: 300 rpm with CL8-40, 600 rpm with CL8-25
Semi-sustained rate of fire is limited to no more than five 40-round magazines with cooldown during change.

Accuracy, benchrested, with match grade CL8-40:
0.8 MOA (23mm) at 100m
1.0 MOA (140mm) at 500m
1.3 MOA (360mm) at 1,000m
Specified for the worst 5-round group out of 10 groups in controlled conditions (enclosed shooting range), after adjustment.

Accuracy, practical median:
1.2 MOA at 100 to 250m
1.8 MOA at 250 to 600m
2.6 MOA at 600m to 1,000m
Derived from service testing by shooters with 2 to 5 years experience, year-round, varying firing conditions, varying weapon condition, varying rounds used.

Accurate range:
450m with CL8-25
700m with CL8-40
Defined as 400mm groups and sub-250mm CEP in practical low wind conditions.

For maximum effective range and armor penetration see R2.

Pricing:
Minimum package
No scope, no accessories, no rounds, electronic documentation, limited warranty.
Price:
Retail - $39,000
Bulk (starting at 1 million units) - $35,000

Deployment package
Includes all the same as standard R2 Deployment Package, but with a lightweight 1x-4x sight and without an integrated grenade launcher and a bipod.
Price:
Retail - $56,700
Bulk (starting at 1 million units) - $52,000



R2C Tactical Carbine

Image


Specifications
Length, compacted: 540mm or 640mm
Length, maximum: 720mm or 820mm
Weight, empty: 2.60kg or 2.80 kg
Weight, with holosight, loaded with 40 rounds: 3.10 kg or 3.30 kg
Barrel length, with chamber: 400mm or 500mm
Rounds supported: CL8-15 to CL8-40

Rate of fire, burst: Selectable, 300...1,200 rounds per minute
Rate of fire, semi-sustained: 450 rpm with CL8-40, 750 rpm with CL8-25, 1,050 rpm with CL8-16 or CL8-15L
Semi-sustained rate of fire is limited to no more than five 40-round magazines with cooldown during change, or three 100-round magazines for CL8-15L.

Accuracy, benchrested, with match grade CL8-40:
0.75 MOA (21mm) at 100m
1.4 MOA (210mm) at 500m
2.2 MOA (640mm) at 1,000m
Specified for the worst 5-round group out of 10 groups on an enclosed shooting range, after adjustment.

Accuracy, practical median:
1.8 MOA at 100 to 250m
2.0 MOA at 250 to 500m
2.6 MOA at 500m to 1,000m
Derived from service testing by shooters with 2 to 5 years experience, year-round, varying firing conditions, varying weapon condition, varying rounds used.

Accurate range:
300m with CL8-25
400m with CL8-40
Defined as 400mm groups and sub-250mm CEP in practical low wind conditions.

For maximum effective range and armor penetration see R2.

Pricing:
Minimum package
Retail - $36,000
Bulk - $32,000

Deployment package
Includes all the same as standard R2 Deployment Package, but with a holographic sight and without a bipod.
Price:
Retail - $50,300
Bulk (starting at 1 million units) - $45,000
+$2,000 for 500mm barrel.



R2GM General Purpose Machine Gun

Image


While the standard R2 has a sufficiently good firing rate, it's not fully sufficient for the purpose of a general machinegun. For this, the R2GM has been developed.

In place of a vertically moving chamber, R2GM utilizes a four-chamber revolver system. While less accurate, it provides a far higher rate of fire, and the capability of indefinitely sustaining it even with heavy rounds. To provide uninterrupted fire, the weapon has two magazine slots (left and right), and a belt feed system (top). The belt can be normal or disintegrating.

Like in normal R2, rate of fire is selectable, but on R2GM it can be done in a wider range and smoothly. In addition, the trigger distinguishes between four pull force levels. At a touch, it measures the distance and automatically suggests the correction by lighting one of a few sight indicators. At level 1, the fire rate is halved or single fire is performed, at level 2 the normal rate is used, and at level 3 it's doubled.

Specifications

Overall length: 1250mm
Barrel length: 800mm
Weight, empty: 6.50 kg
Weight, loaded: Variable
Rounds supported: CL8-15 to CL8-63

Fire modes: Safety, single/burst (trigger select), sustainable full auto, custom-rate full auto, maximum-rate full auto
Selector type: Analog lever switch with 3 fixed positions and 4 clicks for different fire rates
Burst control 6-position sliding switch
4-position pressure-sensitive trigger
Force level 1 activates DACS, force level 3 is standard, force levels 2 and 4 temporarily increase or decrease fire rate.

Rate of fire, burst: Selectable, 300...3,600 rounds per minute
Rate of fire, sustained: 600 rpm with CL8-63, 900 rpm with CL8-40, 1,200 rpm with CL8-25

Muzzle velocity: 290m/s...1750m/s - round-dependent
Muzzle energy: 800...17,800 joules

Accuracy, benchrested, first shot:
1.5 MOA (45mm) at 100m
2.0 MOA (300mm) at 500m
Specified for a 5-round group of separate single shots.
In automatic fire, spread is introduced intentionally.

Practical effective range:
650m with CL8-25
700m with CL8-40
750m with CL8-63
Defined as hitting a 400x600mm static target with one 5-round burst with 80% probability and one 15-round long burst with 95% probability.

Rate of fire, burst: Selectable, 300...3,600 rounds per minute (for 4-round burst only)
Rate of fire, sustained:
450 rpm with CL8-63
900 rpm with CL8-40
1,800 rpm with CL8-25 and lower

Pricing:
Only one package is offered, as telescopic sights or grenade launchers are not normally required.
Standard package
Price:
Retail - $101,100
Bulk (starting at 1 million units) - $95,000


R2S Sniper Rifle

Image


R2S is a sniper rifle based on the R2 architecture. There's no intermediate "marksman version": the accuracy of standard R2 is sufficient for a designated marksman, and the additional advantage of R2S is only of use for a sniper. High power rounds allow R2S to be used as an anti-materiel weapon as well.

R2S barrels employ variable geometry rifling with partial progressive twist, typically tight, such as 1 in 200mm. This allows it to achieve excellent results with heavier bullets, by reducing stress on the driving bands, allowing for the use of narrow bands while still reliably engaging the rifling. The rifling geometry near towards the muzzle end is designed to flatten the driving band back into the bullet, returning it to the aerodynamically perfected shape.

To further improve accuracy, R2S is equipped with a Barrel Vibrations Attenuator. This is a fully mechanical adjustable tension system that can change the barrel's inherent vibration frequency by stiffening or loosening its mount. While the tensioned barrel of R2S is extremely stiff, it still exhibits a small amount of vibration during firing. With the attenuator set perfectly correct for the barrel, the deflection will be zero when the bullet leaves the muzzle, thus eliminating the problem.


Detailed Specifications

Barrel length: 800mm or 1,000mm
Length, compacted: 980mm or 1,220mm
Length, maximum: 1,160mm or 1,400mm
Weight, empty: 4.80kg or 5.20kg
Weight, with scope and bipod, loaded with 10 CL8-63 rounds: 6.40 or 6.90 kg
Note: R2S rifles usually have additional weight in the ARCS and accessories, up to 8.5kg in total.
Rounds supported: CL8-24L to CL8-63, CL8-80

Fire modes: Safety, Manual, Semi-automatic, Automatic (2rd/3rd burst or full auto selected by trigger pressure).
Selector type: 4-position main lever switch
3-position pressure-sensitive trigger

Rate of fire:
~25 rpm in Manual mode
~50 rpm in Semi-Automatic mode (using 25-rd magazines)
Up to 600 rpm automatic, not sustained (1200 burst).
Muzzle velocity: 250m/s...2,500m/s - round-dependent
Muzzle energy: 800...22,000 joules - round-dependent

Accuracy, benchrested, with match-grade CL8-80:
0.28 MOA (10mm) at 100m
0.3 MOA (45mm) at 500m
0.4 MOA (110mm) at 1,000m
0.55 MOA (240mm) at 1,500m
0.75 MOA (440mm) at 2,000m
Tested in an enclosed shooting range.

Accurate range:
1,900m with CL8-80, fully attuned

Maximum effective range:
6,200m with CL8-63
Maximum effective range is defined by the bullet retaining supersonic velocity. The actual weapon's usefulness rapidly declines past the accurate range.

Armor penetration at 500m and 30 degrees:
With anti-personnel rounds - STANAG level III
With anti-materiel rounds - STANAG level III+

Pricing:
Minimum package
Retail, 800mm barrel - $108,000
Retail, 1,000mm barrel - $118,000
Large-volume orders, 800mm barrel - $100,000
Large-volume orders, 1,000mm barrel - $110,000

Deployment package
Includes:
- Same as R2, except for integrated grenade launcher and VFG
- Telescopic sight:
Brotherhood of Steel HPTS-3 - day/night telescopic sight with 63mm objective, 3x-24x optical magnification, 4th generation analog night vision, prismatic input-output for electronics (not included), and double metal matrix composite casing for mechanical protection.
- Full lifetime warranty

Price:
Retail, 800mm barrel - $130,000
Retail, 1,000mm barrel - $140,700
Large-volume orders, 800mm barrel - $120,000
Large-volume orders, 1,000mm barrel - $130,000


CLAP-825 Caseless Automatic Pistol

The CLAP pistol is not an actual part of the R2 system, but a high-power fully automatic pistol designed to use CL8 ammunition compatible with the rifle, making it a convenient sidearm for the troops equipped with the complex.

History

The origins of the 2006-2008 Advanced Caseless Automatic Pistol program lie in the 2007 Special Anti-Materiel Pistol foreign contract and 1998-2007 R1 Advanced Combat Rifle program. Completed by the Brotherhood of Steel 2007-12-20 and starting series production 2008-01-12, the CLAP program finally fulfilled the need for high-firepower combat pistols.

Operation

Main action

CLAP is a rear-grip, forward magazine automatic pistol, using boltless long recoil operation with vertically moving chamber and electrical/mechanical ignition.
Use of such system was necessitated by the SAMP's requirements to increase barrel length while keeping the weapon's size manageable, and allow for high loads and very long cartridges normally reserved to revolvers. In addition, it allowed for fast, convenient reloading.

To load the weapon, one simply inserts the magazine, ahead of the trigger, until it locks in place, and the reload spring immediately loads the round into the chamber, with final move releasing the chamber return spring, which pushes the chamber up, making the weapon ready to fire immediately. This only applies to a just unloaded weapon; for a weapon from storage, the slide should be pulled. The magazine is held in place by sprung lugs and its own pusher and bullet lids opened after insertion and locked by the rounds inside.
Pressing the trigger involves two actions: activates the electric ignition system and pulls the sear through a leaf spring. Normally, however, when the electric system is intact, a small capacitor-powered electromagnet pulls down a sear blocker, preventing it from releasing the hammer. That charge only lasts a little while if the weapon doesn't recoil, so, in case the electric ignition is unsuccessful, the hammer is still released.

As the bullet is fired, the slide with barrel and chamber recoils, which unlocks and sends downward the chamber and cocks the hammer if it has struck. As the recoil reaches 1/3 full length, the rear cartridge reload limiter, blocking the lowered chamber, is lifted rear-upward. Upon recoil reaching 2/3 full length, the reload limiter is lowered again. On return, the reload spring and chamber return spring in the frame are loaded, and, as the recoil is complete, push the new cartridge backwards into the chamber and upwards with it.

When the last round is spent, the magazine's lid, previously kept open by the rounds inside, is no longer held and closes back through a spring, keeping the magazine locked only by the tension. The tension force can be regulated during the maintenance, starting from zero, i.e. immediately releasing the magazine as the last bullet is sent into the chamber.

Secondary systems

In case of misfire, the slide should be pulled manually, but not completely (which is hard even if attempted), letting the reload spring to push the dud out of the chamber. As the chamber rises on next firing, the dud is captured on recoil by friction in the frame and kept from interfering with the operation. In case another misfire occurs, the next misfired round pushes the previous further back, forcing through the normally closed dud ejection port there. Such system simplifies the extraction of damaged rounds, and, at typically very low misfire rate, lets the shooter to extract the dud when he deems best.

During recoiling, the linear generator between the slide and the frame converts a fraction of the recoil energy into electricity, used to recharge the built-in capacitor and battery. The electric power generated is used for powering the electrical ignition system, and, if installed, other equipment.

CLAP operation is fully suited for both single and low-rate fully automatic fire, but the cartridge power makes single fire clearly the preferential mode. To simplify construction and better control the weapon, the fully automatic fire is not implemented mechanically, but only works by electronically activating electrical ignition if the weapon is switched to full auto or burst.
Automatic fire systems are optional, and can be installed either in the form of simple additional full-auto mode on the safety switch, complete analog system from R1, or a special digital system. The latter allows for completely digital fire control through datalink, together with additional systems installed, from laser target designator/rangefinder to electro-optical system.

The effects of high power round recoil are partially countered by the muzzle climb compensator, which utilizes gas pressure to push the muzzle end downwards. In addition, long recoil operation reduces the recoil force, although it remains excessive for single-hand use by personnel without extreme physical strength.


Construction


In overall appearance, the CLAP and SAMP series automatic pistols resemble a typical modern hammerless pistol like Glock Tactical, but with submachinegun-like frontal magazine. The hammer forged barrel has polygonal rifling and slight taper towards the muzzle, ending with a straight section allowing to mount the standard recoil compensator, extended muzzle brake, or a silencer.

Use of very high-pressure cartridges necessitated special materials to be used. The barrel and all mechanism parts are produced of HDS-1250 steel, certified by the VTS-105 standard to 1250 MPa yield strength retained after 10,000 dynamic loads of 800 MPa. The chamber is formed of unidirectional continuous-fiber composite of HDS-1250 matrix with carbon nanotube fiber reinforcement. The optimal performance weapon lifetime is 5,000 rounds, with 10,000 safety maximum.
The components are electroplated with varying thickness layers of osmiridium to reduce friction wear and provide high corrosion resistance.

Pistol frame has lightened, but highly durable construction of titanium alloy matrix with bidirectional carbon fiber reinforcement. Parts with solely ergonomic functions are built of polymers.
A retractable stock is mounted in the frame, with rubberized buttstock extending from low frame edge to upper slide edge. When the weapon is first fired from carrying position, the buttstock is partially extended by the slide recoil, somewhat dampening the first shot recoil and protecting the shooter from being hit by the recoiling slide. From that point or before, the stock extension handle can be triggered, with the spring immediately fully extending the stock.


Ammunition


Most bullets for the CLAP series pistols are relatively conventional pistol rounds, including JHP, FMJ and AP ammunition.


Performance


A defining feature of all CLAP series pistols is very low recoil among pistols for the same round fired, due to long recoil operation and high recoiling mass. The peak recoil force is less 1/4 that of a conventional short-recoil pistol with the same bullet impulse, and average recoil force about 1/3. As all CLAP pistols have long barrels and consequently higher velocity, the actual recoil felt is close to 1/2 of that for a typical pistol.
Recoil impulse is reduced by 5-15% with the use of standard muzzle brake/rise compensator compared to pistols without it, but pistols with aftermarket muzzle brakes fitted may have it lower by further 20-30%, as CLAP directs a large part of muzzle brake energy to counter muzzle climb and compromises between reducing recoil and keeping moderate noise.

Compared to the extremely soft recoil of the fully balanced R1 technology, however, the CLAP technology doesn't offer comparable reduction, and recoil force for the same round is still over 4 times higher. Recoil impulse is about 15% lower, as R1 only has far less efficient silencer-integrated muzzle braking effect.
CLAP produces about +12 dB higher noise than R1, and +25 dB higher with muzzle brake installed. Compared to normal pistols, total noise is within -9..+3 dB, depending on barrel length and muzzle brake type, but -3 dB less noise is directed towards the shooter due to rear-downward orientation of brake force rather than rearward.

Muzzle climb is dropped 5-10 times by the compensator, softened recoil, and, most importantly, the heavy vertically moving chamber acting as a counterweight to the muzzle climb. Still, unlike R1 with centered barrel, CLAP doesn't reduce muzzle climb to zero, and, due to typically high-power rounds used, requires extensive training for accurate rapid fire. Compared to the near-zero-climb system used by Kriss, the muzzle climb of CLAP is 2.5-4 times higher, as the grip is below the barrel rather than behind. It should be noted, however, that SLAP offers higher barrel length and therefore firepower.

Inherently, CLAP is a quite accurate weapon for any caliber, owing to reduced recoil, long barrel and use of low-drag bullets, but the sighting system presents a problem dropping the accuracy. Due to the long recoil of the entire upper part, anything more complex than open sights is unusable in automatic fire, and most scopes can't be used at all. The most accurate full auto fire compatible sighting systems available are ghost ring and red dot sight.
For single fire, special 2x and 3x magnification scopes, as well as 1x-3x night vision scopes are available, grip-mounted on groove rails, however their long eye relief has proved inconvenient, and scope movement disrupts the focus for the next shot.

The best results for CLAP-825 have been achieved using a high-illumination laser scope/rangefinder, automatically adjusting for bullet trajectory, combined with open sights. While adding to the weapon's cost, it pays off by lack of view disruption during rapid fire, ease of use and good accuracy, especially in combat situations.

Ammunition


Bullet construction

The CL8-25P and CL-16P bullets utilize a versatile construction, for a compromise between penetration and terminal effect.
It consists of a mild steel body in a full thick polymer coated copper jacket, rapidly thinning towards the tip, with a conical tungsten post in the centre. Its most important detail is the tip design, providing different behaviour on contact with solids and liquids. Body armor creates compressive force that collapses the surrounding steel around the central post, providing for a hardened steel armour piercing shape. When entering a liquid, the pressure is distributed uniformly, creating very high drag within the cavity, leading to rapid expansion.
These effects aren't combined; after penetrating hard armour, the bullet loses most of its expansion capability. The tungsten cone in the centre, acting as a wedge, increases expansion in liquids, and the conical section behind the cavity helps to tear the steel, also providing for limited expansion after solid object penetration.
In the 16P variant, the steel body has twelve deep grooves cut on the inside and on the outside, to improve expansion; the 25P has sufficient velocity by itself.

Overall, while the soft-target effectiveness of CL8-25P is slightly lower than of an equivalent energy large-calibre bullet, the expansion effectively utilizes high velocity, saving weight. Performance-wise, CL8-25P lies below .50AE, but close to .50GI and above .45ACP and .45 Colt, due to high penetration and expansion diameter reaching 25mm. It delivers high terminal effect, known as stopping power, for either fast termination or rapid incapacitation with non-lethal shots.
This structure is illustrated below.

link (will be fixed)

Specifications - CLAP-825

CLAP-825, 8x25mm

Length overall: A,B - 240 mm, C - 160mm
Barrel length, actual: A,B - 180 mm, C - 100mm
Barrel length, effective (from bullet base): 200 mm
Recoil length: 40 mm
Weight, empty, A/B/C versions: 1.00kg / 0.95kg / 0.70kg
Cost
SLAP-825 Auto, analog E+M, single/burst/auto - N$2000
SLAP-825 Basic, E+M, rapid repeater single fire - N$1600
SLAP-825 Compact, E+M, single fire - N$1200

Scopes (for A and B models only)
Open sights or ghost ring - included
Adjustable red dot scope - N$100
Laser sight - N$250
Laser sight/rangefinder with automatic compensation - N$550
2x optical scope - N$250
Night vision 2x optical scope - N$800
Night vision red dot 1x scope - N$500

CL8-25P, CT8-25P

Dimensions: 25 mm long, 12.5 mm rounded rectangle
Fully compatible with R1 Advanced Combat Rifle.

Weight, CL8-25P: 10.2 grams
Weight, CT8-25P: 14.0 grams
Bullet weight: 8.1 grams
Bullet length: 24 mm
Propellant weight: 2.2 grams
Ignition: Electric/mechanical, high ignition temperature primer


Loaded with CL8-25P

Muzzle velocity: 620 m/s
Muzzle energy: 1500 J
Chamber pressure: 550 MPa max.
Magazines:
Standard - 20-round box magazine, 2-row, biodegradable polymer, semi-transparent
Extended - 60-round, 80-round helical magazines, biodegradable polymer
Other - 12, 16, 24, 30 round 2-row box magazines; 30, 36, 42 round 3-row box magazines
Magazine weight, with 20 caseless CL8-25P: 0.30 kg
Magazine weight, with 20 cased telescopic CT8-25P: 0.38 kg
Extended magazine weight, 60/80 rounds, caseless: 0.90 / 1.20 kg
Extended magazine weight, 60/80 rounds, cased telescopic: 1.15/ 1.42 kg
Total pistol weight (Auto version), with 20 round box magazine, caseless: 1.30 kg

[Predicted using solid plate mechanics]
Armor penetration, RHA, at 20m, 0 degrees: 11mm

CL8-16P

Dimensions: 16 mm long, 12.5 mm rounded rectangle
Compatible with R1 SMG versions, and normal R1, but not marksman or LMG versions.
Performance-wise, CL8-16P can be viewed as an equivalent of 10mm Auto.

Weight, CL8-16P: 8.0 grams
Weight, CT8-25P: 10.5 grams
Bullet weight: 6.8 grams
Bullet length: 14 mm
Propellant weight: 1.2 grams
Ignition: Electric/mechanical, high ignition temperature primer

Muzzle velocity: 510 m/s
Muzzle energy: 880 J
Chamber pressure: 450 MPa max.
Magazines:
Standard - 20-round or 30-round 2-row box magazine, biodegradable polymer, semi-transparent
Extended - 60-round, 80-round, 100-round helical magazines, biodegradable polymer
Magazine weight, with 20/30 caseless CL8-25P: 0.24 / 0.33 kg
Magazine weight, with 20/30 cased telescopic CT8-25P: 0.28 / 0.40 kg
Extended magazine weight, 60/80/100 rounds, caseless: 0.72 / 0.92 / 1.10 kg
Extended magazine weight, 60/80/100 rounds, cased telescopic: 0.86 / 1.12 / 1.40 kg
Total pistol weight (Auto version), with 20 round box magazine, caseless: 1.24 kg

[Predicted using solid plate mechanics]
Armor penetration, RHA, at 20m, 0 degrees: 6mm


SAMP-1080 Special Anti-Materiel Pistol

The SAMP-1080 pistol, also not actually part of the R2 series, is another design sharing its features with R2 and more specifically the CLAP pistol. It uses 10x80mm ammunition that maximizes armor penetration, being designed for breaching vehicle armor or armored doors at close range, and dealing substantial behind-armor damage (which flechette ammunition cannot do). This weapon's recoil limits its use to people with sufficient strength and proper training, or use with a bench rest.

OOC introduction
Note that while the general weapon is MT, variations with digital control system are, of course, clear-cut PMT, the same applies to APEF rounds. Since that stuff is designed for cyborgs shooting enemies in powered armor, it has no use in MT anyway.

Overview


SAMP designation as "special" reflects its unsuitability for use by an average person and limited range of targets requiring weapons in such powerful calibers as 10x80 caseless. SAMP was designed for armored urban warfare, providing light anti-materiel capabilities in a smaller package than a specialized rifle. Later, as the SAMP program was reaching advanced stages, it was realized that its developments have potential application in medium-powered firearms, and it was incorporated into the Advanced Pistol program.
Further, CLAP will refer to the series as a whole or specifically mid-power pistols, while SAMP sub-series are high-power versions chambered for 8x63, 10Px80 and larger anti-materiel or dual-purpose rounds.

The penetration capabilities of SAMP-1080 are roughly equivalent to a .50BMG API round fired from a M2 machinegun, however, materiel damage dealt is lower. Compared to a .50BMG fired from a revolver, the SAMP-1080 with APEF ammunition exceeds its effectiveness in all respects. The recoil impulse exceeds a double shot from a 12 gauge shotgun.
Despite all recoil reduction measures, the weapon still has very high recoil and can only be used, with both hands, by well-trained, strongly built humans, or in PMT by mechanically augmented personnel.

Ammunition

To reduce barrel wear and friction velocity loss, all special bullets for SAMP (not CLAP) are encased in a special polymer sabot, working as a lubricant in the barrel. The sabot has six lugs locking the bullet at its base, transferring the rotational momentum received from barrel rifling, thus allowing to retain accuracy comparable to a normal bullet.

For the primary SAMP caliber, 10x80, the typically most effective round is CL10P-80-APEF, Armor Piercing Explosively Fragmented. The bullet itself is 65mm long, and consists of tungsten carbide tip with tungsten block around it, containing a very small explosive charge and cuts for fragmenting. It penetrates armor much like a solid bullet, but later the explosive activated by the fuse serves to artificially expand the bullet to a diameter of 30-35mm.

Specifications (SAMP)

SAMP-1080, 10x80mm

Length: 360 mm
Barrel length, actual: 240 mm
Barrel length, effective (from bullet base): 300 mm
Recoil length: 90 mm
Weight, empty, A/B/C versions: 2.20 kg / 2.00 kg / 2.50 kg
Cost
SAMP-1080 Basic, standard electrical/mechanical (E/M) single fire - N$2800
SAMP-1080 Auto, analog electronics, single, burst and full auto - N$4000
PMT Only: SAMP-1080 Cyber, DCS system with digital fire control, ultraviolet laser rangefinder, narrow-field targeting camera, "smartgun"-compatible datalink - N$8000

Scopes (for A and B models only)
Open sights or ghost ring - included
Adjustable red dot scope - N$100
Laser sight - N$300
Laser sight/rangefinder with automatic compensation - N$1000
Red dot night vision scope - N$1200
2x optical scope - N$400

Ammunition: CL10P-80-APEF
Dimensions: 80 mm long, 14x14 mm rounded square
One-way compatible with RS10 long-range CL10R caliber sniper rifle
Weight: 56.0 grams
Bullet length: 68 mm
Bullet max. diameter: 8.5 mm
Bullet avg. diameter: 6.5 mm
Bullet weight: 39.0 grams
Propellant weight: 16.0 grams
Ignition: Electric/Mechanical, high ignition temperature primer

Performance with CL10P-80-APEF
Muzzle velocity: 770 m/s
Muzzle energy: 11500 J
Chamber pressure: 800 MPa max.
Weight, loaded with 15-round magnesium/polycarbonate magazine: 3.15 kg / 2.95 kg / 3.50 kg

[Predicted data]
Armor penetration (Using solid plate mechanics), RHA, at 0 degrees: 38mm
Armor penetration (Using Lanz-Odermatt equation), RHA, at 0 degrees: 26mm
The average penetration RHA equivalent is about 35mm, higher in case of ceramic, heavy metal, MMC and fiber armors, and lower in case of light alloy armors or natural obstacles.

In popular [s]culture[/s]

The introduction of a new large, excessively powerful and stylish pistol has been, as with the Desert Eagle, met with great enthusiasm by the filmmakers.
Prominently shown, the SAMP-1080 pistol has been cited by critics as "The only decent thing" in the C-movie "Attack of 8-foot Mecha Hitlers", funded by the Mordino family and filmed at the Golden Globes studio in New Reno. In the movie, Jesus Mordino Jr. (starring Jesus Mordino Jr.) under the wise guidance of his father Signor Mordino (starring Signor Mordino) defends New Reno from 50 Hitlers in eight foot tall powered armor (starring Silicon Graphics), cloned by evil corporations to take over "New Reno, The Last Free City". Upon their victory, the two proceed to entertain the employees of Kitty's Paw (starring silicon implants).



R2 Scout is an R2-based take on the Scout Rifle concept. It is a lightweight marksman rifle, especially accurate at shorter ranges, far lighter and cheaper than R2S, but also lacking its sheer firepower.
See full description at Page 7 (link).


Domestic Production


While R1 was a good performer on the market, some customers have quoted an issue more significant to them than the price: the lack of an offer for Domestic Production Rights. With R2, it has been decided that this should be rectified.
However, producing R2 is more than a question of retooling a few gun shops. It uses technologies on the cutting edge, and only a handful of nations have the necessary set of technical knowledge, high-tech industrial capacity, and manufacturing culture, necessary to build all the components to the standards required.

So, for nations that do consider domestic production a necessity, we offer a domestic production package, which includes the manufacturing specifications, the key equipment used in all stages of the production process, its installation, necessary personnel training, and the DPR themselves. Since it essentially means disclosing and transferring technologies beyond the immediate weapon's construction, the cost for such a package is appropriately considerable. Currently it is set at $900 billion for the complete series with all ammunition and accessories.
Lower costs may be negotiated by allies or in special cases.

Domestic production rights for the rounds and common spares (not requiring restricted technology to produce) are included with all large orders.

Full Supply Model


In order to make things more convenient for the customers, we continue to offer the Full Supply Model, where the customer only needs to specify the total number of weapons, for a flat fee. Once the number is established, we'll work with orders from individual units, and supply all weapons of the series, of any type, with any required accessories. This isn't a one-time deal; should the requirements change or expand, we can replace the weapons with other models, add accessories, and provide anything else that might be needed. All future models of the series and associated accessories will also be available to every Full Supply Model client once they are released.
This service is only available to large-volume customers (1 million units and more), and is often more convenient than DPR.

The cost for the Full Supply Model purchase of R2 series is $80 billion per one million units.



Credits

Design team
Technical design: VT
Visual design: Anghele
Additional thanks
Nianacio - for armor penetration information and advice
Maxim Popenker - for firearms information and advice
Non Aligned States - for materials and structural design advice
Lyras - for usability advice
NECO - for the QuickLoad ballistic simulator
Whoever has commented on R1 - for your contributions

OOC thread


R2 Infantry Armament System - OOC thread

If you want to make any comments, ask an OOC question, or discuss it - you're welcome in the linked thread.
Last edited by Vault 10 on Tue Aug 31, 2010 7:47 am, edited 38 times in total.
There is a line most people say they will never cross. It is usually something they have done long ago when they thought no one was watching.




User avatar
Hamilay
Ambassador
 
Posts: 1171
Founded: Jan 23, 2006
Ex-Nation

Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby Hamilay » Sun Jul 05, 2009 8:58 am

Image


Official Communique

The Hamilayan Army has been planning to replace its current service rifle for some time and we are pleased to announce that the R2 family of arms has been selected to fill this role. We wish to purchase 1,710,000 units under the Full Supply model, possibly with more to come later. Preliminary estimates for numbers of each variant would range somewhere in the order of 1,200,000 R2 Service Rifle, 200,000 R2L LAR, 50,000 R2C Tactical Carbine, 250,000 R2GM GPMG and 10,000 R2S Sniper Rifle. Accessory details will be worked out amongst units and commanders as per the policy.

We believe this comes to a total of 136.8 billion dollars.

Furthermore, we wish to inquire as to the possibility of acquiring more detailed information on the ARGL-25I grenade launcher, as well as to the cost and availability of production rights and facilities for CL8 ammunition.

Regards
Federal Republic of Hamilay
Ministry of Defence
Last edited by Hamilay on Sun Jul 05, 2009 9:00 am, edited 1 time in total.

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Vault 10
Minister
 
Posts: 2471
Founded: Sep 15, 2006
Ex-Nation

R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby Vault 10 » Mon Jul 06, 2009 3:58 pm

Image

From: Brotherhood of Steel
To: Federal Republic of Hamilay, Ministry of Defence


Greetings and salutations.

We have received your order, and will proceed to fulfill it as soon as possible. Thank you for the preliminary estimates. 1,710,000 R2 weapons will be produced for you, and our production teams will work out specific configurations and customization as required.

Public information on the ARGL-25I Integrated Grenade Launcher, as well as on two other models available (20mm modular integration GL/shotgun and 40mm underslung), will be released as soon as possible.

For all Full Supply Model customers, we offer the production rights for CL8 ammunition at no additional charge, and the specifications are open.
In general, while the weapon itself is sophisticated and expensive, the opposite can be said of most ammunition. CL8 specifications only require a bullet in a block of propellant, with no case or primer necessary. As specified, the standard propellant composition is 80% of HMX or RDX, 15% of additives, and 5% of elastomer binder, forming a low-temperature, waterproof, highly heat-resistant propellant suitable for sustained automatic fire without cookoffs. This composition has elastomeric properties itself, allowing it to be cast into molds even manually, if required.
High-accuracy marksman and sniper rounds tend to be more difficult to produce. They use different compositions, optimized for high gas velocity, high adiabatic index, increased energy density, and other factors critical to ballistic performance, and are loaded with high-precision multi-part lathed bullets. We are ready to assist in organizing the production and supply the required equipment at competitive cost.


Yours faithfully,
Knight Delmar.
There is a line most people say they will never cross. It is usually something they have done long ago when they thought no one was watching.




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Democratic Colonies
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby Democratic Colonies » Mon Jul 06, 2009 4:58 pm

Image
Official Government Communique
From the Desk of Secretary of Defense Bruce Davison, Federated Union of Democratic Colonies
To the Offices of the Brotherhood of Steel


My associates and I believe the R2 to be the one of the finest killing implements on the market today, and it would have brought us great pleasure to have equipped the entirety of our nation's forces with the R2 rifle. Due to budgetary concerns however, I am only authorized to purchase a limited number of the units for special usage by a select few.

The Federated Union of Democratic Colonies would like to register an order for the following:
* 20,000 x R2 Service Rifle Deployment Package with M.A.C. TA/FCS Telescopic Sight and 370mm Lightweight Bipod
* 6,000 x R2GP General Purpose Machine Gun Deployment Package
* 2,000 x R2S Sniper Rifle Minimum Package with 1,000mm Barrel
* 28,000 x Extended Accessory Battery

For a total sum of $2,236,800,000. In addition to this order however, the Government of the Democratic Colonies would like to enter an agreement in which spare parts, replacement magazines, and replacement R2 packages are delivered on a monthly or bi-monthly basis to ensure that inventory levels do not fall below the numbers outlined in this initial purchase. Regular retail price is acceptable for all of the materials purchased through this arrangement, as we do not feel that we shall overtake the one million units figure in the foreseeable future.

Please inform me of your thoughts concerning our proposed arrangement at your earliest convenience.

Sincerely,
Bruce Davison, Federated Union of Democratic Colonies

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Vault 10
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby Vault 10 » Mon Jul 06, 2009 6:35 pm

Image

From: Brotherhood of Steel
To: Secretary of Defense Bruce Davison,
Federated Union of Democratic Colonies

Greetings and salutations.

The limitations are understandable; indeed, R2 delivers its best in special operations. We'll need individual measurements to customize the chassis ergonomics for each user, which can be sent to us via electronic communications, or measured on spot, at your preference. 20,000 R2, 6,000 R2GM, and 2,000 R2S will be produced and delivered for you.

Concerning spare parts, the R2 in retail package is covered by a lifetime warranty, applying to the entire assembly and all components. The weapon is designed to last and survive even severe conditions, and the only exception to the warranty is deliberate damage or exceptional abuse. We will, of course, deliver spare parts if requested. But we would prefer, should the weapon fail as a part of normal usage, to send a new replacement immediately and have the failed unit sent back to us together with incident description, so that we can investigate the cause and eliminate the weak point in further units.

The total cost for replacement magazines will depend on the rate of use. Generally, training rounds are produced for a cost of about $0.05 per round, but the total cost will depend on the training schedule. For instance, the Brotherhood members, with our heavy focus on marksmanship, aren't tend to spend well over a hundred thousands rounds per year each, while in regular army usage rates can be as low as 1,000 rounds per year. We recommend at least 20,000 training rounds per year (not counting exercise blanks) to maintain high combat readiness.
Combat rounds vary in cost from $0.30 for standard CL8-24 to as much as $15 for R2S CL8-80 VLD match/long-range ammunition.

Considering this difficulty in estimating costs, rather than a fixed plan, we suggest a flexible contract with payment for actual equipment delivered. Additionally, we'll provide you with specifications for all rounds production, should the future circumstances prevent delivery.


Yours faithfully,
Knight Delmar.





OOC: With the minimum package price on R2S, there was a mistake (forgot to edit the block), just noticed it now. Since it was a mistake on my part, your price stands, consider it a discount.
Last edited by Vault 10 on Mon Jul 06, 2009 7:32 pm, edited 2 times in total.
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Democratic Colonies
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby Democratic Colonies » Wed Jul 08, 2009 5:25 pm

Image
Official Government Communique
From the Desk of Secretary of Defense Bruce Davison, Federated Union of Democratic Colonies
To the Offices of the Brotherhood of Steel


I thank you for your much appreciated consideration of our national needs. We agree wholeheartedly to your proposal for a flexible contract as previously outlined, as we feel this would meet our needs in an efficient and economical manner. Additionally, as you suggest, all R2 units that are rendered inoperable will be returned for your inspection whenever possible.

Concerning the transmission of physical measurements which would allow you to better customize the R2 chassis ergonomics for individual users, I am afraid this is not possible at this time for all 28,000 R2 units we have ordered. A small number of measurements will be sent to you alongside this communique, but the vast majority of the units will have to be adjusted for individual users at some point in the future after we take delivery, as discussion is still ongoing as to which military formations will be receiving these highly sought after pieces of equipment. I hope that this does not compromise the ergonomics or usability of the R2 units to an unacceptable degree - please contact myself or my associates if this does present an overly large problem.

Sincerely,
Bruce Davison, Federated Union of Democratic Colonies

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Nachmere
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby Nachmere » Thu Jul 09, 2009 3:55 am

Nachmere Armed Forces | 101st Special Orders Group

As you may know, the Armed Republic of Nachmere has a massive arms industry. However, most of thse weapons are made to be affordable for massive formations. We at the 101st SOG, known to most as "The Parliament Guard", are a rather more elite unit.

We have many elements that can get along with using anything from AK-47s to SLR-2000s. But we have several units that really do require the best of the best.

We wish to purchase the following weapons and ammunition:

A) 1000 R2L with the deployment package.

B) 1000 R2C/400mm with deployment package.

C) 250 R2GM

D) 100 R2S with deployment package.

E) 10,000,000 rounds of the CL8-24L

F)10,000,000 rounds of the CL8-15L

G)2,500,000 rounds of the CL8-40

H)1,500,000 rounds of the CL8-40F

We would also like to send our armory staff to you for tranin, so they are well informed on the features and maintanance of this weapon. We would also like to know if it would be possible to have DPR for the producion of ammunition.

Thank you for your time.
Have a look at my storefront: Schwerpunkt Arms

Questers wrote:An Army without MBTs is not an Army. It is a glorified police force.

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Vault 10
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby Vault 10 » Thu Jul 09, 2009 1:16 pm

Image

From: Brotherhood of Steel
To: Secretary of Defense Bruce Davison,
Federated Union of Democratic Colonies

Greetings and salutations.

I am glad we have found the solution mutually acceptable. We are working on your order at the moment.

The individual measurements are, of course, not a necessity. Most firearms are simply built for what is assumed to be the average intended user, which is a compromise for every specific user. However, since the carbon fiber for the R2 chassis has to be laid by hand in either case, and since the weapon's design allows for high flexibility in ergonomics (for instance, the pistol grip location can be moved almost without limitation), we prefer to customize it at this point.
Such deep customization is, unfortunately, not possible once the chassis is complete.

But even with a small sample of measurements, we can produce other units to match a predicted distribution curve. Afterward, you will just have to spent some amount of time to find the best match for each user. This is the usual approach we have used with R1 for supplying large armies, where it's certain that there are many shooters with similar arm length, hand size and overall constitution. It is less than perfect, but well sufficient.

Certain ergonomics detail are still adjustable in complete weapons. Trigger pull, stock retraction depth, shock absorber stiffness, cheek rest position, recoil compensation intensity, muzzle climb counteraction setting, rates of fire and firing modes all can be changed by the user. This is far more adjustability than offered by regular rifles, but some of these changes take more time than others.
However, I do recommend you to take that time, since the recoil compensation system only delivers its best performance when it is properly tuned. This is not critical with light rounds like 8-25 and flechettes, but the full-power sniper and anti-materiel 8-63 rounds require proper ergonomics to be fired comfortably.


Yours faithfully,
Knight Delmar.
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The Hellish Apocalypse
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby The Hellish Apocalypse » Thu Jul 09, 2009 7:24 pm

I need around 3,718,889 R2C Tactical Carbines for my army plus 743,777,800 rounds of CL8-24L (using a army calculator) I can Afford them
Last edited by The Hellish Apocalypse on Thu Jul 09, 2009 7:28 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Vault 10
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby Vault 10 » Fri Jul 10, 2009 4:51 am

Image

From: Brotherhood of Steel
To: 101st Special Orders Group,
Armed Republic of Nachmere

Greetings and salutations.

Your order has been received and accepted. We have calculated the cost to be as follows:
1000 R2L, Deployment Package - $56.7 million
1000 R2C/400mm, Deployment Package - $50.3 million
250 R2GM - $25,275,000
100 R2S, Deployment Package - $10.8 million with 800mm
(Or $11.8 million with 1000mm barrel)

10,000,000x CL8-24L - $2.8 million
10,000,000x CL8-15L - $1.8 million
2,500,000x CL8-40 - $18.75 million
1,500,000x CL8-40F - $3.3 million

Please specify if you would prefer 1000mm barrels for the R2S (generally, they are rarely required other than for absolutely extreme-range work, and when extra length is not a concern), or any changes in the number of rounds.
If no changes are made, the total cost will be $169.7 million.

The specifications of most ammunition are open, and production for domestic purposes is not restricted. Most rounds, except for CL8-40, CL8-63 and flechettes, can be produced in properly retooled regular ammunition factories. We could provide the necessary equipment for an average output of 75,000 rounds per shift, depending on round type (~15 million per year) for a cost of about $6 million.

The Brotherhood can provide training for your armory personnel at no additional cost, provided they agree to abide by the Brotherhood rules and schedule while here.


Yours faithfully,
Knight Delmar.




OOC: I've worked out the prices for the round and detailed some specs. If you want to review the order, say, add the CL8-25 (how could I have forgotten them initially?) and reduce the number of CL8-40, go on.
Last edited by Vault 10 on Sat Jul 11, 2009 10:34 am, edited 2 times in total.
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Nachmere
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby Nachmere » Fri Jul 10, 2009 8:14 am

Greetings and salutations.

Your order has been received and accepted. We have calculated the cost to be as follows:
1000 R2L, Deployment Package - $56.7 million
1000 R2C/400mm, Deployment Package - $50.3 million
250 R2GM - $25,275,000
100 R2S, Deployment Package - $10.8 million with 800mm
(Or $11.8 million with 1000mm barrel)

10,000,000x CL8-24L - $2.8 million
10,000,000x CL8-15L - $1.8 million
2,500,000x CL8-40 - $18.75 million
1,500,000x CL8-40F - $3.3 million

Please specify if you would prefer 1000mm barrels for the R2S (generally, they are rarely required other than for absolutely extreme-range work, and when extra length is not a concern), or any changes in the number of rounds.
If no changes are made, the total cost will be $169.7 million.

The specifications of most ammunition are open, and production for domestic purposes is not restricted. Most rounds, except for CL8-40, CL8-63 and flechettes, can be produced in properly retooled regular ammunition factories. We could provide the necessary equipment for an average output of 75,000 rounds per shift, depending on round type (~15 million per year) for a cost of about $6 million.

The Brotherhood can provide training for your armory personnel at no additional cost, provided they agree to abide by the Brotherhood rules and schedule while here.



Yours faithfully,
Knight Delmar.


Nachmere Armed Forces | 101st Special Orders Group

Thank you for your quick reply. The following will ansawer all issues you brought up:

A) We do not wish the 1000mm barrel for our R2S rifles.

B) We thank you for your willingness to allow us to produce ammunition. NPS of Nachmere, as you probably know, will be easily capable of opening a new line of ammunition, we simply wanted your concent.

C) Our armory perssonel will be sent on assignement, and will consider them selves attached to your specialists, they will for all intents be under your comamnd.

Thank you for your time.
Have a look at my storefront: Schwerpunkt Arms

Questers wrote:An Army without MBTs is not an Army. It is a glorified police force.

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Vault 10
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby Vault 10 » Fri Jul 10, 2009 3:09 pm

Image

From: Brotherhood of Steel
To: 101st Special Orders Group,
Armed Republic of Nachmere

Greetings and salutations.

All aspects have been cleared up. We are working on your order at the moment.

Yours faithfully,
Knight Delmar.





Image

From: Brotherhood of Steel
To: The Empire of The Hellish Apocalypse

Good health to you, Sir.

I apologize for the delay. Since R2 is a restricted export item, we have to make a some checks on your nation's international policy and potential consequences before clearing the order. The Council will complete its review within tomorrow. Should we find no obstacles to the arrangement, your order will be carried out.

With sincere regards,
Brother Stanwood.
Last edited by Vault 10 on Fri Jul 10, 2009 3:09 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Vault 10
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby Vault 10 » Sat Jul 11, 2009 10:35 am

Image

From: Brotherhood of Steel
To: The Empire of The Hellish Apocalypse

Greetings and salutations.

After thorough consideration, we have decided to accept your order.
The cost will be as follows:
3,718,889 R2C Tactical Carbines - $187,060,116,700
743,777,800 CL8-24L rounds - $208,257,784

For a total $187,268,374,500.

We have been somewhat surprised at the small number of rounds requested, so I'll send you the specifications for their production, should you run out of them. Feel free to write again if you need more ammunition or additional equipment.

Yours faithfully,
Knight Delmar.
There is a line most people say they will never cross. It is usually something they have done long ago when they thought no one was watching.




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Logan and Ky
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby Logan and Ky » Sun Jul 12, 2009 12:06 am

Official Kyan Message

Speaking on the behalf of the great nation of Logan and Ky, I would like express how impressed we are with the clearly superior design of the R2 line. We are in need of a new assault rifle, as our current rifle, the XM8, failed miserably during the Great Stagnation wars, as it was outperformed by the Kroandon K-1 in addition to its inability to penetrate the enemy armour. As such we would like to request the purchase of 12.5 million weapons using your full supply model for a total price of 1 trillion USD.

Signed,
Nikolai Mickolov
Secretary of Defence, Logan and Ky
Last edited by Logan and Ky on Sun Jul 12, 2009 12:06 am, edited 1 time in total.

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Anghele
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby Anghele » Sun Jul 12, 2009 1:59 am

M.A.C Heavy Industries | Defense

Official Purchase Letter



Even though we have Domestic Production Rights for this model,we wish to acquire 25 units of every variant each (with all the different barrels),with specific serial numbers and the following text inscribed;

"R-2 High Energy Service Rifle"

Variant : xxxx

Caliber : xxxx

Serial Nº : 0x/25

Made In Vault_10 For M.A.C | Defense





And also 250 units of every variant,100 in OD,50 in TAN,50 in BLACK and the other 50 in White,each with a specific serial number (with all the different barrels),specific serial numbers and the following text inscribed;

"R-2 High Energy Service Rifle"

Variant : xxxx

Caliber : xxxx

Color : xxxx

Serial Nº : 0xx/150

Made In Vault_10 For M.A.C | Defense





And 12 units of every variant gold electroplating (with all the different barrels),each with specific serial numbers and the following text inscribed;

"R-2 High Energy Service Rifle"

M.A.C | Defense Limited Edition

Variant : xxxx

Caliber : xxxx

Serial Nº : x of 12

Made In Vault_10 For M.A.C | Defense




These should feature museum quality deluxe manuals,with extremely detailed descriptions of the weapon itself and all of the manufacturing process,beginning from the extraction of the raw materials to the end of the assembly line. Make them big books if needed,posters and panflets would be welcomed as well along with other "promotional" items.The gold models,are to be shipped in solid high quality Mohogany gun cases with a gold plaque inscribed :

"M.A.C | Defense Limited Edition"

x of 12

Caliber xxxx

Variant xxxx

Also,we wish to purchase eight cut-away units of each variant and five cut-away units made to fire special low power ammunition (to showcase the exposed mechanism),and if possible,cut-away´s of the several parts of the rifle,sound suppressor,trigger housing,chamber,barrel,etc.60 parts kits of each variant,to include every single part needed to build the rifle by a qualified gunsmith,and also,several hundreds of individual parts for storage and future use for repairs.

Additionally we wish to purchase 100 museum quality framed sets with all the ammunition (with name labels) available for this rifle.

These units shall go to M.A.C | Defense private collection.

Please give us a quote on the price.

Thank you,

M.A.C Heavy Industries | Defense Management.
Last edited by Anghele on Sun Jul 12, 2009 2:19 am, edited 5 times in total.
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Vault 10
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby Vault 10 » Sun Jul 12, 2009 5:21 am

To whoever is the one this does concern,
Within the Heavy Industries of the M.A.C.

The most pleasant and self-fulfilling morning to thee, dear Sir.

I am Initiate Lindsey Quinlan of the Brotherhood of Steel, the one assigned to do all engravings on the rifles we are sending thee. This duty, assigned to me for being the finest artisan in the entire so aptly named Brotherhood, for no lesser would befit the request of a customer as honored as thou, I am most honored to perform. Despite the hardships, I remain just as excited about it as any other initiate who has joined the Brotherhood of Steel in a quest for glory, that of a Brotherhood Knight on the field of battle, defending the weak and slaying the honorless, with a rifle in her arms, a plate over her chest, and dangerous foes all around, would be in my place.

Thanks to thy kindness in also demanding the utmost urgency, I will not waste more than four hours a day in a horizontal position for the next two months, while the certain Lt. Passard, who has given me the order, a lengthy and adventurous tour of duty to his shiny lieutness, is listening to Beethoven, drinking mugs of Kahlua for no reason, not remotely getting around to heal his horseless carriage with its source of horselessness in the wrong place, and taking Hollywood showers in his above-surface domicile, further revealing his true identity to be the long-lost superhero Major P.I.T.A to both of us.

So fortunately for my sake, out of the $121,975,000 thou have so generously provided to fulfill this order, the Brotherhood Code entitles me to up to no more than one percent, which I may eventually and indirectly spend on my own equipment, should my promotion to a full member ever come, after thy order has delayed it by two months, and should I have the luck to have a need for equipment of a different nature than I am using now in my craft. This relief, located in the possibility of my distant future that has just become far smaller thanks to thy order, makes all that I am enduring now just that bit more worthwhile as to make the same difference that a fly can make to a dead tree by removing itself from casting a shadow over it on a moonless night, I am most pleased to report.

I am sneaking this message into the first rifle sent to thee, in hope that thou find the time to read it, if for nothing else, then to know of how thy order is being done. But my only desire remains that thou order more items with my engravings, in case this message is found by other Brotherhood members, the standing among which I must retain.

I beg to remain, Sir, thy most obedient and humble servant,
Initiate Quinlan.

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Vault 10
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby Vault 10 » Sun Jul 12, 2009 11:15 am

[ OOC: Long time no see...
BTW, have you seen these threads on jolt?
http://forums.joltonline.com/showthread.php?t=558133
http://forums.joltonline.com/showthread.php?t=558660
Don't take it as offense, I've just decided to take the idea to the extreme and have fun with it. ]

Image

From: Brotherhood of Steel
To: Nikolai Mickolov,
Secretary of Defence,
Logan and Ky

Greetings and salutations.

Your order has been received and approved. I will oversee the start of the expanded production lines. The shipments should start within the week, while further delivery will be completed within reasonable time, depending on the specifics.

As has been mentioned, you'll have the access to all weapons of the series, limited by a total number of 12.5 million, any replacement parts whenever needed, and have production rights for the ammunition.

Yours faithfully,
Knight Delmar.
There is a line most people say they will never cross. It is usually something they have done long ago when they thought no one was watching.




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Daiwiz
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Founded: Jul 01, 2008
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby Daiwiz » Sun Jul 12, 2009 1:00 pm

OOC:Holy crap, that's alot of writing. Very, very nice. Might I suggest making a site for it on something like invisionfree though? That way you don't scroll through several pages worth of writing, everything is laid out in different parts of the site. Some of us have problems reading all of that in one sitting lol.

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Vault 10
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby Vault 10 » Tue Jul 14, 2009 11:42 am

OOC: That could be done, but it's then less convenient to edit the text, and takes going off the site, which many people don't like. I've tried to put all accessories into spoiler boxes, so that one can read about them separately.
It's actually only about 10-15 thousand words, not all that massive, there was one design in NS that cracked 20 thousand (Nakil). Now that one was a wall of text.
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Allanea
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby Allanea » Wed Jul 15, 2009 1:56 pm

[align=center]Official Annnouncement from the Chairman of the Confederacy of Sovereign States, President Alexander Kazansky [/center]

Dear Friends!

As usually, I would like the brave men and women in Confederate uniforms to be armed with the very best. As such, I would like you to supply the Confederate Military with the brand-new R-2 rifles. I will spare no expense in equipping the men and women of the Confederacy – Vizionians, Mandalorians, and many others – with the newest Brotherhood military technologies. Should you accept this contract, the Confederate Budget will be utilized to pay out 500 billion dollars .

In addition, I have contracted the NCR Heavy Industries company to provide training for personnel in the Confederate Military for 150 billion dollars. This will cover training for every Confederate Soldier for $20,000 per person trained and special executive renumeration for the leadership of the NCR Heavy Industries Corporation for carrying out this extremely sensitive project.

That is all.

May God bless the Confederacy.

May God bless the Brotherhood.

And May God continue to bless Allanea.
#HyperEarthBestEarth

Sometimes, there really is money on the sidewalk.

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Vault 10
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby Vault 10 » Fri Jul 17, 2009 4:47 pm

Image

From: Brotherhood of Steel
To: President Alexander Kazansky,
Chairman of the Confederacy of Sovereign States

Greetings and salutations.

Certainly, we are happy to be such an important part of the Confederacy's effort to keep the world a truly free place. We'll produce R2 series weapons of all current and future models, as required by the specialization, for all troops of the Joint Confederate Army, and continue to supply them as becomes necessary.

Since the NCR Heavy Industries security forces have been trained and are commanded by our members, they are a very good choice for providing the training. We'll assist the company as required for the purpose.

I wish you good fortune and victory.


Yours faithfully,
Knight Delmar.
There is a line most people say they will never cross. It is usually something they have done long ago when they thought no one was watching.




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The PeoplesFreedom
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Re: Brotherhood of Steel: R2 Advanced Infantry Armament Complex

Postby The PeoplesFreedom » Sun Jul 19, 2009 11:02 pm

Official Military Purchase Order: Military Apportions Committee


To Whom It May Concern,

Our military has been very interested in the R2 due to our experiences with the R1 and as such we have been following development very closely. After meeting with your representatives and testing the weapon thoroughly, we have decide to acquire production rights of the R2. However, we also wish to place an order for one million units to be used immediately. The payment will be wired to your accounts upon confirmation on the order. Thank you, and congratulations on another fine product.
If you have any questions please let me know. I'd be happy to help in any way I can.

National Information
NS Draftroom[/spoiler]

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