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Armoured Vehicles and Tanks Modular Armour [Open OOC/IC]

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Yohannes
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Armoured Vehicles and Tanks Modular Armour [Open OOC/IC]

Postby Yohannes » Thu May 03, 2018 1:22 pm



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Armoured Vehicles and Tanks Modular Ceramic-Metal Armour [AMA]






Nation of origin: Yohannes
Year of manufacturing and production: 2018
Technology: Real Life Modern Technology
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Introduction

Armoured vehicles and main battle tanks (e.g. Yvernyr, San-Silvacian) have traditionally been manufactured from high strength armour or specially modified plate steel (Bisalloy Armour, 2016). However, advanced ceramic composites have largely replaced steel as non-structural armour materials in some modern combat vehicles (CeramTec GmbH, 2018). Their properties, such as good strength combined with high hardness, make their manipulation ideal for the design of modern armour systems (Bracamonte et al., 2016). But, in some designs this has been limited by their low brittleness and toughness, which limit ballistic performance (Bhatnagar & Asija, 2016). Therefore, in this present NationStates design, ceramics have been joined with both metallic and long fibre reinforced composite backing plates to improve their ballistic performance (Simons et al., 2016).

For this NationStates design, limitation to depth of penetration (DOP) performance has been compared with similar schemes using ANSYS Autodyn: Equations of Motion three dimensional analysis (ANSYS Simulation, 2018) and LS Dyna hydrocode simulation. North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Standard 60O oblique and normal testing parameter have been used. Technical data for the ceramic and metal composition have been acquired by using the Johnson-Cook and Johnson-Holmquist (JH-2) constitutive models (Johnson–Holmquist damage model).

With ongoing research and development, combined ceramic and metal modules design potentially allows armour system to face not just present impact velocities ranging from 1,500 to 1,800 metres per second, but also more lethal future impact velocities, which can range from 2,500 to 3,000 m/s (Cottrell et al., 2003).

References

    Bisalloy Steels Group Limited (2016). Bisalloy Armour: Armour Plate Steel. Retrieved from https://www.bisalloy.com.au/site/Defaul ... ochure.pdf

    CeramTec GmbH. (2018). Ceramic Materials for light-weight Ceramic Polymer Armor Systems. Retrieved from https://www.ceramtec.com/files/et_armor_systems.pdf

    Bracamonte, L., Loufty, R., Yilmazcoban, I. K. & Rajan, S. D. (2016). Materials and Electrochemical Research Corporation, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America; Sakarya University, Republic of Turkey; and Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States of America. Design, manufacture, and analysis of ceramic-composite armor: A volume in Woodhead Publishing Series in Composites Science and Engineering (pp. 349-367).

    Bhatnagar, N. & Asija N. (2016). Durability of high-performance ballistic composites, Lightweight Ballistic Composites - Military and Law-Enforcement Applications: A volume in Woodhead Publishing Series in Composites Science and Engineering (Second Edition) (pp. 231-283). New Delhi, India: Indian Institute of Technology.

    Simons, J. W., Johnsen B. B., Kobayashi T., Shockey D. A. & Rahbek D. B. (2017). Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI), P.O. Box 25, NO-2027 Kjeller, Kingdom of Norway; and the Centre for Fracture Physics, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA 94025, United States of America.

    Ansys Incorporated (2018). Simulate short duration, severe loadings. Retrieved from https://www.ansys.com/products/structures/ansys-autodyn

    Johnson–Holmquist damage model. (2018, May 4). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved May 4, 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johnson%E ... mage_model

    Cottrell, M. G, Yu, J. & Owen, D. R. J. (October 2003). International Journal of Impact Engineering: The adaptive and erosive numerical modelling of confined boron carbide subjected to large-scale dynamic loadings with element conversion to undeformable meshless particles. Volume 28, Issue 9, (pp. 1,017-35). Department of Civil Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea, SA2 8PP, UK. Rockfield Software Ltd., Technium, Prince of Wales Dock, Kings Road, Swansea, Wales SA1 8PH, UK.
Last edited by Yohannes on Wed Nov 14, 2018 4:51 am, edited 11 times in total.
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Re: Armoured Vehicles and Tanks Modular Ceramic-Metal Armour

Postby Yohannes » Thu May 03, 2018 1:28 pm

Last edited by Yohannes on Mon May 07, 2018 2:27 am, edited 6 times in total.
The Realm of YohannesDas Yohannesische Reich
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1. Background

Postby Yohannes » Thu May 03, 2018 9:34 pm



1. Background

Armour research and development for tanks since the Second World War has become increasingly focused on finding less heavier layered composites that offer better protection than basic steel plate (Browne, 1989). Although it has since the 1970s increasingly included multi-layer composite materials, ceramics, and other ballistic protection materials, the standard structure of an armoured fighting vehicle is still made up of monolithic, armour-grade steel, which use will still be widespread for the next thirty years or so (Azom Materials, 2017). At the same time, there is continuing development in armour material design to improve ballistic properties whilst at the same time ensuring better mobility for tanks and other military vehicles (ASM International, 2003). Various approaches to integrating ceramics in hybrid armour systems have brought about weight reductions and will improve performance for next-generation energy absorbing systems for military vehicles (Craciun, 2009). One such approach was by restraining ceramic tiles with membranes of polymeric composites or metal sheets (Sarva et al., 2004).

The optimal design and implementation of energy-absorbing materials and structural systems require a fundamental understanding of dynamic events and failure mechanisms under extreme conditions (Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2018). Since the 1970s, this understanding has brought about major impact on the ability of manufacturers to tailor their protective systems for reliable performance (Yap, 2012). One such approach was demonstrated first on the Vickers-MBT armour system in 1976, which comprised compact arrays with laminated elements or spaced arrays, otherwise commonly referred to as the “Chobham armour” (Browne, 1989). Although the composition is still secret, it is known to be partly laminated, partly spaced arrays with elements of aluminium, ceramics, and modified grade steel (Hilmes, 1987).

From historical old findings we have learnt that ceramics show high resistance under extreme compressive loading and break apart under tensile loading, which cannot be avoided in impact loading (Perciballi et al., 1992). Investigations were conducted to address this shortcoming, resulting in the development of a suitable materials system to improve performance (Yang & Miyanaji, 2017).

For this NationStates design, the following symbols and definitions are used:

    ε0, reference strain rate; ρ0, density (kg/m3); A', yield strength (MPa); B', constant hardening (MPa); C', constant strain rate; Cr, specific heat (J/kg x K); d'1-5, constant damage; K, bulk modulus (MPa); K2-3, constant pressure (MPa); G, shear modulus (MPa); n, hardening exponent; t0, reference temperature (K); tm, melting temperature (K); β, bulking factor; A & N, constant strength intact; B, constant fracture strength; M, fracture strength exponent; D1-2, constant damage; T, hydrostatic tensile limit (MPa); dref, depth of penetration with no ceramic tile; dres, residual penetration; η, mass efficiency protection coefficient; ρref, referenced target density; ρc, ceramic tile density; Lr, residual length of projectile; tc, ceramic tile thickness; tf, front and cover plates thickness; tb, rear plate thickness; and σm, mean stress
For this NationStates design, limitation to depth of penetration (DOP) performance has been compared with similar schemes using hydrocode Autodyn simulation: Equations of Motion three dimensional analysis. DOP testing is used to record depth of penetration results and compare these values to values of penetration depth achieved without the armour system (Hazell, 2016).

Table 1 shows the material properties of the long rod penetrator used in the on the ground firing testing of the sample armour design.

Armour defeat concept:
Long rod
Penetrator
Density:
17,600 kg/m3
Modulus of elasticity
325,000 MPa
Ultimate tensile strength
920 MPa
Plastic deformation resistance
Brinell hardness 277 tungsten wolfram carbide


Table 2 shows the material properties of the ceramic used in the on the ground firing testing of the sample armour design.

Materials
Silicon carbide fibre reinforced and coatings SiC-F/T
Density
3,200-3,250 kg/m3
Modulus of elasticity
415,000 MPa
Ultimate tensile strength
400 MPa
Plastic deformation resistance
Vickers hardness 26,000 MPa


Table 3 shows the material properties of the minority axial confinement used in the on the ground firing testing of the sample armour design.

Minority materials
R56400 3.8 alpha-beta titanium alloy
Density
4,400-4,420 kg/m3
Modulus of elasticity
~114,000 MPa
Ultimate tensile strength
~1,100 MPa
Plastic deformation resistance
Brinell hardness 328 tungsten wolfram carbide


Table 4 shows the material properties of the majority axial confinement used in the on the ground firing testing of the sample armour design.

Majority materials
Maschinenfabrik Halsten AG rolled homogeneous armour plate grade steel
Density
7,790 kg/m3
Modulus of elasticity
~200,000 MPa
Ultimate tensile strength
≥ 1,180 MPa
Plastic deformation resistance
Brinell hardness 430 tungsten wolfram carbide


Table 5 shows the material properties of the side interface layering used in the on the ground firing testing of the sample armour design.

Side materials
Copper
Density
8,850 kg/m3
Modulus of elasticity
~110,000 MPa
Ultimate tensile strength
239 MPa
Plastic deformation resistance
Vickers pyramid 80


Table 6 shows the material properties of the weak interface layering used in the on the ground firing testing of the sample armour design.

Interface materials
Spark-machining graphite allotrope
Density
1,680 kg/m3
Modulus of elasticity
~10,000 MPa
Ultimate tensile strength
28 MPa
Plastic deformation resistance
Brinell hardness 530 tungsten wolfram carbide


Table 7 shows the material properties of the support plate used in the on the ground firing testing of the sample armour design.

Support materials
Maschinenfabrik Halsten AG rolled homogeneous armour plate grade steel
Density
7,790 kg/m3
Modulus of elasticity
~200,000 MPa
Ultimate tensile strength
≥ 1,180 MPa
Plastic deformation resistance
Brinell hardness 430 tungsten wolfram carbide


Table 8 shows the material properties of the peripheral covering used in the on the ground firing testing of the sample armour design.

Peripheral covering
Halstenmetall AG 4340 vacuum arc treated steel alloy
Density
7,790 kg/m3
Modulus of elasticity
~200,000 MPa
Ultimate tensile strength
890 MPa
Plastic deformation resistance
Brinell hardness 280 tungsten wolfram carbide


Figure 1 shows an edited mesh generated version of the three dimension half and quarter armour sample models for impact under North Atlantic Treaty Organisation 60O and normal arrangements that were constructed with hydrocode Autodyn modeling.

Image

Figure 2 shows an edited primitive material version of the three dimension half and quarter armour sample models for impact under North Atlantic Treaty Organisation 60O and normal arrangements that were constructed with hydrocode Autodyn modeling.

Image

The different goals of the fire testing were (i) evaluating pre-stress influence on the ceramic armour system, (ii) observing the ability of the ceramic armour system to defeat the kinetic energy penetrator at the ceramic’s front surface, and (iii) identifying each constituent of the sample armour design. The penetrator used to hit the sample armour design was a Tungsten W93% heavy alloy, FeNi iron–nickel alloy and Tungsten WHA heavy alloy long rod penetrator with a diameter of eight millimetres and length of one hundred and thirteen millimetres having conical tip with an angle of eight degrees, one point four millimetres diameter and twenty-four millimetres length.

To improve limit velocity (e.g. compression failure strength, ductility, premature tension failure) of the ceramic constituent, compressive pre-stressing was done before testing (Lankford et al., 1995). Manually-operated linear actuators were used to do this pre-stressing of the square (equal one hundred millimetres length and width) silicon carbide fibre reinforced and coatings SiC-F/T ceramic armour. The thickness chosen for the ceramic sample was twenty millimetres.

This ceramic layer was secured by limited aperture, spaced Halstenmetall AG 4340 vacuum arc treated steel alloy. Maschinenfabrik Halsten AG rolled homogeneous armour plate grade steel was chosen as the majority frame materials to confine the configuration because they are easily available around the international community (i.e. industrially viable). To strengthen this spaced configuration, R56400 3.8 alpha-beta titanium alloy was chosen as minority materials, though only in weak areas because they are expensive and has small industrial availability (i.e. smaller supply) in comparison to the more widespread supply of RHA steel (Ward-Close, 1994).

References

    Browne, M. W. (1989, July 18). Plastics and Ceramics Replace Steel as the Sinews of War. The New York Times, Science Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/1989/07/18/scie ... f-war.html

    Azom Materials (2017). Armor Plated Steel: MIL DTL 12560K and DEF STAN 95-24. Retrieved from https://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=14297

    ASM International. Advanced composite structures cut weight in U.S. Army tank. Advanced Materials & Processes. 161.9 (September 2003) (p. 35).

    Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics. Engineering Extremes: Unifying Concepts in Shock, Vibration and Nonlinear Mechanics. Conference and Exposition (February 12-15, 2018). Rosen Plaza, Orlando, Florida, United States of America.

    Cracaiun, C. C. (May, 2009). A Thesis Submited to the Faculty of the Royal Military College of Canada: Evaluation of Light Ceramics for Ballistic Protection. Department of National Defense, 395 Wellington Street, Ottawa OK K1A 0N4, Canada.

    Sarva, S., Nemat-Nasser, S., McGee J. & Issacs J. (2004). Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0416, USA. International Journal of Impact Engineering 34 (2007) (pp. 277-302).

    Yap, C. K. (September, 2012). A Thesis Submited to the Naval Graduate School: The Impact of Armour on the Design, Utilization and Survivability of Ground Vehicles: The History of Armor Development and Use. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850, United States of America.

    Hilmes, R. (1987). Main Battle Tanks: Developments in Design since 1945. Brassey's Defence Publishers Limited, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

    Perciballi, W. J., Netherwood, P. H., Burkins, Hauver, G. E., Burkins, M. S. & Gooch, W. A. (1992). Proceedings of 13th international symposium on ballistics, Sundyberg: Variation of target resistance during long-rod penetration into ceramics.

    Yang L. & Miyanaji H. (August, 2017). Ceramic Additive Manufacturing: A Review of Current Status and Challenges. Conference: Solid Freeform Fabrication 2017: Proceedings of the 28th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium – An Additive Manufacturing Conference.

    Hazell, P. J. (2016). Armour: Materials, Theory, and Design. New South Wales, Australia: Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

    Lankford, J., Anderson Jr., C. E. & Walker, J.D. (November, 1995). Investigations of the Ballistic Response of Brittle Materials. CEA Consulting, San Antonio, Texas, USA. Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, USA. Project 06-5117/002 (p. 114).

    Ward-Close, C. M. & Winstone, M. R. (February, 1994). Developments in the processing of titanium alloy metal matrix composites. Structural Materials Centre, DRA Farnborough & Interface Analysis Centre, University of Bristol, UK.
Last edited by Yohannes on Sun May 06, 2018 5:12 am, edited 18 times in total.
The Realm of YohannesDas Yohannesische Reich
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We love NationStates! Do you? \__(^.^)_//
NS military project: Tank | Armour | Bomber
All In-Character things I’ve written on NationStates are open-source/Creative Commons that you can use :)
2018 had been my most productive (IC) NS year since 2011 — I won’t be as active on NS now due to RL obligations :)

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Materials properties for experimental record

Postby Yohannes » Fri May 04, 2018 2:31 am



Materials properties for experimental record

Technical data for the penetrator and target metal composition have been acquired by using the Johnson-Cook and Johnson-Holmquist (JH-2) constitutive models (Johnson–Holmquist damage model).

Table 9 shows the constant parameters of the Tungsten W93% and WHA heavy materials of the penetrator.

Material:
Tungsten W93% and WHA
Density:
17,600 kg/m3
Grüneisen parameter:
1.537
Equation of state — Autodyn support
Shock was chosen
Bulk modulus
283,700 MPa
Reference temperature
26.85 OC; 300 Kelvin
First parameter
4,035 m/s
Second and third parameters
1.24 and 0
Specific heat
133.7 J/kg x K
Strength — Autodyn support
Johnson–Cook constants
Shear modulus
159,600 MPa
Yield strength
698 MPa
Constant hardening
1,150 MPa
Constant hardening exponent
0.624
Thermal exponent
1.009
Constant strain rate
0.055
Melting temperature
1,457 OC; 1,730 K
Reference strain rate
1.000
Failure — Autodyn support
Johnson–Cook equivalent plastic strain to failure
Constant damage values
0 → 0.31 → -1.47 → 0 → 0


Table 10 shows the constant parameters of the Halstenmetall AG 4340 vacuum arc treated steel materials of the peripheral armour covering.

Material:
Halstenmetall AG 4340 vacuum arc treated steel alloy
Density:
7,790 kg/m3
Grüneisen parameter:
Equation of state — Autodyn support
Linear was chosen
Bulk modulus
158,600 MPa
Reference temperature
26.85 OC; 300 Kelvin
Specific heat
476.3 J/kg x K
Strength — Autodyn support
Johnson–Cook constants
Shear modulus
76,800 MPa
Yield strength
781 MPa
Constant hardening
503 MPa
Constant hardening exponent
0.259
Thermal exponent
1.027
Constant strain rate
0.0137
Melting temperature
1,534 OC; 1,807 K
Reference strain rate
1.000
Failure — Autodyn support
Johnson–Cook equivalent plastic strain to failure
Constant damage values
0.06 → 3.231 → -2.077 → 0.002 → 0.603


Table 11 shows the constant parameters of the Maschinenfabrik Halsten AG rolled homogeneous armour plate grade steel materials of the majority axial confinement and support plate.

Material:
Maschinenfabrik Halsten AG rolled homogeneous armour plate grade steel
Density:
7,790 kg/m3
Grüneisen parameter:
Equation of state — Autodyn support
Linear was chosen
Bulk modulus
158,600 MPa
Reference temperature
26.85 OC; 300 Kelvin
Specific heat
476.3 J/kg x K
Strength — Autodyn support
Johnson–Cook constants
Shear modulus
77,900 MPa
Yield strength
1,450 MPa
Constant hardening
690 MPa
Constant hardening exponent
0.198
Thermal exponent
0.809
Constant strain rate
0.00537
Melting temperature
1,534 OC; 1,807 K
Reference strain rate
1.000
Failure — Autodyn support
Johnson–Cook equivalent plastic strain to failure
Constant damage values
0.06 → 3.231 → -2.077 → 0.002 → 0.603


Table 12 shows the constant parameters of the copper materials of the side interface layering.

Material:
Copper
Density:
8,850 kg/m3
Grüneisen parameter:
Equation of state — Autodyn support
Linear was chosen
Bulk modulus
128,600 MPa
Reference temperature
26.85 OC; 300 Kelvin
Specific heat
382.4 J/kg x K
Strength — Autodyn support
Johnson–Cook constants
Shear modulus
45,900 MPa
Yield strength
89 MPa
Constant hardening
288 MPa
Constant hardening exponent
0.308
Thermal exponent
1.087
Constant strain rate
0.0244
Melting temperature
1,087 OC; 1,361 K
Reference strain rate
1.000
Failure — Autodyn support
Johnson–Cook equivalent plastic strain to failure
Constant damage values
0.648 → 5.768 → -2.968 → 0.0138 → 1.104


Table 13 shows the constant parameters of the silicon carbide used for the ceramic armour design.

Materials:
Silicon carbide fibre reinforced and coatings SiC-F/T
Density:
3,200 kg/m3
Bulk modulus
218,560 MPa
Constant pressure values
0 & 0 MPa
Bulking factor
1
Shear modulus
184,930 MPa
Hugoniot elastic limit
14,720 MPa
Constant strength intact
0.958 & 0.648
Constant damage values
0.486 & 0.486
Constant fracture strength
0.343
Exponent fracture strength
1
Constant strain rate
0.00441
Hydrostatic tensile limit
-0.741


Table 14 shows the constant parameters of the R56400 3.8 alpha-beta titanium alloy materials of the minority axial confinement.

Material:
R56400 3.8 alpha-beta titanium alloy
Density:
4,410 kg/m3
Grüneisen parameter:
1.208
Equation of state — Autodyn support
Shock was chosen
Bulk modulus
98,690 MPa
Reference temperature
26.85 OC; 300 Kelvin
Specific heat
524.2 J/kg x K
Strength — Autodyn support
Johnson–Cook constants
Shear modulus
43,900 MPa
Yield strength
850 MPa
Constant hardening
326 MPa
Constant hardening exponent
0.338
Thermal exponent
0.797
Constant strain rate
0.0117
Melting temperature
1,608 OC; 1,882 K
Reference strain rate
1.000
Failure — Autodyn support
Johnson–Cook equivalent plastic strain to failure
Constant damage values
-0.089 → 0.247 → -0.494 → 0.0138 → 3.839


Table 15 shows the constant parameters of the spark-machining graphite allotrope materials of the weak interface layering.

Material:
Spark-machining graphite allotrope
Density:
1,680 kg/m3
Grüneisen parameter:
0.236
Equation of state — Autodyn support
Shock was chosen
Bulk modulus
9,570 MPa
Reference temperature
26.85 OC; 300 Kelvin
Specific heat
718.9 J/kg x K
Strength — Autodyn support
Elastic response
Shear modulus
4,640 MPa
Failure — Autodyn support
Effective plastic strain
Internal strain
Plastic


The modular design with multiple interface layers was tested with a high velocity two-stage gas gun. Kinetic energy armour defeat concept was chosen with penetrator specification described in the Background section. As mentioned previously, the twenty millimetres thick ceramic was confined in seventy-nine millimetres thick Maschinenfabrik Halsten AG RHA grade steel, secured by limited aperture, spaced Halstenmetall AG 4340 vacuum arc treated steel alloy.

This backing and support combination was chosen because of their good plastic deformation resistance properties as shown in the “Background” section, which influenced ballistic performance of any additional ceramic module for the armour system (Goh et al., 2017). The bonding adhesive material is made of cross-over ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber and substituted polyurethane (Cheesman et al., 2005). This also has the added benefit of insulating the tile being hit from surrounding tiles, which promotes module multi-hit potentials (Grujicic et al., 2012).

Figure 3 demonstrates a LS-DYNA hydrocode impact damage simulation from firing tests at (a) 15 µs (subsurface damage dwelling), (b) 30 µs (rear side damage propagation from tensile stress) and (c) 45 µs (damage propagated fully on the frontal side).

Image

Figure 4 shows kinetic energy penetrator hitting the armour design without the inclusion of R56400 3.8 alpha-beta titanium alloy as minority plate materials and without pre-stressing done towards the ceramic.

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Figure 5 shows kinetic energy penetrator hitting the armour design with the inclusion of R56400 3.8 alpha-beta titanium alloy as minority plate materials and pre-stressing done towards the ceramic.

Image
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As shown by comparing the two figures, the armour scheme could contain the force of impact more in comparison to when R56400 3.8 alpha-beta titanium alloy was not included as minority plate materials and pre-stressing was not done towards the ceramic. The ability of the ceramic armour system to defeat the kinetic energy penetrator at the ceramic’s front surface (i.e. interface defeat) was enhanced. There are situations where deformation of ceramic front surface can happen, but their influence on load distribution will be small (Lundberg et al., 2010).

Interface dwell was also boosted; that is, when the kinetic energy penetrator hit the ceramic armour design, its materials were spread laterally, resulting in little or no penetration (Den Reijer, 1991). This meant higher rate of projectile erosion and better ballistic resistance for the armour module. Figure 6 referenced the analysed figure provided in 2006 by Quan et al. and Century Dynamics which showcased one such example of interface dwelling. It shows the numerical results for a tungsten rod impacting a confined silicon carbide target at 1,400 metres per second: (a) 10 µs; (b) 20 µs; (c) 36 µs; and (d) material damage at 28 µs, with interface dwell clearly seen on the ceramic surface in these plots.

Image
Image

With on-going research and development in ceramic-metal composite system, national defence forces have gradually employed the use of composite backplates because of their greater ability to absorb left-over kinetic energy from impact (Naik et al., 2012). For better protection, the original supporting layer of the armour could be replaced with a combination of three layers comprising two layers of high strength TC4 sandwiching a layer of high modulus polyethylene (HMPE). The high specific strength of the front and rear layers, which generate large deformation upon impact from projectile passing through the ceramic, combined with HMPE which dissipates energy effectively, provides good support for the armour design (Chen et al., 2011).

[ Out of character: To be updated; but will mostly be fluff from this point forward ]

References

    Goh, W. L., Zheng, Y., Yuan, J. & Ng, K. W. (February, 2017). Effects of hardness of steel on ceramic armour module against long rod impact. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 109 (2017) (pp. 419-426). School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University. Temasek Laboratories, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553, Singapore.

    Cheesman, B. A., Jensen, R. & Hopped, C. (2005). Defense Systems Information Analysis Center AMPTIAC: Protecting the future force. Advanced materials and analysis enable robust composite armor (p. 37).

    Grujicic, M., Pandurangan, B. & d’Entremont, B. (October, 2012). Elsevier Materials & Design (1980-2015), Volume 41 (pp. 380-393). Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0921, United States.

    Lundberg, P., Renström, R. & Lundberg, B. (March, 2000). Impact of metallic projectiles on ceramic targets: transition between interface defeat and penetration. International Journal of Impact Engineering, Volume 24, Issue 3 (pp. 259-275). FOA, Weapons and Protection Division, S-147 25 Tumba, Sweden.

    Den Reijer, P. C. (1991). Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, PO Box 513 5600 MB Eindhoven, De Zaale, Eindhoven. Impact on ceramic faced armour.

    Quan, X., Clegg, R. A., Cowler, M. S., Birnbaum, N. K. & Hayhurst, C. J. Numerical simulation of long rods impacting silicon carbide targets using JH-1 model. Century Dynamics, Inc., 1001 Galaxy Way, Suite 325, Concord, CA 94520, USA. Century Dynamics Ltd, Dynamics House, Hurst Road, Horsham, West Sussex, RH12 2DT, UK.

    Naik, N. K., Kumar, S., Ratnaveer, D., Joshi, M. & Akella, K. (2012). International Journal of Damage Mechanics: An energy-based model for ballistic impact analysis of ceramic-composite armors. Aerospace Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, India.

    Chen, G., Ren, C., Yang, X., Jin, X. & Guo, T. (March, 2011). The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology: Finite element simulation of high-speed machining of titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) based on ductile failure model. Volume 56, Issue 9–12 (pp. 1027–103).
Last edited by Yohannes on Mon May 07, 2018 4:33 am, edited 27 times in total.
The Realm of YohannesDas Yohannesische Reich
Government Archive Act | Reichstag Parliamentary Debates | Tales from Yohannes | I Beg my Realm
Currency Intervention | A Game of Thrones | The Archbishop and His Mission | The Financial Diary | Homofront Yohannes | My competition
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We love NationStates! Do you? \__(^.^)_//
NS military project: Tank | Armour | Bomber
All In-Character things I’ve written on NationStates are open-source/Creative Commons that you can use :)
2018 had been my most productive (IC) NS year since 2011 — I won’t be as active on NS now due to RL obligations :)

User avatar
Big Gunz Interweb
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Posts: 54
Founded: Mar 23, 2015
Ex-Nation

Postby Big Gunz Interweb » Sat May 05, 2018 12:55 am

Greetings,

To much detail do not understand I would like to buy domestic production right for 17000000000 Armoured Vehicles and Tanks Modular Ceramic-Metal Armour so I can crush fascist pigs.

Sincerely,

The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
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Yohannes
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Posts: 12789
Founded: Mar 17, 2010
Civil Rights Lovefest

Discussion

Postby Yohannes » Mon May 07, 2018 2:11 am



Discussion

[ Out of character information:
All information presented in the previous sections are secret In character. To one person (you know who you are), if you copy the stuff, no matter how hard you try to rewrite it, I will know you based your future armour design from me. So... don't do it. Thank you.

For everyone (who I am fine with out of character wise) though, feel free to copy my stuff for whatever it is that you want :p

This section will mostly contain biased non-informative empty sales pitch fluff without any concrete information (just like any other NationStates designs) in contrast to the more technical (and neutral) previous sections. ]

Armoured Vehicles and Tanks Modular Ceramic-Metal Armour (AMA) is an advanced composite armour system, inspired by the concept of the German company IBD Deisenroth Engineering, AMAP. Non-metallic ceramics and composites have been incorporated into more efficient lightweight armour. The high hardness, high strength, high rigidity and low density of the ceramic constituents used as well as the weight saving properties and ductility of composite laminated scheme make for an effective armour system. The proven design can be used effectively for armoured vehicles and tanks. During would be penetration to the vehicle, the use of ceramic materials would dull the projectile and dissipate incoming force. And then, the backing composite system would absorb the force to finish the process.

However, because certain components of the armour module are relatively expensive, in Yohannesian main battle tanks they are only used to reinforce the most vulnerable sections, with the rest being protected by traditional method (e.g. RHA or similar grade steel). The armour covering of the tank would be configured in spaced sandwich plate pattern, with each made up of three to five different layers. The design specialises in providing both light and heavy kinetic energy threats protection for armoured vehicles and tanks. The design is modular. It can be used for multiple impacts, and makes removal of damaged ceramic and other components less hard.

There is no individual unit “price” for the modules; instead, limited domestic manufacturing license will be issued to possible buyers by the main contractor or relevant subcontractors, with price to be negotiated on a case-by-case basis.
Last edited by Yohannes on Tue May 15, 2018 7:34 am, edited 6 times in total.
The Realm of YohannesDas Yohannesische Reich
Government Archive Act | Reichstag Parliamentary Debates | Tales from Yohannes | I Beg my Realm
Currency Intervention | A Game of Thrones | The Archbishop and His Mission | The Financial Diary | Homofront Yohannes | My competition
Embassy Exchange | VMK Industry | Bank of Yohannes | Automobil Yohannes | NS Hacking | Our posting history | Player information
We love NationStates! Do you? \__(^.^)_//
NS military project: Tank | Armour | Bomber
All In-Character things I’ve written on NationStates are open-source/Creative Commons that you can use :)
2018 had been my most productive (IC) NS year since 2011 — I won’t be as active on NS now due to RL obligations :)

User avatar
Yohannes
Postmaster-General
 
Posts: 12789
Founded: Mar 17, 2010
Civil Rights Lovefest

Out of Character AMA

Postby Yohannes » Mon May 07, 2018 2:26 am



Out of Character AMA

This is the out of character section for this design. If you want to ask (or criticise) anything, feel free to ask here in this thread, or reply to my NationStates Draftroom thread [ click me ] or NationStates Military Realism thread post [ click me ]

I believe in transparent, open constructive discussion, because open, transparent criticism means I have nothing to hide (and therefore you can trust my words regarding my designs)

Thank you!
Last edited by Yohannes on Mon May 07, 2018 4:08 am, edited 5 times in total.
The Realm of YohannesDas Yohannesische Reich
Government Archive Act | Reichstag Parliamentary Debates | Tales from Yohannes | I Beg my Realm
Currency Intervention | A Game of Thrones | The Archbishop and His Mission | The Financial Diary | Homofront Yohannes | My competition
Embassy Exchange | VMK Industry | Bank of Yohannes | Automobil Yohannes | NS Hacking | Our posting history | Player information
We love NationStates! Do you? \__(^.^)_//
NS military project: Tank | Armour | Bomber
All In-Character things I’ve written on NationStates are open-source/Creative Commons that you can use :)
2018 had been my most productive (IC) NS year since 2011 — I won’t be as active on NS now due to RL obligations :)

User avatar
Big Gunz Interweb
Bureaucrat
 
Posts: 54
Founded: Mar 23, 2015
Ex-Nation

Postby Big Gunz Interweb » Mon May 07, 2018 4:36 am

Yohannes wrote:

Out of Character AMA

This is the out of character section for this design. If you want to ask (or criticise) anything, feel free to ask here in this thread, or reply to my NationStates Draftroom thread [ click me ] or NationStates Military Realism thread post [ click me ]

I believe in transparent, open constructive discussion, because open, transparent criticism means I have nothing to hide (and therefore you can trust my words regarding my designs)

Thank you!


can you convert cargo ships to aircraft carriers with this armor?
~~So so far away row your boat so so far away~~
Hello nice to meet u! Why yes I love telegrams do please telegram me anytime ~hugs and kisses and hugs~
[ This is our national factbook ]. I hope you like it :)
[ Forum posting history ]
~Whoop whoop~

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Lamoni
Game Moderator
 
Posts: 6444
Founded: Antiquity
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby Lamoni » Wed May 09, 2018 3:41 am

Big Gunz Interweb wrote:
Yohannes wrote:

Out of Character AMA

This is the out of character section for this design. If you want to ask (or criticise) anything, feel free to ask here in this thread, or reply to my NationStates Draftroom thread [ click me ] or NationStates Military Realism thread post [ click me ]

I believe in transparent, open constructive discussion, because open, transparent criticism means I have nothing to hide (and therefore you can trust my words regarding my designs)

Thank you!


can you convert cargo ships to aircraft carriers with this armor?


You cannot convert a cargo ship to an aircraft carrier via armor, so no.
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