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HT9A7 Yvernyr Main Battle Tank

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Anemos Major
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HT9A7 Yvernyr Main Battle Tank

Postby Anemos Major » Sun Oct 16, 2011 3:46 am

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HT9A7 Yvernyr Main Battle Tank, 1st Noble Guards Cavalry Regiment the Imperial Life Guard, on training exercises in Barony Myrstirei

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HT9A7 Block 2 Yvernyr Main Battle Tank, 1st Noble Guards Cavalry Regiment the Imperial Life Guard. The Block 2 version of the HT9A7 is equipped with additional armour, including a spaced armour block along its frontal arc, thicker roof protection and extended side armour, but compensation for this with the use of titanium alloys in place of IRHA in areas of the appliqué armour ensure that the weight increase is marginal, at 78t. The electronics suite has been greatly modified, with significantly faster processors allowing for faster and more effective target recognition. A modified RWS sporting thicker armour and better stabilisation together with the addition of sensors to the APS suite round off this comprehensive update to the original HT9A7.

HT9A7 Prototype Model (128mm L/55) | HT9A7 Prototype Model (140mm L/50 ETC) | HT9A7 Prototype Model (120mm L/55) | HT9A7 Prototype Model (252mm Demolition)
HT9A7 128 Entry Standard w/ Transit Equipment (Crown Army of Anemos Major) | HT9A7 128 Block 2 Entry Standard (Crown Army of Anemos Major) | HT9A7 140 Export Standard (Minnysotan Army)




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- Specifications
- Overview
- Main Armament
- Other Armaments
- Armour
- Active Protection System
- Electronics
- Mobility
- Crew Amenities and Survivability
- Concluding Comments
Promotional PDF




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Designation:
Numerical Designation: HT9A7/IOCY
Name: "Yvernyr" - "Wyvern"

Key Data:
Crew: 3 (Commander, Gunner, Driver)
Cost: 16.7 million NSD

Dimensions:
Length: 8.1m (Hull)/
Height: 2.7m (Turret Roof)
Width: 3.8m (4.2m w/ Modular Side Armour)
Weight: 77t

Performance:
Maximum Speed: 72kph road speed (governed).
Cross country speed: 52kph
Acceleration: 0 to 32kph in 4.8 seconds
Operational Range: 515km

Armament:
Main Armament: 128mm SC10.8 55 calibre solid propellant smoothbore cannon (42 rounds, 25 in autoloader magazine)
Co-axial weapon (left): 20mm Arsenal Karonin M.28 Autocannon (600 rounds)/12.7mm MG/H8A3 (1500 rounds), or other modular block compatible weapons.
Commander's weapon: 12.7mm MG/H8A3 on Remote Weapons System (powered), interchangeable with other armaments.
Additional: 12x mounted multipurpose grenade launchers, modular systems allow for further options.

Protection:
Passive: Calumnis-3 (metal-composite matrix outer layer, (N)ERA, composite tiles, DU alloy mesh, IRHA plates/hull, fibreglass/rubber/Spectra spall liner)
Active: Solothel Active Protection System
Crew Protection: NBC protection (main + auxiliary), pentafluoroethane crew compartment fire extinguishing, Halon 1301 + foam fuel tank extinguishing and self-sealing suite.

Electronics:
Io FCS
SAIC Combat Networking

Power:
Propulsion: MA.252/mod H 2,200hp (1,640kW, steady state) 10 cylinder opposing piston diesel hyperbar.
Transmission: Automatic (8 forward, 3 reverse).
Suspension: In-Arm Hydractive
Power/Weight: 28.57hp/tonne




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Conceived as a direct result of the Holy Office of War’s 1999 Request for Information concerning the feasibility of creating a domestic main battle tank to replace those then in service with the Crown Army of Anemos Major, the HT9 (Irdentsyr) line of armoured fighting vehicles was initially envisioned as a domestic replacement for the many tanks then in service with the Second Holy Empire of Anemos Major. The aged HT7 Lakontyr, a relic of the 1970s, the failed HT8/N Fyrdestyr tank, and the Leclerc obtained from abroad to make up for the subsequent shortfall in the Crown Army’s tank inventory, came together to create an increasingly politically and military unacceptable array of vehicles, and concerns within the Holy Office of War that this arrangement would not be able to continue satisfactorily throughout the first decade of the 21st century resulted in the distribution of funding for initial development and feasibility confirmation of a domestically produced main battle tank to come into service during this period. Within one year, this program was greatly expanded, dubbed ‘Project Fiensietyr’ and renewed with the avowed goal of providing the Crown Army of Anemos Major with a fully updated stock of armoured fighting vehicles by the end of the decade; however, despite this ambitious rebranding, the individual components of this project operated largely independently of each other, and the main battle tank project was a notable example of this. Politically pressured into creating a fully domestic tank model, the Holy Office of War provided a substantial amount of support to those development teams participating in the initial stages of the competition, fully funding and aiding five separate development teams past the conceptual stage up to the creation of a prototype; unlike the vast majority of the objectives of the 1994 Armed Forces Modernisation Program, the failure of the Fyrdestyr and the emergency acquisition of the Leclerc in the following year meant that this was one of the few portions of said program which had still not been completed, and the continuing pressure from above to remedy this resulted in a significant amount of interest within the Holy Office of War concerning the future of the new tank acquisition program.

By the initial ‘conceptual’ stage, it was widely recognised that only three designs were serious contenders for the contract; those of Grunwalder Heavy Industries, an ex-Ragonsian concern, Symoirei Vehicle Group and the Imperial Foundries of Anemos Major (who had only acquired a vehicle development group from the remains of Myrstirei Mechanical in 1997). However, despite an apparent variety of choice, the situation quickly turned against the desires of the Holy Office of War. The Imperial Foundries of Anemos Major found themselves forced to re-tool Myrstirei Mechanical to provide sufficient productive capacity to meet the demands of the Armed Forces following the sudden issuing of a contract for the complete replacement of the AR4 (FAMAS) rifles then in service with the domestically designed AR5 (a problem which would have its own dire consequences for IFAM) and, in 2000, Symoirei Vehicle Group took the Anemonian Arms Industry by surprise when it filed for bankruptcy and announced its withdrawal from the competition as a result of a failed endeavour into the civilian vehicle market that resulted in uncontrollable losses within two quarters. Although Grunwalder Heavy Industries proposal for a heavily modified, up-armoured Leopard 2A6 did fulfil the desired design’s basic necessities, there were a variety of reasons that made this option entirely unacceptable to the Armed Forces community and the Anemonian arms industry as a whole. Firstly, the adoption of a Leopard 2A6 was essentially an admission of failure by the Holy Office of War concerning the potential construction of a domestic main battle tank; for the ministerial level staff, the political capital at stake was far too great, despite the apparent lack of an alternative. Secondly, however, Grunwalder was a unique corporation within the Anemonian state due to its legal position. While the vast majority of the Anemonian arms industry, most certainly including and going beyond the largest corporations was listed as IECpl (public sector), Grunwalder’s status as an arms production concern acquired from abroad meant that it had retained its rights as a private sector concern. This subsequently meant that the Holy Office of War was unable to secure the armament security that it so fervently imposed upon the vast majority of the Anemonian arms industry, making Grunwalder all but unacceptable as a choice. The lack of alternatives was, to say the least, an embarrassment to those involved; extending the program deadline to allay any calls of unfair play, backroom negotiation and dealing was done to ensure the creation of a force potent enough to present an alternative from within the public sector.

As a result of these concerted efforts, therefore, 2001 marked the entrance of another contender for the contract, standing against Grunwalder Heavy Industries. Though such a cooperative arrangement would previously have been thought to be impossible, sufficient pressure from the Holy Office of War resulted in the creation of a hitherto unseen conglomeration of corporations within the Anemonian state. Known as FOAM, or the Fierei-Oblastinei Automotives and Metalworks, this front company was established to house this joint venture between a number of Anemonian vehicle, metal, arms and electronics industry concerns, together with a variety of smaller corporations and the Holy Office of War’s Directorate of Technological Research and Development (DITI) which had, in 2000, acquired the remnants of Symoirei Vehicle Group with government funding. The design produced by the group drew heavily on SVG’s earlier conceptual work on a tank they had labelled the ‘Irdentsyr’; however, it had been highly refined and polished to produce a highly unorthodox and unique creation, as was to be expected from such a conglomerate. As a result, and recognising the forces arrayed against it, Grunwalder Heavy Industries announced their retirement from the competition mere days before the designation of FOAM as the preferred bidder for the HT9 contract. The subsequent developmental process was to last until January 2008, when the first field testing of the Irdentsyr tank occurred in battlefield environments, the program costs having remained, surprisingly, largely stable and on schedule during this period.

By the time the first test model reached the shores of Asakura in January 2006 for field testing, the Irdentsyr had gone through six different iterations to reach the HT9A6 Irdentsyr Kalontris. The tank largely followed the accepted lines of design for its time; utilising the 140mm SC9.15 50 calibre Electro-Thermal Chemical smoothbore cannon and a 40mm cannon as a co-axial weapon, the tank utilised the combat-first, comfort-later design approach of the Leclerc to maximise its combat effectiveness. The prevailing view at the time was that the limited ammunition capacity of the tank forced upon it through the use of a 140mm main armament meant that extended combat was not an option, and that, therefore, amenities for extended combat were unnecessary, allowing the design to feature much higher levels of protection that previously envisioned. Though this view was to dictate the subsequent development of the Irdentsyr tank, studies conducted in 2008 revealed an uncomfortable truth concerning the state of global armoured forces. A significant gap, in fact, existed in the capabilities of a variety of nations; with a variety of internationally predominant tanks with 1970s-80s developmental origins, such as the Leopard 2 or M1A2 Abrams, on one side, and recently developed, highly effective, armed and armoured tanks on the other, such as the LY4A2, M-21A2 and the AY2-1E on the other, it was found that the 140mm L/50 ETC armament was too powerful for the former and not strong enough to penetrate the frontal armour of any of the latter, making it, ultimately, an incredibly bulky, power consuming and ammunition restricting choice of armament with no clear advantages. It was as a result of this testing that FOAM lost the ‘arms-race’ mentality that had driven tank development worldwide for so long, and adopted a more practical mindset; objectives shifted, and changed.

The decision to structurally upgrade the HT9A6 Irdentsyr Kalontris, which was due to enter Anemonian service in the summer of 2006, to what is now known as the HT9A7 was based on the decision to retool the HT9 from being an expression of technological superiority to, in true Anemonian fashion, a practical weapon on the battlefield. Of note was the armament utilised at that point by the Irdentsyr; the objective was to create a weapon that was smaller than the 140mm L/50 ETC cannon previously used, and, through means other than creating rounds big and fast enough to destroy the enemy’s frontal armour, create a tank nonetheless capable of engaging its modern counterparts head-on and emerging victorious. The weapon eventually chosen was a 128mm 55 calibre solid propellant gun, and the solution was the utilisation of adaptable ammunition that would, in a leap far beyond the simplistic design philosophies employed by so many, accomplish what larger models of weapon could do in a far more efficient and effective package.

The final prototype model of the HT9A7 was unveiled in 2008 by FOAM to the Holy Office of War. Since the production of the Kalontris in 2006, the vehicle had been radically altered; its powerplant had been made more powerful, the armour layout had been shifted radically, but the advances made in other areas had been made in leaps and bounds. With an overhauled electronics suite equipped with a highly effective countermeasures system, networking that far exceeded the expectations of any within the Anemonian military establishment and a modular armament/armour arrangement that made the new main battle tank one of the most flexible vehicles of its time, FOAM had established the HT9A7 as an armoured vehicle that would perform as a superior vehicle on the battlefields of today and retain the flexibility to advance with the flow of technology under the auspices of the approaching future. Initial models were equipped with 120, 128 and 140mm main armaments, together with 12.7 and 20mm co-axial weapons, but the ease of parts replaceability and made the scope for further additions virtually limitless.

Adopted by the Crown Army of Anemos Major in March 2009 as their new main line battle tank, the HT9A7 was named the Yvernyr, Wyvern, symbolic of its place as the protector of the nation, and its distribution to field formations commenced soon after. Familiarisation was a process that took the best part of the rest of the year, but by early 2010, the Yvernyr was seeing service with frontline units in the forested terrain of Asakura, where its performance painted the picture of a vehicle that far surpassed its predecessors. Further deployment with the Crown Army to higher intensity combat areas only served to build upon this image; proficient in all areas, from support to strikes, it proved itself not only to be a worthwhile investment, but, as the product of ten years of research and development, one of the finest vehicles of its time.

The HT9A7 is the embodiment of innovative design married with the unrivalled engineering of the Holy Empire of Anemos. A mighty vehicle rivalled only at the highest end of the spectrum, it is a unique armoured vehicle that possesses the capacity to defeat and destroy virtually any opponent it encounters on the battlefield, while remaining capable of adapting to advances in technology and necessity to perform beyond its already impressive specifications. Ninety-five thousand of these vehicles already equip the Imperial Armed Forces of Anemos Major, with countless more on the production lines; serving across every branch of the Crown Army, from the First Army within the Citadel of Anemos Rei to the Tenth Army’s amphibious assaults, it is a vehicle which answers every demand made of it, whether it is flexibility across any battleground, efficiency in any role, or superiority before any enemy.

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The 128mm SC10.8 55 calibre solid propellant smoothbore cannon was developed as a replacement for the 140mm SC9.21 50 calibre Electro-Thermal Chemical smoothbore cannon utilised in the HT9A6 main battle tank. Opting to use a conventional propellant and smaller round for ammunition and weight efficiency purposes, the SC10.8 makes up for its decrease in comparative firepower through a number of ammunition based solutions designed to maximise its utility in head-on-head combat with enemy main battle tanks of any standard, giving it per-shot killing power that far exceeds the performance of its main armament on paper.

Though the 42 rounds standard ammunition carrying capacity of the HT9A7 is high, when considering the combat intensity and periods that the tank is likely to face, there are a number of reasons for it. Firstly, it gives the HT9A7 combat flexibility where other armoured vehicles simply opt for larger guns; though it is not intended that the HT9A7 will enter and remain in combat for periods of time that allow for the complete utilisation of the 42 rounds carried by the tank, it does mean that the HT9A7 does not have to rely upon high frequency maintenance and resupply, allowing it to respond flexibility to unforeseen circumstances on the field of battle. Secondly, however, a combination of ammunition mixture and the usage of high performance GLATGMs and guided ammunition actually decreases the combat carried anti-tank ammunition of the HT9A7 to about 25 to 30 rounds overall; as a number of high explosive rounds must be carried to ensure the responsiveness of the HT9A7 to a wider variety of potential threats, as well as, potentially, other specialist rounds, the higher ammunition capacity allowed by the 128mm gun is necessary to ensure that the HT9A7 is able to retain its battlefield endurance together with the flexibility of response that it requires.

The SC10.8 is a 128mm solid propellant smoothbore cannon with a length of 55 calibres (6.6m). The barrel itself is constructed of autofrettaged steel. Responding to problems concerning the decreasing barrel life of modern smoothbore guns due to the increased performance of propellants, it utilises a barrel construction that departs from the chromium-lined steel barrels of most modern guns. With a silicon nitride (Si3N4) barrel, the SC10.8 aims to use ceramic liners to decrease the effect of propellant erosion of the barrel when compared to chromium gun barrel linings, and gives the gun either a greater service life or the ability use increasingly powerful propellants. However, as a ceramic, silicon nitride is also very brittle, and due to the inability of the material to undergo the same autofrettaging process used by steel barrels to induce pre-compression in the gun barrel, it also utilises a 35% glass reinforced polymer composite overwrap to induce the pre-compression necessary to compensate for the brittleness of silicon nitride, utilising computer modelling to determine the deposit locations and angles necessary to achieve the desired levels of strength and stiffness within the gun barrel itself. The result of this is that the SC10.8’s gun barrel, through significantly decreased erosion in comparison to chromium-lined barrels, is able to withstand propellant-induced damage for longer periods of time. The weapon’s thermal jacked is also made of 35% glass reinforced polymers, and, opting not to utilise a standard pattern bore excavator, the SC10.8 chooses instead to utilise an automatic compressed air fume extraction system at the rear end of the gun barrel to prevent oxygen depletion and other potential effects on the crew.

Recoil mitigation is achieved through two primary methods; directive and absorptive. The porting-type muzzle brake employed at the forward end of the SC10.8 redirects propellant gases to counteract the recoil forces generated with the firing of the weapon. Furthermore, the weapon features the hydro-pneumatic recoil mechanism utilised on most modern tank armaments today, together with a pair of hydraulic retarders located to either side of the weapon (with four originally used with the SC9.21). Overall, these recoil control mechanisms permit the HT9A7 to limit recoil forces and regain stability quickly after firing, increasing the overall accuracy, aimed firing rate and mobile engagement capabilities of the tank. Stabilisation is achieved via two independent electro-hydraulic systems with independent horizontal and vertical stabilisation (full dual-axis electro-hydraulic stabilisation), as well gyro-stabilisation, further increasing the mobile engagement capabilities of the HT9A7.

Though the round used by the SC10.8, the 128mm, is smaller than the 140mm originally envisaged as that to be used in the HT9, its size, together with the potential need to replace the main armament of the HT9A7, resulted in the utilisation of an autoloader with the HT9A7. In general, 25 rounds are stored in the autoloader with 17 additional rounds in storage for later use. As a number of rounds (GLATGM, MRKE, APFSDS and HE in combat use, with other potential rounds for specialist purposes) are used in a largely interchangeable manner on the battlefield, the autoloader system used within the HT9A7 could not, by default, be a simple bustle system as used by many other main battle tanks, while the carousel system favoured by many Eastern Bloc armoured vehicles was also not a valid option due to its storage inefficiency. As such, the system utilised is a rotary belt type bustle system with a storage capacity of 25 128mm rounds (regardless of type) behind the crew. The control system uses a combination of virtual memory-stored location records of rounds and bar code designations to correctly select and prepare rounds; rather than automatically loading rounds upon firing and spent case extraction, the gunner is able to select a number of potential options; as well as being able to set the autoloader to ‘single type automatic’, which causes the autoloader to consistently select a single type of round and load it upon extracting the spent casing of a firing round without confirmation, he is also able to set up a ‘firing list’, selecting a number of rounds in firing order for the autoloader to automatically select and load, and can also utilise a manual confirmation system where he selects a desired round prior to loading, allowing the Anemonian gunner to make full use of the wide selection of rounds employed within the HT9A7. The average rate of fire of the autoloader-equipped cannon when on automatic loading is 12 rounds per minute, but this figure decreases when the gunner opts to utilise individual selection.

In terms of ammunition used, there are four primary types of ammunition used with the SC10.8 128mm gun; M07/S Kinetic Energy, M07/E High Explosive Dual Purpose, M07/mod M Gun Launched Anti-Tank Guided Missile and M07/mod I Medium Range Kinetic Energy. As the gun is a smoothbore, ever round uses some form of individual stabilisation to maintain its firing trajectory. The first two are conventional propellant, conventional trajectory rounds, while the third is a rocket-propelled, top-kill HEAT missile and the latter is a range extended, LOS/BLOS forward/top kill guided KE round. The propellant utilised in the standard rounds is a combination propellant (60% nitrocellulose, 20% nitroglycerine, 4% RDX, 15% diethylene glycol dinitrate with 1% of other content and 55 grams of igniter); the utilisation of a low level of RDX in place of the nitroglycerine used in other propellants provides the 128mm round with a higher level of more stable propellant performance while nonetheless restricting the increase so as to retain a practically sustainable barrel service life. The M07/S Kinetic Energy round is an armour-piercing discarding sabot round, with a kinetic energy penetrator constructed out of a depleted uranium alloy (composed of uranium, vanadium and niobium for machining purposes), creating a high density KEP which, combined with the high muzzle velocities generated by the powerful propellant mixture utilised by the round, forms a highly lethal round against most conceivable battlefield targets. The M07/E is a High Explosive Dual Purpose round; fin stabilised like the M07/S, it utilises a tandem charge warhead together with a fragmenting casing, giving the HT9A7 the ability to engage both armoured and unarmoured targets with what is essentially a shaped charge and anti-personnel round in the same munitions system. However, though these two conventional pattern rounds are highly effective, utilising a number of design features to give them performance and flexibility that surpasses its competition, the core of the 128mm SC10.8’s effectiveness as a modern tank armament lies in the other two munitions it utilises for the sole purpose of hunting other tanks. The M07/S is, as a 128mm solid propellant KE round, incapable of penetrating the frontal armour profile of most top-tier main battle tanks in service today, and as an anti-tank round, the M07/E is at a natural disadvantage due to the frequent use of NERA, composites and slanted armour on modern tanks. Rather, the heart of the SC10/8’s anti-tank capabilities lies with its other rounds.

The M07/mod M is a GLATGM (gun-launched anti-tank guided missile) utilising a HEAT warhead and a three stage seeker system to defeat the vast majority of existing tanks at extended ranges by accomplishing highly countermeasure-proof top-kill attacks. The seeker head uses a combination of millimetre-wavelength radar, passive IR CCD sensors and a semi-active laser seeker to acquire and track the target while in flight, decreasing the effectiveness of single-purpose countermeasure units against the missile. Utilising a soft-launch system, the M07/mod M clears the barrel of the gun before engaging its flight motor, thus greatly increasing the service life of the barrel itself when used in conjunction with the GLATGM. With folding stabilisation fins used to fit as large a missile as possible into the HT9A7’s 128mm gun barrel, the missile’s internal seeker system tracks the acquired enemy target and rises to the appropriate trajectory before entering its terminal descent, placing itself into a high speed, top-kill position to virtually guarantee a kill; potential targets range from a wide variety of land vehicles to, potentially, landing ships and helicopters. The warhead of the missile is a tandem charge; upon striking the enemy target, the impact detonation mechanism first detonates a smaller ‘initial’ charge to activate and eliminate the ERA lining of the tank; furthermore, the ‘initial’ charge utilised by the M07/mod M takes advantage of the increased capacity of the missile by being somewhat larger than that of the standard M07/E round, giving it enough explosive force to either destroy or damage NERA/NxRA blocks on enemy tanks and thus leave them vulnerable to the larger shaped charge warhead located behind the initial charge (separated from it by a titanium diboride blast shield). The main charge is then detonated. As such, the M07/mod M not only provides the HT9A7 with the ability to defeat the lighter roof armour of an enemy main battle tank from nearly 15km away utilising an independent seeker mechanism that permits BLOS engagement, it also possesses the capacity to engage and eliminate ERA, NERA and NxRA protected vehicles if necessary. There is a three stage control mechanism on the M07/mod M that prevents premature detonation; the two safety mechanisms are deactivated upon firing the missile (acceleration-based detection) and entering the terminal trajectory (computer controlled), while a tertiary protective mechanism ensures that the delay between initial and main charge detonation is maintained to permit effective use of the tandem charge layout.

The M07/mod I Medium Range Kinetic Energy round is a rocket assisted and propelled, LOS/BLOS forward/top kill capable guided KE round, with a uranium alloy KEP at its heart but utilising rocket/fin stabilised active guidance and terminal stage propulsion to give it both range and power far surpassing that of the M07/S. The apparent inherent incompatibility of the high speed requirements of the kinetic energy penetrator and the difficulty of precisely guiding high speed, rocket propelled projectiles is solved through the utilisation of an effective terminal stage guidance mechanism that ensures that precision is mostly maintained while bringing the overall impact velocity of the kinetic energy penetrator to about 1.5-2.0 times that of a standard M07/S round. Utilising a conventional propellant to achieve initial velocity, the MRKE utilises a millimetre-wavelength radar and semi-active laser seeker to track enemies; it can be used as a Within Line of Sight round, where the gunner designates the desired target prior to opening fire, or a Beyond Line of Sight round, where the round is launched into the air and acquires a target from there. Utilising fin stabilisation and impulse thrusters to guide and occasionally boost the round in its flight path, the M07/mod I enters either a level or a ballistic trajectory and guides itself as necessary towards the enemy target. Upon reaching a given distance from the target, the ‘no-escape’ zone, the round then engages its main rocket propulsion system while shedding its seeker head to expose the kinetic energy penetrator, radically increasing the terminal velocity and velocity retention (through superior aerodynamics) of the KEP in the terminal stage of its target engagement. With a maximum potential range of nearly 12km and high levels of accuracy through an effectively utilised guidance/propulsion system, the M07/mod I retains high levels of accuracy by engaging its propulsion only after target impact is virtually assured upon entering its terminal stage. This allows the M07/mod I to bring the kinetic energy penetrator’s vast advantage against modern main battle tanks’ composite armour layout to bear at almost three times the maximum distance of a standard 120mm gun with even more effectiveness than a round fired utilising solid propellants, making it a highly effective anti-tank weapon that gives the HT9A7 the ability to engage enemy targets accurately and effectively from a significantly large ‘safe zone’.

By disassembling part of the base turret structure, not only can the L/55 barrel be replaced, the 128mm SC10.8 gun system in its entirety can be replaced. At the moment, however, the range of replacements offered by FOAM is relatively restricted; the SC9.21 140mm L/50 ETC smoothbore cannon is retained as an option by the Imperial Armed Force in the event that the 128mm main armament currently used must be replaced, while the SC8.60 120mm L/55 solid propellant smoothbore cannon, a development of the original main armament of the HT8 MBT, is also provided for use by the Asakuran Armed Forces.

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The HT9A7, aside from its highly effective main armament, also features a number of other weapons.

As its co-axial armament, the HT9A7 features one of two weapons. The 20mm Arsenal Karonin M.28 Autocannon is a 20mm L/22 automatic cannon utilising a 1hp motor located within the receiver to cycle the weapon’s action, allowing for greater control over the feeding and cycling process of the weapon to ensure greater reliability and control over its firing qualities. Though many modern cannons utilise 25mm rounds and, more recently, larger developments such as the 50mm round to counter improvements in IFV/APC armour and protection, the choice made to utilise the 20mm round was one based upon a very practical consideration; the ammunition capacity of the co-axial weapon. The utilisation of a large, 50mm cannon restricted ammunition capacity to levels around 200-300 rounds overall, an unacceptably low figure for an automatic weapon. By adopting a 20mm co-axial weapon instead, the ammunition capacity was raised to nearly 600 rounds (usually a 200 APFSDS/400 HEDP mix), giving the HT9A7 a significant ammunition capacity advantage over the HT9A6. The 1hp motor powers a rotating sprocket system that feeds and removes the ammunition from the autocannon’s chamber, and a second sprocket layer feeding the ammunition belts into the weapon mean together with disintegrating links mean that the gunner can easily switch between the two types of ammunition he will be using on the battlefield. The barrel of the autocannon is constructed of cold hammer-forged steel with a chromium lining to increase barrel life, and porting along the barrel permits for gas release and redirection (though the rigid co-axial mounting makes recoil less of a problem). Another advantage of the electric control is the ability to set highly controlled firing rates for the weapon; by default, there are four firing modes used with the M.28 – Single (Semi-Automatic), Low (120rpm), High (240rpm) and Very High (400rpm) – but other rates can be programmed into the weapon if desired.

The other weapon that is available as a co-axial weapon for the HT9A7 is the 12.7mm MG/H8A3 Heavy Machine Gun. The MG/H8A3 is a short-recoil operated rotating bolt machine-gun utilising forced air cooling and forward porting to evacuate heat and propellant gases. With a barrel constructed of cold hammer forged steel, the external receiver of the weapon itself is, as a relatively new weapon, constructed of 30% glass reinforced polymer (making it relatively lightweight while remaining resistant to temperature buildups and sudden shocks), and the need for a replaceable barrel is largely removed through the installation of the highly efficient air cooling system. The ammunition is fed via a disintegrating link (a scaled up version of that utilised in the MG3/MG3R1 series’ 7.7mm ammunition), and the cyclic rate of fire of the weapon is mechanically alterable via the trigger block like the MG3 series, alternating between 450 and 750 rounds per minute as desired. The weapon itself is normally operated via a trigger located on the weapon’s single-handle (as opposed to the spade trigger used by some), but one of the differences between the infantry deployed and most vehicle deployed versions of the MG/H8A3 is the fact that they are, in fact, initial electrically ignited weapons (i.e. the initial trigger pull is replaced by electric ignition) to make them compatible with the HT9A7’s co-axial block system and greatly mechanically simplify the Remote Weapon Systems in service with the Anemonian Armed Forces. In general, two types of rounds are used with the MG/H8A3 as a component of the HT9A7 MBT; ball ammunition, for use against ‘soft’ targets, while HEIAP is employed for use against harder targets.

The co-axial station of the HT9A7 is highly flexible through its use of a quick-change/replacement layout known as the Modular Block System. The weapons systems themselves are placed in modular ‘blocks’ which are installed into a co-axial weapon ‘socket’ in their entirety (hence the electrical ignition for the MG/H8A3), while the ammunition and ammunition feed can be adapted without difficulty to fit into a small storage area located near the co-axial weapon itself (while most mechanical feed components, such as the sprockets used in the M.28, are placed within the modular block itself). Theoretically speaking, this means that almost any co-axial weapon can be installed in the HT9A7 as long as it is modular-block compatible and modified to fit the appropriate specifications; foreign heavy machine-guns and other support weapons aside, larger weapons such as 50mm cannons can potentially be retrofitted to become modular block compatible, the limited ammunition capacity of such an arrangement notwithstanding.

The roof mounted weapons station is equipped at production with the Ortel Powered Remote Weapons System. Capable of accepting anything up to a 40mm automatic grenade launcher, the station is usually equipped with the MG/H8A3 12.7mm machine gun in service. Capable of 360 degrees rotation, as well as +75, -25 elevation, the Ortel is a fully armoured RWS, utilising IRHA plating on sensitive areas like connections and optical equipment, equipped with optical, target acquisition and ballistic correction capabilities. Interfacing is achieved through a joystick for traversing and a 15-inch touch screen, which is linked in turn to a pair of cameras, one 3CCD daytime camera system and one forward-looking infra-red thermal imaging system. Both equipped with a laser rangefinding system, the gyrostabilised platform is able to offer a high degree of accuracy, even when on the move. Via the touch screen, the user is able to utilise both available optics to designate and ‘lock-on’ to targets, from where the laser rangefinder will feed distance information back to the ballistic computer which, utilising environmental data such as vehicle movement and round performance, will automatically adjust the firing arc to compensate for these. As such, the Ortel is capable of offering a high degree of accuracy, day and night, mobile or not, due to a high degree of environmental awareness and inbuilt ballistic correction capabilities that give it the ability to strike distant targets within seconds. As weapons fired from the Ortel tend to utilise electrical ignition, fire control (firing mode, safe) are all monitored and changed from within the vehicle itself.

In addition to these armaments, the HT9A7 responds to recent developments in tank development by incorporating support for a variety of additional equipment. The gun-launched M07/mod M can also be accommodated in a number of side slung box launchers like many other similar vehicles, though this approach is only used in high intensity open field combat due to the obvious disadvantage posed by the additional bulk of the missile launchers. Furthermore, in response to recent developments in missile technology, the Arteyr Anti-Tank Missile (a 240mm (fins folded) development of the M07/mod M built with a far longer range and larger warhead) can also be fitted into larger box launchers for engagements with enemy tanks.

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Protection on the HT9A7 was envisaged from the beginning as a primary consideration, and as such, extensive material research and testing was conducted over a range of areas to create the armour layout currently used. One particularly crucial aspect of the design doctrine behind the armour layout in the HT9A7 is the utilisation of an armour-first, crew space-second approach to the creation of the vehicle. The significance of this approach lies in a departure from the long-period crew endurance focus seen in the design of armoured vehicles like the T-80 series of main battle tanks. Due to the increasing ammunition size of modern main battle tanks, and the increasing ability of other vehicles, based on multipurpose wheeled bases, to fill infantry support roles once covered by main battle tanks, it can be suggested that modern combat situations have reached the point where the ability of the main battle tank’s crew to operate effectively for extended periods of time stretching beyond six to seven hours of combat is worth trading off for increased armoured protection. Ammunition expenditure means that it is unlikely high intensity combat will see main battle tanks operating for such extended periods, and the high support-relief nature of Anemonian armoured doctrine means that most armoured vehicles can be replaced on the frontline when necessary. As such, the design doctrine followed with the HT9A7’s armour layout, drawing from past experience with large calibre guns and compact crew compartments from the Leclerc 140, is one that relies upon the maximisation of vehicular protection in exchange for making the crew compartment as compact as practically possible, resulting in far higher protective capabilities than a vehicle of its size would suggest.

Outer layer protection is achieved through the use of a Titanium Diboride (TiB2) based metal composite matrix with a fibreglass spall backing. This metal composite matrix, by being significantly harder than materials used in most ammunition-based applications, is capable of breaking up rounds, including penetrators, and, through the toughness of the metal composite matrix, results in the controlled distribution of kinetic energy absorbed from the round. As the controlled distribution results in the creation of a damage area only marginally larger than the size of the round from which energy has been transferred, with any spall effects absorbed by the fibreglass backing, the external protection is capable of sustaining multiple hits from anything up to the 12.7-14.5mm round range commonly utilised in modern heavy machine-guns. The resultant outer layer of armour protection is significantly lighter than the equivalent volume of RHA, and nonetheless capable of entirely stopping armour piercing small arms fire while significantly wearing down the effectiveness of high performance kinetic penetrators before they reach the armour blocks themselves.

Another component of the HT9A7’s passive protection suite is non-energetic reactive armour (NERA). In modern times, the continued utilisation of explosive reactive armour (ERA), widely used as most armoured vehicles’ first-line protection against shaped charge warheads, has been proven to be impractical and ineffective due to a number of reasons. Firstly, the explosive composition of the filler utilised in ERA results in a situation where hits against the vehicle can potentially result in collateral damage, especially in confined spaces. Due to the necessity of utilising infantry support for armoured vehicles in such environments, this means that the practicality of ERA equipped tanks is greatly decreased due to their subsequent inability to operate effectively in certain combat situations. Secondly, however, the modern development of tandem shaped charge warheads and their frequent employment in anti-tank guided missiles, where a smaller charge detonates ERA prior to the detonation of the main charge, has created a situation where the combat threats faced by the Anemonian Armed Forces are more than capable of easily defeating ERA based solutions with minimal effort through the use of a simple design aspect in their anti-tank warheads. As such, the utilisation of NERA was looked into by FOAM during the design process for the HT9A7, and eventually replaced all planned employment of ERA in the tank due to its clear advantages over its predecessor. The NERA utilised within the HT9A7 is formed out of panels consisting of a 10mm thick layer of rubber lining sandwiched between two 6mm thick plates of steel (Domex Protect 500). When a projectile hits the NERA panel, resultant outward motion by the two Domex plates increases the effective thickness of the armour in that area, providing increased protection against projectiles. Furthermore, however, the lack of an explosive element means that the NERA utilised within the HT9A7 is both capable of taking multiple hits (to some extent) and causes no resultant collateral damage, as well as being far more resistant to the effects of a tandem charge warhead; both in terms of protection and resultant damage, it is a more desirable form of protection. Cross-wise orientation of NERA panel is employed in the armour layout to ensure that the jet bulge in the first panel generated upon impact does not result in material erosion in the second, increasing the overall protectiveness of the NERA layers against shaped charge warheads in exchange for a minimal increase in volume. Overall, the result of this is that the NERA protection of the HT9A7 is both superior to that of standard ERA and parallel arrangements of NERA, giving it first-line protection against almost any shaped charge warheads thrown at it.

In terms of ceramics, the HT9A7 primarily employs nano-ceramic Titanium Diboride (TiB2). Titanium Diboride is, in terms of properties, highly similar to the titanium carbide currently frequently used in many armoured vehicles armour and armament suites; however, in many respects, it can be said to be superior. At room temperature, its hardness is almost three times that of the equivalent volume of fully hardened structural steel. Its melting point is also incredibly high, at 3225˚C, and the result is that armour blocks incorporating normal Titanium Diboride tend to be both incredibly impact resistant and capable of withstanding the high heat generation of chemical energy warheads. Chemically, it is also a relatively field-friendly material, insofar as it is more stable than tungsten carbide when in contact with iron, and less prone to oxidation at anything short of extremely high temperatures. As such, Titanium Diboride is a highly effective material when used in impact-resistant armour applications, capable of withstanding the effects of both HEAT rounds when used in conjunction with other forms of armour but, more importantly, very effective through high levels of hardness against kinetic energy rounds and penetrators. In addition, not content with stopping there, designers decided to take the high-performance characteristics of Titanium Diboride one step further through the use of modern technological developments in nanotechnology. By starting with high purity powders and running them through plasma melting and hot isostatic pressing to inhibit grain growth, the time-temperature window of densification was extended. With nanograin sizes maintained throughout, the result was the significant decline of porosity in ceramics passed through the treatment procedure, and the subsequent production of full density ceramics at the nanometer scale. Higher strength and hardness was achieved, as such, due to the resultant low-angle, high-strength grain boundaries and less dislocation within the overall structure due to the finger grain size. The resultant nano-ceramic Titanium Diboride improves upon an already superior material to create a uniquely effective and efficient ceramic for use within the HT9A7’s composites.

The three metal alloys utilised in the HT9A7 are Type 7720 Titanium-Aluminium alloy, depleted uranium based Stakalloy, and IRHA (HRc 40, HRc 48). Type 7720 Titanium-Aluminium alloy draws from the natural advantages of a titanium-based alloy (high stress resistance and toughness for its weight range, as well as corrosion and temperature resistance). In this particular case, however, the primary advantage of Type 7720 stems from its weight advantage; compared to RHA, Type 7720 is capable of providing properties close to those of ceramic materials at 38% the weight of the equivalent volume of RHA. Of course, the difficulty of machining Type 7720 makes it an impractical choice for usage across the entirety of a main line battle tank, and the result has been that the titanium alloy has not been used as the hull material for the HT9A7 out of purely practical concerns about the workability of the material.

Stakalloy is a depleted uranium based alloy used only as a mesh-based layer of armour rather than a block in itself. The high density of depleted uranium based materials means that the weight gain, despite its highly effective protective capabilities resulting from its sheer density, is prohibitive when overused, and the radiation emission, however limited, of depleted uranium makes it a material that must be approached with trepidation when utilised as a protective material. As brittle as it is dense, depleted uranium is incapable of being used effectively as a standalone material within armour; as such, it must be used within an alloy for maximisation of effectiveness. Departing from the usual uranium-titanium alloys (Staballoy) favoured in most developments of the material, the alloy used here instead is one formed of niobium and vanadium with the depleted uranium to create a more machinable material for use within the HT9A7 while retaining the high density qualities of depleted uranium (~95% of the alloy’s composition being of DU).

IRHA, or Improved Rolled Homogeneous Armour, is a metal alloy that modifies the basic chemical composition of standard RHA to create a far harder material, altering one of the base components of many modern tanks to create a more effective alternative suited to the battlefields of the 21st century. The basic chemical composition of IRHA (by weight percentage) is 93.68% iron, 0.26% carbon, 3.25% nickel, 1.45% chromium, 0.55% molybdenum, 0.4% manganese, 0.4% silicon and some impurities (<0.01% phosphorous, <0.005% sulphur). With a 1% increase in the nickel composition of the alloy and a smaller increase in a number of other elements (chromium, molybdenum and manganese), the resultant material is much harder than standard RHA whilst retaining similar levels of ductility and toughness. Weldability and machinability, of particular importance for IRHA’s hull applications, is similarly preserved at RHA levels by maintaining carbon content at ~0.26% or below. IRHA’s physical properties are further determined by the heat level at which it is tempered; HRc 40 grade IRHA, which is used for hull applications, is tempered at 529˚C, which HRc 48 grade IRHA, for applique armour, is tempered at 218˚C. The differentiation in role stems from the fact that HRc 48 grade IRHA is more effective against kinetic energy penetrators at the cost of far less resistance to fragmented munitions that HRc 40, making it more usable in applique armour (where its shortcomings are compensated for by other materials). IRHA, as such, provides the HT9A7 with all the advantages of rolled homogeneous armour but, again, goes one step further by modifying the basic chemical composition of this erstwhile material to give the HT9A7 another advantage over many contemporary armoured vehicles.

In terms of layout, the armour is separated into two parts; the armour itself, and the hull construction and interior. The armour consists of an outer layer of TiB2 based metal composite matrix over a cross-wise oriented NERA layer, another layer of the metal composite matrix, then panels of Type 7720 TiAl alloy sandwiching square tiles of HRc 48 IRHA and nano-ceramic TiB2. Beneath this is another layer of NERA, nano-ceramic TiB2 tiles structurally maintained by Type 7720 TiAl alloy, a Stakalloy mesh and a plate backing of HRc 48 IRHA. NERA layers and some armoured protection can also be found on the roof of the tank for protection against HEAT-based ATGMs. The hull itself is constructed of HRc 40 IRHA. The tank’s interior is equipped with a spall liner made of 20% glass composition fibreglass backed by Spectra and rubber; the energy is expended against the fibreglass, with any further spalling being absorbed by the backing to provide the crew with highly effective protection against internal damage.

Slat armour constructed of aluminium alloy for weight reduction is also widely used to protect the rear of the vehicle (the engine block) from damage by shaped charge warheads, but this is an additional unit sold by FOAM and not considered to be a component of Calumnis-3.
Last edited by Anemos Major on Wed May 29, 2013 2:15 pm, edited 29 times in total.

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Anemos Major
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Postby Anemos Major » Sun Oct 16, 2011 3:47 am

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In order to augment and complement the already formidable Calumnis-3 armour layout of the HT9A7, the Yvernyr also features an extensive array of active protection under the umbrella of the Solothel Networked Vehicle Protection system. A development of the Calumnis-2 units tested on late Leclerc 140 models prior to the introduction of the HT9A7, Solothel utilises a wide variety of soft and hard kill measures to disrupt, deflect and destroy hostile fire before they engage with the vehicle’s passive protection. Solothel is a system that incorporates the very latest concepts and advances in active protection and networks them in a manner that creates a system that is unrivalled in its ability not only to act independently but as a component of a larger formation efficiently and effectively. Furthermore, it aims to go beyond the traditional restrictions of active protection systems; with an effective hard-kill suite and microsecond-level reaction through effective coordination of active protection resources, Solothel aims to provide the HT9A7 with protection not only against HEAT-based anti-tank missiles, but high speed kinetic energy missiles and gun launched projectiles.

The detection system utilised by Solothel is three-tiered, and aims to achieve the highest possible detection speed with a minimal number of false detects by utilising a range of data from different sources to create an accurate picture of the tank’s combat environment, and thus maximise the effectiveness of its threat detection and thus prevention and interception. The first tier of the vehicle’s sensor system is a set of laser warning sensors installed around the vehicle. Within each sensor unit, both coarse and fine resolution detection systems are employed to provide a wide degree of coverage to the HT9A7. With overlapping sensor coverage, the system detects lasing and is able to provide the crew not only with warnings, but informs them of the specific sector in which lasing has been detected, providing the crew with directional threat awareness that then allows for accurate reaction by both the crew and the automated threat response systems. The second tier of the detection system is an infrared sensor installed with the commander’s 3CCD multi-directional periscope for more immediate threat direction. The infrared sensor allows the HT9A7 to detect munitions, either when launched or in mid-flight, and the high placement, 360˚ coverage of the system means that it is able to provide Solothel with yet more directional awareness, further increasing its ability to react at speed to incoming threats. Finally, the HT9A7 utilises millimetre-wavelength radar based on flat panel additions around the vehicle and a single fixed unit to provide the HT9A7 with 360˚ degrees radar protection, allowing the HT9A7 to not only acquire incoming targets, but their speed, relative distance and profile to create an accurate picture of the projectile. The effectiveness of the system is, again, greatly increased by overlapping search sectors; together with the high performance processors utilised by Solothel, this allows the overall target acquisition array to utilise its wide selection of sensors to achieve extremely high reaction speeds, greatly increasing the speed and thus effectiveness and success rate of its target interception. The three tiers of the system guarantee the accurate and effective threat detection of a number of different threats at a number of different ranges, and it is this effectiveness that gives Solothel the ability to surpass and exceed most current active protection systems.

However, in order to make the most of Solothel’s comprehensive threat detection suite, the HT9A7 required a target interdiction and interception system that would make full use of the electronics suite at its disposal. As such, Solothel utilises a number of varying target harassment techniques across a wide spectrum, both soft and hard kill, to provide Solothel with a nigh-unrivalled array of tools with which to assure that projectiles are challenged by the very real prospect of interception before even managing to reach the tank’s passive protection. As its soft-kill suite, Solothel utilises a combination of smoke generation and electro-optical jamming to hinder and prevent both target tracking and locking by airborne missiles as well as weapons stations themselves.

Smoke generation is usually achieved by a number of 80mm grenade units, generally varying from between twelve to twenty-four launchers with a total of anything between twenty-four to forty-eight canisters installed on the vehicle itself, and can be set to be launched via manual ignition or automatic ignition upon sensor reception. The exact parameters can be set in detail; as the different sensor equipment used by Solothel, and to some extent profile comparison, allow it to identify reception information and categorise it, automatic smoke ignition can be set to occur within limited parameters, such as lasing.

The 80mm grenade launchers themselves are not restricted to a single type of ammunition. In some cases, they can be equipped with 80mm anti-personnel grenades; these utilise hexogen tolite as an explosive base for the directional shattering of a steel casing, resulting in a high-explosive/metal fragmentation based anti-infantry defence mechanism with the directional deployment of the device optimised by direct control by Solothel itself, which is capable of utilising returns from its IR sensors if necessary to identify and eliminate hostile infantry forces (though this option can be turned off when operating in conjunction with allied infantry).

In terms of smoke, the HT9A7 is provided with two separate types of smoke for operation in close proximity to unarmoured elements, and operation in open areas against hostile forces. This differentiation is necessary due to the nature of the smoke composition used in each grenade. The ‘A’ model, designed with operation in close proximity to non-protected elements in mind, utilises the explosive dispersal of chlorosulfuric acid to spread out an aerosol smoke cloud and reduce the acid concentration of the hydrochloric and sulphuric acid produced as a result of the reaction. To compensate for the resultant reduced effectiveness of the smoke cloud, the smoke composition also contains fine metal coated carbon fibres to act as obscurants in the millimetre wave region, thus allowing Composition A to provide the HT9A7 with adequate protection in a variety of ranges. Composition B differs slightly from Composition A in that, while retaining the explosive dispersal mechanism and the carbon fibre content to act as a radar obscurant, the actual chemical composition of the smoke grenade has been changed to a white phosphorous-based composition. This is due to the pyrophoric qualities of WP; because it burns when put into contact with the air, it creates a short period of IR inhibition through a highly volatile exothermal reaction. Furthermore, the chemical content of Composition B grenades is increased in comparison to A, with the explosive dispersal lessened, due to the fact that it is designed solely for effectiveness and disregards general welfare due to its envisaged area of use; as such, Composition B grenades offer a much higher performance alternative to the HT9A7 when engaging hostile forces in the open field, a quick acting smoke grenade that, through the use of white phosphorous and metal coated carbon fibres and their explosive dispersal, create a quick blanket of thick smoke effective as an obscurant in the visible, infra-red and millimetre-wave spectrums to provide the HT9A7 with full spectrum defence. Of course, both Composition A and B are potentially harmful to those caught within the device’s area of effect upon ignition (without protective equipment in the case of A, and in either case with B), and as such, automatic deployment by Solothel is an easily alterable option; Solothel’s control mechanism, displaying flexibility as always, allows the crew to select the parameters within which the smoke canisters are to be deployed, ranging from full automation upon threat detection to complete manual control. As such, the 80mm grenade-based defensive suit utilised by the HT9A7 provides the tank’s crew with a highly effective set of soft-kill defence mechanisms capable of block the target locks of weapons operators and in-flight munitions, but also allows them to minimise collateral damage via a selection of ammunition and the flexibility of the control system.

The second soft-kill mechanism employed by Solothel is an electro-optical defensive suite, mounted in two box units to either side of the HT9A7’s turret. The electro-optical defensive suite relies upon the emission of interference directed towards older generation missiles relying upon detection and engagement in the infra-red range (TOW, MILAN, AT-3, etc.) and takes advantage of the nature of the guidance system used universally in such missiles to create a jamming mechanism that virtually guarantees successful munitions interdiction. The targeting equipment of wire-guided missiles utilising infra-red targeting rely upon ‘flares’ located at the back of the missile to create a reference point concerning the location of the missile in relation to the target, and the electro-optical defensive suite employs ‘jamming’ that replaces this flare by emitting a larger hotspot that takes the place of the missile’s ‘flare’. The result of this is that the course correction of the targeting computer becomes faulty, as the location of the flare no longer corresponds to that of the missile. In practice, as the engagement range of the system is relatively extended, this results in most targeted wire-guided systems losing control as a result of false course correction and failing to hit their intended target.

Though the soft-kill component of Solothel is capable of interdicting and breaking target locks across the full spectrum of targeting equipment, and disabling wire-guided missiles altogether, the threat posed by alternately guided, modern anti-tank missiles and high speed tank projectiles is still extant. In order to combat this, Solothel is equipped with a very different set of projectile interception equipment. The hard-kill suite employed by Solothel utilises a combination of area effect and kinetic energy projectiles to engage and destroy a wide range of potential threats posed to the HT9A7; fully controlled by the Solothel control system, they are directionally deployed in the most efficient and effective manner possible based on sensor returns to engage incoming targets at high speed. The first component of the system is a canister-based system employing the vertical launch of ‘grenade’ units; though six are mounted at the front of the HT9A7, additional units can be added around the vehicle as necessary. Similar to a grenade in appearance, this unit is similar to the anti-personnel 80mm grenades employed by the HT9A7 in principle; utilising a composition of hexogen tolite and RDX as its explosive base, these canisters directionally deploy titanium carbide ball bearings to intercept and destroy incoming projectiles. A soft launch mechanism propels the canister at high speed from its launcher, and impulse thrusters allow it to make rapid course corrections in mid-air before engaging and eliminating the target, either destroying it outright or destabilising it to the extent that it is incapable of effectively hitting the tank. Though the system is highly effective against anti-tank guided missiles, the reaction speed and style of the system (involving launch, rotating and explosive detonation) is nonetheless insufficient against ‘fast’ projectiles, due to the relatively time consuming launch procedure and the insufficiency of explosive propelled titanium carbide bearings as interceptors against such munitions. As such, the HT9A7 is equipped with another hard-kill system that abandons engagement at range and opts to utilise kinetic energy kills to eliminate high speed threats to the vehicle. Using titanium carbide rods, the system initially launches the interceptor with a ‘hard’ soft-launch, giving it a higher initial velocity than most comparable soft launch systems. It then utilises impulse thrusters to adjust its trajectory in the very limited period prior to target impact; depending on the location and position of the target, Solothel will either guide the interceptor into or into the path of the incoming projectile. The result may not be absolute destruction, but as this component of Solothel is a terminal stage interceptor, it is highly likely that the destabilisation caused by its impact will deflect the target object to either knock it off target or force it to hit the HT9A7 at a less damaging angle, restricting damage to the tank itself. Again, additional units can be mounted around the vehicle as necessary. This two-component system allows Solothel to intercept almost any conceivable target capable of breaking through its soft-kill systems, not only last generation anti-tank missiles but the whole range of threats faced by it.

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Equipped with a wide variety of highly advanced automotive components and armaments, the HT9A7 is designed to achieve full spectrum dominance on the field of battle. Accordingly, the component control of the HT9A7 is naturally complicated; as such, in order to maximise the effectiveness of both the hardware and the crew itself, the electronics suite of the HT9A7 aims to be both comprehensive enough to ensure that the advanced capabilities of the tank are fully exploited by those utilising it, as well as being accessible. The latter point may seem irrelevant in terms of defining the HT9A7’s combat capabilities, but the over-complication of a vehicle’s control systems can result in the inhibition of the tank crew’s ability to operate effectively on the battlefield, over long periods of time if not at all. As such, the HT9A7 aims to marry a complex set of electronics with ease of control and system streamlining to ensure that the tank in combat is not only high performance on paper, but in practice.

The FCS (Fire Control System) of the HT9A7, known as ‘Io’, was built to accommodate the highly technically complicated SC10.8 gun system utilised by the tank, and as such, it is a high performance fire control module capable of managing the variety of ammunition and circumstantial variables necessary to accurately operate the weapon while remaining operator-friendly. Firstly, in order to acquire targets, Io utilises a tetrad of semi-automated sensors to gather accurate data not only of the enemy, but of the terrain on which the enemy stands. The first component of the target acquisition system is the gunner’s standard telescopic sight, a 3CCD camera which utilises three step (3x, 10x, 20x) magnification to provide the gunner with day sights effective at extended ranges. A FLIR thermal imaging system with five step (3x, 6x, 10x, 15x, 20x) magnification is utilised to extend the viewing range of the gunnery system to night operations, and the ability of the system to detect heat signatures in the day allows it to root out concealed targets regardless of the time of day, greatly increasing its utility in the gunner, and Io’s, hands. A single phased array radar unit is also used by the HT9A7 to perform extended range target searches, decreasing the effectiveness of traditional IR-based defensive measures against Io; capable of providing the fire control system with target data at extreme ranges, the phased array radar gives Io the ability to reach out beyond traditional IR-based obscurants, and the flexibility of such a radar system allows it to transfer at high speed from wide search scans to a tracking mode, providing the gunner with another source of fire control data if necessary. Finally, Io is also equipped with a LADAR array. LADAR is a particularly unique choice in that, by most standards, it is an extraordinarily ineffective targeting device; as frequent, high speed scans, necessary for any fire control system to continuously provide accurate firing data to the ballistic computer, consume too much energy and processing power, it is both impossible and ill-advised to attempt to use LADAR as a constant-input firing solution source. Rather, Io takes full advantage of LADAR’s high resolution searches and employs it to augment the firing solution obtained by other systems, rather than utilising it independently as one. Upon activation, or automatically if so desired, the HT9A7’s LADAR system (which is restricted to a relatively narrow search band in front of the vehicle) can be utilised to initiate a scan, providing Io with a high resolution image of the terrain composition of its target tracking area, providing the fire control system with additional environmental data to aid in improving the accuracy of the final firing solution. As such, Io is able to utilise LADAR in an effective, power-friendly manner that makes the most of its advantages.

The gunner utilises an eye-safe pulsed CO2 laser rangefinder with optical heterodyne detection for target acquisition purposes. Carbon Dioxide lasers, originally conceived in the 1980s as a replacement for traditionally used rangefinding equipment, mark a step up from current-use Nd:YAG rangefinder systems through its decreased system size and weight, and the ability to penetrate most extant smoke dispersal systems, giving Io the ability to pierce certain soft-kill mechanisms to ensure a higher hit probability. High speed system response and fast processing thus allow the gunner to acquire, target, track and obtain a firing solution on a target in just over a second if so desired, with a modern, multi-tiered system that gives Io exceptional resilience to traditional targeting countermeasures. The optical suite itself is gyrostabilised, retaining its accuracy during movement over broken terrain. On the sight picture itself, as well as the reticule (which alters depending on the weapon used by the gunner), the range is shown on the top of the reticule, while the bottom left displays the turret position relative to the hull and system status, the bottom shows the ammunition type selected, and the bottom right displays display mode, targeting system status (automated or otherwise), APS status (automated, manual, off), as well as a target list and highlighted targets selected by Io and the tank commander if so desired. Additional status icons can be added or removed from the gunner’s reticule at will via the gunner’s touch screens. System redundancy is achieved via a secondary, emergency sighting module located in the gunner’s station which is non-digital, though its accuracy is greatly limited in comparison to the electronically controlled FCS aided firing solutions produced by the HT9A7 and it only exists for emergency control.

Io itself is a control system with high processing power and memory, and most certainly one of the contributing factors through power consumption to the disproportionately large engine employed in the Yvernyr. The sheer processing power of Io is necessary to ensure that it is able to achieve competitive response speeds whilst remaining able to collate the comparatively large amount of data input into the system, and this is something it is able to do almost effortlessly; firing solutions, for example, take fractions of seconds to be calculated, and overall, the system’s performance is far beyond both expectations and competition (though this is only achieved in exchange for higher procurement costs). However, though systems capability are a vital part of a tank’s effective operation in a 21st century battlefield, a case study exists in the Leclerc tank (used prior to the introduction of the HT9A7) as to why capabilities can, in fact, be restrictive; the advanced nature of the Leclerc’s systems were only achieved through the introduction of additional complexity to the tank’s operation, and the result was that concentrated crew operation could only be achieved for a maximum of about six hours, following extensive training and familiarisation with the tank. Noting this disadvantage of the Leclerc, one of the primary objectives of Io’s development, and the HT9A7’s electronics suite as a whole, was superior interfacing and automation to ensure that the tank’s advanced electronics suite operated solely as a beneficial factor rather than hindering the vehicle.

Operation of the gunnery system is achieved through the utilisation of a pair of 30cm touch screens (mounted in front of and to the right of the gunner, who is located to the right of the turret itself), which also come with multifunction buttons for system redundancy purposes. As the visuals from the sensor and optical equipment are digitally transmitted into the vehicle, the targeting scope through which the gunner looks can be stored above, allowing him to access the touch screens without obstruction if necessary; when utilising the scope, it is pulled down from above, locked in position with a lever-pattern lock, and operated like so; a control panel located to one side of the rifle scope allows the gunner to adjust brightness, reticule contrast and other factors. A stowable keyboard is located under the forward 30cm screen for computer interfacing, both for redundancy purposes and the management of areas not covered by the touch screen/MFB interfacing. For gunnery control, a yoke placed underneath the turret is used to control most aspects of the interface, from target acquisition to ammunition selection. By placing a large quantity of the interface on the yoke, Io allows the gunner to run through the firing process without moving from a fixed position, greatly increasing the speed of said process over other interfaces requiring movement around the gunnery station. Ammunition selection is managed by a series of 5 ridged buttons located on the side of the yoke, pre-programmed to select a certain type of round, while a pair of control sticks are used to cycle through lists, including target selection, weapon selection (main gun/co-axial). A firing button, safety catch and sight control unit (sight type, magnification etc) are all components that are also found on this yoke.

In terms of the firing process itself, the HT9A7 is a highly ‘intelligent’ tank if so desired; the systems of the vehicle can, of course, be set to manual control in the interests of redundancy and flexibility, but the fully active Io Fire Control System is one of the most automated systems of its kind today. Drawing from design concepts utilised in the Asakuran Type 90, a tank equipped with an Anemonian-developed electronics suite, Io’s fire control system is equipped with an extensive target profiling database that allows the fire control computer not only to recognise potential targets, but to compare them to known target profiles stored within the FCS’s database (in some cases making loose affiliations such at identifying the target as a tank, while making more accurate judgments in other cases) and thus create priority lists that greatly ease the target identification and selection process for the gunner. These priority lists allow the gunner, as well as the commander, to easily cycle through potential targets, especially invaluable in a high intensity combat situation involving engagement with a large number of hostile combat assets. The ability to shift different targets around on the priority list prior to entering an engagement and to thus greatly shorten the target acquisition period gives Io a notable advantage in combat situations by streamlining the target selection process to the point where all the gunner must do is select a target from a list. At this point, Io generates a firing solution based on a number of sensory inputs; as well as the gunner’s sensors (laser rangefinder, LADAR and potentially the phased array radar system), a crosswind sensor, a dynamic vertical angle sensor, a barometric sensor, data concerning the boresight alignment (obtained via laser bore sighting), an automatic muzzle reference system that also allows Io to compensate for instability while mobile, a tachometer to determine the target’s speed and thus necessary lead distance, and information concerning the ballistic properties and temperature of the ammunition. This self-updating fire control system is able to achieve unparalleled accuracy together with one of the fastest fire control information cycling and update speeds today via a combination of multiple sensory inputs and high performance data processing and storage, updating the fire control information multiple times a second while tracking targets. The firing process itself can actually be automated down to the point where the gunner’s involvement is limited to selecting a target from a list; from there, the turret can automatically traverse, acquire the target, the firing solution and fire when ready. This allows the gunner to simply select a list of targets together with ammunition and allow the FCS to autonomously work its way down it; however, it is found, especially when operating in conjunction with other tanks, that manual control is required for effective coordination, as well as the obvious rate of fire limitations of a fully automated system, and the result is that complete automation is not utilised as much as it would otherwise be (though in practice, manual control can simply involve trigger depression).

The commander’s sight is similar to that of the gunner. Five sights can be selected from by the commander; his main sight, the sighting block located prominently slightly to the left of the turret, is primarily used for long range target identification and acquisition, and employs a three step magnification 3CCD camera and five step magnification FLIR imaging system like that of the gunner. His secondary sight is that utilised on the tank’s Remote Weapon System (3CCD/FLIR/laser rangefinder), and he is also provided with a 3CCD 360˚ periscope, the 3CCD forward panoramic sensors located under the commander’s sight and a 3CCD/FLIR periscope mounted on the back of the HT9A7. The result is that the commander is capable of maintaining overwatch around the entirety of the vehicle, compared to the restricted vision of most modern tank commanders, and though the commander is under no obligation to fully employ all of these sighting methods, it nonetheless allows him to quickly identify targets in what would normally be a tank’s blind spot. Control of the system is managed via a stick pattern interface located to the right side of the commander’s seat, a stowable keyboard and three 30cm touch screens with MFBs located in front of the commander’s station to create a panoramic viewing arrangement that can quickly be changed into a highly streamlined and effective systems control suite. As well as utilising the RWS (which can either be controlled manually, set to ‘fix’ itself on a single position or ‘track’ an identified target), the commander is also capable of utilising his main sight to ‘set’ targets for Io or the gunner (depending on the level of automation) and, in the event of an emergency, employ his station to control the entire gunnery system via the 30 cm touch screens and his stick, with full turret automation greatly decreasing the workload on the commander. In theory, this allows the commander to utilise the entire turret alone, but it is difficult to maintain concentration in a work intensive situation of this kind for over an hour or so, making it a highly impractical option for all but the direst of situations.

The driver employs a 3CCD panoramic camera arrangement and FLIR on a three-screen arrangement of 30cm touch screens with MFBs located in a panoramic viewing arrangement for sighting purposes. The system is able to identify and colour code obstacles in the HT9A7’s path of advance on the driver’s display, greatly enhancing the response speed of the driver to such things and putting less pressure on the driver to identify such obstacles in high concentration combat situations.

The HT9A7’s networking system, due to the high quantity of information sharing between the HT9A7 and various organisational structures at both a vertical and horizontal level, is designed to be both high performance on paper and usable in a variety of different manners to ensure that the high specifications of the HT9A7 are not only used independently, but to their full extent when coordinated with other tanks and, vertically, in conjunction with other assets. The HT9A7’s combat networking suite, labelled SAIC, connects the individual tank to the Anemonian Crown Army’s CombatNet (supporting units up to the battalion level). CombatNet, due to the introduction of the ICS21 program, is a battalion networking system utilises by everything from Mechanised infantrymen to artillery batteries, and is universally employed to facilitate integration into control networks at a higher level (BattleNet, WarNet etc). Rather, instead of utilising completely different software for each combat asset networked into the Crown Army’s C4I structure, CombatNet utilises a combination of base software together with asset-specific modules (for tanks units, mechanised infantry, artillery and other assets) to simplify networking logistics while catering to the specific needs of individual combat assets to create a system that is both efficient and effective. At its most basic level, CombatNet is a cartographic display. With rapid updating enabled at the platoon, company and battalion level, this cartographic display is able to show blue force and enemy troop locations and movements as detected by allied assets, operational plans fed down from various levels, as well as status reports and information from various levels to greatly increase the level and quality of group coordination, amalgamating the myriad of information entering the system via a highly capable Geographical Information System. Beyond this, however, the HT9A7 is also capable of utilising SAIC to share targeting data with other tanks at the platoon level if desired; the rapid sharing of data allow tank platoons operating in conjunction to further hone their capabilities in this area by increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of their combat employment and countermeasure deployment via the sharing of targeting data.

SAIC is also utilised to manage the HT9A7’s communications suite. The high capacity combat network radio employed by SAIC for limited range communications is a high capacity data radio operating as a frequency-hopping system in the UHF range (225-450 MHz), and supports high data transfer speeds to permit the utilisation of the HCDF connection for rapid and secure voice and data transfer and communications between vehicles for limited distance level coordination. At this level, the HT9A7 is also capable of employing IEEE 802.11 standard encrypted wireless local area networks for inter-vehicle connection. E-WLAN connectivity permits vehicles to achieve high speed, ad-hoc networking supporting secure data, video and voice transfers between individual tanks. A chipset incorporated into the computer utilises an encryption algorithm to secure access to Crown Army level WLAN networks, employing COMSEC/NETSEC encryption, meaning that enemy access or viewing of such networks is impossible, especially in the combat environments where the use of such systems is envisaged. For communications and networking at higher speed and longer range, SAIC is also equipped with digital broadband connectivity with satellite and stationary fibre-optic links; though such tactical internet connections allow for theatre-wide secure high speed connection, data transfers and features such as extended inter-formation communication and messaging, not to mention commercial internet interfacing if necessary, and though most Anemonian theatre-wide networking hubs of this kind employ automatic network formation and autonomous organisation, together with interconnection by utilising individual users not only as recipients but as intermediary nodes, to maximise speed (over six time the speed of HCDF connections when transmitting messages, for example), ease of use and efficiency by removing the need for a significant dedicated communications infrastructure, the reliability of such networks on the battlefield is nonetheless susceptible to enemy attack. As such, the HT9A7’s broadband internet connection is more of a ‘bonus’ feature permitted further effectiveness if usable; SAIC, and CombatNet, are designed to operate at maximum efficiency via the HCDF connection alone if necessary.

SAIC is also equipped with a highly effective computer malware detection and elimination system; this dynamic malware protection employs frequent database updates together with a connection to a central control system which both possesses a larger database and analyses the coding of unidentifiable threats to maximise its effectiveness against any threat, known or unknown, which manages to get past the HT9A7’s firewall.

The utilisation of SRAM, depleted boron coating of key computer chip arrays, partially redundant computer systems and error correcting memory arrays allows for system resistance, recovery and redundance against electromagnetic pulses and waves (as well as the metal hull of the vehicle itself), hardening the HT9A7 against such attacks and giving it the capacity to operate effectively in nuclear environments if so required.

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In terms of automotive requirements, the overall capabilities and limitations of the HT9A7 meant that it established itself as a uniquely demanding vehicle. Sheer weight and high power requirements meant that it required a very powerful engine, but the degree of accuracy to which the tank was able to reach out and strike its opponents meant that the ride quality had to be high, offering unparalleled stability and smoothness to make the most of the tank’s already significant accuracy, both when stationary and when on the move. Uniquely as a nation, Anemos was a nation well placed to answer these needs to the letter, but not because of domestic innovation per se; ultimately, it would be the technology employed within the Leclerc tank previously employed by the Crown Army that would influence and direct the development of the HT9A7’s automotive qualities more than anything else.

Requiring higher output than normal engines, the idea of utilising a standard diesel for the HT9A7 was rejected outright. Rather, it was decided that the engine layout of the Yvernyr (following minor experimentation with multi-fuel gas turbines) would follow that of the Leclerc to maximise the power output of the engine in exchange for an increase in mechanical complexity and fuel consumption, both negative qualities that could be compensated for by the fully professional and educated personnel handling these engines, and the focus on the Crown Army’s logistical efficiency (reflected in its 1:3 combat to logistics personnel ratio). The hyperbar engine thus employed by the HT9A7, generating 2200hp of power, is a design which utilises the additional exhaust flow from a gas turbine together with that of the diesel to boost the effectiveness of the engine’s hybrid turbocharger. The higher boost pressure resulting from this gives the engine power and torque that far exceeds that which would be obtained from the diesel engine alone, making it suitable for use on the power-hungry HT9A7. The result of this is a high power engine that manages to be remarkably responsive; going from 0 to 32km/h in 4.8 seconds, the top speed of 72kph achieved by the HT9A7 is, in fact, governed so as to lengthen the service life of the tank’s tracks. In addition, the noise production of the engine is far below that of a standard diesel engine, closer to that of a gas turbine while remaining more fuel efficient. Furthermore, the gas turbine employed by the engine is capable of acting as an independent power supply; in practice, this means that the HT9A7 is able to save more space by utilising the gas turbine as an auxiliary power supply, but in static positions, the tank is also able to decrease its signature and fuel consumption significantly by powering itself via its APU. However, in exchange for the significant rise in power and torque offered by a hyperbar engine, this is accompanied by a corresponding rise in pressure, a change that requires further changes to be made to such an engine beyond the traditional design of a diesel engine. On the powerplant employed by the Leclerc, this problem is solved by retaining a V-layout engine and utilising large head bolts to contain the pressure. Though this solution worked to some degree on the Leclerc when employed by the Crown Army, it was nonetheless an imperfect aspect of the design that was a cause of concern to maintenance crews, and an alternate solution was pursued in the HT9A7. Ultimately, the layout utilised was the opposed piston rather than the ‘V’ layout used in the Leclerc; by creating a cylinder with pistons at either end, and no head, the pressure problem was largely solved. Another issue with the hyperbar engine is the high heat generation and air consumption of the system, which required extensive temperature control and cooling in the engine block; however, this was achieved by utilising an effective electric air cooling and recycling system in the rear tank block itself in addition to the natural air cooling employed by most engines, with the added advantage of decreasing the thermal footprint left by the HT9A7’s powerplant and increasing its environmental flexibility. In order to manage the complicated climate control, as well as other aspects of the engine’s control (fuel injection, etc), an electronic control system is utilised to obtain information from the sensors located within the engine block and respond accordingly, as well as to provide the driver with information concerning the engine’s status while in use. The result was a powerful and effective powerplant for the HT9A7, with a host of advantages over traditional diesels and a number of disadvantages that could simply be absorbed by existing military infrastructure.

The transmission utilised in the HT9A7, unlike many of the other parts, is a conceptual placeholder while development on newer technologies advanced. The immaturity of many newer technological concepts used in next generation tanks, such as the Continuously Variable Transmission employed in the Type 10 Main Battle Tank, compared to the relatively advanced development of planetary gear automatic transmissions meant that the chances of using the former resulting in a protracted development process were high. As such, an automatic transmission was used in the HT9A7 in place of an envisioned later update, mostly likely employing a hydromechanical transmission. The system employs 8 forward and 3 reverse gears; this planetary gear automatic transmission is computerised to allow for both higher efficiency and effectiveness, as well as simpler interfacing by the driver. The system is partly manual; by setting an upper gear limit, the driver is able to set a boundary within which the transmission operates. However, within these boundaries, the automatic transmission is able to shift between available gears at will. The braking system is a dual circuit hydrodynamic/mechanical system, with an additional hydrostatic retarder in place to act as an ‘emergency brake’ system.

The Yvernyr employs a hydractive suspension that marks a step up from the hydraulic suspensions widely utilised by main battle tanks in the combat environments the HT9A7 is built for. The suspension operates around the same mechanical principles as a hydropneumatic suspension; the utilisation of an incompressible hydraulic fluid’s transfer within a ‘sphere’ to alter the pressure of nitrogen at the top of the sphere, in theory creating a suspension with an infinite number of potential positions. Already, this gives the suspension a significant advantage; this allows is to adopt a theoretically infinite number of positions, and allows the HT9A7 to adopt a variety of positions, ranging from standard ride, to ‘kneeling’, depending on the circumstantial necessities, giving it a high degree of flexibility in this respect. Furthermore, in terms of ride characteristics, an uncompressed hydropneumatic suspension is softer than a steel spring, while a compressed one is capable of being harder than a fully contracted spring. This gives the hydraulic suspension the ability to display comfortable and stable ride characteristics in almost any situation, making it the ideal candidate for use within the HT9A7. The introduction of a hydractive system was one that simply increased the already significant inherent advantages of the hydraulic suspension. Sensors within various areas of the tank’s automotive parts feed data concerning speed and conditions to a computer control system. By gauging the nature of the ride conditions, the computer control system is able to modify the allocation and compression of spheres at millisecond speeds so as to alter the suspension to provide the optimal ride conditions under any circumstances, creating a constantly variable suspension of sorts capable of responding on the move to changes in terrain to maximise its effectiveness. Of course, fully automated suspensions are not necessarily the optimal solution considering the individual requirements of individual crews, and as such, a high degree of crew input into the system automation is also employed. It can be returned to ‘manual’ to turn it into a normal hydropneumatic suspension, of course (with a control interface that allows the driver to shift the position of the tank minutely and manually), but when in automatic, the ride characteristics can be set to a ‘constant’ preset (balances between handling against comfort), and the hydroactive suspension control systems will respond accordingly to keep the vehicle handling as close to the preset levels as possible across all terrain environments, greatly increasing the flexibility of the HT9A7’s suspension in the hands of the driver.

Turret traverse is controlled by electrically powered servo amplifiers; as with the rest of the tank’s electronics, these draw power from the engines, as well as lithium ion batteries used for energy storage.

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The centre of any manned vehicle is, by default, the crew itself, and as such, great efforts have been made to ensure both comfort and survivability. Of course, this is within the bounds of feasibility; it must be understood that whatever the measures implemented to maximise comfort, as well as the superior ride characteristics of the hydractive suspension, the HT9A7 is fundamentally a cramped and relatively uncomfortable vehicle designed as such to maximise protection and volume efficiency.

NBC protection is achieved via fully filtered dry air and climate control managed via an air outlet into the crew compartment. This NBC protection suite can be powered via the engine or the turbine APU, allowing for functionality even when idle, and also serves to maximise crew comfort by allowing for a fully adjustable operating environment (ranging from humidity to temperature). In the event of system failure, the vehicle is also equipped with a smaller secondary NBC protection suite; this system supplies filtered air to individual crew stations, and is also equipped with personal ventilation masks to maximise the distribution of a limited supply of air.

Against fire, the crew is protected by two mechanisms. Firstly, sensors within the crew compartment itself are able to detect the outbreak of fires, and are connected directly to a pentafluoroethane fire extinguishing system within the crew compartment, designed to minimise both crew and component damage while providing rapid fire control to ensure safety. A Halon-1301 based fire extinguishing system is employed within the HT9A7’s fuel tank; again, sensors are able to detect breaches in the fuel tank, and Halon-1301 is employed to neutralise explosive vapours. The tank itself is self-sealing, employing an open-cell polyether safety foam to ensure that fuel tank punctures are quickly dealt with to limit damage to the HT9A7.

In terms of seating, as well as limited reclining and an adjustable head-rest, footpads, lower hull plating and a design that allows for minor seat displacement, the tank’s seating is also fully mine protected (with shock isolation and redirection) to ensure that under-hull threats are protected against, both in terms of the vehicle but also from the shock to the crew compartment itself.

As far as comfort is concerned, the HT9A7 is equipped with the bare minimum. A water tap employing filtered water to one corner of the crew compartment, capable of providing hot and cold water, is used alongside an electric hot-plate as rudimentary tools for food and water supply provision to the crew when on the move. The electronics system of the HT9A7 is equipped to interface with a wide variety of commercial MP3 players (transmitted over the crew intercoms or over internal and even external loudspeakers, if so inclined) as well as connection to commercial internet via military broadband. In practice, however, the employment of such electronic interfaces during combat operations is greatly frowned upon by Anemonian officers (insofar as they result in concentration losses), resulting in the restriction of their use to peacetime operations, and their use during combat generally involves tank crewmen playing death metal and Wagner’s Walkürenritt while charging terrified and confused insurgents in Asakuran combat environments.

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The HT9A7 is a unique armoured vehicle for its time. Born out of a need for the very newest and best, the result is a tank that stands at the very cusp of modern technology, relying not only on pure brawn but on innovation and effective design to give it the capacity to fight on any environment, against any enemy, with a significant margin of superiority and a host of advantages. The HT9A7 is, in essence, an expression not only of Anemonian military might, but of the ingenuity and innovation of a society born from the flames of war; effective now, and with the capacity to support upgrades and updates effortlessly, the ‘Yvernyr’ lives up to its name, the bane of its enemy both now and well into the foreseeable future.



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[UNIT: ‘B’ Platoon, 2nd Company, 1st Battalion, 13th Crown Guards Heavy Cavalry Brigade, 1st The Imperial Life Guards Regiment (ILG)]
[DATE: 1600-1700, 21/08/11]
[LOCATION: Sector 7-2, FMTA-R]

‘B’ Platoon received instructions from Company HQ to form vanguard and intercept incoming hostile forces prior to their engagement of allied Mechanised forces along left flank. Targets were acquired at range of 9km+ with combination of allied intelligence and individual targeting capabilities; platoon adopted wide line formation and commenced fire against hostile elements, retaining a first-strike advantage. Priority targets (5x OPFOR Leclerc MBT) were eliminated in first salvo utilising combination of GLATGM and MRKE, fire distribution was performed by system networking. Engagement then reverted to harassment of retreating hostile forces, total casualties incurred were in range of 12x MBTs, and 10x IFVs with no damage taken. Position has been maintained, Platoon awaits further orders.



Enquiries concerning exports and comments should be made via telegram or to the Anemonian State Arms Export Authority.
Last edited by Anemos Major on Thu Aug 09, 2012 9:24 am, edited 4 times in total.

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Yohannes
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Civil Rights Lovefest

Postby Yohannes » Sun Oct 16, 2011 4:09 am

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I am sorrie brawh just cannot stand itz magic.

Pwease don't spank me mai man.

D:<<<
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HT9A7 IRM 'Yvernyr' Armoured Recovery Vehicle

Postby Anemos Major » Sun Oct 16, 2011 4:10 am

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HT9A7 'Yvernyr' IRM Armoured Recovery Vehicle, 1st Noble Guards Cavalry Regiment the Imperial Life Guard, on training exercises in Barony Myrstirei

Designation:
Numerical Designation: HT9A7 IRM
Name: "Yvernyr IRM" - "Wyvern Armoured Battlefield Recoverer"

Key Data:
Crew: 4 (Commander, Driver, 2 Engineers)
Cost: 13.1 million NSD

Dimensions:
Length: 8.1m (Hull)/
Height: 2.5m (Turret Roof)
Width: 3.8m (4.2m w/ Modular Side Armour)
Weight: 80t

Performance:
Maximum Speed: 72kph road speed (governed).
Cross country speed: 53kph
Acceleration: 0 to 32kph in 4.8 seconds
Operational Range: 515km

Armament:
12.7mm MG/H8A3, can be fitted on Remote Weapons System (powered), interchangeable with other armaments.

Protection:
Passive: Calumnis-3 (metal-composite matrix outer layer, NERA, composite tiles, DU alloy mesh, IRHA plates/hull, fibreglass/rubber/Spectra spall liner)
Crew Protection: NBC protection (main + auxiliary), pentafluoroethane crew compartment fire extinguishing, Halon 1301 + foam fuel tank extinguishing and self-sealing suite.

Electronics:
SAIC Combat Networking

Power:
Propulsion: 2,200hp (steady state) opposing piston hyperbar.
Transmission: Automatic (8 forward, 3 reverse).
Suspension: Hydractive
Power/Weight: 27.5hp/tonne



Overview

As part of the HT9A7 developmental program, FOAM was commissioned to construct an armoured recovery vehicle for battlefield use. The Leclerc being replaced by the HT9A7 was a very different vehicle to its successor, and it was quickly understood that the Leclerc DNG previously used by the Crown Army was no longer sufficient for the role. The next generation ARV would be a vehicle capable of keeping up and effectively maintaining its parent vehicle; with a high degree of automotive commonality, and the ability to handle the heavier parts employed by the HT9A7, the ARV would be a cost effective and efficient solution to the gap left in the Crown Army's capabilities by the retiring of the Leclerc family of armoured vehicles.

Quickly dubbed 'IRM' (Irdentise Recuperatyr Mordefessei, or Armoured Battlefield Recoverer), the project initiated by FOAM quickly began to involve a number of other key contractors. Arsenal Karonin, the well known naval concern, was brought in to oversee the design of the crane, an area of specialisation developed as a result of their insight and research into the development of naval yards. A few industrial firms were employed to oversee the addition of other modules, such as the dozer blade, and ultimately, the tank began to share less and less parts with the HT9A7. Nonetheless, field trials proved it to be a highly effective vehicle in service, capable of providing effective engineering support to field units and withstanding an impressive amount of fire due to its utilisation of the same armour array as the HT9A7. A highly effective set of additions proved it in the eyes of the Crown Army's commanding staff, and the relatively speedy developmental and trialling process meant that it was on the production lines at the same time as the initial HT9A7 tanks, allowing it to enter service simultaneously. Through a combined procurement process, the Crown Army was able to ensure that armoured units being re-equipped with the HT9A7 received next generation support vehicles in proportionally identical quantities as well, allowing entire formations to shift to the HT9A7 family at once, and the result was that by 2011, a year after its full scale introduction to frontline units, the HT9A7 IRM was playing a key and highly integrated role in the Crown Army's armoured formations.

IRM Standard Specific Changes and Additions

The HT9A7 IRM, as an Armoured Recovery Vehicle, differs radically in structure and design from its parent vehicle, a main battle tank. Designed with the explicit objective of supporting tanks in combat, the IRM has been modified and equipped as necessary to fulfil this objective, exhibiting a remarkable degree of effectiveness in completing this role actively and efficiently. The increased size of the IRM over the Leclerc allows for the utilisation of heavier duty equipment, especially in the area of cranes and winches, and this, together with a degree of design innovation, gives the HT9A7 IRM the ability to act as an effective support unit for the HT9A7 both on and off the battlefield.

The first, most noticeable change observable in the IRM is the utilisation of an entirely different superstructure. As a turret-less vehicle, the IRM makes use of a heightened superstructure built atop the same basic hull as the HT9A7, with a crew compartment at the front, the crane resting along the right side of the vehicle and a storage area to the rear left of the vehicle. This modified superstructure is armoured similarly to the HT9A7, providing the IRM with the same high level of protection as its parent vehicle, and the employment of the same engine and automotive parts allow it to achieve roughly similar speeds and mobility to the Yvernyr. The crew compartment of the IRM features four entry points to the left of the vehicle, and a hatch on top of the forward superstructure for the use of the commander. These entry points are fully sealed to ensure that NBC protection is not compromised, and can be locked from within the vehicle to prevent unwanted access from outside. The small flap-hatch on the forward-left of the IRM is used by the driver, and leads into the control cabin; however, its relatively narrow confines mean that it is more often used for access at short notice or interaction with those outside the vehicle rather than usual transit to and from the IRM's crew compartment. The two doors behind it lead into the engineers' compartment of the cabin, and are handle operated for rapid use. Finally, a hatch at the back of the crew compartment, opening upwards, provides a larger entrance into the crew compartment for objects such as crates and boxes; accordingly, the rear area of the crew compartment, also housing the vehicle's water filter and hot-plate, is generally used to house supplies. The crew compartment itself is roomier than that of the HT9A7 due to the heightened superstructure and the lack of ammunition and weaponry to obstruct the available space; however, it is not as large as the space found on most ARVs due to the retention of MBT level armour protection along the compact design lines of the Yvernyr. To the rear-left of the vehicle, three upwards-opening hatches are placed in the space not occupied by the crane and the crew compartment, and is used to house equipment for use by the engineers and, in unoccupied spaces, supplies. The barrier between the two rear compartments can also be disassembled to accommodate larger objects. The hatches themselves are fully sealing, making the compartments themselves airtight and air-filtered for protection in NBC environments, and can be opened or closed via controls from within the crew compartment itself.These changes allow the IRM to not only act as an effective armoured recovery vehicle, but as an engineer vehicle if necessary, lending it flexibility that stands out from similar vehicles of its kind. The storage module can be removed in its entirety to accommodate large cargo, such as a powerplant.

In terms of observation and armament, the IRM's differences have necessitated changes as well. The most noticeable change can be seen in the vehicle's armament; with the entirety of the turret stripped away, the only weapon left to the vehicle is a pintle mounted MG/H8A3 12.7mm machine gun on the commander's hatch. This can be replaced by a similar armament mounted on an Ortel Powered Remote Weapons System, as well as a range of other armaments, but the general consensus within the Holy Office of War is that the IRM is capable of withstanding combat but not encouraged to enter it; as such, there is no doctrinal or practical requirement for a heavily armed ARV, leaving it with a single heavy machine gun for defensive purposes. Observation is achieved via a series of 3CCD cameras (a panoramic array mounted on the commander's hatch, a trio of cameras on the front of the vehicle and a pair on the rear for use by the driver, and a 3CCD periscope for elevated view, as well as FLIR for use in night-time environments); though the driver is capable of opening a forward hatch and using externally mounted mirrors to drive via sight alone, this approach leaves the IRM vulnerable to sudden attacks; as such, the vehicle is provided with an extensive array of optical equipment that allow it to be operated from the protective environment of the crew compartment, giving it a high degree of survivability on rapidly changing battlefields. Even in road transit, the IRM's crew have been known to rely on the camera systems when mobile; their extensive coverage, though initially difficult to utilise effectively, allow crew members to navigate most environments without the hassle of straining to see mirrors and hatches, generally making them more popular than the alternative employed on many other similar ARVs.

The crane employed on the IRM is mounted on the right side of the vehicle, and has a lifting capacity of 35t as well as a pulling capacity of 38t, increased to 80t when used with the block and tackle built into the rear of the crane unit. The effective cable length is 200m, with the cable itself being 35mm thick. Sensor controls are able to detect various factors influencing the stress placed on the crane to prevent overloading, and can be set to automatically disengage the load in the event that the crane is about to break. It uses a hydraulic winch located in the forward section of the crane unit, and the crane itself is capable of a 270 degrees traverse. A 3CCD camera is also installed on the front of the crane unit, and is capable of vertical (and limited horizontal plane) traverse, giving the crew greater situational awareness when employing the camera from within the crew compartment, giving it an edge in battlefield operations during externally hazardous operations.

A hydraulically moved dozer blade stretching across the forward profile of the IRM is also employed in its capacity as both an engineer and recovery vehicle. Capable of being raised while in transit, the dozer blade can be used for both obstacle clearance and as an earth anchor during operation of the winch.

Armour

Outer layer protection is achieved through the use of a Titanium Diboride (TiB2) based metal composite matrix with a fibreglass spall backing. This metal composite matrix, by being significantly harder than materials used in most ammunition-based applications, is capable of breaking up rounds, including penetrators, and, through the toughness of the metal composite matrix, results in the controlled distribution of kinetic energy absorbed from the round. As the controlled distribution results in the creation of a damage area only marginally larger than the size of the round from which energy has been transferred, with any spall effects absorbed by the fibreglass backing, the external protection is capable of sustaining multiple hits from anything up to the 12.7-14.5mm round range commonly utilised in modern heavy machine-guns. The resultant outer layer of armour protection is significantly lighter than the equivalent volume of RHA, and nonetheless capable of entirely stopping armour piercing small arms fire while significantly wearing down the effectiveness of high performance kinetic penetrators before they reach the armour blocks themselves.

Another component of the HT9A7’s passive protection suite is non-energetic reactive armour (NERA). In modern times, the continued utilisation of explosive reactive armour (ERA), widely used as most armoured vehicles’ first-line protection against shaped charge warheads, has been proven to be impractical and ineffective due to a number of reasons. Firstly, the explosive composition of the filler utilised in ERA results in a situation where hits against the vehicle can potentially result in collateral damage, especially in confined spaces. Due to the necessity of utilising infantry support for armoured vehicles in such environments, this means that the practicality of ERA equipped tanks is greatly decreased due to their subsequent inability to operate effectively in certain combat situations. Secondly, however, the modern development of tandem shaped charge warheads and their frequent employment in anti-tank guided missiles, where a smaller charge detonates ERA prior to the detonation of the main charge, has created a situation where the combat threats faced by the Anemonian Armed Forces are more than capable of easily defeating ERA based solutions with minimal effort through the use of a simple design aspect in their anti-tank warheads. As such, the utilisation of NERA was looked into by FOAM during the design process for the HT9A7, and eventually replaced all planned employment of ERA in the tank due to its clear advantages over its predecessor. The NERA utilised within the HT9A7 is formed out of panels consisting of a 10mm thick layer of rubber lining sandwiched between two 6mm thick plates of steel (Domex Protect 500). When a projectile hits the NERA panel, resultant outward motion by the two Domex plates increases the effective thickness of the armour in that area, providing increased protection against projectiles. Furthermore, however, the lack of an explosive element means that the NERA utilised within the HT9A7 is both capable of taking multiple hits (to some extent) and causes no resultant collateral damage, as well as being far more resistant to the effects of a tandem charge warhead; both in terms of protection and resultant damage, it is a more desirable form of protection. Cross-wise orientation of NERA panel is employed in the armour layout to ensure that the jet bulge in the first panel generated upon impact does not result in material erosion in the second, increasing the overall protectiveness of the NERA layers against shaped charge warheads in exchange for a minimal increase in volume. Overall, the result of this is that the NERA protection of the HT9A7 is both superior to that of standard ERA and parallel arrangements of NERA, giving it first-line protection against almost any shaped charge warheads thrown at it.

In terms of ceramics, the HT9A7 primarily employs nano-ceramic Titanium Diboride (TiB2). Titanium Diboride is, in terms of properties, highly similar to the titanium carbide currently frequently used in many armoured vehicles armour and armament suites; however, in many respects, it can be said to be superior. At room temperature, its hardness is almost three times that of the equivalent volume of fully hardened structural steel. Its melting point is also incredibly high, at 3225˚C, and the result is that armour blocks incorporating normal Titanium Diboride tend to be both incredibly impact resistant and capable of withstanding the high heat generation of chemical energy warheads. Chemically, it is also a relatively field-friendly material, insofar as it is more stable than tungsten carbide when in contact with iron, and less prone to oxidation at anything short of extremely high temperatures. As such, Titanium Diboride is a highly effective material when used in impact-resistant armour applications, capable of withstanding the effects of both HEAT rounds when used in conjunction with other forms of armour but, more importantly, very effective through high levels of hardness against kinetic energy rounds and penetrators. In addition, not content with stopping there, designers decided to take the high-performance characteristics of Titanium Diboride one step further through the use of modern technological developments in nanotechnology. By starting with high purity powders and running them through plasma melting and hot isostatic pressing to inhibit grain growth, the time-temperature window of densification was extended. With nanograin sizes maintained throughout, the result was the significant decline of porosity in ceramics passed through the treatment procedure, and the subsequent production of full density ceramics at the nanometer scale. Higher strength and hardness was achieved, as such, due to the resultant low-angle, high-strength grain boundaries and less dislocation within the overall structure due to the finger grain size. The resultant nano-ceramic Titanium Diboride improves upon an already superior material to create a uniquely effective and efficient ceramic for use within the HT9A7’s composites.

The three metal alloys utilised in the HT9A7 are Type 7720 Titanium-Aluminium alloy, depleted uranium based Stakalloy, and IRHA (HRc 40, HRc 48). Type 7720 Titanium-Aluminium alloy draws from the natural advantages of a titanium-based alloy (high stress resistance and toughness for its weight range, as well as corrosion and temperature resistance). In this particular case, however, the primary advantage of Type 7720 stems from its weight advantage; compared to RHA, Type 7720 is capable of providing properties close to those of ceramic materials at 38% the weight of the equivalent volume of RHA. Of course, the difficulty of machining Type 7720 makes it an impractical choice for usage across the entirety of a main line battle tank, and the result has been that the titanium alloy has not been used as the hull material for the HT9A7 out of purely practical concerns about the workability of the material.

Stakalloy is a depleted uranium based alloy used only as a mesh-based layer of armour rather than a block in itself. The high density of depleted uranium based materials means that the weight gain, despite its highly effective protective capabilities resulting from its sheer density, is prohibitive when overused, and the radiation emission, however limited, of depleted uranium makes it a material that must be approached with trepidation when utilised as a protective material. As brittle as it is dense, depleted uranium is incapable of being used effectively as a standalone material within armour; as such, it must be used within an alloy for maximisation of effectiveness. Departing from the usual uranium-titanium alloys (Staballoy) favoured in most developments of the material, the alloy used here instead is one formed of niobium and vanadium with the depleted uranium to create a more machinable material for use within the HT9A7 while retaining the high density qualities of depleted uranium (~95% of the alloy’s composition being of DU).

IRHA, or Improved Rolled Homogeneous Armour, is a metal alloy that modifies the basic chemical composition of standard RHA to create a far harder material, altering one of the base components of many modern tanks to create a more effective alternative suited to the battlefields of the 21st century. The basic chemical composition of IRHA (by weight percentage) is 93.68% iron, 0.26% carbon, 3.25% nickel, 1.45% chromium, 0.55% molybdenum, 0.4% manganese, 0.4% silicon and some impurities (<0.01% phosphorous, <0.005% sulphur). With a 1% increase in the nickel composition of the alloy and a smaller increase in a number of other elements (chromium, molybdenum and manganese), the resultant material is much harder than standard RHA whilst retaining similar levels of ductility and toughness. Weldability and machinability, of particular importance for IRHA’s hull applications, is similarly preserved at RHA levels by maintaining carbon content at ~0.26% or below. IRHA’s physical properties are further determined by the heat level at which it is tempered; HRc 40 grade IRHA, which is used for hull applications, is tempered at 529˚C, which HRc 48 grade IRHA, for applique armour, is tempered at 218˚C. The differentiation in role stems from the fact that HRc 48 grade IRHA is more effective against kinetic energy penetrators at the cost of far less resistance to fragmented munitions that HRc 40, making it more usable in applique armour (where its shortcomings are compensated for by other materials). IRHA, as such, provides the HT9A7 with all the advantages of rolled homogeneous armour but, again, goes one step further by modifying the basic chemical composition of this erstwhile material to give the HT9A7 another advantage over many contemporary armoured vehicles.

In terms of layout, the armour is separated into two parts; the armour itself, and the hull construction and interior. The armour consists of an outer layer of TiB2 based metal composite matrix over a cross-wise oriented NERA layer, another layer of the metal composite matrix, then panels of Type 7720 TiAl alloy sandwiching square tiles of HRc 48 IRHA and nano-ceramic TiB2. Beneath this is another layer of NERA, nano-ceramic TiB2 tiles structurally maintained by Type 7720 TiAl alloy, a Stakalloy mesh and a plate backing of HRc 48 IRHA. NERA layers and some armoured protection can also be found on the roof of the tank for protection against HEAT-based ATGMs. The hull itself is constructed of HRc 40 IRHA. The tank’s interior is equipped with a spall liner made of 20% glass composition fibreglass backed by Spectra and rubber; the energy is expended against the fibreglass, with any further spalling being absorbed by the backing to provide the crew with highly effective protection against internal damage.

Electronics

The HT9A7’s networking system, due to the high quantity of information sharing between the HT9A7 and various organisational structures at both a vertical and horizontal level, is designed to be both high performance on paper and usable in a variety of different manners to ensure that the high specifications of the HT9A7 are not only used independently, but to their full extent when coordinated with other tanks and, vertically, in conjunction with other assets. The HT9A7’s combat networking suite, labelled SAIC, connects the individual tank to the Anemonian Crown Army’s CombatNet (supporting units up to the battalion level). CombatNet, due to the introduction of the ICS21 program, is a battalion networking system utilises by everything from Mechanised infantrymen to artillery batteries, and is universally employed to facilitate integration into control networks at a higher level (BattleNet, WarNet etc). Rather, instead of utilising completely different software for each combat asset networked into the Crown Army’s C4I structure, CombatNet utilises a combination of base software together with asset-specific modules (for tanks units, mechanised infantry, artillery and other assets) to simplify networking logistics while catering to the specific needs of individual combat assets to create a system that is both efficient and effective. At its most basic level, CombatNet is a cartographic display. With rapid updating enabled at the platoon, company and battalion level, this cartographic display is able to show blue force and enemy troop locations and movements as detected by allied assets, operational plans fed down from various levels, as well as status reports and information from various levels to greatly increase the level and quality of group coordination, amalgamating the myriad of information entering the system via a highly capable Geographical Information System. Beyond this, however, the HT9A7 is also capable of utilising SAIC to share targeting data with other tanks at the platoon level if desired; the rapid sharing of data allow tank platoons operating in conjunction to further hone their capabilities in this area by increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of their combat employment and countermeasure deployment via the sharing of targeting data.

SAIC is also utilised to manage the HT9A7’s communications suite. The high capacity combat network radio employed by SAIC for limited range communications is a high capacity data radio operating as a frequency-hopping system in the UHF range (225-450 MHz), and supports high data transfer speeds to permit the utilisation of the HCDF connection for rapid and secure voice and data transfer and communications between vehicles for limited distance level coordination. At this level, the HT9A7 is also capable of employing IEEE 802.11 standard encrypted wireless local area networks for inter-vehicle connection. E-WLAN connectivity permits vehicles to achieve high speed, ad-hoc networking supporting secure data, video and voice transfers between individual tanks. A chipset incorporated into the computer utilises an encryption algorithm to secure access to Crown Army level WLAN networks, employing COMSEC/NETSEC encryption, meaning that enemy access or viewing of such networks is impossible, especially in the combat environments where the use of such systems is envisaged. For communications and networking at higher speed and longer range, SAIC is also equipped with digital broadband connectivity with satellite and stationary fibre-optic links; though such tactical internet connections allow for theatre-wide secure high speed connection, data transfers and features such as extended inter-formation communication and messaging, not to mention commercial internet interfacing if necessary, and though most Anemonian theatre-wide networking hubs of this kind employ automatic network formation and autonomous organisation, together with interconnection by utilising individual users not only as recipients but as intermediary nodes, to maximise speed (over six time the speed of HCDF connections when transmitting messages, for example), ease of use and efficiency by removing the need for a significant dedicated communications infrastructure, the reliability of such networks on the battlefield is nonetheless susceptible to enemy attack. As such, the HT9A7’s broadband internet connection is more of a ‘bonus’ feature permitted further effectiveness if usable; SAIC, and CombatNet, are designed to operate at maximum efficiency via the HCDF connection alone if necessary.

SAIC is also equipped with a highly effective computer malware detection and elimination system; this dynamic malware protection employs frequent database updates together with a connection to a central control system which both possesses a larger database and analyses the coding of unidentifiable threats to maximise its effectiveness against any threat, known or unknown, which manages to get past the HT9A7’s firewall.

The utilisation of SRAM, depleted boron coating of key computer chip arrays, partially redundant computer systems and error correcting memory arrays allows for system resistance, recovery and redundance against electromagnetic pulses and waves (as well as the metal hull of the vehicle itself), hardening the HT9A7 against such attacks and giving it the capacity to operate effectively in nuclear environments if so required.

Mobility

Requiring higher output than normal engines, the idea of utilising a standard diesel for the HT9A7 was rejected outright. Rather, it was decided that the engine layout of the Yvernyr (following minor experimentation with multi-fuel gas turbines) would follow that of the Leclerc to maximise the power output of the engine in exchange for an increase in mechanical complexity and fuel consumption, both negative qualities that could be compensated for by the fully professional and educated personnel handling these engines, and the focus on the Crown Army’s logistical efficiency (reflected in its 1:3 combat to logistics personnel ratio). The hyperbar engine thus employed by the HT9A7, generating 2200hp of power, is a design which utilises the additional exhaust flow from a gas turbine together with that of the diesel to boost the effectiveness of the engine’s hybrid turbocharger. The higher boost pressure resulting from this gives the engine power and torque that far exceeds that which would be obtained from the diesel engine alone, making it suitable for use on the power-hungry HT9A7. The result of this is a high power engine that manages to be remarkably responsive; going from 0 to 32km/h in 4.8 seconds, the top speed of 72kph achieved by the HT9A7 is, in fact, governed so as to lengthen the service life of the tank’s tracks. In addition, the noise production of the engine is far below that of a standard diesel engine, closer to that of a gas turbine while remaining more fuel efficient. Furthermore, the gas turbine employed by the engine is capable of acting as an independent power supply; in practice, this means that the HT9A7 is able to save more space by utilising the gas turbine as an auxiliary power supply, but in static positions, the tank is also able to decrease its signature and fuel consumption significantly by powering itself via its APU. However, in exchange for the significant rise in power and torque offered by a hyperbar engine, this is accompanied by a corresponding rise in pressure, a change that requires further changes to be made to such an engine beyond the traditional design of a diesel engine. On the powerplant employed by the Leclerc, this problem is solved by retaining a V-layout engine and utilising large head bolts to contain the pressure. Though this solution worked to some degree on the Leclerc when employed by the Crown Army, it was nonetheless an imperfect aspect of the design that was a cause of concern to maintenance crews, and an alternate solution was pursued in the HT9A7. Ultimately, the layout utilised was the opposed piston rather than the ‘V’ layout used in the Leclerc; by creating a cylinder with pistons at either end, and no head, the pressure problem was largely solved. Another issue with the hyperbar engine is the high heat generation and air consumption of the system, which required extensive temperature control and cooling in the engine block; however, this was achieved by utilising an effective electric air cooling and recycling system in the rear tank block itself in addition to the natural air cooling employed by most engines, with the added advantage of decreasing the thermal footprint left by the HT9A7’s powerplant and increasing its environmental flexibility. In order to manage the complicated climate control, as well as other aspects of the engine’s control (fuel injection, etc), an electronic control system is utilised to obtain information from the sensors located within the engine block and respond accordingly, as well as to provide the driver with information concerning the engine’s status while in use. The result was a powerful and effective powerplant for the HT9A7, with a host of advantages over traditional diesels and a number of disadvantages that could simply be absorbed by existing military infrastructure.

The transmission utilised in the HT9A7, unlike many of the other parts, is a conceptual placeholder while development on newer technologies advanced. The immaturity of many newer technological concepts used in next generation tanks, such as the Continuously Variable Transmission employed in the Type 10 Main Battle Tank, compared to the relatively advanced development of planetary gear automatic transmissions meant that the chances of using the former resulting in a protracted development process were high. As such, an automatic transmission was used in the HT9A7 in place of an envisioned later update, mostly likely employing a hydromechanical transmission. The system employs 8 forward and 3 reverse gears; this planetary gear automatic transmission is computerised to allow for both higher efficiency and effectiveness, as well as simpler interfacing by the driver. The system is partly manual; by setting an upper gear limit, the driver is able to set a boundary within which the transmission operates. However, within these boundaries, the automatic transmission is able to shift between available gears at will. The braking system is a dual circuit hydrodynamic/mechanical system, with an additional hydrostatic retarder in place to act as an ‘emergency brake’ system.

The Yvernyr employs a hydractive suspension that marks a step up from the hydraulic suspensions widely utilised by main battle tanks in the combat environments the HT9A7 is built for. The suspension operates around the same mechanical principles as a hydropneumatic suspension; the utilisation of an incompressible hydraulic fluid’s transfer within a ‘sphere’ to alter the pressure of nitrogen at the top of the sphere, in theory creating a suspension with an infinite number of potential positions. Already, this gives the suspension a significant advantage; this allows is to adopt a theoretically infinite number of positions, and allows the HT9A7 to adopt a variety of positions, ranging from standard ride, to ‘kneeling’, depending on the circumstantial necessities, giving it a high degree of flexibility in this respect. Furthermore, in terms of ride characteristics, an uncompressed hydropneumatic suspension is softer than a steel spring, while a compressed one is capable of being harder than a fully contracted spring. This gives the hydraulic suspension the ability to display comfortable and stable ride characteristics in almost any situation, making it the ideal candidate for use within the HT9A7. The introduction of a hydractive system was one that simply increased the already significant inherent advantages of the hydraulic suspension. Sensors within various areas of the tank’s automotive parts feed data concerning speed and conditions to a computer control system. By gauging the nature of the ride conditions, the computer control system is able to modify the allocation and compression of spheres at millisecond speeds so as to alter the suspension to provide the optimal ride conditions under any circumstances, creating a constantly variable suspension of sorts capable of responding on the move to changes in terrain to maximise its effectiveness. Of course, fully automated suspensions are not necessarily the optimal solution considering the individual requirements of individual crews, and as such, a high degree of crew input into the system automation is also employed. It can be returned to ‘manual’ to turn it into a normal hydropneumatic suspension, of course (with a control interface that allows the driver to shift the position of the tank minutely and manually), but when in automatic, the ride characteristics can be set to a ‘constant’ preset (balances between handling against comfort), and the hydroactive suspension control systems will respond accordingly to keep the vehicle handling as close to the preset levels as possible across all terrain environments, greatly increasing the flexibility of the HT9A7’s suspension in the hands of the driver.

Crew Amenities and Survivability

The centre of any manned vehicle is, by default, the crew itself, and as such, great efforts have been made to ensure both comfort and survivability. Of course, this is within the bounds of feasibility; it must be understood that whatever the measures implemented to maximise comfort, as well as the superior ride characteristics of the hydractive suspension, the HT9A7 is fundamentally a cramped and relatively uncomfortable vehicle designed as such to maximise protection and volume efficiency.

NBC protection is achieved via fully filtered dry air and climate control managed via an air outlet into the crew compartment. This NBC protection suite can be powered via the engine or the turbine APU, allowing for functionality even when idle, and also serves to maximise crew comfort by allowing for a fully adjustable operating environment (ranging from humidity to temperature). In the event of system failure, the vehicle is also equipped with a smaller secondary NBC protection suite; this system supplies filtered air to individual crew stations, and is also equipped with personal ventilation masks to maximise the distribution of a limited supply of air.

Against fire, the crew is protected by two mechanisms. Firstly, sensors within the crew compartment itself are able to detect the outbreak of fires, and are connected directly to a pentafluoroethane fire extinguishing system within the crew compartment, designed to minimise both crew and component damage while providing rapid fire control to ensure safety. A Halon-1301 based fire extinguishing system is employed within the HT9A7’s fuel tank; again, sensors are able to detect breaches in the fuel tank, and Halon-1301 is employed to neutralise explosive vapours. The tank itself is self-sealing, employing an open-cell polyether safety foam to ensure that fuel tank punctures are quickly dealt with to limit damage to the HT9A7.

In terms of seating, as well as limited reclining and an adjustable head-rest, footpads, lower hull plating and a design that allows for minor seat displacement, the tank’s seating is also fully mine protected (with shock isolation and redirection) to ensure that under-hull threats are protected against, both in terms of the vehicle but also from the shock to the crew compartment itself.

As far as comfort is concerned, the HT9A7 is equipped with the bare minimum. A water tap employing filtered water to one corner of the crew compartment, capable of providing hot and cold water, is used alongside an electric hot-plate as rudimentary tools for food and water supply provision to the crew when on the move. The electronics system of the HT9A7 is equipped to interface with a wide variety of commercial MP3 players (transmitted over the crew intercoms or over internal and even external loudspeakers, if so inclined) as well as connection to commercial internet via military broadband. In practice, however, the employment of such electronic interfaces during combat operations is greatly frowned upon by Anemonian officers (insofar as they result in concentration losses), resulting in the restriction of their use to peacetime operations.

Concluding Comments

The IRM is a highly specialised vehicle designed to fill a niche role. Through the innovative use of optical equipment and vehicle layout, however, it manages not only to fill this niche expertly, but, through its high storage capacity and onboard engineers, to become an effective multirole engineering vehicle as well. Furthermore, the use of optical equipment and sealed crew and storage compartments make the IRM, like the HT9A7, fully capable of under-armour operations in NBC hazardous environments, further adding to its flexibility as an Armoured Recovery Vehicle and more on the 21st century battlefield.
Last edited by Anemos Major on Mon Oct 31, 2011 10:55 am, edited 6 times in total.

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Anemos Major
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HT9A7-E1 Export Pattern Main Battle Tank

Postby Anemos Major » Sun Oct 16, 2011 4:11 am

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HT9A7-E1 Wyvern Export Pattern Main Battle Tank, Demonstration Colours
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HT9A7-E1/mod Aq Wyvern Aquitayne Export Pattern Main Battle Tank, Imperial Marine Corps of Aquitayne (fitted with Trophy APS, ERA)

HT9A7-E1 Demonstration Model (120mm L/55) | HT9A7-E1 Aquitaynian Marine Corps (120mm L/55)

Designation:
Numerical Designation: HT9A7-E1
Name: Wyvern-E1

Key Data:
Crew: 3 (Commander, Gunner, Driver)
Cost: 10.7 million NSD

Dimensions:
Length: 8.1m (Hull)/
Height: 2.9m (Turret Roof)
Width: 3.8m (3.9m w/ side armour)
Weight: 69t

Performance:
Maximum Speed: 70kph road speed (governed).
Cross country speed: 48kph
Acceleration: 0 to 32kph in 6.2 seconds
Operational Range: 550km

Armament:
Main Armament: 120mm SC8.60 55 calibre solid propellant smoothbore cannon (46 rounds, 26 in autoloader magazine)
Co-axial weapon (left): 12.7mm MG/H8A3 (1500 rounds)/20mm Arsenal Karonin M.28 Autocannon (600 rounds), or other modular block compatible weapons.
Commander's weapon: 12.7mm MG/H8A3 on Remote Weapons System (powered), interchangeable with other armaments.
Additional: 12x mounted multipurpose grenade launchers, modular systems allow for further options.

Protection:
Passive: Calumnis-2 ((N)ERA, composite tiles, DU alloy mesh, RHA plates/hull, fibreglass/rubber/Spectra spall liner)
Active: None on base model, can be added by request.
Crew Protection: NBC protection (main + auxiliary), pentafluoroethane crew compartment fire extinguishing, Halon 1301 + foam fuel tank extinguishing and self-sealing suite.

Electronics:
Callisto FCS
Combat networking added according to customer.

Power:
Propulsion: 1,800hp (steady state) opposing piston hyperbar.
Transmission: Automatic (8 forward, 3 reverse).
Suspension: Hydractive
Power/Weight: 26.09hp/tonne



Overview

With the completion of development on the base HT9A7 Main Battle Tank in 2008, FOAM had created what would quickly establish itself as one of the premier service main battle tanks of its time through its marriage of effectiveness and efficiency, a uniquely intelligent design dedicated to the creation of a vehicle capable of engaging more with less. However, in the post developmental period, with the conglomerate of firms choosing to keep the joint endeavour in place to facilitate later vehicular development (and thus becoming the heart of the later Project Fiensietyr), a number of very basic flaws with the HT9A7 as a product forced the consideration of the development of another tank to take its place in certain markets.

For all of its technological advancement and battlefield superiority, the HT9A7's design and nature meant that it was not an exportable product. Prohibitive weight meant that nations with the appropriate infrastructure, few and far between, were the only states capable of supporting the tank. A highly technical vehicle, the HT9A7 also required a highly effective logistical backbone to any armed force that endeavoured to employ it, further restrict the list of potential customers who would be able to utilise it. Lastly, however, the highly stringent export restrictions placed by the Holy Office of War on the HT9A7 and the technological protection meant exporting the HT9A7 in its base, technologically advanced form was an impossibility in the first place.

The conceptualisation of the HT9A7-E1 was based upon a number of basic design objectives. FOAM aimed to create a technically simplified, lighter tank capable of exhibiting flexibility and effectiveness on any terrain, within any armed force. The export restrictions placed upon the HT9A7 by the Holy Office of War meant that a high proportion of the advanced electronics and equipment utilised in the tank were not usable within an exported variant of the tank; instead, FOAM aimed to offset this by creating a highly flexible and modifiable tank that would be able to accommodate foreign electronics and parts on top of an already formidable base, to create a main battle tank that would cater to individual customers' necessities via a construction that would allow for the installation of a variety of parts at the factory level by making full use of the HT9A7's unrivalled modularity.

On paper, the HT9A7-E1 is more than a match for most main battle tanks. With customer input, it becomes far more than that; catering to every whim, the HT9A7-E1 is the ultimate export tank.

Armament

The base main armament employed by the HT9A7-E1 is the 120mm SC8.60 55 calibre solid propellant smoothbore cannon. A similar weapon to the 120mm Rheinmetall guns used in many modern main battle tanks, SC8.60 is a development of the 120mm L/48 main armament designed for the failed HT8 Fyrdestyr Main Battle Tank in 1994. It is utilised as the default armament of the tank due to the widespread use of similar 120mm gun tanks in a variety of nations around the world, thus facilitating transfer from such tanks to the HT9A7-E1. The tank is, of course, not restricted to this single weapon; at construction, the HT9A7-E1 can be built to accommodate a range of different guns, from ETC variants of the SC8.60 to 140mm guns.

SC8.60 is a 120mm solid propellant smoothbore cannon with a length of 55 calibres (6.6m). In order to increase the resistance of the barrel to the internal pressures of propellant ignition, it is constructed of autofrettaged steel with an electroplated coat of chromium to prevent fouling. The weapon's thermal jacket is constructed of 35% glass reinforced polymers, increasing its resistance to external weathering and hard impact, and a bore evacuator along the length of the gun to house and release the gases produced by propellant ignition to prevent their leaking into the cabin when the gun's breech is opened for shell extraction.

The gun mounting is largely identical to that of the HT9A7. A pair of hydraulic retarders decreases the recoil forces acting upon the vehicle upon firing, and the same stabilisation mechanism (full dual-axis electro-hydraulic and gyro stabilisation) means that the HT9A7-E1 is able to keep its main armament on target at all times, mobile or otherwise. Unlike the SC10.8, the SC8.60 does not feature a propellant porting muzzle brake array; this is due to the fact that the decreased recoil of the 120mm gun does not require this additional component to make it a stable weapon to fire from the HT9A7-E1 platform.

Like the HT9A7, autoloading is employed to decrease crew size and increase overall input/output efficiency. The same rotary belt bustle is utilised by the HT9A7-E1, and a replaceable belt and feeding mechanism means that simple modification makes the autoloader compatible with a number of ammunition types (theoretically up to 160mm). 26 rounds are stored in the autoloader with an additional 20 for later use, and the same computer control system (virtual memory stored round location retention and barcode identification) allows the autoloader to rapidly select and load rounds through individual selection as opposed to the order in which rounds are placed (as is the case on many modern autoloaders), increasing the effectiveness of the tank's ammunition allocation by allowing a large variety of ammunition to be used in a largely interchangeable manner. The average firing rate of the tank's autoloader is 12 rounds per minute.

In terms of rounds, the SC8.60 is equipped with three standard propellant rounds and a single GLATGM in combat use, but this can be expanded to support foreign 120mm launched munitions (and more, depending on the gun selected for use). M06/S (mod.) is an armour piercing fin stabilised discarding sabot round that utilises a combination propellant (60% nitrocellulose, 20% nitroglycerine, 4% RDX, 15% diethylene glycol dinitrate with 1% of other content and 55 grams of igniter, as in the HT9A7) and a tungsten carbide kinetic energy penetrator to outperform the KEPs used in most 120mm rounds today. M06/E is a High Explosive, Dual Purpose round; with a tandem charge, the round is capable of acting as a HEAT shell, but the fragmenting casing also makes it an anti-personnel round if need be. M06/C is an anti-personnel canister round; using propellant to initially launch it clear of the vehicle, an adjustable fuse (utilising a timer based on ballistic calculations to determine the distance it has travelled) is used to detonate the round itself which uses a hexogen tolite packing and tungsten ball bearings to shred any infantry within its explosive radius. The Arkal-E, a gun launched anti-tank missile (GLATGM) employs a soft-launch motor prior to engaging its main propulsive motor to clear it of the gun barrel to reduce barrel wear, and employs three step seeking composed of mm-wavelength radar, passive IR CCD sensors and semi-active laser seeking to acquire and follow its target, using fin stabilisation to keep it on target. A tandem charge warhead with a relatively powerful 'initial' charge gives it the ability to disable roof mounted ERA and some NERA/NxRA protection, making it highly effective against tanks, even with roof protection, out to ~8km.

The information above is, of course, only relevant to the SC8.60; if a customer opts to utilise a different gun, the specifications and ammunition will change accordingly.

In terms of additional armaments, the HT9A7-E1 uses the same modular block system as the HT9A7, and mainly employs the 12.7mm MG/H8A3 and 20mm Arsenal Karonin M.28 Autocannon in the co-axial position. The default variant is equipped with the Ortel Powered Remote Weapons System, and the same compatibility with additional equipment such as box launched ATGMs.

Protection

Protection on the HT9A7-E1 was both a primary and incredibly difficult concern. Many of the materials employed in the HT9A7 were in limited production, in many cases directed by law to the production of equipment of the Crown Army, and the result was that the materials available to FOAM to create the HT9A7-E1 was greatly limited. Furthermore, the weight limitations on the original design brief meant that the level of protection employed on the HT9A7-E1 would have to be below that of the HT9A7, making smart distribution of available parts a necessity. The objective was, however, the same; to create an armour suite capable of resisting most fire encountered on the battlefield.

The forward protection of the HT9A7 consists of an outer layer of NERA (non-explosive reactive armour), providing the HT9A7-E1 with multiple-hit protection against tandem head HEAT warheads. Under this outer layer, panels of TiAl4V (Grade 5 Titanium Alloy) sandwich square tiles of rolled homogeneous armour (RHA) and Titanium Carbide (TiC). Beneath this is another layer of NERA, TiC tiles kept in place by TiAl4V and a RHA backing. The hull is constructed of RHA, with a 20% glass composition fibreglass/Spectra+rubber spall liner. In terms of protection, the materials used are inferior to those of the HT9A7, but nonetheless far outstrip many modern main battle tanks (such as the K2, or Leclerc) in terms of material quality and overall protection without any applique armour; the HT9A7-E1 has a very comprehensive armour suite, and can be improved further if desired.

The side skirts of the HT9A7-E1 are RHA plates, and can support the addition of ERA/NERA blocks. Top protection is accomplished by NERA and TiC additions to protect the vehicle from top-kill tandem-charge ATGMs.

The HT9A7-E1 is also equipped with 12 80mm grenade launchers. Using the same Composition A grenades as the HT9A7 (explosively dispersed chlorosulfuric acid with fine metal coated carbon fibres), the HT9A7-E1 also comes with IR and UV laser detection sensors that can be made compatible with added active protection suites to permit the automatic dispersal of smoke following threat detection.

Electronics

In terms of electronics, the HT9A7-E1 is equipped with a slightly less comprehensive suite than that of the HT9A7 for two primary reasons; simplification, to reduce costs and maintenance difficulty (as the wide array of equipment employed on the HT9A7 requires constant, skilled attention), and as a reflection of the fact that different customers require different arrays (especially in the area of combat networking, where the HT9A7 is interfaced directly to the Anemonian Crown Army's network infrastructure). As such, similar to the other aspects of the HT9A7-E1, the default electronics used in the HT9A7-E1 are exceptional, but truly come into their own with external input.

Callisto is a Fire Control System derived from the Io system employed in the HT9A7, and is a simplified version lacking the phased array radar and LADAR used by the HT9A7. It is otherwise identical to Io; the gunner utilises a 3CCD camera, FLIR and a pulsed CO2 laser rangefinder to acquire and track targets, and the computer is capable of target identification, differentiation and prioritisation at extremely high speeds, giving the HT9A7-E1 an edge over existent fire control systems in terms of speed and automation. The only feature Callisto lacks other than this is interconnection with other fire control systems over local area combat networks, but this is simply due to the fact that no such interfaces are packaged into the base HT9A7; if a combat network is provided, Callisto can be interfaced with it.

Networking on the HT9A7-E1 differs greatly to that of the HT9A7, insofar as much of it has been removed. Due to the fact that the HT9A7's networking capabilities were designed specifically for the Crown Army of Anemos Major, the entirety of SAIC (the networking system employed in the Yvernyr) has been removed; not only are components of the system sensitive, it is also completely useless to the average export customer. Rather, the capacity for networking has been maintained via the retention of the HT9A7's antennae arrays, and systems can be installed at the behest of the customer at the factory level to ensure that each purchase of the HT9A7-E1 comes with a communications suite tailored to suit the needs of each buyer.

The HT9A7-E1 employs similar electro-magnetic radiation protection to that of the HT9A7.

Mobility

Mobility is the one area where the HT9A7-E1 differs little from its design origins. The only significant difference between the HT9A7 and the HT9A7-E1 is the utilisation of a slightly smaller hyperbar engine to limit weight and decrease engine size, resulting in a slightly lower power-to-weight ratio, but aside from that, the same principles and design features are used in the HT9A7-E1. An opposing-piston hyperbar diesel engine gives the tank unrivalled levels of power, high acceleration and a deceivingly low noise signature, while the hydractive suspension takes all the advantages of a standard hydropneumatic suspension and takes them one step further by employing sensor-based adjustment to increase the ride stability of the tank. Though the hyperbar engine results in an increase in the complexity of engine maintenance, as well as the hydractive suspension of the vehicle (which requires sensor as well as mechanical attention), the advantages of greatly increased power, acceleration and flexibility mean that they largely outweigh any disadvantages posed by the system.

Crew Amenities and Suvivability

Again, in this area, the HT9A7-E1 differs little from the HT9A7, with the same comprehensive NBC protection, automated fire extinguishing, self-sealing fuel tank, mine protected seating and, in terms of amenities, an electric hot plate and filtered water tap. Interfacing for commercial entertainment devices remains the same, though this can be modified and added to at the customer's will.



Enquiries concerning exports and comments should be made via telegram or to the Anemonian State Arms Export Authority.
Last edited by Anemos Major on Sat Aug 11, 2012 10:26 pm, edited 7 times in total.

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Anemos Major
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Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby Anemos Major » Sun Oct 16, 2011 4:11 am

RESERVED

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Anemos Major
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Postby Anemos Major » Sun Oct 16, 2011 4:12 am

RESERVED

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Milograd
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Postby Milograd » Sun Oct 16, 2011 10:40 am

I’m Commander Shepard Milograd, and this is my favorite store tank on the Citadel forum.
Retired

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Minnysota
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Postby Minnysota » Sun Oct 16, 2011 10:56 am

OOC: This is amazing.
Minnysota - Unjustly Deleted

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Bajireyn
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Postby Bajireyn » Sun Oct 16, 2011 1:55 pm

OOC: I cannot think of words to describe this this epicness...
Last edited by Bajireyn on Sun Oct 16, 2011 3:34 pm, edited 1 time in total.
Right behind you...: UDL

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Lamoni
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Postby Lamoni » Sun Oct 16, 2011 5:14 pm

I can. It's EPIC! :p
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Aquitayne
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Postby Aquitayne » Sun Oct 16, 2011 5:31 pm

OOC: When can I buy this mother?

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Comrade Hayden
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Postby Comrade Hayden » Sun Oct 16, 2011 6:55 pm

Aquitayne wrote:OOC: When can I buy this mother?

Second.
Please visit our weapons exporting division found here: viewtopic.php?f=6&t=149297

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Lamoni
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Postby Lamoni » Sun Oct 16, 2011 10:37 pm

From what Anemos has told me, this tank will have a VERY restrictive sales policy.
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Anemos Major
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Postby Anemos Major » Sun Oct 16, 2011 11:41 pm

Aquitayne wrote:OOC: When can I buy this mother?


OOC: This tank's sales policy will, by necessity, be massively restricted. That said, you can see that I've reserved posts; there will be export variants of various kinds, and they'll be open purchase.

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Aquitayne
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Postby Aquitayne » Mon Oct 17, 2011 4:53 am

Anemos Major wrote:
Aquitayne wrote:OOC: When can I buy this mother?


OOC: This tank's sales policy will, by necessity, be massively restricted. That said, you can see that I've reserved posts; there will be export variants of various kinds, and they'll be open purchase.


Phooey. Well, I hope that the export variants will be just as good as the one you wont sell. :D

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Coltarin
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Postby Coltarin » Mon Oct 17, 2011 6:21 am

OOC I can have this right?
it wont replace our wolf hounds any time soon, but for testing
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Anemos Major
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Postby Anemos Major » Mon Oct 17, 2011 6:25 am

OOC: Could you direct requests to either the ASAEA page or my TG inbox? Thanks.

Sorry, it keeps things streamlined.

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Volatilis votum
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Postby Volatilis votum » Mon Oct 17, 2011 6:32 am

Your MBT is named after Votum's national animal. You clearly have excellent taste.


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Almire
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Postby Almire » Sun Dec 18, 2011 4:34 pm

Amazing work, man.
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Civil Rights Lovefest

Postby New Phyrreus » Wed Jan 25, 2012 9:21 am

How do you create those pictures?
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Defcon 1 2 3 (4) 5
Defcon 1 - Full Alert Status (WMDs Authorized)
Defcon 2 - High alert level, Evac in progress, Military deployed
Defcon 3 - Military currently Deploying
Defcon 4 - (Current) Military Standby
Defcon 5 - Regular/ Peacekeeping

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Anemos Major
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Postby Anemos Major » Wed Jan 25, 2012 9:23 am

New Phyrreus wrote:How do you create those pictures?


OOC: Microsoft Paint.

Those images are *slightly* outdated.
Last edited by Anemos Major on Wed Jan 25, 2012 9:24 am, edited 1 time in total.

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New Phyrreus
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Postby New Phyrreus » Wed Jan 25, 2012 10:25 am

Anemos Major wrote:
New Phyrreus wrote:How do you create those pictures?


OOC: Microsoft Paint.

Those images are *slightly* outdated.


thankyou
Whoever wishes for peace, let him prepare for war - Vegetius

Defcon 1 2 3 (4) 5
Defcon 1 - Full Alert Status (WMDs Authorized)
Defcon 2 - High alert level, Evac in progress, Military deployed
Defcon 3 - Military currently Deploying
Defcon 4 - (Current) Military Standby
Defcon 5 - Regular/ Peacekeeping

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Anemos Major
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Founded: Jun 01, 2008
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby Anemos Major » Wed Jan 25, 2012 12:48 pm

New Phyrreus wrote:
Anemos Major wrote:
OOC: Microsoft Paint.

Those images are *slightly* outdated.


thankyou


OOC: No stealing images, of course. I did these from scratch, it's always good to do that.

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Zidano The Land of the Great Sakhal
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Postby Zidano The Land of the Great Sakhal » Mon Mar 12, 2012 12:24 pm

OOC: what do you use to maker this tank. Is it just you being awesome at drawing on paint or is their a program or something because :clap: Your tanks are an inspiration "tear roles down cheek" :lol2:. But seriously, WOW :bow: .
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