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1890: Alternative Divergence [AH][OOC-OPEN]

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The Hindustani State
Diplomat
 
Posts: 772
Founded: Jun 23, 2019
Iron Fist Consumerists

Postby The Hindustani State » Wed Sep 16, 2020 4:01 pm

Any room for a Hindu uprising in India?
The Hindustani State। हिन्दूस्तानी राष्ट्र
Theocratic South Asia ruled on Hindu principles, and having expelled all invader religions
This nation is my IRL political views taken to the extreme

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Sao Nova Europa
Diplomat
 
Posts: 923
Founded: Apr 20, 2019
Civil Rights Lovefest

Postby Sao Nova Europa » Wed Sep 16, 2020 4:10 pm

The Hindustani State wrote:Any room for a Hindu uprising in India?


It is up to the OP, but I have to admit that my personal preference is no. In my history I have written that the Mughals were able to put down a number of such uprisings at the 1700s and early 1800s, so now the realm is more or less stabilized for the most part. OOC, I would prefer not to have to face civil war at the start of the RP.

If you really want to play as a Hindu Indian state, I am willing to give up the four or five southernmost Indian provinces (the southern tip), but a) as a state that broke off from the Mughals during the 1807-17 period of unrest in my alternative history, so it isn't active revolt but rather established state, b) I am compensated by annexing Nepal. :)

I am perfectly willing to work with you if you decide on accepting my proposition and glad to have you in the region, but an active uprising would be a big no for me. :)
Last edited by Sao Nova Europa on Wed Sep 16, 2020 4:40 pm, edited 4 times in total.
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Tracian Empire
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Posts: 24471
Founded: Mar 01, 2014
Father Knows Best State

Postby Tracian Empire » Thu Sep 17, 2020 12:00 am

The Hindustani State wrote:Any room for a Hindu uprising in India?

Yeah, we generally hesitate when it comes to accepting uprisings, because they're pretty difficult to moderate. Often the one controlling the uprising and the one controlling the state will have different points of view about how widespread the uprising will be, and there are a lot of other factors involved. Plus, if an uprising were to be defeated, that would leave a player without a proper nation. And of course, Sao Nova Europa doesn't want it, so we must take that into account.

But I'm more than alright with his proposal - you could play as a Hindu Indian state in the south, and perhaps try to support and develop a Hindu uprising in the north over the course of the IC.
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Hello there! I am Tracian Empire! You can call me Tracian, Thrace, Thracian, Thracr, Thracc or whatever you want. Really.

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Of Leben
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Posts: 190
Founded: Jul 11, 2015
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby Of Leben » Thu Sep 17, 2020 4:24 pm

Tagging for later use.

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The Traansval
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Posts: 9164
Founded: Jun 26, 2016
Left-wing Utopia

Postby The Traansval » Fri Sep 18, 2020 1:03 am

Image
Full Nation Name: United Republic of Great Britain and Ireland; also known as the United Republic or the British Republic.
Anthem: The Green Flag


Majority/Official Culture: The three major constituents of the Union; England, Scotland, and Ireland; represent the three major cultures of the British isles. Additionally, England is home to the very distinctive and independent Welsh and the more often forgotten Cornish. The union’s overseas territories and colonies are also home to many native cultures and some colonial cultures such as the distinctive South African, Australian, and New Zealand cultures, to name a few.
Territorial Core: British Territory is shown as Tan.
Territorial Claim: The sights of the British have turned firmly to Africa over the past decade, and as a scramble begins the Union will be the first to carve its fair share out of the dark continent.
Capital City: Greater London, Republic of England.
Population: 45,875,900 citizens in the British Isles; 28.5 million in British Java and Indies; 25.2 million in British India and Ceylon; 7.5 million in the Nigerian Protectorate, 3.7 million in the Australian colonies, 3.1 million in Cape Colony, 2.2 in British Suriname, 1.1 million in British West Africa, and 0.6 million in British East Africa.

Government Type: Democratic Federal Republic
Government Ideology/Policies: The United Republic is dedicated to the cause echoed by the soldiers of the Glorious Revolution; Liberty, Equality, Humanity. Enshrined in British law are fundamental rights and liberties, protections and guarantees, that all citizens are equal before the law, and that none may be legally discriminated against. Citizens enjoy the freedom to worship, the freedom to speak criticism and truth, and the freedom to assemble as a united force. The Republic has a system of social programs ranging from workingmen's compensation, workplace regulations, and union protections to the poor laws.

In terms of more in-depth ideology and policies, that depends on the party currently in power. The United Republic has four national parties; the Conservative Party or Tories are a center-right party mostly advocating for de-regulation, greater promotion of Anglicanism, and hawkish militarization; the Liberal Party form an odd coalition at the center of British political life, with everyone from Center-right Peelites to Center-left “Whigs”, mostly advocating for civil liberties and free-market policy; the Republican Party forms the center-left and is often called the “Radical” party, it has a basis in advocating market reforms, social reforms and programs, and an almost militant advocacy of enfranchisement and equality; the Social Democratic Labour Party, or just Labour Party, flanks the Republicans on the left to far-left after its break with said party as its mostly a coalition of Unionists, Socialists, Marxists, and other left Radicals. In addition to the main four there are regional and independent parties, mostly formed to gain seats in the individual Republics such as the Irish Patriot Party, which is in an alliance with the Republicans, the United Scots party, which is a coalition with the Liberals, or Cymru Fydd, a Welsh party, along with branches of the main four in the Republics such as the Irish, Scottish, and English Liberal parties, as examples.
National Goals: To maintain peace and promote trade.
National Issues: Growing Marxism and the African scramble.
Government Focus: Britain is mostly focused on the promotion of commerce and the expansion of the Commonwealth.

Head of State : Tribunal of the Republic, a council consisting of the First Secretaries of England, Scotland, and Ireland which gives its assent to parliament's laws and advises the Council of State. Currently occupied by Joseph Chamberlain (Liberal First Secretary of England), Keir Hardie (Republican First Secretary of Scotland), and Tom Clarke (Patriot Party First Secretary of Ireland).
Head of Government: Council of State, a council made up of Secretaries of State whose purpose is to oversee government departments. It is led by the First Secretary of State, which is currently Henry Campbell-Bannerman.
Government Description: The United Republic is an odd government born out of British tradition under the monarchy and the need to maintain unity between three essentially separate nations. In short; England, Scotland, and Ireland each are recognized as Republics, with their own government, legislature, and constitutions, and by their own assent in the London Charter they have banded together to form a Federal state. This “banding together” includes the recognition of the supremacy of Parliament in return for the protection of their sovereignty and their rights. Overseeing this Federal state is the aforementioned Parliament, which is a unicameral body seating MPs in the House of Commons. In theory, the role of an executive, previously fulfilled by the monarchy, is taken by the Tribunal of the Republic, which is the formal term for the three First Secretaries of the three Republics. However, in practice, executive function is exercised by the Council of State, an executive cabinet of MPs elected by Parliament and led by the First Secretary.

Parliament, as recognized in the London Charter, is the supreme legislative body. It has the ability to pass laws that are binding on the constituent Republics and territories of the Commonwealth (Britain's overseas territories). While theoretically unlimited in its power, political necessities dictate that Parliament continues a policy known as devolution or the granting of powers and responsibilities to the Republics or local governments. Each Republic has its own parliament which can pass laws that are binding within that Republic, but laws passed by the British parliament are able to overrule these lower laws. This essentially leads to the effect that the Republics are able to pass laws on anything the national parliament hasn’t already legislated on, making them often the forefront of legislative innovation. Many laws passed through the national Parliament have just been adaptations of laws passed by one or more of the Republics. There are two key limits on Parliament in terms of legislation; it cannot change the constitution of a Republic, and it cannot change the London Charter, Instruments of Government, or Bill of Rights without the approval of all three Republican legislatures or by popular referenda in all three Republics.

The Tribunal of the Republic is the official Head of State of the Republic, although the First Secretary of England is, by tradition, considered the “First among equals” of the Tribunal and usually is the one who represents the Republic for formal events. The Tribunal's role is primarily ceremonial and was created to fill the place the Monarchy once had. It’s only real power is the ability to veto legislation passed by Parliament, although this is a very rare occurrence as it requires ⅔ to approve a bill but 3/3 to veto a bill. Besides this, the individual First Secretaries on the tribunal hold considerable prestige and power within their own Republics and they are often consulted by the First Secretary.

The Council of State is a body of members of parliament elected by parliament who serve as government ministers. Technically the only member of it that's elected is the First Secretary of State, often just shortened to First Secretary, who appoints the other members, although these appointments must be approved by parliament. The First Secretary sets general policy and is the primary representative of the Council both in parliament and diplomatically. The other members of the council are known as the Secretaries of State, with each Secretary being appointed to lead a government department, the current list being; Secretary of State for the Home, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Secretary of State for the Admiralty, Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Justice, Secretary of State for the Treasury, Secretary of State for Commonwealth Affairs, Secretary of State for the Colonies, Secretary of State for Commerce and Business, Secretary of State for the Post and Railways, Secretary of State for Land and Farms, Secretary of State for Education, and Secretary of State for Labour. There are additional non-Council leadership positions, mostly in the form of Presidents of boards established to oversee or give advice on specific areas, or offices under departments or independent of offices, such as the Secret Service Bureau under the Home office or the independent Workingmen's Compensation Board.

Each Republic has its own court system, plus an extra “British” court system that has jurisdiction across the entire United Republic. While the names differ, each system has lower trial courts and then a system of courts of Appeal and usually a High or Supreme Court. The highest court in the land is the High Court of Justice in London which is the highest court of appeals in the United Republic, able to hear appeals from British and Republic courts, and which has the ability to declare actions by the Republics or by Parliament unlawful (Judicial Review). There also exists a web of specialty courts, often called administrative courts, such as bankruptcy, maritime, immigration, patent, and other courts.

Local government is a bit more complicated, although drastically simplified during the 19th century by Parliament. Each Republic has, as its basic local government, a series of metropolitan and rural boroughs or counties, the names differ between Republics, which are overseen by locally elected councils. These councils have some devolved powers based on what Republic you're in and are generally in charge of administering programs and laws. Below the boroughs and counties are districts, smaller subunits that have varying levels of self-government. Above the boroughs and counties are the regions, which unite multiple municipalities together usually under another council. Again, depending on the Republic these local formations have varying degrees of devolved powers, but generally, they’re used for the enforcement of laws (metropolitan boroughs are responsible for forming and upkeep their own police, while rural ones have some oversight of their local British Constabulary branch) and for the management of programs such as workingmen's compensation as an example.

As mentioned before the British Commonwealth is the common name for the holdings, territories, and colonies of the United Republic, and generally is used to refer to land held outside the British isles. With the exception of South Africa and Canada, both of which were designated as Republics and granted limited home rule, the territories of the Commonwealth are under the direct administration of the British Parliament and it's appointed Governors-General, although reforms made since the Glorious Revolution have seen many elements of local rule or administration implemented. Most Commonwealth territories are run by a system of indirect rule, often with the utilization of natives in the administration, with locals in positions ranging from tax collectors to judges and police, and the continued existence of local rulers under British "Protectorate" status. These Protectorates can encompass entire colonies, such as The Gambia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, and others, or they can be apart of larger colonies such as British India, British Java, and British Congo which have both directly administered territories and protectorates. Thus, colonies aren't really distinct states in and of themselves, and colonial borders are used to show the area under the control of a specific Governor-General, who might have oversight of several territories and protectorates. The full list of these positions includes; the Governor-General of India, the Governor-General of Java, the Governor-General of New South Wales, the Governor-General of West Australia, Governor-General of Nova Scotia, Governor-General of New Zealand, Governor-General of Congo-Livingstoneburg, Governor-General of the Gold Coast, Governor-General of the Ivory Coast, Governor-General of Sierra Leone and Guinea, Governor-General of the Gambia, Governor-General of East Africa, Governor-General of Somaliland, and Governor-General of Suriname. There are also the Governors-General of South Africa and Canada, although these two hold no real power after both were granted home-rule and act primarily as figureheads. The Governors-General are appointed directly by Parliament, often on the advice of the Council of State, and are responsible for the day to day administration and enforcing the government's will and laws in the colonies. The Governors-General also rule alongside elected councils or assemblies of locals which the Governors-General can consult and which can have certain devolved powers as dictated by parliament or the Governors-General, as well as locally elected mayors and local municipal leaders.

Majority/State Religion: The three biggest religions are Anglicanism (Church of England), Presbyterianism, and Roman Catholicism. There also are substantial minority religions, mostly Protestant branches such as Baptists, Quakers, and others, along with a decent Jewish minority. Parts of the Empire also contain majority Muslim areas, notably Java, and Hindu areas, notably British India.
Religious Description: Religion in the British Isles has been one of the underlying factors in much of its conflicts. The Glorious Revolution saw three nations; Catholic Ireland, Presybeterian Scotland, and Anglican England join together in a common Union, and this would not have been possible without a commitment to Secularism in government and to the freedom of worship. While some Conservatives might talk about Papist plots in their parlors, the United Republic has maintained this commitment to religious freedom, and it has allowed for the growth of religion in the nation. Ireland is a majority Catholic land, with sizeable Protestant (both Anglican and Presbyterian) minorities, mostly around the north. Scotland is mostly dominated by the Scots Kirk, or Scottish Church, which is a Presbyterian Church, although it's contested by the Episcopal Church which believes the Kirk has gone too far from the Anglican church, and the Reformed Presbyterian Church which believes the Kirk has gone too far towards the Anglican Church (Very oversimplified, the main conflict is over church structure, namely that the Episcopals want Bishops; while the Reformed church just generally believes the main Kirk has strayed from the path so to speak). England is relatively united by the Church of England, its main church, with sizable minorities of “Non-Conformists”, other protestant denominations such as Baptists. England's religious freedom has also seen many other religions come to it, namely Jews, although they form the largest of the smallest groups.

Economic Ideologies: Capitalism, Free Trade, Market Regulation, and Unionism.
Major Production: The British Isles are relatively resource-rich, with a strong mining sector that produced ample coal and metals for the nation. These resources, however, fuel an even stronger and even bigger industry; manufacturing. Britain's bread and butter have been manufacturing, ranging from the massive steel refineries and factories to the cloth mills. Anything from trains to guns to teapots to scarfs is produced and sold by Britain.
Economic Description: Britain is foremost a Capitalist nation but also one born out of revolutionary radicalism, so it's no wonder that it's one of the more regulated economies in Europe. Besides the many worker benefits programs, working condition regulations, and union protections, the British government has strong antitrust and consumer protection laws enforced by the courts, although how strongly they’re enforced strengthens and weakens depending on the party in government. This is combined not only with the relative resource and labor richness of the British isles, but the absolute resource richness of her colonies, including the ever profitable Indian Ocean trade, the plantations of Suriname, and the growing African colonies such as the Congo and South Africa. Britain is not only a world leader in manufacturing but it also has one of the largest consumer populations in Europe, with a large middle class of Union workers and businessmen with plenty of money to spend.

Development: Modern
Development Description: Britain is quite small when compared to neighboring continental Europe or the mighty American nations, but for its size, it packs a punch. Its natural resources, population density, and high level of urbanization allowed it to be a world leader in industrialization, being one of the pioneers of steam power both in manufacturing and in transportation with the railroads. This is also fed by the resources of Britain’s Commonwealth, with women wearing Indian cloth and drinking their tea with sugar from Suriname.

Army Description: The British Republican Army, often just shortened to the British Army, is the primary land formation of the British Armed Forces. It is administered by the War Office but led by the General Staff, a part of Army Headquarters. The two primary wings of army combat are the Infantry branch and Cavalry branch, each overseeing their respective troop formations. In addition to the combat, branches are the combat support corps, namely the Artillery Regiment (While called a regiment it is a corps and consists of multiple regiment and brigade-sized units) and the Corps of Engineers. Outside of army combat is army support services which are a variety of non-combat services such as the medical service and logistics service as examples.

In peacetime, the Army is an all-volunteer force with enlistment for seven years of active service plus an additional five years in the Reserves. Currently, the army has 210,000 men, give or take, in active service, along with 83,000 men in the reserves. Additionally, there exists a third reserve formation; the Militias, a part-time service that citizens can volunteer for without having to spend time in active service. There are about 175,000 men currently a part of militia units. The British Army is organized primarily in Regiments, although these are the size of an average brigade in other nations, which are composed of two active service battalions (reserve battalions can be used to substitute if called up) and two militia battalions. It's common practice to have one of these battalions be sent for foreign service while the other is kept for training at home, often with the two periodically swapping.

The majority of infantry regiments are designated as “Line” regiments, even though the practice of forming firing lines has been largely abandoned. Some of the older or more elite regiments have received special designations such as “Guards Regiment of the Republic”, or just “Guards Regiment”, “Highlander Regiment”, or “Regiment of the Irish Republic” or just “Irish Regiment”. Not every Scotsman who enlists is put in a Highland Regiment nor is every Irishman who enlists put in an Irish Regiment, these are designations given to historic regiments associated with the Highlanders or the Irish which maintain certain unique and special traditions. As a final caveat, there are the “Light Infantry” regiments; these have no real difference from line regiments except for the fact that they have no attached militia and are commonly raised for colonial services such as the South African Light Infantry or the Bengal Regiment, or they are historic light infantry such as the Rifles Regiment. There are 79 Line Infantry regiments, 6 Guards regiments, 7 Highlander regiments, 2 Irish regiments, and 8 Light Infantry regiments. Regiments can be organized into divisions between 2-3 regiments strong or be used individually.

Similar distinctions exist in the Cavalry, although are less symbolic. The cavalry has four main types of regiments; light cavalry, usually designated as Hussars or Light Dragoons, which undertake to scout and harassing actions; medium cavalry, mostly Lancers and Dragoon regiments which can be used for scouting and combat; heavy cavalry in the form of the Dragoon Guards for heavy combat action; and mounted infantry or “Light Horse” regiments. The difference between light, medium, and heavy cavalry has basically blurred to the point of non-existence and the distinctions are mostly ceremonial and to do with the legacy and history of each unit as they all ride the same mounts and carry similar equipment. There are 7 Dragoon Guards regiments, 4 Dragoon regiments, 4 Light Dragoon regiments, 4 Hussar regiments, 4 Lancer regiments, and 3 Light Horse regiments.

Army Weakness: The British Army is a small force, and its organization based on a regional basis makes the army inflexible as anytime a unit takes casualties it’ll need to be reinforced by men from that area, or from reserves. This means that if the British are involved in a large-scale war where they’d need to raise millions of men or where they’d take large casualties it’d make it harder to reinforce those losses or effectively mobilize.

Naval Description: The pride of the Republican Navy is her Battleships, which are not officially but commonly categorized as either Ironclad, referencing older ships, or Moderns referencing the newer designed ships. The Royal navy has sixteen Ironclad battleships from six-ship classes and five battleships of the newest class, the Republic class, with three more of that class still under construction. The main differences come down to technology and design; many of the Ironclads still in service were put into service between the 1870s and 1880s, a period of experimentation in design. The Republic class features new innovations in propulsion and design, along with a new gun layout with four main guns in double turrets in addition to its other armaments. Six Ironclads serve in the East Indies Fleet, two serve in the West Indies Fleet, and three in the West African Fleet; the rest serve in the Home and Channel Fleets back in Britain, along with the Republic class ships.

Cruisers are ships designed to cruise independently, often for scouting, use on independent missions, or to assist battleships in naval battles. The Navy has three categories of Cruisers based on tonnage and armament, although not armor layout so the categories do not distinguish between Protected cruisers, which feature armor decks to protect internal vitals, and Armored cruisers, which feature an armor belt around the hull; although all Armored cruisers in the navy are First Class. There are twenty-three First Class Cruisers in service, of which twelve are Armored, along with thirty-eight Second Class and thirty-eight Third Class cruisers in service.

Small ships refer to three main categories of ships; Gunboats, Sloops, and Torpedo Gunboats. All three are utilized for similar purposes, namely either as supporting small ships for largest battleships or cruisers; or for use in colonial service where small and lightly armed ships are useful. The latter is particularly true for British Sloops, of which there are forty-two in service, the majority of which were built during the 1870s and, again, are mostly used in colonial service, particularly in West Africa and the East Indies. Gunboats and Torpedo Gunboats are also used in colonial service but were mainly created to support battleships and cruisers, particularly the newer Torpedo gunboats. There are twelve gunboats and seventeen Torpedo gunboats in service. All of these ships carry varying amounts of small arms, usually with guns between 6 and 8 inches in the bore, and in the case of the Torpedo Gunboats… Torpedoes, which can be effective against larger ships.

The Republican navy, like the Army, is a volunteer force, with around 45,000 men in service. In addition to serving on ships and related ground-based support services, enlisted men in the navy can also serve in the Corps of Marine Light Infantry, a force of four battalions of men primarily used for naval landings and deployment in conjunction with naval actions to capture strategic locals on the coast.

Naval Weakness: Much of the navy’s ships are quite old, some having entered service almost a decade ago. New innovations like the Republic Class are introducing newly modernized ships but it still stands that, while mighty, the navy is aging and will require a large modernization program to keep up with rapidly progressing naval technology.

Further Military Description: Standard uniform of the British Army is the Pattern 1874 which introduced new single-breasted and more loosely fit red tunics along with the adoption of the Pith helmet, in two patterns known as the Home and Colonial Service patterns, as the main headwear for non-dress occasions. The uniform also features blue pants, ankle-high leather boots, and a new pattern of combat webbing. There are two other official patterns of uniform, those being the Colonial and Light infantry patterns; the colonial pattern is a Khaki uniform which also replaces the leather boots of the main pattern for Indian style puttees; the Light infantry pattern also adopts the puttees and Khaki pants with a grey tunic and a lighter pattern of combat webbing. The colonial and light patterns are designed for use outside of the British Empire, primarily in the colonies. Puttees are much cheaper than leather boots and Khaki blends in very well with most terrain, as does grey to a lesser extent, although the adoption of that color by the Light infantry is more to do with the history of these units, many of which were raised as colonial militia initially. British cavalry uses a mix of the uniforms, mostly using the red 1874 pattern while in the home isles or in temperate conditions and using the Khaki pattern during colonial service, with some modifications such as higher riding boots and sword scabbard, although Light Horse regiments only use the grey Light pattern. These three patterns can be seen in this illustration. The navy for their part continues to stick with their dark blue uniforms, as seen here.

The standard arm of both the Army and Navy is the .303 caliber Magazine, Rifle, Lee, a rifle introduced in 1888 and was designed by American James Paris Lee. It utilizes a new .303 cartridge with smokeless Cordite, and a ten-round magazine designed by Lee. While it is the official rifle, the Lee has only been in service for two years, and as such is still just being handed out to troops, with priority to those stationed in the home isles. The most common rifle in use is still the Martini-Henry, a single-shot black powder rifle that is in almost universal use with troops in the colonies. The most common sidearm in use is the Webley revolver, which was first introduced in 1886 with the Mark I and has since gone through several versions, the most recent being the Mark V. While not exactly standard, the army makes use of about four dozen Gatling Guns, mostly in colonial service.


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Last edited by The Traansval on Sat Sep 19, 2020 8:56 pm, edited 14 times in total.
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The Traansval
Powerbroker
 
Posts: 9164
Founded: Jun 26, 2016
Left-wing Utopia

Postby The Traansval » Fri Sep 18, 2020 1:08 am

History of Britain: Royalist Period


Union of the Kingdoms and the early rule of King Charles I
For brevity's sake we’ll begin our history with the formation of modern Britain, a feat whose seeds were first sowed with the War of the Roses, a bloody dynastic dispute eventually leading to the House of Tudor, most famous for its illustrious queen Elizabeth I, who would lead England through a golden age both in the arts and in the field of battle as England established itself as a major naval power through the defeat of a Spanish Armada. She would, however, die childless, and her crown would pass to a relative of hers; James VI, the King of Scotland, who would be proclaimed James I of England, the first monarch to rule the three Kingdoms, which included the Kingdom of Ireland a holding that was in a personal union with England after centuries of English conquest and colonization on the island. While James’s rule wouldn’t see a truly united British isles, as England, Scotland, and Ireland were all still independent nations with their own parliaments, just under a personal union with a shared Monarch, his rule would pave the way for the future Union of these three shared nations. It would also see the success of the American colonies, chief among them being recently founded Suriname, Virginia, and Massachusetts colonies, and the success of Elizabeth’s East India Company as it established trading posts and conducted trade with the Indians and Indonesians of Java.

It would now be extremely useful to mention a very key and somewhat unique element of England and to a lesser or greater extent Ireland and Scotland; Parliament. A King may be all powerful but they do not fight or collect taxes themselves, no they must rely on others to do so for them, and it has come to pass that those others have not done so. In specific, a King relies greatly on his nobility, those who hold feudal titles, to maintain order and provide for the Kingdom’s defense; but he also relies greatly on his Gentry, the landed and wealthy, for they are fundamental to the bureaucracy, and the collection of revenue. This is common among many European and non-european nations of the age, and to address this it was common for Kings to consult with councils of nobles or gentry, in order to get their assent in order to put into place policy or edicts. In England, these councils came to constitute a political body all their own, known as Parliament. This body was divided into two houses; the House of Lords, which assembled the nobility, and the House of the Commons, which assembled the Gentry. Overtime, the Commons became a powerful institution, as without it and by extension without the support of the Gentry, the Monarch could not raise revenue. The power of this institution, largely composed of non-nobles, began to give credence to a belief in popular sovereignty, that the monarch ruled because the people, or in this case the gentry, were pleased with him and gave their assent to his rule.

This doctrine would come into conflict with some monarchs, who believed that their rule was Divine, that it was mandated by God and that the monarch themselves embodied the state, with all power coming from them and being granted on those lower than the monarch. No monarch in British history detested the rule of parliament more than Charles I of England, who succeeded his father James in March of 1625. Charles would soon come into great conflict with parliament, not only about questions of power but also importantly about questions of religion. Britain had been Catholic for much of the medieval period, but Henry VIII, the father of Elizabeth, would see England break from the papacy with the declaration of the Church of England, otherwise known as the Anglican Church or Anglicanism. It was a uniquely English branch of protestantism, which under Charles would be dominated by arminianism or as it was also known, the High Church. Charles and the Arminians were often accused of having papal sympathies, and would be denounced by some for their use of rites and organization which some considered too Catholic. The main opponent of the Arminians were the Puritans, who favored a more “purified” version of worship along with local control of church teachings rather than a centrally controlled church. In Scotland, the Anglicans were opposed by the Kirk, the Scottish Church, which was mostly controlled by Calvinist Presbyterians, a type of protestantism which favored control of the church by assemblies of Presbyters or church elders.

Religion would spark the first major conflict of Charle’s reign, as his attempts to force the use of a common prayer bible based on the English one in Scotland would cause the Kirk to form an assembly, denouncing Charles’s religion reforms in Scotland, leading to armed insurrection known as the Bishops War. Charles would raise an army but would avoid any open battle with the Scots, as he feared losing his expensive troops. Remember how Kings of England could only raise revenue through the cooperation of the Gentry and by acts of parliament? Well, Charles had spent eleven years of his reign without having ever called parliament to session, a period known as his personal rule. During this time, Charles was forced to raise revenue through convoluted methods such as appropriating funds from the ship tax, a tax meant to fund the navy, or downright theft such as when he seized the bullion in the Mint. These methods made him extremely unpopular with the gentry, but it also made Charles extremely cash strapped, and so when he spent a good chunk of money on an army he didn’t dare lose it. Temporary peace came with the treaty of Berwick, which in effect acted as a ceasefire for Charles to build up his forces. Charles would try a few more methods to raise funds, such as seizing the East India Company’s stores of spices, but eventually he’d be forced to convene the Irish and English parliaments; the Irish raised funds and an army of 9,000 men, the English denounced the King and had their parliament dissolved only a month after it was called, earning it the name of the Short Parliament.

The Scots would capitalize on this internal instability and would restart the war in 1640, leading an invasion of north England. With no other option, Charles would sign the Treaty of Ripon; the Scots would halt their advance, continue to occupy the areas they had taken, and Charles would need to pay them a monthly fee in order to keep them from advancing. To avoid military defeat, Charles had added more onto his debt, and had completely humiliated himself by accepting defeat by the hands of the Scots. In order to finance this peace, Charles would call parliament once more, forming what would come to be known as the Long Parliament.

This parliament would be a convention of 493 members, of which 350 were in opposition to the King. Its first acts would be impeachments of the King’s councilors, chief among them Lord Stafford, the Lord Deputy of Ireland, and right-hand man of the King. Parliament also took radical action to protect itself, including passing an act mandating that it must meet at least once every three years, which Charles reluctantly agreed to due to its combination with a subsidy bill. The case against Stafford fell apart in the courts, so the leader of the radicals, John Pym, went to Parliament seeking a bill of attainder; a death warrant, authorized by parliament's vote. While Pym was initially in the minority, an attempted royalist army coup turned opinion against Stafford; he would be beheaded by Parliaments orders on May 12th. After this, parliament passed a slew of bills, including the abolition of major courts which Charles had used to enforce his revenue acts, along with the abolition of said acts to gain revenue, and an act which forbade the King from dissolving parliament. Charles granted these acts in order to concede and gain favor, and also to allow for the passage of taxation bills. He would even make visits to Scotland and endorse the Kirk, although an attempted royalist coup there would also undermine his support.

A new rebellion would soon pop up in 1641, this time in Ireland. Said island was a complicated area both politically, ethnically, and religiously; the Kingdom of Ireland was technically a separate political entity but centuries of English, previous Norman, invasions and colonization had made Ireland a holding of England. Its population was mostly Catholic with a Protestant minority, but while religion played a large role, so did class and ethnicity; the lower classes were mostly composed of the Irish Gaelics, while the gentry and nobility was divided between the Old English, those who had come over during the Norman invasions and older England, and the New English, who had settled after the establishment of the Church of England. The chief difference between these two groups was religion; the Old English were Catholic, which they shared with the Gaelics, while the New English formed the protestant minority. These religious and ethnic differences caused tensions, and it didn’t help that the Catholics were often discriminated against and had their lands taken over by Protestant plantations, particularly in the north around Ulster or Dublin. The Irish Rebellion would be primarily one in opposition to this colonization and religious tension, and it would see the Gaelics be supported by the Old English, while said Old English would still profess loyalty to the King. A government known as the Irish Confederacy, formed shortly after the initial uprising, and primarily dominated by Old English gentry and nobility, would fight the New English.

In England, Pym pushed through the Grand Remonstrance, a bill listing grievances and complaints against the King and the House of Lords, a very controversial bill that nonetheless passed. Shortly after, news of the Irish rebellion and rumors of Charles’s involvement began to spread, inciting embers to burn. When Charles asked for funds to raise an army to put down the Irish, parliament suspected Charles meant to raise an army to instead march on parliament, and so Pym pushed the Militia Act to place the military under parliament. Soon, the antipathy between parliament and Charles would boil over by rumors that parliament meant to arrest Charle’s wife, and so he took drastic action.

The boots of soldiers dressed in red, armed with pikes and matchlock pistols, trampled over the carpet of the Commons. They forced open the doors and secured the chamber as the King marched in and sat in the speaker’s chair. He held in his hand a warrant for the arrest of five men, five agitators and radicals, five members of parliament. The men had fled, forewarned by trusted sources, and so Charles looked around a house containing none of the men he had come for. He asked the speaker where they were, but the speaker told his monarch that he could not answer except as the Commons instructed him; that he was a servant of parliament first, not the King. Charles left the house, and soon after fled London fearing for his safety. With the king in flight, Parliament would raise an army. Civil war had come to England.

War of the Three Kingdoms and English Civil War
Charles attempted to seize the militia arsenal at Hull but was rebuffed by its parliamentary governor. The lines had been drawn; on one side, the Royalists or Cavaliers, on the other the Parliamentarians or Roundheads. In the north, the Scottish who had once fought the king in the Bishops war now constituted the Covenanters, now allied with the Parliamentarians, while Royalist Scots under James Graham would attempt to retake Scotland for the King. Ireland would be a mess as New English Royalists and New English Parliamentarians fought each other and the semi-Royalist Irish Confederation. Charles would form his court in Nottingham on the 22nd of August 1642, soon after moving to Oxford where he’d also form a rival parliament. Both sides formed their armies, and soon enough marched out to fight.

With both sides relatively evenly matched in arms and numbers, the fighting would come down to tactics. For the parliamentarians, their forces would come under the command of Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex; Charles brought in Prince Rupert of the Rhine to give counsel and command his elite cavalry, which is exactly what he did at the Battle of Powick Bridge, routing a force of parliamentarian cavalry. On the 12th of October, his army marched out on the road to London, baiting Devereux’s army to come out and meet them. He would, and at Edgehill, the two would fight a bloody but indecisive battle, and later they’d fight again at Turnham Green, where Charles would be forced to retreat to Oxford. The two sides hunkered down for the winter, and the dawning of 1643’s spring would see the Royalists gain many victories, but the parliamentarians were beginning to gain steam, undercut somewhat by demonstrations in August by Londoners demanding peace.

Devereux would gain much needed victories at the Battle of Newbury and the siege of Gloucester. Other victories such as at Winceby and King’s Lynn would put immense pressure on the Royalists, leading to Charles agreeing to a ceasefire with the Irish Confederates in order to bring Royalist troops there over to England. These reinforcements, along with Prince Rupert’s cavalry utilizing effective scouting, would deliver Charles a decisive victory at the Battle of Marston Moor; his outnumbered troops would manage a successful fight against a joint parliamentarian and covenanter force, where the quick use of Rupert’s cavalry would decimate a charge by the Ironside Cavalry under command of Oliver Cromwell, taking his life, and destroying infantry under command of the covenanter the Earl of Leven. The victory dealt a large blow to the parliamentarian forces and would cripple the covenanters, allowing for Charle’s forced to link up with the forces of James Graham, eventually leading to the pacification of Scotland in 1645. Earlier in 1644, Parliament would reform its forces, creating the New Model Army of professional officers and soldiers to fight Charles. Command of this army was given to Thomas Fairfax, who saw it through the fighting at the Battle of Lostwithiel and Second Battle of Newbury, both Royalist victories. Fairfax was beginning to see the writing on the walls and was increasingly coming to blows with the more radical members of the army such as Henry Ireton, who vied with him for power. Fairfax would officially defect along with a contingent of moderate officers and soldiers, leaving the New Model Army as a mass of radical soldiers and a handful of radical officers, now under the command of Ireton. It would fight two more battles at Naseby and Langport, both of which would be Royalist victories. Fighting would continue into the next year until Ireton was captured in battle in May of 1646, and Charles would enter London at the head of an army commanded by Fairfax in June of the same year.

What followed was known as Charles’s Purge, as he put to death fifty major members of the parliamentarian rebellion and stripped titles, land, and peerage from hundreds more. Charle’s would legalize all of this along with new taxes through a new parliament, known as the Rump Parliament or the Royalist Parliament as it was stacked with royal supporters. Charles had defeated the parliamentarians and put to death or exiled his major opponents, but more importantly, he had, through force of arms and more blood than had ever been spilled, enforced the doctrine of divine right, and taken the growing power of parliament and put it to the torch.

However, his fighting was not over yet, as Ireland was still in a tricky situation. The Irish Confederation there professed to be loyal to Charles but had been in opposition to the New English and Royalist forces there; and while Charles was sympathetic to the Irish Catholics he loathed the amount of autonomy the Confederation sought. Charles would sit and gain funds and men until finally breaking his ceasefire and launching the Irish Campaign in the spring of 1649. His forces landed and soon put to siege the city of Dublin, a bloody fight that would see over 3,500 killed. This ruthlessness would be seen throughout the campaign at places such as Rathmines and Drogheda, coming to an end only having the complete destruction of the Confederacy and subjugation of Ireland under New English lords in 1651.

Postbellum Britain and the reign of Charles II
The final years of Charles’s reign, known as the Postbellum Period, would one one primarily of reconstruction and the strengthening of the monarch's position. This period would also see a few last uprisings against Charles, including the Second Scottish Civil War which would see covenanters give their last fight, and Prides Coup which would see Thomas Pride, a former colonel in the New Model Army, lead a band of former soldiers to seize Parliament and attempt to re-install parliamentary rule, only to see the force be put to death by Royalist militias. With the end of the Irish campaigns and the brutal put down of the last uprisings, Charles finally cemented his rule, and in 1654 he looked out from the windows of the palace on his empire, only for his heart to finally give out after years of campaigning. Charles I was dead and his son would now inherit a destroyed Kingdom.

Coronated Charles II, the new King would see the unrestricted implementation of “Thorough”, a policy drafted by his father’s advisors, chiefly Stafford, to centralize royal power for the establishment of Absolute Monarchy. The first acts his Royal government and parliament would pass were the Clarendon Codes, a series of laws named after one of the king’s chief advisors, which would in effect ban nonconformists and non-Anglican, along with standardizing the Church of England as the dominant religion throughout the three Kingdoms, although mostly England and Scotland. These would see Puritans and other non-Anglicans flee England for the colonies, joining those Roundheads who had gone into exile there as well, in an event known as the Great Ejection. Charles would also implement the Fairfax Reforms, a series of reforms championed by Thomas Fairfax to create a professional core similar to the New Model Army although restricted in order to keep it under monarchist control, along with the adoption of parliamentarian naval doctrine and tactics which would see the Royal navy be reformed into a more effective fighting force.

The new King would rule with absolute power, with a parliament of yes men rubber-stamping anything he asked for. Charles would see a great expansion in colonial efforts including plantations in Ireland and the American colonies which, while full of Puritans and now former roundheads, and by and large stayed loyal, earning the most loyal, Virginia, the title of the Old Dominion. However, it would not be all sunshine and rainbows, as in 1665 Charles would need to oversee his nation as it went through the Great Plague of London, the last major outbreak of the disease, and in 1666 London would be hit again, this time with the Great Fire decimating much of the urban city.

1668 would see the acquisition of Bombay by the British East India Company. It’s worth mentioning them briefly; the Honorable East India Company has acted as a nation unto itself with the sole purpose of trade and colonization in the East ever since its establishment. Utilizing colonial ports established in West Africa and the growing Cape Colony, first established by the HEIC and then nationalized by James I, the company came into the Indian ocean and soon set up in Java, where it would make deals and fight conflicts to gain ports and allies in order to control the islands valuable spices. These spices would then be sold in India, ruled by the Mughals. Bombay would be the first port acquired by the British, and to support its growth Charles II granted it sweeping powers such as to raise troops and taxes, make peace and war, and others in order to allow it to operate.

While parliament was filled with Royalist supporters, it was also filled with protestants, who would begin to chafe under the Catholic friendly Charles II. Of note was the Declaration of Indulgence in 1670 which lifted penal laws placed on Catholics, and also Charles’s alignment with Catholic Iberia. Charles would recant this Declaration soon after, bowing to parliament which passed the Test Act, which placed restrictions on Catholics being able to be civil servants and other penalties. Parliament had been willing to fund the King’s projects and allow for his acts, but finally, it had broken from him on religion; Charles favored the High Church like his father which drew accusations of Papal influence, while the protestant royalists in parliament were not happy with such accused influence.

Rumors of a papal plot to overthrow Charles ran rampant through London, and soon enough ire would fall on one of Charles’s ministers; Lord Danby, who had been a part of Charles’s effort to negotiate non-aggression with Catholic France. To avoid having his minister be tried and possibly executed, Charles dissolved parliament in August of 1679. This wouldn’t last long, however, and he’d be forced to recall it and have Danby face trial, leading to his exile to the colonies. These troubles would be overshadowed by the biggest showdown between Charles and parliament over Charles’s brother, James. Charles was childless, and so if he died the crown would pass to James, who was a Catholic. James had earned popularity after taking part in the effort to fight the Great Fire, and even more so when an attempted assassination was foiled in 1682. However, he was still a Catholic, which was not popular with the largely protestant and anti-papist gentry and nobles. A divide formed over the introduction of the Exclusion Act, which aimed to exclude James from succession; its supporters were called Whigs in reference to a group of radical Scottish parliamentarians, and its opponents were called Tories referencing a group of Irish Catholics. Whigs formed an opposition to the King, while the Tories supported him and his attempts at Absolute Monarchy. The exclusion bill would not see a vote as Charles dissolved parliament, and would begin a few years long personal rule after he attempted to form another parliament only to see the Whigs fill it, necessitating him to dissolve it again. A string of acquittals towards those accused of involvement in papal plots would show growing support for Charles and growing opposition to the exclusion bill, allowing Charles to push support for Tories in the civil service and judiciary. Support would grow again after the Rye House Plot of 1683 would see a failed protestant assassination, leading to the prosecution and execution or exile of many leading Whigs. With support at an all-time high, Charles would solidify control by replacing judges and sheriffs at will and packing juries to achieve convictions favorable to him. He also disenfranchised many Whigs to achieve electoral victories for the Tories in municipal elections.

Monmouth's Rebellion and the reign of James II
Charles would suffer a sudden apoplectic fit on the morning of February 2nd, 1685. He would be dead shortly after. With the country firmly in the hands of Tory politicians, James would ascend to the throne of the three kingdoms as James II of England and James VII of Scotland. James would call a parliament, known as the Loyal Parliament, which was largely packed with Tories thanks to the before-mentioned disenfranchisement campaign. James mostly kept Charles’s old ministers and officers, relying on them and continuing their policy of Throughout. All was not roses, however, as soon after his coronation James would face his first test, as his nephew, the Duke of Monmouth would raise an army hellbent on dethroning the Catholic King.

Monmouth was joined by the Earl of Argyll who raised a rebellion in Scotland; the rebellion was primarily based on religious and political differences, as Monmouth declared himself the rightful King and was supported by many Whigs who opposed the Stuart's policy of absolute monarchy and James’s catholicism. James would raise an army thanks to the generous funding provided by the Loyal Parliament and would crush the Scottish uprising, capturing Argyll, in June of 1685. Monmouth would see a similar fate at the Battle of Sedgemoor where his forces were routed and himself captured, leading to the Bloody Assizes; a series of trials where Monmouth and Argyll were put to death and over three hundred other rebellion leaders and Whigs were sent into indentured servitude in the Suriname colonies of America.

After the rebellion, James sought security by incorporating the troops he raised for the Monmouth Rebellion into the standing Royal Army. This, along with James’s use of Catholic officers in the army, caused outrage among Whigs, while the conduct of the often rowdy soldiers in towns alienated many. When parliament objected to James’s use of Catholic officers in defiance of the Test Act, James dissolved Parliament. James then began to surround his court with men dubbed “papists” by the public, even receiving the first envoy of the Papacy itself since the reign of Mary I. While this alienated many Anglicans, even tory ones, James’s powerful standing army and the utter control of the courts by James’s appointments meant there was little power to stop him as he entered his personal rule. In May of 1686, James would utilize a court packed with his supporters to rule that he had the power to nullify acts of parliament, and so overturned many of the penal laws against Catholics. Between 1687 and 1688 the King went on a speaking tour of the nation, driving support for his reforms throughout the nation, including new reforms granting tolerance to Scottish Presbyterians, who had become a minority in a new Anglican dominated Scottish Kirk.

Alongside his speaking tour, James instituted a new round of purges and disenfranchisement which saw the Dissenters; Whigs, and Tories alike who supported the Test Act and opposed James’s religious tolerance; removed from offices and purged from Parliament, along with the appointment of new Lord-Lieutenants in the counties and other municipal positions. After this, James issued writs of elections calling for a new parliament, which was seated in May of 1688 and was packed with Tories, most of whom were Baptists, Presbyterians, and Quakers. In that same year, eleven Anglican lords formed a parliament of their own, which voted to declare the King’s Parliament null, nominating Lord Danby to lead their forces. Militias on both sides were raised, and within a month England was plunged into another civil war.

Many Tories of Anglican belief, or generally just opposed to James’s policies, joined the new Parliamentarians. Also joining the rebellion were the Agitators; and it is now that we shall take a detour to explain them. When the New Model Army was formed, its members became a group of conscripted, mostly puritan, men from all across England, now brought together. The rank and file became a hotbed for radical ideas, and the representatives of these men were called the Agitators. After the defection of Fairfax, Ireton rose to power and he empowered the Agitators, turning the Army into a radical force of Republicans. When they were defeated, these men didn’t disappear; while their officers fled to America, they were pardoned and returned to their homes, where they kept their arms and their radical ideas. Throughout the reign of Charles II and James II, these Agitators worked in the shadows, the most radical of the radicals, more radical than even the Whigs. Influenced by groups such as the Levelers who sought full political enfranchisement of the citizenry, the Agitators formed Green Ribbon clubs where they discussed and planned. With the rising of a new Parliamentarian force, the Agitators raised their own militias and went out to fight for parliament, even if parliament didn’t want them.

James met the rebels in June of 1688, resulting in a victory for his larger and more professional army. However, James did not capitalize on his victory, as despite his numbers much of the professional officer corps and troops had defected and he wished to sit and build up his forces before moving. This allowed parliament's forces to regroup in the north, although this would come shortly as disagreements led to all-out war between parliament and the Agitators in 1689, soon to be joined by the landing of Irish forces loyal to James in 1690. With his main opposition fighting amongst themselves, James fought multiple battles across a campaign cutting a bloody path north until he retook Nottingham in March of 1690. Now linked up with his Irish forces, James launched a final bloody fight stomping out the rebellion, with the last pockets falling in 1692.

Second reconstruction and the Jacobite Golden Age
The King would be merciful to those lords who decided to pledge allegiance to him once more but gave only hellfire to the Agitators captured, ordering hundreds to death or exile. A second civil war, a second bloody purge, and a second Stuart King upholding his absolute god-given right to rule. Nine years later, just short of a decade, he was dead. A brain hemorrhage killed the Catholic King; he left behind a Britain utterly transformed from the one his ancestor, James I, knew. Succession passed officially to the thirteen-year-old James III, although his sister Mary ruled as regent until her death in 1704. Mary was a protestant, and so became favorable to the Anglican Tories. Her pressuring resulted in James officially converting to Anglicanism, and so his full rule in 1706 was marked with cheers from a now united Tory party.

James III began his reign mostly relying on his ministers. While there was some push for it, he refused to undo the reforms of his father, although he did not push any new ones, instead toeing the line between Anglicanism and tolerant reform, as he was a closet Catholic. James’s reign would be focused greatly on trade and the colonies, as the North American colonies, most established under his father and grandfather's rule, flourished, with booming populations and rich trades. The triangular trade emerged where slaves from British colonies on the west African coast would be transported to British Suriname to work the extremely valuable sugar plantations. This sugar would then go either back to Britain or to North America where it was used in alcohol production. America also sent back to Europe many raw goods such as tobacco, indigo, wood, and grain, while Britain sent to America manufactured goods like linens and guns. The whole trade became even more profitable with the Mughal Rebellions of the 1710s, where instability in that Indian Empire allowed for the HEIC to expand its holdings around Bombay and acquire the port of Puducherry. Their holdings in Java had also expanded, to the point where most of the island was either under direct company control or company allies. This meant that the British became the largest European power in the Indian Ocean trade and the ever-important spice trade which exploded in profitability over the emerging 18th century.

This period, known as the Jacobite Golden Age, became an era of extreme growth in the British economy, the further centralization of control and unity among the three kingdoms, and general peace in the Empire. It was also an era of progress, both in technology as the Royal navy adopted new techniques and weapons to stay ahead in the age of sail, and in policy as the Bank of England was formed by royal charter in 1708. The bank is of particular note not only for the fact that it was a private institution backed by the crown which allowed for the financing of the expansion of the Empire but also the fact that it was a Whig institution. In fact, British politics had evolved to the point that being a Whig wasn’t a sign of radicalism and opposition to the king, but a new type of ideology; Liberalism and Capitalism. Ideals of the burgeoning enlightenment such as toleration but more importantly free trade became the defining ideology of these “New Whigs”, while the Tories became a party of those dedicated to protectionism; their disagreements became primarily economic, as both sides had their radicals weeded out by the Second Civil War. James tended to play the two sides off each other, although leaned Whig due to their tolerant stance and his own support for the expansion of trade.

That’s not to say there was no opposition, after all in 1712 a plot to assassinate the King was uncovered and its ringleader executed, but these types of things were common, and there was no sizable uprising or political opposition to the monarch on the basis of his right to rule. The plot, however, is notable for the fact that the ringleader went to the beheading block wearing a green ribbon. Despite their defeat in the civil war, the Agitators were still alive, just underground, and the growing enlightenment profoundly altered them. They perceived their defeat as having been due to the betrayal of the largely noble rebel parliament, just as the original New Model Army had been betrayed by the noble Fairfax. This, along with a growing movement in support of popular sovereignty and works from enlightenment writers such as John Loche, an Englishmen, turned the agitators towards what they called the “Grand Old Cause”; Universal Suffrage, Republicanism, an end to the nobility, and redistribution of noble lands to peasant farmers. The actions of James and his parliament helped him, as the agitators were soon joined by many of the Old Whigs who abhorred the New Whigs for their cooperation with the King.

Some of the first “Police” organizations would be formed personally by James to combat the Republicans, who formed a complex net of “Regiment” areas, Green Ribbon clubs, and Correspondence Committees to organize, communicate, plan, and share resources. These royal police would be mostly informal organizations, usually hired by courts, who’d root out these organizations and often would investigate political figures to ensure they didn’t have Republican leanings.

1715 would see the passage of the Acts of Union, which combined England, Scotland, and Ireland into one nation; the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It also abolished the Scottish and Irish parliaments and created one Parliament of Great Britain and Ireland, although other institutions and common law continued to stay separate. While there was no major armed uprising, there was discontent in the two, although the act mainly affected the Scottish gentry and New English in Ireland, both of whom now had seats in the Parliament of Great Britain.

While there was peace at home, James would often be involved in the wars of Europe, supporting various sides ranging from Catholics to Protestants, mostly just attempting to keep the balance. This would be an issue when the Rebellion of 1745 broke out in northern England; it was the work of the Agitators, who sought to overthrow the monarch and establish a Republic. They marched across the fields singing songs of Cromwell and Ireton, only to be crushed by a force of militia led by Charles Edward, the King’s son. While the fight crushed the only major rebellion against James’s rule, Charles’s actions did him a considerable disservice and turned the Rebels of ‘45 into martyrs.

These many wars, including the Seven Years War which saw Britain gain full control of Canada and what was upper Louisiana, now the Western territories, would be costly. While the Empire was rich off its trade, taxation felt like a burden to many making this revenue. No more so was this hated than in British North America, where the colonists hated the fact that Catholic Ireland had representation in parliament but they didn’t. These tensions erupted into outright protests during the 1760s after British authorities would crackdown on smuggling and tax evasion. In 1766, King James would pass away, leaving his crown to his some Charles, now Charles III; the Butcher of 45.

Caroline Era
His rule, known as the Caroline Era, would be remembered for the escalation of the American conflict; in 1770 a group of British soldiers labeled Red Coats by the Americans, fired on a protest. This, along with the proclamation that they’d be tried in England, not America, stoked outrage. In 1773, rebels in Boston seized ships of the HEIC and dumped their stores of tea into the harbor; in response, Charles pushed through punitive acts known as the Intolerable Acts in America. The Americans formed a continental congress, and soon fighting would break out, leading to the Americans declaring independence in 1776. The war became of considerable concern for Charles, as he feared a successful American rebellion might spread to the profitable Suriname colonies, and possibly even back home.

After years of conflict, major successes by the Americans combined with the entrance of France and Iberia into the war would see Britain seek peace in the Treaty of Versailles in 1783, recognizing the American Republic and ceding it the western territories, although Canada had stayed loyal thanks to the presence of the Royal Navy. The defeat at the hands of not only Britain's long time enemies of France and Iberia but also the upstart American rebels humiliated the Stuart monarchy and began to incite the people who had lived so long under its absolute control. The monarchs absolute control had been a fact for decades now, and one that was very unpopular, even to the royalist tories in parliament; but the Second Civil War had seen to it that rebellion was seen as impossible and so it was deemed by many prefer to simply deal with it and work within the system. It helped that the large growth in the economy over the 18th century meant that many cared little for what the King did as long as they stayed well fed and the gentry stayed well paid. Now, not only had the Americans proved rebellion possible, but the loss of the colonies and the war with France had caused a major depression in the economy, which was slowly recovering.

The United Kingdom would further be destabilized by the death of Charles III in 1788, struck down by a stroke. The king has died heirless, and so the crown would pass to an extremely controversial inheritor; Henry Stuart, otherwise known as the Cardinal-Duke of York. Henry, now Henry IX of England, was a devout Catholic, and had been made a Cardinal in 1747 by the Pope. His ascension to the throne sparked massive riots; some, like the Gordon Riots were fueled by discontent over the loss of the American War and poor living conditions due to the depression, while others were fueled by anti-papist sentiment within the Anglican population. The new King was extremely unpopular, and to make matters worse he barely even wanted to be a King, having dedicated his life to his faith. He would be almost wholly absent from the running of the country, leaving it entirely in the hands of his brother's ministers, who themselves were unpopular due to being blamed for losing the American revolution.

Glorious Revolution
This unusual intersection of several unfortunate events would lead to many Radicals and Republicans winning municipal and even parliamentary elections during the 1790 elections. While they would boycott parliament, refusing to take their seats, those in the municipalities would soon take over and begin to undermine royal control, taking control of the local militias and administration. While it was not rebellion yet, these actions weakened the power of the monarchy, although the absent king Henry acted only in limited ways against this.

Despite their wave of radicalism, revolution wouldn’t begin in England, but instead in Ireland; a nation in its own right just as Scotland, but which had less independence than some colonies and which was ruled by a clique of Anglo-Protestants. During the American War, the Irish had formed the Irish Volunteers, and this armed force successfully pressured Henry to form an Irish Parliament. However, when the British Parliament refused to pass a 1793 law lifting many restrictions on Irish Catholics, the parliament became controlled by the largely Catholic and Whig dominated Irish Patriot Party. While initially conciliatory like the British Whigs, the Patriots would see an internal shift towards American style Patriotism, and in 1794 would launch an armed insurrection; the Irish Rebellion, led mostly by the Patriots and the Liberal-Protestant United Irish Society. The Irish Rebellion would spark the Society of the United Scotsmen, a liberal and presbyterian organization of Scots, to also rise up in rebellion. Finally, a few months after the Scots, the English would rise up.

The press labeled the English rebels as Jacobins, after the French political club. They called themselves the Republicans of the Grand Republican Party; they were the outcome of a century of activism and organizing by the agitators and green ribbon clubs combined with a newly radicalized populace inspired by enlightenment ideals and the American revolution. Led by men such as Charles James Fox, William Godwin, and John Wilkes, the Republicans sought one clear goal; the overthrow of the British Monarchy. They would also not repeat the mistakes of the Second Civil War and would unite with the Irish Patriots and United Scotsmen, and declared the New Whigs enemies. A new Republican parliament, composed only of a House of Commons, would be formed in London shortly after it was secured by radical militias, its members being those who previously boycotted after the elections. Those areas who had seen republicans and radicals elected now pledged loyalty to this new parliament, and to the Republic of England which was proclaimed in June of 1794.

While they lacked a professional officer corps, which Henry and his Royal army had in abundance, they had large numbers in the form of militias raised from the Regiment system, soon joined by mass defections of units from said Royal Army. With their numbers, they soon found battle with the smaller but more professional Royalist Army, seeing a mixed result of defeats and victories. Within time, the battle lines were set with much of south England, including London, under Republican control while Royalists held the north. In Scotland, the United Scots would retreat into Highlands where they’d fight a protracted resistance, and in Ireland, the Patriots and United Irishmen would trade blows with Royalist forces in Dublin and Ulster. Winds of change would come with the help of American patriots who’d come to Britain on their own, despite the disapproval of the American Republic which worried about the British Republican’s radicalism. Men like Thomas Paine joined the ranks of the new Republican Parliament, Thomas Jefferson counseled leadership in his role as Ambassador, and many more radical American commanders helped implement reforms in the Republican forces, creating the New Army which formed a core of professional conscripts.

New forces would see successes on the battlefield. By 1795 Cornwall and Wales were taken from Henry’s control, and in 1796 the United Scots took Edinburgh. Later that year, the Battle of Nottingham would see a Royalist army destroyed and the King himself captured, making the end of the official war and ushering in a sweeping campaign to mop up remaining Royalist pockets, as many nobles fought to the bitter end in an attempt to save their own titles and wealth. The King would be imprisoned in the Tower of London before being put before a tribunal for trial, where he would, surprisingly, be defended by Thomas Paine. Paine, who hated the monarchy, stood before the tribunal for the sole purpose of sparing the King’s life, and his arguments swayed opinion leading to a sentence of exile from Britain for the royal family.
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Left-wing Utopia

Postby The Traansval » Fri Sep 18, 2020 1:09 am

History of Britain: Republican Period


Formation of the United Republic
With the defeat of the Royalists and exile of the Stuarts, came the urgent political negotiations of unification. What had been the United Kingdom was now three different political entities; the Republics of Scotland, Ireland, and England. While all three had pressure to reunify, the new independence of Scotland and Ireland led to complications and the need for compromise. Leadership from all three signs would agree to the London Charter in March of 1797, which officially proclaimed the United Republic of Great Britain and Ireland. The charter created a delicate balance where England, Scotland, and Ireland would each be recognized as sovereign Republics with their own Presidents, Parliaments, and Constitutions, which would be united by and answer to a Parliament of Great Britain and Ireland, which would be composed of popularly elected MPs from all three nations. In drafting the charter, the negotiators would rely heavily on the American model of regional representation, creating electoral districts based on population which MPs would represent. Elections would shortly after be held with the British parliament finally being seated in February of 1798.

Its first acts would be the two fundamental laws of the United Republic; the Instruments of Government and the Bill of Rights. The instruments provided the foundation for the authority of parliament along with the creation of the Council of State, which occupied the role the monarch once did; while the Bill of Rights established many fundamental and inalienable rights held by the Republics and by the people, notable inclusions being freedom of religion, speech, assembly, certain protections for those accused of crimes, and generally many rights primarily based on the American bill. A notable addition would be Article VIII, mandating that every free Adult Male citizen would be enfranchised, allowing the urban and poor to vote for the first time.

While the King’s life had been spared, the Republicans were not merciful. All noble titles were abolished and those who did not renounce them or who would not pledge loyalty to the Republic were exiled or barred from office. Noble lands were confiscated and handed over to local municipalities; a policy influenced by the growing faction of Diggers; who redistributed it to local farmers. Many royal corporations were broken up or nationalized, including the West African and East Indies Companies, placing their territories, assets, and soldiers under the direct control of parliament. Parliament also passed many laws to replace those created under the monarchy, along with the lifting of many royal laws like the Test Act.

The 1798 elections had seen the Grand Republic Party, or just Republican party, sweep the elections, as had been predicted due to the immense popularity of the revolution and the enfranchisement of the urban and the poor. However, they were not uncontested, as those nobles and gentry who renounced their titles and pledged allegiance to the Republic continued to operate, leading to a sizable minority of seats going to Whigs and Tories. The political distinctions between the two had largely eroded away, and so in a bid to provide a meaningful opposition to the Republicans they two would merge to form the Conservative Party.

The Republicans were not totally united either, and primarily had three major factions; the Radical Whigs were a holdover of the Old Whigs along with defectors from the new Whigs, they supported the revolution and liberalism but opposed more radical propositions such as land redistribution; the Democrats were a group primarily led by Charles James Fox in parliament which formed the bulk of the Republicans, and were mostly modeled on Enlightenment Republicanism, heavily influenced by the writings of Thomas Paine; and finally the Radicals which believe that the revolution had not gone far enough and embraced many extreme views such as those of the Diggers, Jacobins, or early Socialists. Together, these three formed a big tent party, and to unite them all they elected John Wilkes as First Secretary of State, the chairman of the Council of State, and the first leader of Britain not to be a monarch.

Early Republican Era
Wilkes had made his reputation as an advocate of popular sovereignty and universal suffrage, but was also a committed moderate and tended to associate with the Radical Whigs, although he tended to split the middle between them and the Democrats. His first notable action would be to address Parliament after his first year in office had ended, and called for them to vote to approve him for another year; this wasn’t required, the Instruments had stated that the First Secretary and other Secretaries of State would be appointed by parliament until removed or resigned, but Wilkes would set precedent to have parliament re-approve members of the Council every year. Wilkes himself would be in power for eight years.

The administration of Wilkes would see a period of reconstruction and creation in the new Republics and the Union at large. In Ireland, the Irish Patriots would find themselves contested by the new Irish Parliamentary Party, led by Edmund Burke who formed an alliance with the Conservatives; Burke would create a movement known as the Burkists which adopted a liberal trade policy and combined it with conservative values, which would win him the support of Irish Protestants and which would split the British Conservatives into Burkists and Pittites, followers of Robert Pitt, a former Tory who took the Conservatives by storm with his policy of support for Catholics and Non-Anglicans and for Protectionism. The split in the Conservatives would lead to them often having trouble in elections as they fought amongst themselves.

The downfall of Wilkes would come from the left of his party, as the Radicals assailed the Radical Whigs. In March of 1806, mass protests broke out in Nottingham, driven mostly by farmers angered by free trade policies that brought American grain into the country. Local militias would mishandle the whole thing leading to the Nottingham Massacre of twenty-three people as the militia dispersed them by force. The Radicals laid it at the feet of Wilkes, who was soon voted out after the Democrats joined the Radicals. In response, the Radical Whigs walked out and officially split from the Republican Party, now forming the Liberal Party.

The new Radical Parliament, as it was called even though it was still mostly controlled by Democrats, elected a new First Secretary in the form of William Godwin, a noted radical and writer who mostly enacted a policy of acting out the will of parliament, not his own, although he wasn’t shy to act on what he believes in. This would include the involvement of Britain in France’s revolutionary wars, supporting their fellow sister Republic. British troops would be sent to fight against Monarchist forces on the plains of Europe and the islands of America and the Indian Ocean, although most of the fighting by the British during this period would be done by the navy.

However, these wars became unpopular, and the Liberals were able to oust the Republicans in the 1808 elections, bringing in the administration of new First Secretary Benjamin Vaughan, whose experience with the Americans and defense of slavery led to the Liberals being thought of as the “American Party”, as they resembled very closely the politics of Hamilton. This would help Vaughan normalize relations with the Americans, who had been wary of British radicalism. Burkists and moderate Democrats flocked to the Liberal party, causing the Conservative party to become dominated by the Pittites and the Republican Party to see the radicals and democrats merge to the point of barely being different factions. The three-party system has been cemented and would dominate the next century.

Despite Vaughan’s vocal defense of the institution, slavery had become unpopular in Britain, particularly after the passage of the 1802 Bill of Rights. The Republicans and the anti-slavery Whigs managed to pass the 1810 Abolition Act, which outlawed the trade and ownership of slaves in Britain itself, although not in the colonies. Slaves currently in Britain were freed and their owners compensated, at the expense of the British taxpayer, which was rather controversial. Notable reforms of the era would be the full professionalization of the Army and Navy along with restrictions placed on the militias to avoid another massacre.

Vaughan’s ten-year administration would soon set the standard for administration, as he worked tirelessly to turn the Council into a proper cabinet and administration. It's also worth stepping away from these political fights to view the empire, or commonwealth as it was now referred to, as a whole. With the nationalization of the HEIC, Java was expanded along with colonies in Australia and New Zealand, which became prime territory for the export of prisoners to settle these lands. Additionally, British troops fought a long and bloody war with the powerful Mughals, often called the Indian War which would see a large expansion to the Bombay territory and the occupation and annexation of Bengal, along with clauses. British Cape Colony has also expanded from the coast inland, as the government provided free passage for free blacks to the colony, who would move inland to claim land for themselves and avoid discrimination from the native British settlers, soon forming a third social class onto themselves.

Mid-Republican Era and Industrial Revolution
1820 would see the Republicans make gains in the elections, leading to a gridlock in parliament as neither party could form a government. To break the lock, the Liberals formed a coalition with the Conservatives, electing First Secretary William Wyndham, a Pittite. The period would be notable for the appointment of Robert Peel as Secretary of State for the Home, which was concerned with interior security and the militias. Peel would pioneer policing reforms, ultimately leading to the establishment of the Metropolitan Police of London in 1826; the first professional government police force. Peel took great care to make the police a civilian organization, even arming them with clubs rather than pistols, and not hiring detectives or spies. Within the next decade, his “Bobbies” would be copied across the nation in different cities, eventually leading to the establishment of the British Constabulary, a national police force whose duty was to provide policing in rural and municipal areas, which also had individual branches run by the Republics, and departments for colonial cities. The Constabulary would be controversial for some, with many placated by the Police Act of 1828 mandating that policing in metropolitan municipalities could only be done by municipal authorities. Peels popularity due to his police reform and also his adoption of liberal trade policies and Pittite support for Catholics would see him lead a new conservative faction, the Peelites, to victory in the 1830 election, where the conservatives won a plurality; however, the Liberals broke the coalition, and so Peel would become First Secretary of a minority Government.

Peel would see Britain through the beginning of a period of industrialization known as the Industrial Revolution, which would not truly take off until the 1840s and the invention of steam power. However, already now, the population was becoming more urbanized, and more and more workers were in factories and mills rather than workshops or farms. His administration wouldn’t last long, however, as the 1832 Reform Act was passed, which introduced secret ballots, reformed constituencies, and generally introduced reforms to the electoral system, including reducing the period between elections from ten years to five. In 1835, the Republicans, bolstered by urban and worker voters, managed to gain a plurality and formed a coalition government with the Liberals, with William Lovett as First Secretary; it was around this period that the First Secretary began to be referred to as the First Secretary, although to the modern-day its official title is still First Secretary of State. Lovett was a rising member of the Radicals who gained popularity from his membership with the London Workingmen's Association, one of the first organizations dedicated to worker rights.

His administration would see the passage of multiple notable reforms, including heavy restrictions on child labor, vast reforms and revisions to the poor laws, and the passage of the 1836 Abolition Act, which extended the previous Abolition act to Britain’s colonies, ending slavery in the Commonwealth. His administration would also alter colonial policy away from conquest and towards trade, leading to a boom in the Indian Ocean trade, and reforms to colonial practices, with an emphasis on morality and spreading of Christianity, which was mostly pushed by Lovett. After his administration was over many of these would be kept or altered, often as justifications for further colonization and assimilation of natives.

The final act signed into law by Lovett would be the 1840 Salary Act, which would provide members of parliament with a salary, allowing poor men to run for office. Lovett would step down, but his party would win big in the elections and would elect Feargus O'Connor in a controversial move. The first Irishman and Catholic to serve as First Secretary, his election was decried by Liberal and Conservative alike, with some whispering of papist influence.

O’Connor was a radical like Lovett and would bring the full weight of the Irish Patriots in to support the Republicans. O’Connor’s administration would be short and mostly dominated by the question of land. Rising dissatisfaction within the urban working class led O’Connor and a group of mostly digger inspired radicals to propose land reform; namely, a plan to break up the holdings of large landowners and distribute them to the rural and urban poor. His Land Act would pass by a slim majority in 1842, however, it would prove to be unpopular; the landowners didn’t like how their holdings were being taken, and rarely any of the urban poor wanted to move out and leave all behind to work a farm. It would prove popular with the rural citizenry, but that’s about it. In 1843, O’Connor became enraged over a conservative bill to halt the program and assaulted three MPs, leading to his resignation and a caretaker government taking over. The bill would later pass with Liberal support after the Peelites promised not to reverse any of the lands granted before the halting of the program. In 1845, the Liberals would win a plurality and would form a coalition with the Conservatives, electing Charles Grey as First Secretary. Unfortunately, Grey would die a month after being elected, becoming the shortest PM in history. Parliament rushed into session and elected William Lamb as Grey’s replacement.

Lamb formed the moderate glue holding the Liberals and Conservatives together, with his administration being characterized by compromise and digging his heels in. Which was interesting as his administration oversaw the most complete revolution of British society since the overthrow of the monarchy; the Industrial Revolution. The invention of steam power led to factories and trains, and almost overnight London’s skies were filled with the thick black smoke of progress. With such a change, its almost comical that he’s most known for sexual scandals, including accusations of adultery and searing descriptions of his exploits.

Outside of Britain, the era would see the notable Canadian Liberty movement between 1838 and 1847. Primarily led by Canadian liberals and Quebecois supporters, Canadians would campaign for increased liberties and home rule, eventually leading to the Confederation Act of 1847 which would see the Canadian colonies confederated together as the Republic of Canada. While given the title of Republic, Canada was not considered equal to the home isles, but was given autonomy in certain matters of government, although the Republic was still considered a colony of Britain. This led to the domination of the Canadian liberals in that colony. Similar reorganizations would happen in South Africa where a government was established although still under the Commonwealth and Australia was organized into several colonies. While not a colony, Ireland might as well have been to the Conservatives, who would see their power on that island destroyed over the mishandling of the Irish Potato Famine by local protestant conservatives, with disaster only being avoided by the intervention of the Liberal national government and American grain imports. In terms of foreign affairs, the British had mostly been at peace since the end of the revolutionary wars in Europe, with only minor fighting at sea or against colonial natives. Good relations were maintained with France, who was viewed as Britain's sister republic but all but the most die hard Conservative, and with the Americans. The moderation, in comparison to others, of the British allowed it to avoid outright hostility from the reactionaries such as Iberia.

The era would also see the rise of trade unionism, as industrial workers began to form associations and groups to negotiate for better conditions and pay. British courts would overrule previous common law declaring these illegal in 1848, leading to a drastic increase in these organizations. Poor working conditions would become a major theme in the radical press, which looked like an impeachment of the Liberal and Conservative dominated parliament and the First Secretary. The Republic would also welcome with open arms radical thinkers from Europe such as Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, the latter of which would publish a report on the working conditions of workers in England. Engel’s work helped motivate the growing labor movement, and the Unionists as they were called began to find a home within the radical left of the Republican party.

After a particularly sordid controversy came to light about Lamb’s affair with another MPs wife, the PM resigned in 1848, halfway through his term. William Ewart Gladstone, a former Peelite turned Liberal, would become First Secretary, and Gladstone would attempt to improve the popular view of the Liberals through the passage of popular reforms, including a ban on the use of children in mines and a program to provide compensation to injured workers unable to work. Both of these would be opposed by the Conservatives, leading to a break in the coalition. Gladstone quickly was forced to form a coalition with the Republicans to avoid a minority government, allowing him to pass both reforms in 1849, right before the election. Liberals would keep their position, but the Republicans would make gains, shrinking the Conservatives. Gladstone would be elected for an unheard of second session, although considering how his first was only two years it was easier than one might think.

Gladstone's full period would see Cape Colony incorporated as the South African Republic in 1852 along the same lines as Canada. It would also see serious consideration paid to Africa west africa as the British commonwealth sought new resources, expanding their holdings there by colonizing the gold coast and others. Gladstone would also see considerable pressure from the left and the Republicans, particularly after the founding of the Trade Union Congress in 1855. The Congress was founded as a forum and Federation of the major unions in Britain, and would become the heart of labor activism. This pressure would lead to the Municipalities Act of 1855 which reorganized the many local governments and divisions to ensure better administration and eliminated many “empty” boroughs.

Gladstone's popularity, he was often known as the “People’s Minister”, would see him be re-elected after the 1855 elections in which the Conservatives managed to make some slight gains, and re-approved again after the 1860 elections His last administration would be infamous for its America Policy. Many Republicans had supported the United States of America for decades, as they were a fellow Republic. Many Conservatives and now Liberals favored the southern domain, as it was a key source of originally tobacco and now cotton; more than a 1/3rd of Britain's cotton was being provided by the south. This made it a favorite of the business elites, which was helped but the south's ardent Protestantism. The south was, however, unpopular with the populace, and when the press leaked over a years worth of correspondence between Gladstone’s Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and southern diplomats, London devolved into protests and even riots.

Age of Reform
Gladstone’s America policy would secure his and his party's downfall, as the 1865 elections would see the Republicans dominate, gaining an outright majority and electing Charles Dilke as First Secretary. Dilke was a part of the growing Unionist movement; he was supported by the Trade Union Congress and ran on a platform of improving workers rights and conditions. Dilke and his Unionists were becoming an increasingly dominant wing of the party, allying themselves with the reform minded and sympathetic Democrats. Outflanking Dilke and his Unionists was the growing Social Democrats, a group primarily influenced by a growing Socialist ideology that had caught flame with the publication of Karl Marx’s Capital, a work that expanded one Engel’s book. This move left by the Republicans and Dilke’s administration would usher in a period known as the Age of Reform.

The cornerstone of Dilke’s administration would be the passage and implementation of the Schools Act of 1866, which created programs dedicated to the establishment of government run schools across the country to provide free education to Britain’s poor, ranging from primary schools to technical colleges. Dilke also used his position as First Secretary to insert himself in Labor issues, often offering to mediate them himself although these offers were rarely accepted by all; instead, he’d give speeches supporting one side, more often than not the Union, attempting to sway public opinion. This endeared him to the Unionists, but angered the Liberals and in 1868 they’d break the coalition, forcing Dilke to lead a minority government for the rest of Parliament’s session. He’d introduce many forward thinking reform bills, mostly related to work conditions, but these would all be shot down by the Liberals and Conservatives.

1870 would see the Republicans maintain their plurality in the face of creeping gains from the opposition, but a coalition between the Liberals and Conservatives would see the Republicans become the opposition. Dilke himself would be the subject of a massive divorce scandal called the Crawford Affair, leading to a bit of a mess in the party.

The Liberal-Conservatives would elect a Conservation, Edward Stanley, as First Secretary, who was the current party leader for them. Stanley had pushed the Conservatives towards a more militant stance with firebrand speeches about how the Navy was falling behind, leading to the Cardwell Reforms done by Liberal Edward Cardwell, Stanley’s Secretary of State for War. Cardwell’s reforms saw the centralization of the military bureaucracy under his War Office, abolished flogging, reduced periods of service for volunteers to seven years and created reserve formations for the army and navy which recruits would spend an additional five years in after finishing regular service, created the Generals Staff under the War Office for planning and to advise the Secretary and Grand Field Marshal, removed troops from Canada and South Africa in peacetime, abolished bounty money for recruit instead setting pay as a salary plus pension, outlawed the sale of officer commissars, placed militias under the control of the War Office instead of local counties and introduced reforms to professionalize them, and created the locationzation program by which England, Scotland, and Ireland were divided into Regiment Districts based on population which would each provide a regiment of two line battalions, one of which would provide foreign service and one would stay home for training during peacetime, and two militia battalions. Stanley’s administration would also see the passage of the 1872 Two Powers Act, which mandated the navy to maintain fleet tonnage equal to the combined tonnage of the two largest national navies behind Britain.

This military build up and reform would suit the Commonwealth well, as British troops would be sent all over the British domains. Most serious fighting would be seen in Java and Africa, as the British expanded their holdings around the Gambia and would come into conflict with native Africans down south in the Anglo-Zulu War starting in 1871. Early losses in the beginning of the Zulu war due to the outdated nature of the army would help spur support for the Cardwell Reforms, and the British would defeat the Zulus and pacify the region by 1873. In Java, the British faced a massive revolt organized by local muslim leaders, leading to a six year long bloody war that would span both Stanley and his successors terms in office. A final notable conflict would be the occupation of Somaliland in 1873, a strategic area that the British secured in order to access a port on the Red Sea, which was now a very popular shipping route due to the opening of the Suez Canal by the Romans.

Stanley’s reforms and wars would bring great change to the Republican military, but it would also cost the government a lot leading to an expansion in taxes, particularly to pay for the Two Powers Act. Increase in taxation would be the major complaint by many Conservatives, who would publicly split from the party and join the Liberals. Said party would win big in the growing suburban areas gaining them a plurality in the 1875 elections, electing Conservative-turned-Liberal Robert Cecil. Cecil’s policy was one of “splendid isolation”, a complete removal of Britain from foreign affairs and foreign intervention. Cecil sought to look inwards rather than outwards, promoting trade, loosening many regulations, and repealing some work laws, making him popular with the gentry. Cecil also would oversee the Judiciary Act of 1877, which sought to take the vast and inter-tangled web of courts and organize them into four main court systems, one for each Republic plus a special system for the Union as a whole, along with the creation of dedicated Courts of Appeal in each Republic and the creation of the High Court of Justice as a national court based on London which would act as the final court of appeals and which would retain the power of judicial review of Parliament. The act also removed the final judicial powers of Parliament, including the abolition of Bills of Attainder. Overall the bill was a part of Cecil and his Liberal-Conservatives policy of Law and Order, seeking to create an organized system of courts to properly administer justice, while giving some concessions to the Liberals to make sure it passed.

Modern Republican Period
While Cecil was the darling of the Liberal gentry in the suburbs, and the Conservative business elites, his personality and his policy of deregulation made him deeply unpopular. The 1880 elections would see Unions turn out in hordes, not only to vote but also to agitate, protest, and campaign on behalf of the Republicans; one of the most public of these campaigns was the one undertaken by Keir Hardie, head of the Miners Federation, who whipped up Miner support for the Republicans, securing them a plurality. The House of Commons would see a shock as many Liberal MPs would cross the aisle and join the Republicans after Liberal’s party leadership publicly refused a coalition agreement, leading to the first Republican majority in decades.

With their majority, the Republicans elected Thomas Burt as First Secretary; Burt was a Unionist but his politics were rather moderate and appealed to the Democrats and new Progressives, as the Liberals who joined the Republicans were known, allowing the party to be united. Burt’s Parliament would pass a host of labor reforms, chief among them the establishment of special arbitration courts for settling labor disputes along with the passage of legal protections for unions, the first mandatory minimum wage, regulations on working hours and working conditions. One of the more public of these would be the Food and Drink Inspection Act of 1883 which instituted regulations and inspection standards for food produced in Britain. Burt also reimplemented many regulations and programs rolled back under the Cecil and Stanley administrations, including workingmen's compensation which had been ended in effect due to drastic funding cuts.

Burt would retire from politics following the 1885 election where the Progressive-Republican party continued to hold. William Abraham, a notable trade unionist, would be elected First Secretary, however his election would not carry the same unity as Burt’s did, as Abraham won in a narrow internal vote against Keir Hardie. Hardie was also a trade unionist and had been one of the main union campaigners on behalf of the Republicans. He was considered the parliamentary leader for the Social Democrats, who had come to dominate the left of the party. The Progressive liberals had come to form the main bulk of the party, absorbing the Democrats who had long been defunct as a distinct political group. Unionist used to be a term to describe a wing of the party, but by now Unions were supported at large, and the split had now come between what type of Unionism; Progressive Unionism which was championed by Abraham whereby workers would gain rights through political action and arbitration, or the Socialist and Marxist ideas of direct action championed by John Burns, who was a Socialist and MP, and James Connolly, a Marxist. While Hardie wasn’t a Socialist, he had been supported by the Social Democrats and his loss to Abraham was seen as a loss for the “cause”.

Many leading figures would begin to agitate for a “working class party”, one formed by and for workers. Between 1885 and 1888 there would be a back and forth as the mainline Republicans played tug of war with many Social Democratic agitators. This would lead up to the Manchester Convention where the Social Democratic Labour Party or SDLP would be formed, leading to many more left-unionists defecting from the Republican party. These defections would form the Socialist wing under Burns while the Irishman James Connolly would form the Marxist wing, although his leadership was often challenged by the “National Socialist” caucus under Henry Hyndman, although Hyndman was in the clear minority. Connolly would be elected party leader during the Convention and would steer the party towards a policy of Industrial Unionism and organizing. Keir Hardie would notably oppose the Labour party and would rally the progressive unionists.

This mess of parties; the Conservatives, the Liberals, the Progressive-Republicans, and now the Social Democratic Labourites (or just Labourites), would make the 1890 election particularly messy. Connolly would actually be mostly absent from political campaigning as he wanted to promote George Lansbury as Labour's candidate for PM, which might be why Labour underperformed, earning the same amount of seats as the Conservatives. The Republicans have managed to secure a majority by a coalition with the Liberals, but this coalition is a shaky one as too much reform could break it, driving the Liberals once more to the Conservatives. To avoid this, the Republicans have agreed to a moderate First Secretary, Henry Campbell-Bannerman; his support for Free Trade has made the Liberals happy while his support for improved social programs has gained him the support of his party. Bannerman doesn’t know it, but he’s poised to oversee Britain through not only one of the largest expansions of the Commonwealth, but also through the beginning of the modern era, as Britain approaches the 20th century.
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Tracian Empire
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Father Knows Best State

Postby Tracian Empire » Fri Sep 18, 2020 4:38 am

Remnants of Exilvania wrote:
Full Nation Name: The Triple Monarchy

Tentatively accepted, of course, subject to changes in order to make it sync with the history of its neighbours.

Can't wait to see the Bohemian economy brought down by that standing army
I'm a Romanian, a vampire, an anime enthusiast and a roleplayer.
Hello there! I am Tracian Empire! You can call me Tracian, Thrace, Thracian, Thracr, Thracc or whatever you want. Really.

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Tracian Empire
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Father Knows Best State

Postby Tracian Empire » Fri Sep 18, 2020 5:10 am

The map and the list will be updated later today, and for lurkers - the tentative and flexible one limit for apps is still being applied, if any areas become free they will be announced here in the thread.
I'm a Romanian, a vampire, an anime enthusiast and a roleplayer.
Hello there! I am Tracian Empire! You can call me Tracian, Thrace, Thracian, Thracr, Thracc or whatever you want. Really.

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Oscalantine
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Capitalist Paradise

Postby Oscalantine » Fri Sep 18, 2020 5:17 am

Revlona wrote:Full Nation Name : The Empire of Scandinavia {Skandinaviens imperium}


ACCEPTED.

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The Hindustani State
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Founded: Jun 23, 2019
Iron Fist Consumerists

Postby The Hindustani State » Fri Sep 18, 2020 5:43 am

Sao Nova Europa wrote:
The Hindustani State wrote:Any room for a Hindu uprising in India?


It is up to the OP, but I have to admit that my personal preference is no. In my history I have written that the Mughals were able to put down a number of such uprisings at the 1700s and early 1800s, so now the realm is more or less stabilized for the most part. OOC, I would prefer not to have to face civil war at the start of the RP.

If you really want to play as a Hindu Indian state, I am willing to give up the four or five southernmost Indian provinces (the southern tip), but a) as a state that broke off from the Mughals during the 1807-17 period of unrest in my alternative history, so it isn't active revolt but rather established state, b) I am compensated by annexing Nepal. :)

I am perfectly willing to work with you if you decide on accepting my proposition and glad to have you in the region, but an active uprising would be a big no for me. :)

Instead of the Southern tip, it would make more sense for the Western Ghats and Deccan area, since it’s easier for a rebel force to have done guerrilla warfare in the region

The Marathas used the same tactics when rebelling against the Mughals IRL, which is how they defeated them even with inferior numbers

The Western part of the Indian state of Maharashtra is the territory I’m talking about
The Hindustani State। हिन्दूस्तानी राष्ट्र
Theocratic South Asia ruled on Hindu principles, and having expelled all invader religions
This nation is my IRL political views taken to the extreme

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Sao Nova Europa
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Postby Sao Nova Europa » Fri Sep 18, 2020 5:58 am

I would prefer if you claimed the south instead since I wouldn't want Mughal territory to be put in such a position. You can have the southern territories.

Also, it would have to be an established state instead of an active revolt.
Last edited by Sao Nova Europa on Fri Sep 18, 2020 6:02 am, edited 1 time in total.
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“In war, to keep the upper hand, you have to think two or three moves ahead of the enemy.”
- Char Aznable

"Strategy without tactics is the slowest route to victory. Tactics without strategy is the noise before defeat."
- Sun Tzu

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Oscalantine
Minister
 
Posts: 2724
Founded: Apr 17, 2008
Capitalist Paradise

Postby Oscalantine » Fri Sep 18, 2020 6:49 am

The Hindustani State wrote:Instead of the Southern tip, it would make more sense for the Western Ghats and Deccan area, since it’s easier for a rebel force to have done guerrilla warfare in the region

The Marathas used the same tactics when rebelling against the Mughals IRL, which is how they defeated them even with inferior numbers


hmmm.... this is... concerning, so I'll leave my two cents here as Co-OP:

First of all, as a rule of thumb we don't accept rebellion apps. There are VERY small exception that I have placed beforehand, but that is to discourage such behavior and only allow the creative RPing duo to perchance do a joint-nation RP with us, and not one RPer trying to start a rebellion in a complete stranger.

So I won't list the requirements here... doubt this situation fits anyhow.

I understand that this is ongoing discussion, but I would like to point out that Sao Nova Europa has no obligation to give any territories. If there are disagreements, I would like to state for the record that the OPs would have to side with Europa's reserved lands.

Sao Nova Europa wrote:I would prefer if you claimed the south instead since I wouldn't want Mughal territory to be put in such a position. You can have the southern territories.

Also, it would have to be an established state instead of an active revolt.


Hopefully my above position has clarified this, dude. Unless you agree with it, no rebel application will be accepted. And even then there will be a lot of disadvantages to you if you do accept. You are under no obligation to entertain anyone trying to start a rebellion if you do not wish.

This RP in no iteration has ever accepted a rebel applicant. While we do have a provision for the possibility, no one has passed that hurdle.
Last edited by Oscalantine on Fri Sep 18, 2020 6:52 am, edited 1 time in total.

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Alt Div Admin
Spokesperson
 
Posts: 122
Founded: Dec 15, 2016
Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby Alt Div Admin » Fri Sep 18, 2020 8:37 am

Map and list have been updated

~Thrace

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Tracian Empire
Postmaster of the Fleet
 
Posts: 24471
Founded: Mar 01, 2014
Father Knows Best State

Postby Tracian Empire » Fri Sep 18, 2020 8:38 am

Sao Nova Europa wrote:I would prefer if you claimed the south instead since I wouldn't want Mughal territory to be put in such a position. You can have the southern territories.

Also, it would have to be an established state instead of an active revolt.

Him going for a state that was established in the past because of a revolt in Southern India would indeed be the best compromise at this point in time.
I'm a Romanian, a vampire, an anime enthusiast and a roleplayer.
Hello there! I am Tracian Empire! You can call me Tracian, Thrace, Thracian, Thracr, Thracc or whatever you want. Really.

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The Hindustani State
Diplomat
 
Posts: 772
Founded: Jun 23, 2019
Iron Fist Consumerists

Postby The Hindustani State » Fri Sep 18, 2020 8:41 am

Oscalantine wrote:
The Hindustani State wrote:Instead of the Southern tip, it would make more sense for the Western Ghats and Deccan area, since it’s easier for a rebel force to have done guerrilla warfare in the region

The Marathas used the same tactics when rebelling against the Mughals IRL, which is how they defeated them even with inferior numbers


hmmm.... this is... concerning, so I'll leave my two cents here as Co-OP:

First of all, as a rule of thumb we don't accept rebellion apps. There are VERY small exception that I have placed beforehand, but that is to discourage such behavior and only allow the creative RPing duo to perchance do a joint-nation RP with us, and not one RPer trying to start a rebellion in a complete stranger.

So I won't list the requirements here... doubt this situation fits anyhow.

I understand that this is ongoing discussion, but I would like to point out that Sao Nova Europa has no obligation to give any territories. If there are disagreements, I would like to state for the record that the OPs would have to side with Europa's reserved lands.

Sao Nova Europa wrote:I would prefer if you claimed the south instead since I wouldn't want Mughal territory to be put in such a position. You can have the southern territories.

Also, it would have to be an established state instead of an active revolt.


Hopefully my above position has clarified this, dude. Unless you agree with it, no rebel application will be accepted. And even then there will be a lot of disadvantages to you if you do accept. You are under no obligation to entertain anyone trying to start a rebellion if you do not wish.

This RP in no iteration has ever accepted a rebel applicant. While we do have a provision for the possibility, no one has passed that hurdle.

It’s not a rebel application though
The Hindustani State। हिन्दूस्तानी राष्ट्र
Theocratic South Asia ruled on Hindu principles, and having expelled all invader religions
This nation is my IRL political views taken to the extreme

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Tracian Empire
Postmaster of the Fleet
 
Posts: 24471
Founded: Mar 01, 2014
Father Knows Best State

Postby Tracian Empire » Fri Sep 18, 2020 8:43 am

The Hindustani State wrote:
Oscalantine wrote:
hmmm.... this is... concerning, so I'll leave my two cents here as Co-OP:

First of all, as a rule of thumb we don't accept rebellion apps. There are VERY small exception that I have placed beforehand, but that is to discourage such behavior and only allow the creative RPing duo to perchance do a joint-nation RP with us, and not one RPer trying to start a rebellion in a complete stranger.

So I won't list the requirements here... doubt this situation fits anyhow.

I understand that this is ongoing discussion, but I would like to point out that Sao Nova Europa has no obligation to give any territories. If there are disagreements, I would like to state for the record that the OPs would have to side with Europa's reserved lands.



Hopefully my above position has clarified this, dude. Unless you agree with it, no rebel application will be accepted. And even then there will be a lot of disadvantages to you if you do accept. You are under no obligation to entertain anyone trying to start a rebellion if you do not wish.

This RP in no iteration has ever accepted a rebel applicant. While we do have a provision for the possibility, no one has passed that hurdle.

It’s not a rebel application though

Yes, Oscal was just catching up, he probably missed that you were ready to apply for an established state.

But, like he said - Sao Nova Europa not only reserved the territories before you, but he was also accepted, so we can not in good faith remove anything from him. So his compromise of you getting the southern provinces is the only potential solution I'm afraid.
I'm a Romanian, a vampire, an anime enthusiast and a roleplayer.
Hello there! I am Tracian Empire! You can call me Tracian, Thrace, Thracian, Thracr, Thracc or whatever you want. Really.

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Sao Nova Europa
Diplomat
 
Posts: 923
Founded: Apr 20, 2019
Civil Rights Lovefest

Postby Sao Nova Europa » Fri Sep 18, 2020 8:52 am

As I've said, I am perfectly willing to work with you and have you in the region. My only request is that your territories are on the south. I believe it is a fair compromise. :)
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"I’ve just bitten a snake. Never mind me, I’ve got business to look after."
- Guo Jing ‘The Brave Archer’.

“In war, to keep the upper hand, you have to think two or three moves ahead of the enemy.”
- Char Aznable

"Strategy without tactics is the slowest route to victory. Tactics without strategy is the noise before defeat."
- Sun Tzu

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Kazarogkai
Powerbroker
 
Posts: 7974
Founded: Jan 27, 2012
Moralistic Democracy

Postby Kazarogkai » Sat Sep 19, 2020 12:06 am

[[Please remove all double brackets from the app before posting it, including this one]]
Full Nation Name : The Dumaynayd Commonwealth
Majority/Official Culture : A significant component are deriving from stock present in the British Isles like Welsh, Anglo and Scottish but with significant admixtures from German and to a lesser degree eastern European roots.
Territorial Core :
Image

Territorial Claim :
Image

Capital City : Atlanta(IRL Atlanta,Georgia)
Population : 6.4 million
1775 250,
1800 500,
1825 1000,
1850 2000,
1875 4000,
1890 6400,
1900 8000,(theoretical)

Government Type : Stratocratic Republic
Government Ideology/Policies : Expansionist(All land for the sons of the Commonwealth),Militant, Siege mentality, Patriarchial
Government Focus : Maintaining independence, the liberation of the America's from old world colonialism, the destruction of monarchism, spreading their society and system and ideals from sea to shining sea, and finally but certainly not least fighting the good fight in the name of heaven and are father god almighty.
Head of State : The Grand Committee
Head of Government : Speaker Brutus Lewis Dylan Temple
Government Description :

Majority/State Religion : Baptist(22%)
Reformed Anglicans(20%)
Pentecostal(14%)
Methodist(10%)
Mormons(10%)
Presbyterian(7%)
Evangelical Denominations(6%)
Militant Anabaptist(5%)
Neo-Lollard(3%)
Unitarian Quakers(2%)
Others(1%)
Religious Description : A Diverse mixture of various faiths combined together under one roof. This is the land where the Second Great Awakening held it's greatest sway with religion holding a grip on the minds and hearts of the population into the modern. These tendencies/desires of the religious fanaticism of the population are contrasted though with the need to keep the peace among the population with their varied beliefs. The lack of a truly dominant majority religion means most settle for coexisting together as one. The end result is a nation which both societally and constitutionally accepts the religious pluralism of the public at large and the importance it holds in society at large.

Economic Ideologies : State Capitalist, Georgist, National-Syndicalist
Major Production : small arms, artillery, steel, commercial ship building, textiles, glass, concrete, fish, tropical fruit, timber, livestock, agricultural implements, mining equipment
Economic Description :

Development: Semi-Industrialized
Development Description : Though the elements of Industrialization came into play sometime in the post war period is didn't really hit off properly until the latter part of the 1820s. Compared to most nations it was largely a state based initiative due to the rather weak capitalist class present. The initial focus was a two fold mix of the need for arms to equip the armed forces but also a need to feed and connect the growing population. The end result has been a rather excessively specialized system whose primary focus is centered on supporting the other 2 sectors of the economy the service and agriculture rather than being an independent and principle body of the economy in it's own right. One of the principle manufactured goods for example is agricultural and mining equipment to better allow for greater resource extraction(primary sector), another example is the arms manufacturing used to equip the military(service sector). Hence most of it's industry is categorized as being light rather than of the heavy variety and overall exports principally derive from the agricultural sector with only surplus production from the secondary sector being exported in rather sparing amounts. Still despite all attempts it's still a small and backwards new world nation who in most areas struggles to at best match but in most cases lags behind that of the premier modern economies of Europe and Asia. The poor efficiency of the economy doesn't help. Rather than concentrating their industrial development in optimal areas they spread it around with classic motto "every village a factory, every town a Railway" being the operating principle. While this helps to make sure what little prosperity there is spread across the nation rather evenly this isn't rather conductive to a highly productive system.

Army Description : [[Describe your nation's army in as much detail as you can]]
Army Weakness :
Naval Description : [[Describe your nation's navy in as much detail as you can]]
Naval Weakness :
Further Military Description : [[OPTIONAL]]

National Goals :
- The Destruction of old world colonial presence, most especially that of the Romans who lie nearby
- The expansion of their nation into surrounding regions to gain access to land and resources \
- Gaining military strength relative to their neighbors to secure themselves at home
- Establishing a hegemonic authority over surrounding lands if possible.
National Issues :
- Small size and relatively weak economy compared to their Neighbors.
- While still small they have a growing land hungry population
- Outside of Good soil, Iron, Coal, and a large coastline their lacking in natural resources necessary to sustain a healthy industrial machine
- No allies and few friends on the diplomatic stage.
- Technologically and militarily backwards compared to others.
National Figures of Interest :
- James Oglothorpe, Colony Founder, Military Leader
- Solomon Day, Founding Father, Guardian of Dumaynayd, military officer, pastor
- William Jackson, Colonial Governor, Lawyer
- Amon Clay, Politician, Military Officer
National Ambition/Aspirations : [[OPTIONAL]] [[Not really set objectives, but rather the big picture that your nation is drawing towards]]

History : [[Can be in paragraph or bulletpoint timeline.]]
RP Sample:
https://forum.nationstates.net/viewtopic.php?f=31&t=463498
https://forum.nationstates.net/viewtopic.php?f=31&t=348283&p=25335065&hilit=Cornelius+%22Cannibal%22+Willow#p25335065
https://forum.nationstates.net/viewtopic.php?f=31&t=326874&p=23421024&hilit=Cornelius+White#p23421024
#AltDiv (Do not delete this, it is used to keep track of the apps)
Centrist
Reactionary
Bigot
Conservationist
Communitarian
Georgist
Distributist
Corporatist
Nationalist
Teetotaler
Ancient weaponry
Politics
History in general
books
military
Fighting
Survivalism
Nature
Anthropology
hippys
drugs
criminals
liberals
philosophes(not counting Hobbes)
states rights
anarchist
people who annoy me
robots
1000 12 + 10
1100 18 + 15
1200 24 + 20
1300 24
1400 36 + 10
1500 54 + 20
1600 72 + 30
1700 108 + 40
1800 144 + 50
1900 288 + 60
2000 576 + 80

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Kazarogkai
Powerbroker
 
Posts: 7974
Founded: Jan 27, 2012
Moralistic Democracy

Postby Kazarogkai » Sat Sep 19, 2020 12:07 am

Still working on it will continue to do so tomorrow.
Centrist
Reactionary
Bigot
Conservationist
Communitarian
Georgist
Distributist
Corporatist
Nationalist
Teetotaler
Ancient weaponry
Politics
History in general
books
military
Fighting
Survivalism
Nature
Anthropology
hippys
drugs
criminals
liberals
philosophes(not counting Hobbes)
states rights
anarchist
people who annoy me
robots
1000 12 + 10
1100 18 + 15
1200 24 + 20
1300 24
1400 36 + 10
1500 54 + 20
1600 72 + 30
1700 108 + 40
1800 144 + 50
1900 288 + 60
2000 576 + 80

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Arvenia
Postmaster-General
 
Posts: 10678
Founded: Aug 21, 2014
Father Knows Best State

Postby Arvenia » Sat Sep 19, 2020 2:56 am

This looks very interesting. However, I don't know if I am going to be Brazil, Nepal, Arabia, Ethiopia, Madagascar or some Boer republic (all based on this map).
Last edited by Arvenia on Sat Sep 19, 2020 3:11 am, edited 2 times in total.
Pro: Centrism, Conservatism, Liberalism, Liberal Democracy, Social Democracy, Sweden, USA, UN, Japan, South Korea, Monarchism, Republicanism, Sci-Fi, Animal Rights, Gender Equality, Mecha, Autism, Environmentalism, Secularism, Religion and LGBT Rights

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Tracian Empire
Postmaster of the Fleet
 
Posts: 24471
Founded: Mar 01, 2014
Father Knows Best State

Postby Tracian Empire » Sat Sep 19, 2020 3:17 am

Arvenia wrote:This looks very interesting. However, I don't know if I am going to be Brazil, Nepal, Arabia, Ethiopia, Madagascar or some Boer republic (all based on this map).

All those areas are indeed free for the time being!

Nepal might be occupied if The Hindustani State accepts the compromise proposed by Sao Nova Europa though, and GCCS has expressed interest in a Boer state before.

Arabia is certainly free and will become an even better spot since I'm abandoning Roman control of the Hejaz, it only happened because someone else's app required it in their history. Arabia would play a pretty big role in the future situation in the Middle East, between Persia, Rome, and potential other European powers.

Madagascar could also be very interesting - we had a player interested in a native thassalocracy there, and it might be a little more difficult to explain, but not impossible. The Scramble of Africa will also be an event ICly, but we'll try to even the odds as much as possible to give the native states as fair of a chance as possible.

What is left of Brazil would also be an interesting spot, since the Inca, Germans, and West Romans might each have interests in that area, so you'd have a lot of freedom in regards to possible allies.
I'm a Romanian, a vampire, an anime enthusiast and a roleplayer.
Hello there! I am Tracian Empire! You can call me Tracian, Thrace, Thracian, Thracr, Thracc or whatever you want. Really.

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Arvenia
Postmaster-General
 
Posts: 10678
Founded: Aug 21, 2014
Father Knows Best State

Postby Arvenia » Sat Sep 19, 2020 3:28 am

Tracian Empire wrote:
Arvenia wrote:This looks very interesting. However, I don't know if I am going to be Brazil, Nepal, Arabia, Ethiopia, Madagascar or some Boer republic (all based on this map).

All those areas are indeed free for the time being!

Nepal might be occupied if The Hindustani State accepts the compromise proposed by Sao Nova Europa though, and GCCS has expressed interest in a Boer state before.

Arabia is certainly free and will become an even better spot since I'm abandoning Roman control of the Hejaz, it only happened because someone else's app required it in their history. Arabia would play a pretty big role in the future situation in the Middle East, between Persia, Rome, and potential other European powers.

Madagascar could also be very interesting - we had a player interested in a native thassalocracy there, and it might be a little more difficult to explain, but not impossible. The Scramble of Africa will also be an event ICly, but we'll try to even the odds as much as possible to give the native states as fair of a chance as possible.

What is left of Brazil would also be an interesting spot, since the Inca, Germans, and West Romans might each have interests in that area, so you'd have a lot of freedom in regards to possible allies.

Regarding that, I would drop Nepal and any Boer republic. I would either be Brazil (it's uncertain if it is going to be French, Spanish, Portuguese, English, Dutch or German), Madagascar (who is in control of some Indian islands and some parts of the African mainland) or Arabia (who is either Sunni or Ibadi). Which one is better?
Pro: Centrism, Conservatism, Liberalism, Liberal Democracy, Social Democracy, Sweden, USA, UN, Japan, South Korea, Monarchism, Republicanism, Sci-Fi, Animal Rights, Gender Equality, Mecha, Autism, Environmentalism, Secularism, Religion and LGBT Rights

Anti: Racism, Sexism, Nazism, WMD, Fascism, EU, Capitalism, Socialism, Adolf Hitler, Neo-Nazism, KKK, Benito Mussolini, Joseph Stalin, North Korea, Russia, Iran, Saudi-Arabia, Communism, Ultraconservatism, Ultranationalism, Xenophobia, Homophobia, WBC, Satanism, Mormonism, Anarchy, ISIS, al-Qaeda, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, 969 Movement, Political Correctness, Anti-Autistic Sentiment, Far-Right, Far-Left, Cultural Relativism, Anti-Vaxxers and COVID-19

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Tracian Empire
Postmaster of the Fleet
 
Posts: 24471
Founded: Mar 01, 2014
Father Knows Best State

Postby Tracian Empire » Sat Sep 19, 2020 3:35 am

Arvenia wrote:
Tracian Empire wrote:All those areas are indeed free for the time being!

Nepal might be occupied if The Hindustani State accepts the compromise proposed by Sao Nova Europa though, and GCCS has expressed interest in a Boer state before.

Arabia is certainly free and will become an even better spot since I'm abandoning Roman control of the Hejaz, it only happened because someone else's app required it in their history. Arabia would play a pretty big role in the future situation in the Middle East, between Persia, Rome, and potential other European powers.

Madagascar could also be very interesting - we had a player interested in a native thassalocracy there, and it might be a little more difficult to explain, but not impossible. The Scramble of Africa will also be an event ICly, but we'll try to even the odds as much as possible to give the native states as fair of a chance as possible.

What is left of Brazil would also be an interesting spot, since the Inca, Germans, and West Romans might each have interests in that area, so you'd have a lot of freedom in regards to possible allies.

Regarding that, I would drop Nepal and any Boer republic. I would either be Brazil (it's uncertain if it is going to be French, Spanish, Portuguese, English, Dutch or German), Madagascar (who is in control of some Indian islands and some parts of the African mainland) or Arabia (who is either Sunni or Ibadi). Which one is better?

Well, your own preferences are of course what would matter the most. Madagascar would probably the most difficult to play, due to fierce European competition in the area, but not impossible, since you could hypothetically receive support from Asian nations. Brazil could be anything you want it to be, but playing it would require juggling with the allegiances of the nearby states. Arabia would probably be the easiest to play - it would have its challenges, but you would probably be allied to Persia.

As for what we need the most, well, I'm obviously biased towards Arabia since I'd be your neighbour, but Brazil would give another neighbour to a lot of people too. Madagascar would lack direct neighbours, but it could easily interact with the Asian colonial powers.
I'm a Romanian, a vampire, an anime enthusiast and a roleplayer.
Hello there! I am Tracian Empire! You can call me Tracian, Thrace, Thracian, Thracr, Thracc or whatever you want. Really.

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Remnants of Exilvania
Powerbroker
 
Posts: 9962
Founded: Mar 29, 2015
Iron Fist Consumerists

Postby Remnants of Exilvania » Sat Sep 19, 2020 3:37 am

Arvenia wrote:
Tracian Empire wrote:All those areas are indeed free for the time being!

Nepal might be occupied if The Hindustani State accepts the compromise proposed by Sao Nova Europa though, and GCCS has expressed interest in a Boer state before.

Arabia is certainly free and will become an even better spot since I'm abandoning Roman control of the Hejaz, it only happened because someone else's app required it in their history. Arabia would play a pretty big role in the future situation in the Middle East, between Persia, Rome, and potential other European powers.

Madagascar could also be very interesting - we had a player interested in a native thassalocracy there, and it might be a little more difficult to explain, but not impossible. The Scramble of Africa will also be an event ICly, but we'll try to even the odds as much as possible to give the native states as fair of a chance as possible.

What is left of Brazil would also be an interesting spot, since the Inca, Germans, and West Romans might each have interests in that area, so you'd have a lot of freedom in regards to possible allies.

Regarding that, I would drop Nepal and any Boer republic. I would either be Brazil (it's uncertain if it is going to be French, Spanish, Portuguese, English, Dutch or German), Madagascar (who is in control of some Indian islands and some parts of the African mainland) or Arabia (who is either Sunni or Ibadi). Which one is better?

I think Madagascar or Arabia would give you the most options.

Brazil is missing pretty much all of its best parts and would be at the mercy of the powers around it.
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