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The Kingdom of France [AMW]

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Nova Gaul
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The Kingdom of France [AMW]

Postby Nova Gaul » Mon Jun 06, 2016 11:54 pm

Le royaume de France


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Territories: Kingdom of France, Principality of Corsica, Duchy of Monaco, Independent State of the Congo, Independent State of Cote d’Ivoire
Approximate population: 133 million (60 million French, 73 million Africans)
GDP per capita: 30, 503 (France)
Total GDP: 2.806 Trillion (France)
Capital: Versailles (de facto), Paris (de jure)

Motto: Montjoie Saint Denis!
Anthem: Le Te Deum
Languages: French, Gallo-African, Tribal dialects
Religion: Roman Catholicism
Government: Absolute monarchy {male primogeniture}

Important Kings
843–877 Charles the Bald
987–996 Hugh Capet
1180–1223 Philip II of France
1589–1610 Henry IV (Founder of the Bourbon Dynasty)
1643–1715 Louis XIV (“The Great”)
1774–1792 Louis XVI
(Between the Revolution of 1792 and the Restoration of 1815 was the French Interregnum during which time the French Republic under Philippe Égalité and the French Empire under Napoleon Bonaparte held respective power.)
1815-1830 Louis XVII
1830-1837 Charles X
1837-1851 Charles XI
1851-1876 Louis XVIII
1876-1878 Louis XIX
1878-1891 Charles XII
1891-1915 Louis XX
1915-1919 Louis XXI
1919-1940 Louis Auguste (“The Terrible”)
1940-1972 Louis Auguste II (“The Grand”)

1972-Present: Louis-Auguste III (“The Beloved”)
Issue:
Louis Auguste, fils de France, Dauphin of France
Louis, fils de France, duc d’Anjou
Princess Marie Adélaïde
Princess Victoire
Princess Sophie

First Minister: Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux, comte de Maurepas
Legislature: Estates General [Officially dissembled as of 1919]

Overview

The status of the Kingdom of France in 2016 reflects the centuries’ long struggle of an absolutist, Catholic monarchy adapting with greater and lesser degrees of success to a changing world. As such the country is a mish-mash of the old and the new and of the liberal and the reactionary. There have been three major revolutions in French history, of which only the 1792 Revolution was successful. The revolutions of 1848 and 1919 were each successfully repressed, and with those successive rebellions the more representative institutions of France withered away, replaced by more direct monarchical control. The Revolution of 1919 was particularly sanguine, so much so that the Bastille was rebuilt into a grotesque thirty story concrete block that dominated and dominates still the Paris skyline, that the Estates General was dissembled with many Third Estate representatives arrested, and that at the king’s command Catholic primates in France declared trade unionism ‘a sin of pride.’

In 2014, in the wake of the Gull Flag Revolution, fresh disturbances broke out across France, namely in the metropoles of Paris and Marseille, but the crown’s swift and summary response prevented the ‘July Riots’ from becoming a true revolution. Using modern surveillance techniques and primitive methods of ‘enhanced interrogation’ the crown nipped the revolutionary movement in the bud; and when protests turned into riots the gendarmerie and certain military units responded with deadly force. It is estimated that a thousand rioters were killed and six times as many placed into permanent custody in the Bastille. No official numbers, of course, are available.

It is useful in discussing the ‘July Riots’ of 2014 because they demarcate the point at which the government organs of France became fully subsumed into the hands of the king. In August 2014 King Louis Auguste III employed his prerogative as king and used a lettre de cachet, a ‘letter of the seal’ which could not be appealed and dissembled the judiciary structure itself in France. In place of courts of law King Louis Auguste III created Courts of Intendancy where a single arbiter, nearly always a underprivileged aristocrat eager to demonstrate his fealty to the crown, imposes extra-judicial verdicts the sentences of which are under the jurisdiction of only the king himself. Additionally unofficial security forces in France which had long been operating in cabinets noires were codified by that selfsame lettre de cachet into a proper secret police answerable only to the crown, the Maréchaussée. A police state, for all intents and purposes, had been erected.

Now, all this talk of revolution and repression might lead the reader to the understandable position that France is a totalitarian state under the iron fisted rule of a dictator. But this is in fact hardly the case.

Although some kings, notably Louis Auguste I, prefer to take direct roles in governance most, notably the present king and his father Louis Auguste II, leave rulership of the country to a handful of ministers who owe their positions to birth or talent—most of the time, to both. Given that a Prime Minister would be an oxymoron in an absolute monarchy the Bourbons (at least, most Bourbons) have since the time of Louis XVII relied on ‘First Ministers’: powerful individuals who usually chair several key ministries and have a mandate from the king to govern. Presently the First Minister is Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux, comte de Maurepas. He is a septuagenarian old-hand at politics whose mix of practical diplomacy and ‘divide-and-conquer’ domestic administration (pitting different groups against each other in an intricate fashion) was overruled only once…after the ‘July Riots’…when the king was forced by reactionary elements of the court to ‘pull out all the stops’. It is largely because of this old political sphinx that the current king, one year his junior at 76, earned his titled ‘the Beloved’. Because, despite the fevered protests following the down fall of the Shield’s monarch, the past decades in France had seen a constant rise in living for the high, the middle, and the low; had seen nearly universal enrollment in a perhaps better than adequate government health system; had seen fairly generous pension programs created; had seen the institution of free higher education. Thought, as a note, it is worth mentioning that the Catholic run education system teaches only the hard sciences and French grammar. Liberal arts programs (excluding theology), having always been viewed with suspicion if not hostility, were never instituted and so never had to be cancelled. And in all these decades France has had peace. Not to mention positive, if not amicable, relations with her neighbors.

Of course the secret price of La Belle Époque (as the last two decades of the old millennium and the first decade of the new is known) has been the abject abuse and rapine of the Kingdom’s African colonies. Strip mining, forced relocation of native populations to get at resources, the preplanned addicting of entire populations to third rate narcotics, has been a common story in France’s African ‘Free States’ over the past generation. Stories of such abuses, largely committed by the Royal Africa Company (of which the Bourbons are 51% majority shareholders) are covered up well enough to be sure…but it is a fact that many, too many, Frenchmen (notwithstanding a quiet minority that bubbles up in protest every odd decade) have a good idea of why prices are so cheap and benefits so generous. But faced on the one hand with tangible benefits and on the other by a swift truncheon should they take to the streets, most Frenchmen simply take the benefits and ask no questions.

That said, France in 2016 can be a charming country. In many respects it is a living fairy tale from picturesque country villages to the glittering palaces of the elite. The king and his court are remote from the population, living in a never ending party that indulges itself in a perpetual dance across several sprawling chateaux—depending precisely on the time of year—of which the principal and most notable is the Chateau de Versailles. Since the time of Louis-Auguste III’s great-grandfather the royal family only comes to Paris for Easter Mass at Notre Dame and to the Louvre Palace for His Most Christian Majesty’s annual birthday ball: traditionally held in October to mark the opening of the Court’s fall season. The royal family does not ‘do’ television, and most people see the king mostly on their livre notes. To be sure, many a duc and comte and marquis keeps a fashionable address is Paris…but the beating heart of aristocratic life is with the king and his court.

But this leaves governance in the hands of largely capable ministers, and so life largely carries on fairly well for all subjects of the realm, not merely the great and the good.

French couture, both the elaborate costumes of the Court and more avant-garde productions by Yves Saint Laurent et al. must surely give the world an acme of fashion. Paris remains a city of lights, though the glitter shines in the shadows of the cyclopean Bastille. French cuisine remains superb, and perhaps more innovative than possible in other timelines, given that the Bourbons and the nobility demand ever more elaborate and rich fare to sate their jaded appetites. And, certainly, the French continue to field so damn good football squads.
Last edited by Nova Gaul on Fri Jun 10, 2016 2:36 am, edited 3 times in total.

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Nova Gaul
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Founded: Nov 18, 2005
Ex-Nation

Postby Nova Gaul » Tue Jun 07, 2016 9:21 pm

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The Dauphin and the Dauphine of France attending the Grand Couvert


Government of the Kingdom of France


Governmental Offices

King: Louis Auguste III
Style— "Most high, most potent and most excellent Prince, Louis Auguste, by the Grace of God, King of France, Prince of Corsica, Duke of Monaco, Sovereign Lord of the African Domains, Most Christian Majesty." (Très haut, très puissant et très excellent Prince, Louis Auguste, par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France, Prince de Corsica, Duc de Monaco, Souverain Seigneur des Domaines africains, Roi Très-chrétien)
Dauphin: Louis Auguste, fils de France

First Minister: Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux, comte de Maurepas
Chancellor of France (also called the "garde des sceaux", or "Keeper of the Seals"): Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux, comte de Maurepas
Controller-General of Finances (contrôleur général des finances): Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne, Archbishop of Sens

Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs: Germain Louis Chauvelin, marquis de Grosbois
Secretary of State for War: Louis François, marquis de Monteynard
Secretary of State of the Navy: Louis Charles-Auguste le Tonnelier, baron de Breteuil
Secretary of State of the Maison du Roi (an extremely important post that manages the king's royal entourage and personal military guard, who oversees the clergy, and the affairs of Paris): Louis IX de Bourbon, prince de Condé

Maître des requêtes (‘Master of Requests’; high-level judicial officers of administrative ‘law’ that staff the Courts of Intendancy following the royal lettre de cachet of August, 2014): About 80 in the Kingdom of France as of June 2016.
Ministers of finance: About 6
Ministers of commerce: About 10
Ministers of state: About 10
Treasurers: About 20

President and Chief Executive Officer of the Royal Africa Company(De facto administrator and governor of the Independent states of Congo and Cote d’Ivoire): Clément François de Laverdy
Directeur général of buildings: François Michel le Tellier, marquis de Louvois
Directeur général of fortifications: Nicolas Fouquet, vicomte de Longchamp
Lieutenant General of Police (in charge of both the gendarmerie and the Maréchaussée): Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie
Archbishop of Paris: François de Harlay de Champvallon
Royal confessor: Father de Linière

Governmental Councils

Conseil d'en haut ("High Council", concerning the most important matters of state) – composed of the king, the crown prince (the "dauphin"), the chancellor, the contrôleur général des finances, and the secretary of state in charge of foreign affairs.

Conseil des dépêches ("Council of Messages", concerning notices and administrative reports) – composed of the king, the chancellor, the secretaries of state, the contrôleur général des finances, and other councillors according to the issues discussed.

Conseil royal des finances ("Royal Council of Finances") – composed of the king, the "chef du conseil des finances" (an honorary post), the chancellor, the contrôleur général des finances and two of his councilors, and the intendants of finance.

Conseil privé or Conseil des parties or Conseil d'État ("Privy Council" or "Council of State", concerning the new legal system instituted in 2014) – the largest of the royal councils, composed of the chancellor, the dukes with peerage, the ministers and secretaries of state, the contrôleur général des finances, the 30 councilors of state, the 80 maître des requêtes and the ministers of finance.

In addition to the above administrative institutions, the king is also surrounded by an extensive personal and court retinue (royal family, valet de chambres, guards, honorific officers), regrouped under the name "Maison du Roi".

The Aristocracy

Family Types

French nobility is generally divided into the following classes, presented here is order from the most to least prestigious:

Noblesse d'épée (nobility of the sword), also known as noblesse de race ("Nobility through breeding"): the hereditary gentry and nobility who originally had to swear oaths of fealty and perform military service for the King in exchange for their titles.

Noblesse uterine ("Nobility of the female line"), was for titles that were matrilineal (held through the mother's line) and could be inherited by female heirs; this is found in some families in the former independent territories of Champagne, Lorraine and Brittany.

Noblesse d'extraction ("Nobility of descent"): Nobility of seize-quartiers ("sixteen Quarterings"): having a coat of arms of at least sixteen quarterings (partitions on the field of a composite coat of arms showing each coat of arms the person is entitled to). This means that the person has pure noble or gentle ancestry going back at least four generations (parents [2 "quarterings"], grandparents [4 quarterings], great-grandparents [8 quarterings], and great-great-grandparents [16 quarterings]).

Noblesse de robe (nobility of the robe): person or family made noble by holding certain official charges, like masters of requests, or treasurers.

Noblesse de chancellerie (nobility of the chancery): commoner made noble by holding certain high offices for the king.

Noblesse de cloche ("nobility of the bell") or Noblesse échevinale/Noblesse scabinale ("Nobility of the Aldermen"): person or family made noble by being a mayor (Bourgmestre) or alderman (échevin) or prévôt (Provost, or "municipal functionary").

Noblesse militaire (military nobility): person or family made noble by holding military offices, generally after two or three generations.

Further Distinctions

Nobles sometimes made the following distinctions based on the age of their status:

Noblesse chevaleresque (knightly nobility) or noblesse ancienne ("Old Nobility"): nobility from before the year 1400, who inherited their titles from time immemorial.

Noblesse de lettres (nobility through Letters Patent): person made noble by letters patent from after the year 1400. The noblesse de lettres became, starting in the reign of Louis XVII, a handy method for the court to raise revenues; non-nobles possessing noble fiefs pay a year's worth of revenues from their fiefs to acquire nobility.

Commoners are generally referred to as roturiers. Magistrates and men of law are sometimes called robins.

The acquisition of titles of nobility can be done in one generation or gradually over several generations:

Method 1—Noblesse au premier degré (nobility in the first generation): nobility awarded in the first generation, generally after 20 years of service or by death in one's post.

Method 2—Noblesse graduelle: nobility awarded in the second generation, generally after 20 years of service by both father and son.

Life at Court

The government of France is, as the present king’s predecessor summed up centuries ago, the king. And as the planets orbit the sun so too do the powers of France orbit the monarch.

Obscured from the prying eyes of all media, protected by whole regiments of bodyguards, and separated from the common people by an insurmountable class divide the French monarchy and accompanying aristocracy live in a world for all intents and purposes unchanged by the long centuries. Life at court now is very much the way it was, hour for hour, year for year, fête for fête, three hundred years ago.

But, here is the truth of it.

It is somewhat of a misconception that the king and the royal court are permanently located at their principal residence, the magnificent Château de Versailles. In fact, Versailles is the royal residence only from March until October. November, specifically after the Feast of All Saints, the Court adjourns to the Château de Saint-Cloud. There they indulge in truly prolific amounts of hunting, with the animals being carted in from as far afield as the Congo River. In December the royal court migrates south to the Winter Château in Monaco where they remain until February—thence it is back to Versailles and the cycle resume again.

The only variations to this unyielding routine are when, with great fanfare, the royal family visits Paris on Easter Sunday to celebrate Mass at Notre Dame and on October 15th when they host a ball at the Louvre Palace on the king's state birthday—marking the beginning of the Fall Season of balls, fêtes, and banquets. For the vast majority of the French, with the exception of portraiture on money, this is the only occasion they have to see their sovereign.

His Most Christian Majesty Louis Auguste III follows the exact same schedule his ancestors did, going back down the line to the progenitor of French court life, Louis XIV. A typical day, when the King lodges at Versailles, goes something like this:

The King's mornings

7.30-8 am "Sire, it is time", the first Valet de Chambre awakens the King. The First Levee begins. Doctors, familiars and a few favorites who enjoy the privilege of the Grand Entries follow in succession into the bedchamber of the King. The officers of the Chamber and the Wardrobe then enter for the Grand Levee during which the King is dressed and breakfasts. Only the most important personalities in the kingdom are admitted to observe this ritual. The number of attendants is estimated at around a hundred, all male.

10 am: As they leave the King's apartment, a procession forms in the Hall of Mirrors. Preceded by the Cent Suisse bodyguard and followed by his courtiers, the King crosses the whole breadth of the Hall of Mirrors. This is the moment when the crowd gathered along the passage of the royal cortège is at last able to catch a glimpse of the monarch. Some are even able to speak to him briefly or pass him a written request. The final destination of this procession is the Royal Chapel, where the King sits in the tribune to attend mass, for about thirty minutes.

11 am: Back in his Apartment, the King holds council in his cabinet. On Sundays and Wednesdays is the Council of State, Tuesdays and Saturdays are devoted to the Royal Council of Finances, and finally, on Mondays, Thursdays and Fridays there might be an extra Council of State to replace a Dispatch Council (domestic affairs). Five or six ministers work with the monarch who speaks little, listens much and then makes his decision.

1 pm: It is in the King’s antechamber that the public meals are held, whose sumptuous ritual, Grand Couvert, attracts a large crowd. Grand Couvert is a public ritual, in which the French King and Queen (until she passed several years ago) eat their dinner in public view. Only the royal family can take their places at the table and before them, seated, the duchesses, princesses or high-ranking persons who have the privilege to sit on a stool, then, standing, the other ladies and persons who, due to their rank or with the authorization of the usher, have been allowed to enter.

His afternoons
2 pm: The King gave his orders announcing his intentions for the afternoon in the morning. If he wishes for a promenade, it is in the gardens, either on foot or in a carriage with the ladies. If he chooses to hunt, the favorite sport of all the Bourbons, it takes place in the grounds when the King prefers to shoot, or in the surrounding woodland when he rides to hounds.

6 pm: Presently King Louis Auguste III lets his son the Dauphin preside over the indoor entertainments, like the evenings in the apartments. These might be a masked ball, a session of gambling, or a musical performance. Meanwhile, he signs the many letters prepared by his secretary and then goes to the apartments of the Grand Trianon by carriage where he studies an important dossier aided by one of his four secretaries of State.

The evenings
10 pm: The crowd squeezes into the antechamber of the King's apartments to attend the Grand Public Supper. The King sits at the table, surrounded by members of the royal family. At the end of the meal, the monarch walks through his bedroom and into the salon to salute the ladies of the court. Then he withdraws to his cabinet to converse more freely with his family and a few close acquaintances.

11:30 pm: The retiring, a public ceremonial where the King withdraws to his bedroom, was a shortened version of the Levee.

And throughout all the king’s day, and all the seasons of the year, there is nonstop revelry. The Bourbons have not continued to sit on the throne for centuries by being fools, they know the nobility on which their rule depends and through which their rule is carried out thrives on having a good time.

Fêtes, hosted by the king himself or the Dauphin, are a daily affair. Larger grand balls, masked or otherwise, tend to be the great occasion of the week. And whenever there is free time, in the hundreds of glittering salons that stretch from Versailles to the Winter Château, there is gambling. The French aristocracy have made a fine art of enjoying games of skill and chance. And, one must not forget: debauchery.

There are endless liaisons, affairs of every conceivable type. Balls typically continue on to the traditional closing, sunrise. Sexual favors are traded for political access. And there are drugs! From tried and true vintage champagne to the latest exotic creations the aristocracy goes through their motions in a significant respect high as a kite—it might well explain why people think that the fashions of the 18th Century are more in vogue now than ever. There are drugs to take the aristos up, down, and all around. What history has made redundant is reinvigorated every day anew by better living through chemistry. The king himself on occasion indulges in a potent concoction know as General Lamotte’s Drops, which makes the eyes glaze over and the heart grow fonder. Substances absolutely denied to the laboring classes (who are allowed access only to cannabinoids, high grade though they may be) flow freely through the sparkling world of the elite. Quack ‘doctors’ serve as the peddlers in some cases and designers in other cases of the substances, and their wigged heads and high couture visage belie the fact they are little better than trumped up drug dealers.

And so the magnificent, golden, elated world of the French aristocracy spirals onwards into the future to the tunes of elegant minuets still being written in 2016.

All in all: C’est si bon!
Last edited by Nova Gaul on Wed Jun 08, 2016 12:47 am, edited 1 time in total.

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Nova Gaul
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Ex-Nation

Postby Nova Gaul » Thu Jun 09, 2016 8:21 pm

Armée royale française


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Overview

Having waxed and waned in number throughout its history the French Royal Army—a term than includes the naval and aerial elements of the military—currently fields approximately 365,000 active personnel (inclusive of 123,358 gendarmerie troops and reservists). Additionally in full reserve are 27,680 regular military personnel and 25,000 members of the gendarmerie. This medium size force is reflective the crown’s current mission for the military: to maintain a small but well trained force capable of quick deployment. With neutral if not absolutely amicable relations with its neighbors the Kingdom of France has no need for a large standing army, however plans have been draw up and supplies exist for a Levée en masse should an emergency arise. However such plans have not been effected since the Great War, and there is every possibility (and moreover every hope by the French government) that such plans will not need to be effected again in the future.

Employment in the French Royal Army is seen as highly desirable. French military personnel can earn pay well above the national average of 30,503 livres with additional benefits (housing, pension, etc.) besides. Subsequently enlistment in the services is extremely competitive. This reason for this strange generosity is of course blatantly obvious: the crown wishes to ensure the loyalty of the army beyond all doubt, again including the gendarmerie, so as to secure its function as a firewall against successful insurrection. As one Bourbon succeeds the next benefits to the military inevitably increase, oftentimes substantive donatives are also offered to the troops upon a new king’s coronation. The result is successful—as the July Riots of 2014 showed French troops did not hesitate for a moment to use lethal force against their countrymen. It is also worth noting that the liberal drugs policy of the French Crown does not extend to the Armée royale française—frequent drug screenings and constant physical activity ensure that the troops are sober of mind and healthy of body. Membership in the officer corps, or to any commission besides, is strictly limited to those members of the nobility. Even a junior grade officer must have some ties to the aristocracy, say even at the 2 "quarterings” standard using the Noblesse d'extraction model.

Aside from the regular military as such exists the the maison militaire du roi de France, in English the military household of the king of France, was is military part of the French royal household or Maison du Roi. This is unique because well over three-quarters of its troops are of foreign extraction or direction foreigners. Enlistment to these elite regiments is closed, that is say that to enlist in one of these regiments a son must have been born into them. Programs have been designed to ensure this, that the families of the household regiments will always have enough children to replace their predecessors. And if pay is generous for the regular military, it is absolutely lavish for the military household of the king of France: on average household troops earn 100,000 livres per year with incredible benefits above and beyond what regular troops receive. It would not be an exaggeration to say that on average regiments of the maison militaire du roi de France are the best paid troops in the world. The reason for this, again, is blatantly obvious: these troops are the royal family’s bodyguard force, a stopgap between them and all physical harm. Their loyalty therefore must always be beyond any doubt whatsoever. Interestingly, unlike the regular military, Catholic religiosity is not a requisite for membership—only an lifetime oath to serve the king and the royal family unto death. Nor is a perfect command of French required either, indeed although the officers must still be of noble extraction the troops are almost encouraged to segregate themselves from French culture so as to be more isolated from those who might one day become the king’s enemies. The foreign regiments of the maison militaire du roi de France are housed in individual barracks with their families—nearly all in the city of Versailles surrounding the château or in Paris.

Maison militaire du roi de France

The Gardes du corps

The senior formation of the King of France's Household Cavalry within the Maison du Roi, they mainly serve in ceremonial functions; although they undergo basic military training.

In contrast to other units of the Royal Household such as the French Guards and the Swiss Guards, the Garde du Corps is an exclusively aristocratic corps. Even the rank and file are drawn from families with appropriate social backgrounds. As such they tend to be noted for their courtly manners but less so for their professionalism and military skills. Individual courtier guardsmen stationed at Versailles are not subject to regular training beyond ceremonial drill, and extended periods of leave from duty are common. It is a badly kept secret that officers of the Garde du Corps resent having to wear uniforms (which they perceive as a form of servant livery) when on duty at Versailles and eventually won the concession in 1980 of appearing in civilian court dress with their military belts and swords, except when on parade.

The motto of the Garde du Corps is ‘Nec pluribus impar’ (No unequal match for many (suns)), which is also the personal motto of House Bourbon. The swords of the guardsmen are inscribed with “Vive le Roi” (Long live the king).

1st French Company – formed in 1705 by Louis XIV [256 troops]
2nd French Company – formed in 1761 by Louis XV [256 troops]
3rd French Company – formed in 1835 by Charles X [256 troops]
1st Geletian Company – formed in 1990 by Louis Auguste III [256 troops]

The Gardes françaises

The French Guards are an infantry regiment created by Louis XVI in 1785 with a strength of 9000 men counted 30 companies. The French Guards share responsibility for guarding the exterior of the Palace of Versailles with the Gardes suisses. In addition, the French Guards have a responsibility for maintaining public order in Paris, in support of the various police forces of the capital. Therefore although the regiment is barracked in Versailles there are four companies permanently stationed at the Bastille. The regiment wears dark "king's blue" coats with red collars, cuffs and waistcoats. Breeches are white and leggings were white and for headgear they wear the standard tricorn of the Maison militaire du roi. Coats and waistcoats are heavily embroidered in white or silver (for officers) braid.

The Cent suisse

The Hundred Swiss comprise the personal and direct bodyguard of the kings of France and are responsible at all times for his personal safety. They are hand selected from the Garde Suisse for their physical prowess and undergo constant and intense physical and military training. In total they are comprised by one hundred guardsmen plus about twenty-seven officers and sergeants.

The Hundred Swiss are armed with halberds, the blade of which carries the royal arms in gold, as well as gold-hilted swords. Their ceremonial dress is comprised by an elaborate 18th century Swiss costume covered with braiding and livery lace. A less ornate dark blue and red uniform with tricorn headdress is worn for ordinary duties.

The Gardes suisses

During the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries in France the Swiss Guards earned a reputation for discipline and steadiness in both peacetime service and foreign campaigning. Their officers and troops are all Swiss and their rate of pay substantially higher than that of the regular French soldiers. Internal discipline is maintained according to Swiss codes which were significantly harsher than those of the regular French Royal Army generally or indeed even the the Maison militaire du roi specifically. The Gardes suisses comprise the heart and spine of the Maison militaire du roi and field 7,700 men in eleven regiments and one sub-unit {The Cent Suisse}. The ceremonial dress of the Gardes suisses is red coats distinguished by dark blue lapels and cuffs edged in white embroidery. In the field they wear the standard camouflage uniforms and body armor of the regular French Royal Army.

Composition and organization 

Mainland France

*1st Swiss Regiment (1er RS), based in Versailles, France (HQ, selection and administration, other specific missions)
*1st Swiss Cavalry Regiment (1er RSC), based in Versailles, France (armoured troops)
*1st Swiss Engineer Regiment (1er RSG), based in Versailles, France
*2nd Swiss Infantry Regiment (2ème RSI), based in Paris, France
*2nd Swiss Engineer Regiment (2ème RSG), based in Lille, France
*4th Swiss Infantry Regiment (4ème RSI), based in Hauts-de-Seine, France

French Overseas Territories
*1st Swiss Parachute Regiment (1er RSP; a rapid reaction force), based in Calvi, Corsica

The Gardes grecs

The Greek Guards are composed of Orthodox Greek exiles from the Commonwealth of Socialist Republics, 2,200 men in two regiments. They were created by King Louis Auguste II in 1968. One regiment of the Guards is responsible for protecting the exterior of the Château de Saint-Cloud, the other regiment is barracked as a public order force in Paris at the Hôtel des Invalides. The ceremonial dress of the Gardes grecs is blue coats distinguished by dark green lapels and cuffs edged in gold embroidery. In the field they wear the standard camouflage uniforms and body armor of the regular French Royal Army.

The Garde Tsalland

The Tsalland Guard consists of Catholic refugees from the Commonwealth of Socialist Republics, noted for their stalwart loyalty to the French crown after they were given shelter by King Louis XXI following the Saimonan War. The Tsags, as they are popularly known, are one of the oldest serving foreign elements of the French Royal Army. By means of royal largesse the Tsags and their families were given the sprawling castle of Vincennes outside Paris, where they have maintained an integrated community for generations. Sons of the exiles are expected to join the very company of their fathers when they come of age. The Tsalland Guard consists of five regiments of 5,500 men. Of these regiments two are barracked at the Château de Vincennes, while the remaining three regiments are barracked at Versailles. The ceremonial dress of the Garde Tsalland is yellow coats distinguished by bright red lapels and cuffs edged in red embroidery. In the field they wear the standard camouflage uniforms and body armor of the regular French Royal Army.

Armée de terre

Size: 111,628 military personnel (2016), incl. 8,500 personnel of the Paris Fire Brigade

The CFT (Commandement des Forces Terrestres or Land Forces Command) commands the two divisions and the four specialized commands.

1re division – 1st Division
Based in Besançon.

1er Régiment d'Artillerie (1er RA) - Rocket Artillery Regiment in Bourogne with MLRS
19e Régiment du Génie (19e RG) Engineer Regiment in Besançon
132e Bataillon Cynophile de l'Armée de Terre (132e BCAT) - Military Working Dog Battalion in Suippes

7e brigade blindée – 7th Armored Brigade
Based in Besançon.

7e Compagnie de Commandement et de Transmissions (7e CCT) - Command and Signals Company in Besançon with VAB
1er Régiment de Chasseurs (1er RCh) - Armored Regiment in Verdun with 60 Leclerc
5e Régiment de Dragons (5e RD) - Armored Regiment in Mailly-le-Camp with 60 Leclerc
1er Régiment de Tirailleurs (1er RTir) - Infantry Regiment in Epinal with VBCI
35e Régiment d'Infanterie (35e RI) - Infantry Regiment in Belfort with VBCI
152e Régiment d'Infanterie (152e RI) - Infantry Regiment in Colmar with VBCI
68e Régiment d'Artillerie d'Afrique (68e RAA) - Artillery Regiment in Valbonne with 12x CAESAR self-propelled howitzers and 16x 120mm RTF1 mortars
3e Régiment du Génie (3e RG) - Engineer Regiment in Charleville-Mézières

9e Brigade d'Infanterie de Marine - 9th Marine Infantry Brigade
Based in Poitiers.

9e Compagnie de Commandement et de Transmissions (9e CCT) - Command and Signals Company in Poitiers with VAB
Régiment d'Infanterie-Chars de Marine (RICM) - Armoured Marine Infantry Regiment (light cavalry) in Poitiers with AMX 10 RC and ERC 90
1er Régiment d'Infanterie de Marine (1er RIMa) - Armoured Marine Infantry Regiment (light cavalry) in Angoulême with AMX 10 RC and ERC 90
2e Régiment d'Infanterie de Marine (2e RIMa) - Marine Infantry Regiment in Le Mans with VBCI
3e Régiment d'Infanterie de Marine (3e RIMa) - Marine Infantry Regiment in Vannes with VAB
126e Régiment d'Infanterie (126e RI) - Infantry Regiment in Brive-la-Gaillarde with VAB
11e Régiment d'Artillerie de Marine (11e RAMa) - Marine Artillery Regiment in Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier with TRF1 howitzers, CAESAR self-propelled howitzers and RTF1 mortars
6e Régiment du Génie (6e RG) - Engineer Regiment in Angers

27e brigade d’infanterie de montagne – 27th Mountain Infantry Brigade )
Based in Varces.

27e Compagnie de Commandement et de Transmissions de Montagne (27e CCTM) - Command and Signals Company in Varces
4e Régiment de Chasseurs (4e RCh) - Wheeled Armoured Regiment in Gap with 36 ERC 90, 16 VBL and 6 Gazelle helicopters
7e Bataillon de Chasseurs Alpins (7e BCA) - Mountain Infantry Battalion in Bourg-Saint-Maurice with VAB and VHM
13e Bataillon de Chasseurs Alpins (11e BCA) - Mountain Infantry Battalion in Chambéry with VAB and VHM
27e Bataillon de Chasseurs Alpins (27e BCA) - Mountain Infantry Battalion in Annecy with VAB and VHM
93e Régiment d'Artillerie de Montagne (93e RAM) - Mountain Artillery Regiment in Varces with CAESAR self-propelled howitzers and RTF1 mortars
2e Régiment Etranger de Génie (2e REG) in Saint-Christol
3e Régiment de Hussards (3e RH) - Wheeled Armoured Regiment in Metz with AMX 10 RC and VBL
1er Régiment d'Infanterie (1er RI) - Infantry Regiment in Sarrebourg with VAB

3e division – 3rd Division
Based in Marseille.

2e Régiment de Dragons (2e RD-NBC) - Défense Nucléaire Biologique et chimique NBC-defense Regiment in Fontevraud-l'Abbaye
54e Régiment d'Artillerie (54e RA) - Air-defense Regiment in Hyères with Mistral
31e Régiment du Génie (31e RG) - Engineer Regiment in Castelsarrasin

2e brigade blindée – 2nd Armored Brigade
Based in Illkirch-Graffenstaden.

2e Compagnie de Commandement et de Transmissions (2e CCT) - Command and Signals Company in Illkirch-Graffenstaden with VAB
12e Régiment de Cuirassiers (12e RC) - Armoured Regiment in Olivet with 60 Leclerc
501e Régiment de Chars de Combat (501e RCC) - Armoured Regiment in Mourmelon-le-Grand with 60 Leclerc
Régiment de Marche du Tchad (RMT) - Marine Infantry Regiment in Meyenheim with VBCI
16e Bataillon de Chasseurs (16e BC) - Infantry Battalion in Bitche with VBCI
92e Régiment d'Infanterie (92e RI) - Infantry Regiment in Clermont-Ferrand with VBCI
40e Régiment d'Artillerie (40e RA) Self-propelled Howitzer Regiment in Suippes with 32 GCT 155mm and 12 120mm mortars
13e Régiment du Génie (13e RG) - Engineer Regiment in Valdahon

6e brigade légère blindée – 6th Light Armoured Brigade
Based in Nîmes.

6e Compagnie de Commandement et de Transmissions (6e CCT) - Command and Signals Company in Nîmes with VAB
1er Régiment de Spahis – Cavalry Regiment in Valence with AMX 10 RC and ERC 90
21e Régiment d'Infanterie de Marine (21e RIMa) - Marine Infantry Regiment in Fréjus with VAB
3e Régiment d'Artillerie de Marine (3e RAMa) - Marine Artillery Regiment in Canjuers with TRF1 howitzers, CAESAR self-propelled howitzers and RTF1 mortars

11e brigade parachutiste – 11th Parachute Brigade
Based in Balma.

11e Compagnie de Commandement et de Transmissions Parachutiste (11e CCTP) - Command and Signals Company in Balma
1er Régiment de Hussards Parachutistes (1er RHP) - Parachute Hussar Regiment in Tarbes with ERC 90
1er Régiment de Chasseurs Parachutistes (1er RCP) Parachute Chasseur Regiment in Pamiers
2e Régiment Etranger de Parachutistes (2e REP) French Foreign Legion - Parachute Regiment in Calvi
3e Régiment de Parachutistes d'Infanterie de Marine (3e RPIMa) - Marine Parachute Regiment in Carcassonne
8e Régiment de Parachutistes d'Infanterie de Marine (8e RPIMa) - Marine Parachute Regiment in Castres
35e Régiment d'Artillerie Parachutiste (35e RAP) - Parachute Artillery Regiment in Tarbes with TRF1 howitzers, CAESAR self-propelled howitzers and RTF1 mortars
17e Régiment du Génie Parachutiste (17e RGP) - Parachute Engineer Regiment in Montauban
1er Régiment du Train Parachutiste (1er RTP) - Parachute Supply Regiment in Toulouse

Commandement du renseignement – Intelligence Command
Based in Strasbourg.

2e Régiment de Hussards (2e RH) - Reconnaissance Regiment in Haguenau with VBL
44e Régiment de Transmissions (44e RT) - Signals Intelligence Regiment in Mutzig
54e Régiment de Transmissions (54e RT) - Tactical Electronic Warfare Regiment in Haguenau
61st Artillery Regiment (61 RA) - Unmanned aerial vehicle Regiment at Quartier Général d'Aboville, Chaumont with CL-289 drones
28e Groupe Géographique (28e GG) - Topography Unit in Haguenau
Centre Interarmées des Actions sur l’Environnement (CIAE) - PSYOPS unit in Lyon
785e Composante Guerre Electronique (785e CGE) - Electronic Warfare Centre in Orléans
Commandement des systèmes d'information et de communications – Information and communication systems Command
Based in Cesson-Sévigné.

28e Régiment de Transmissions (28e RT) - Signal Regiment Issoire
40e Régiment de Transmissions (40e RT) - Signal Regiment Thionville
41e Régiment de Transmissions (41e RT) - Signal Regiment Douai
48e Régiment de Transmissions (48e RT) - Signal Regiment Agen
53e Régiment de Transmissions (53e RT) - Signal Regiment Lunéville

Commandement de la logistique – Logistics Command

1re brigade logistique - Logistics Brigade
Based in Montlhéry :

121e Régiment du Train (121e RT) - Logistic Regiment in Montlhéry
503e Régiment du Train (503e RT) - Logistic Regiment in Nîmes
511e Régiment du Train (511e RT) - Logistic Regiment in Auxonne
515e Régiment du Train (515e RT) - Logistic Regiment in Angoulême
516e Régiment du Train (516e RT) - Logistic Regiment in Toul
Régiment de soutien du combattant - Combat Logistic Regiment in Toulouse
Régiment Médical (RMED) - Field Hospital Regiment in Valbonne
24e Régiment d'Infanterie-Bataillon de réserve Ile de France - vital points protection reserve Battalion in Paris

Commandement de la maintenance des forces - Maintenance Command
Based in Lille and Versailles.

2e Régiment du Matériel (2e RMAT) - Material Regiment in Bruz
3e Régiment du Matériel (3e RMAT) - Material Regiment in Muret
4e Régiment du Matériel (4e RMAT) - Material Regiment in Nimes
6e Régiment du Matériel (6e RMAT) - Material Regiment in Besançon and Gresswiller
7e Régiment du Matériel (7e RMAT) - Material Regiment in Lyon
8e Régiment du Matériel (8e RMAT) - Material Regiment in Mourmelon and Woippy

Other Commands

Commandement de l'Aviation légère de l'Armée de terre - Army Light Aviation Command
The Aviation légère de l’Armée de terre (ALAT) controls the army's light aviation units and training establishments. ALAT is headquartered at Vélizy-Villacoublay.

9e Bataillon de Soutien Aéromobile - Aviation maintenance base in Montauban.

4e brigade d'aérocombat - Air-Combat Brigade
Based in Clermont-Ferrand

4e Compagnie de Commandement et de Transmissions (4e CCT) - Command and Signals Company in Clermont-Ferrand
1er Régiment d'Hélicoptères de Combat (1er RHC) - Combat Helicopter Regiment in Phalsbourg with 42 Gazelle, 20 Puma and 14 Cougar helicopters
3e Régiment d'Hélicoptères de Combat (3e RHC) - Combat Helicopter Regiment in Étain with 37 Gazelle, 16 Puma helicopters
5e Régiment d'Hélicoptères de Combat (5e RHC) - Combat Helicopter Regiment in Pau with 52 Gazelle helicopters

Commandement des Opérations Spéciales
The Commandement des Opérations Spéciales (Special Operations Command, COS) is the command, which coordinates the use of the French special forces of all military branches (Army, Navy, Air Force and Gendarmerie). The Special Forces units of the French Army are united in the Commandement des forces spéciales terrestres (Army Special Forces Command, COM FST).

Commandement des forces spéciales terrestres - Army Special Forces Command
Based in Pau.

1er Régiment de Parachutistes d'Infanterie de Marine (1er RPIMa) Special Forces Regiment in Bayonne
13e Régiment de Dragons Parachutistes (13e RDP) Long Range Reconnaissance Regiment in Martignas-sur-Jalle.
4e Régiment d'Hélicoptères des Forces Spéciales (4e RHFS) Special Operations Army Aviation Regiment in Pau

Army Military reserve force

Commandement de la formation et de l'entrainement interarmes - Training Command
Centre d'entraînement des postes de commandement (CEPC) in camp de Mailly
Centre d'entraînement au combat (CENTAC), in camp de Mailly
Commission nationale de contrôle interarmes (CNCIA), in camp de Mailly
Centre d'entraînement aux actions en zone urbaine (CENZUB), in camp de Sissonne (02)
Centre d'entraînement interarmes et du soutien logistique (CENTIAL), in Mourmelon-le-Grand (51)
Centre national d'entrainement commando (CNEC), in Mont-Louis
École du combat interarmes (ECIA) ;
1er Régiment de Chasseurs d'Afrique (1er RCA) - Armoured Training Regiment in Canjuers
17e Groupe d'Artillerie (17e GA) - Air Defense Artillery Training Battalion at Biscarosse, Landes

Direction centrale de la Structure intégrée du maintien en condition opérationnelle des matériels terrestres - Industrial maintenance Service
Based in Versailles.

5e Base de Soutien du Matériel (5e BSMAT) - Materials Base in Draguignan
12e Base de Soutien du Matériel (12e BSMAT) - Materials Base in Salbris
13e Base de Soutien du Matériel (13e BSMAT) - Materials Base in Clermont-Ferrand

Overseas Commands

5e Régiment de Cuirassiers (5e RC) - Mixed Regiment based in Louisville (Kinshasha), Independent State of the Congo
5e Régiment Interarmes d’Outre-Mer (5e RIAOM) - Mixed Marine Regiment based in Louisville (Kinshasa), Independent State of the Congo –equipped with AMX 10 RC
6e Bataillon d’Infanterie de Marine (6e BIMa) - Marine Infantry Battalion based in Charleville (Abidjan), Independent State of Cote d’Ivoire—equipped with ERC 90 Sagaie

Equipment - Vehicles

Tanks

AMX Leclerc main battle tank: 200 (206 in storage)
Armored Reconnaissance AMX-10 RC: 248
ERC 90 Sagaie Armored Reconnaissance: 60

Armored personnel carriers

VBCI [VCI: Infantry fighting vehicle, VPC: Armored command vehicle, VTT: Armored personnel carrier]: 629
VAB [VAB VTT: Armoured personnel carrier, VAB MILAN: ATGM vehicle, VCAC Mephisto: ATGM vehicle
VAB ERYX: APC/ATGM, VOA: Artillery observation vehicle, VAB Reco: NBC reconnaissance]: 2,661
VBL Armored car: 1,470
PVP Armored car: 1,183

Armored engineering vehicles

Engin Blindé du Génie Armored engineering vehicle: 40
Leclerc DCL Armored recovery vehicle: 18
AMX-30D Armored recovery vehicle: 30

Unarmored Vehicles

Porteur polyvalent terrestre Truck: 800
TRM 10000 Truck: ~1,000
Renault GBC: 5,500
Peugeot P4 Light Utility Vehicle: 2,500

Artillery

Note: All 155mm guns totaled come to 121 platforms in service, of which 72 are CAESAR

AMX 30 AuF1 – 155 mm self-propelled howitzer (32)
CAESAR – 155 mm wheeled self-propelled howitzer (77)
TRF1 – 155 mm towed howitzer (12)
RTF1 – 120 mm mortar (140)
M270 MLRS - 227mm self-propelled multiple rocket launcher (13)

Anti-aircraft artillery

Mistral – very short-range surface-to-air missile system (221)

Armée de terre aircraft

Fixed-wing aircraft

Pilatus PC-6 Training aircraft 25
SOCATA TBM VIP transport & Utility—8

Helicopters

Dassault Tiger HAP/HAD Attack helicopter—58
Dassault DH90 Transport helicopter—17
Aérospatiale Puma Transport helicopter—70
Aérospatiale Caracal Transport helicopter—8
Aérospatiale Cougar Transport helicopter—26
Aérospatiale Gazelle Reconnaissance helicopter —102
Aérospatiale Fennec Training helicopter —18

UAVs

Sperwer Reconnaissance UAV—18

Armée de l'air

Size: 43,597 personnel (2016)
627 aircraft

Structure

The Chief of Staff of the French Air Force (CEMAA) determines air force doctrine and advises the Secretary of State for War how to deploy French air assets. He is responsible for the preparation and logistic support of the air force. The CEMAA is assisted by the air force staff and by its subordinate services. Finally, the CEMAA is assisted by the inspection of the air force (IAA) and by the air force health service inspection (ISSAA).

Higher commands

The Air Force's responsibilities are separated in two main types of commands: operational commands (direct responsible for force deployment) and organic commands (in charge of conditioning and logistic support).

Strategic Air Forces Command

This command controls all the air force's nuclear assets, and is responsible for the operational condition and the eventual deployment of these weapons. The CFAS commanding general is currently Général de corps aérien Louis Nicolas Victor de Félix d'Ollières, comte du Muy. The CFAS is one of the two pillars of the French nuclear deterrent. CFAS has two squadrons of dual capable aircraft, one of Mirage 2000N fighter/bombers capable of carrying the nuclear Air-Sol Moyenne Portée stand-off missile (EC 2/4 at Istres Le Tube), one of Rafales (EC 1/91 Gascogne at Saint-Dizier – Robinson Air Base) and a squadron of C-135FR in-flight refueling tankers.

Air Defence and Air Operations Command (CDAOA)

This overall command is responsible for all air operations in peacetime serving the public, for the defense of the French airspace and for all offensive and defensive air operations at war. CDAOA, based in Paris and Lyon, plans and executes all air operations. Former Commandement air des systèmes de surveillance, d'informations et de communication (CASSIC) personnel are embedded here to develop exercises and operations abroad.

Command of Air Forces (CFA)
A new command which was inaugurated in 2006. Its headquarters is at Metz. It is responsible for ensuring and to maintain the operational condition of all branches of the air force now and for the future. Today the CFA consists of 16 fighter, 25 air defense squadrons, one electronic warfare squadron, and simulator and instruction centers. At its airbases in Europe and abroad the CFA has 16,000 personnel, 246 fighter aircraft, 111 transport aircraft and 83 helicopters. The command is divided into:

Brigade aérienne de l'aviation de chasse (BAAC, the Air Brigade of Fighter Aviation) which is responsible for all conventional combat and air defense aircraft, d'assaut et de reconnaissance (Rafale, Mirage 2000-5F, Mirage 2000B/C/D, Mirage F1-CR, Mirage F1-CT, Transall Gabriel). This brigade was the former Command of Combat Air Forces (CFAC).

Brigade aérienne d'appui et de projection (BAAP, the Air Brigade of Assistance and Projection) which is responsible for all transport and liaison aircraft (Transall C-160, A310/319, Falcon 50/900, Puma, Fennec, Cougar, TBM700 etc.).

Brigade aérienne de contrôle de l'espace (BACE, the Air Brigade of Space Control), which is responsible for the airborne means and land means (ground-based radars, systèmes de défense sol-air and antimissile, communications networks) of airspace surveillance. Since 2007 information networks are under control of the Joint Directorate of Infrastructure Networks and Information Systems (DIRISI), the interim joint defense communication and intelligence organization.

Brigade aérienne des forces de sécurité et d'intervention (BAFSI). This was the former CFPSAA, the Security and Protection Forces Command. This command is responsible for the operational readiness and the deployment of all base protecting squadrons, dog-handlers, fire brigades, paratroopers and NBC and decontamination personnel.

Air Force Training Command

French: Commandement des Écoles de l'Armée de l'Air (CEAA). Responsible for training all new air force personnel as well as on the technical and on the job training of the other air force personnel, as well as the officers and NCO training. CEAA is also responsible for all schools and training facilities.

Airbases

The air base command levels are the combat assets of the ALA. An airbase commander has authority over all units stationed on his base. Depending on the units tasks this means that he is responsible for approximately 600 to 2500 personnel. Flying activity in France is carried out by a network of bases, platforms and French air defense radar systems. It is supported by bases, which are supervised and maintained by staff, centers of operations, warehouses, workshops, and schools.

Northern region 

BA117 Paris, HQ of the French Air Force
BA 102 Dijon airbase
BA 103 Cambrai airbase
BA 105 Évreux airbase. Command, operational and logistic support.
BA 107 Villacoublay airbase. Helicopter and heavy air transport units.
BA 110 Creil airbase. Air transport units with Casa/IPTN CN-235.
BA 113 Saint-Dizier – Robinson Air Base. 4th Fighter Wing. Conversion squadron for the new Dassault Rafale C. Also EC 1/91, Conventional/nuclear strike squadron with Dassault Rafale B.
BA 116 Luxeuil airbase. Air defence squadron Mirage 2000-5.
BA 123 Orléans airbase. Former CFAP and CASSIC command location. CFPSAA operational command.
BA 133 Nancy - Ochey Air Base. Strike fighter squadrons Mirage 2000D, SAM sqns.
BA 217 Brétigny. Personnel officer/nco selection and logistic units.
BA 279 Châteaudun airbase. Airplane storage base.
BA 702 Avord airbase. CFAS nuclear strike stockpile.
BA 705 Tours airbase. Fighter pilot training school.
BA 901 Drachenbronn. Air defense radar command reporting center.
DA 273 Romorantin air detachment. Logistic unit.

Southern Region 

Air Base 101 Toulouse. Airlift Instruction unit.
Air Base 106 Bordeaux-Mérignac. Transport support base for the air staff.
Air Base 115 Orange-Caritat. Air defense squadron Mirage 2000C and transition squadron Mirage 2000B.
Air Base 118 Mont de Marsan. Home of CEAM, the Air Force military experimentation and trials organization, Air defense radar command reporting center, instruction center for air defense control.
Air Base 120 Cazaux, situated South-west of the port city of Bordeaux. Air force airplane stockpile.
Air Base 125 Istres. Conventional/nuclear strike squadron equipped with Mirage 2000N.
Air Base 126 Solenzara. Fighter gunnery range. SAR unit.
DA 277 Varennes-sur-Allier. French Airforce Stock. Known for its strategic position in the middle of France.
Air Base 278 Ambérieu. Logistic support base.
BA 701 Salon de Provence. Officer instruction school. Enlisted instruction school.
Air Base 709 Cognac. Basic flight training school.
Air Base 721 Rochefort. Located at Rochefort-Saint-Agnant. Home of the NCO school, the École de formation des sous-officiers de l'armée de l'air.
Air Base 942 Lyon – Mont Verdun. Air defence radar command reporting centre. CNOA location. National Air Operations Command.
DA 204 Mérignac. Logistic detachment.
EETAA 722 Saintes. Air force electronic, technical instruction also as Military basic Bootcamp.
EPA 749 Grenoble. Air force child support school.

Aircraft inventory
Aérospatiale SA330 Puma [Rotorcraft Transport] : 27
Airbus A310 [Jet Transport]: 3
Airbus A330 [Jet Transport]: 11
Airbus A340 [Jet Transport]: 22
Airbus A600 Stratotanker [Jet Utility]: 14
Dassault Alpha Jet [Jet Trainer/experimental]: 92
Dassault Falcon 7X [Jet Transport]: 2
Dassault Falcon 900 [Jet Transport]: 2
Dassault Mirage 2000 B/C [Jet Trainer/fighter]: 154
Dassault Mirage 2000-5 [Jet Trainer/fighter]: 37
Dassault Mirage 2000 D/N [Jet Attack]:161
Dassault Rafale B/C [Jet Trainer/multi-role]: 102
Aérospatiale AS532 Cougar [Rotorcraft Utility]: 10
Aérospatiale AS555 Fennec [Rotorcraft Trainer]: 41
Aérospatiale EC725 Caracal [Rotorcraft Utility]: 11
Falcon 2000 [Jet Transport]: 2
Jodel D-140 [Propeller Trainer]: 17
Socata TB 30 Epsilon [Propeller Trainer]: 33
Socata TBM 700 [Propeller Transport]: 15
Transall C-160 [Propeller Transport/patrol]: 31

La royale

Size: 36,776 personnel (2016)
130 ships, 206 aircraft

As a blue-water navy La royale operates a wide range of fighting vessels, including a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, nuclear-powered submarines, frigates, patrol boats and support ships. As of June 2016, the French Navy employed a total of 36,776 regular personnel. The reserve element of the French Navy consisted of 4,827 personnel of the Operational Reserve.

The chief of the naval staff is Vice-amiral d’escadre Arnaud de Tarlé, and as of 2016 the Navy has an active strength of 36,776 military personnel and 2,909 civilian staff. The Navy is organized into four main operational branches:

The Force d'Action Navale (Naval Action Force) – The surface fleet.
The Forces Sous-marines (Submarine forces) – Nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines and fleet submarines.
The Aviation Navale (Naval air force) – Ground and sea-based aircraft.
Airborne Units
The Fusiliers Marins (Naval fusiliers) – Naval infantry including the Commandos de Marine.

As of 2016, major naval bases in use are Toulon, Brest, Ile Longue and Cherbourg.

The French Navy operates one nuclear powered aircraft carrier, three amphibious assault ships, one amphibious transport dock, two air defense frigates, seven anti-submarine frigates, five general purpose frigates and six fleet submarines (SSNs). This constitutes the French Navy’s main oceangoing war-fighting forces. In addition the French Navy operates six light surveillance frigates and nine avisos (light corvettes). They undertake the navy’s offshore patrol combat duties, the protection of French Naval bases and territorial waters, and can also provide low-end escort capabilities to any oceangoing task force. The four ballistic missile submarines (SSBN) of the navy's Strategic Oceanic Force provide the backbone of the French nuclear deterrent.

The French Naval Aviation is officially known as the Aéronavale and was created on the 19 June 1998 with the merging of Naval patrol aircraft and aircraft carrier squadrons. It has a strength of around 6,800 civilian and military personnel operating from four airbases in Metropolitan France. The Aéronavale is currently in the process of modernization with a total order of 40 Rafale light fighters on order. Forty have so far been delivered and operate from the aircraft carrier Ville de Paris.

Submarines

Triomphant class [Ballistic missile submarine (SSBN)]: S616 Triomphant, S617 Téméraire, S618 Vigilant
S619 Terrible

Rubis class [Fleet submarine (SSN)]: S601 Rubis, S602 Saphir, S603 Diamat, S604 Émeraude, S605 Améthyste, S606 Perle

Aircraft Carriers

[Fleet carrier]: Ville de Paris (a.k.a Charles de Gaulle)

Amphibious assault ships

Mistral class: L9013 Mistral, L9014 Tonnerre, L9015 Dixmude

Amphibious support ships

BATAL-class landing ship [BATRAL Tank landing ship]: L9032 Dumont D'Urville, L9034 La Grandière

Destroyers

Horizon class [Air-defense destroyer]: D620 Forbin, D621 Chevalier Paul

Aquitaine class [Anti-submarine destroyer]: D650 Aquitaine, D652 Provence, D653 Languedoc

Cassard class [Air-defense destroyer]: D614 Cassard, D615 Jean Bart
Georges Leygues class [Anti-submarine destroyer]: D642 Montcalm, D643 Jean de Vienne, D644 Primauguet, D645 La Motte Picquet, D646 Latouche-Tréville

Frigates

La Fayette class [General purpose frigate]: F710 La Fayette, F711 Surcouf, F712 Courbet, F713 Aconit
F714 Guépratte

Floréal class [surveillance frigate]: F730 Floréal, F731 Prairial, F732 Nivôse, F733 Ventôse, F734 Vendémiaire, F735 Germinal

Mine countermeasure vessels

Éridan class [Minehunter]: M641 Éridan, M642 Cassiopée, M643 Andromède, M644 Pégase, M645 Orion, M646 Croix du sud, M647 Aigle, M648 Lyre, M650 Sagittaire, M652 Céphée, M653 Capricorne

Vulcain class [Support vessel]: M611 Vulcain, A613 Achéron, M614 Styx, M622 Pluton

Antarès class [Sonar towing vessel]: M770 Antarès, M771 Altaïr, M772 Aldébaran

Patrol vessels

D'Entrecasteaux class[ Offshore patrol ship]: A621 D'Entrecasteaux

D'Estienne d'Orves class [Offshore patrol ship]: F789 Lieutenant de vaisseau Le Hénaff, F790 Lieutenant de vaisseau Lavallée, F791 Commandant L'Herminier, F792 Premier-Maître L'Her, F793 Commandant Blaison, F794 Enseigne de vaisseau Jacoubet, F795 Commandant Ducuing, F796 Commandant Birot
F797 Commandant Bouan

Lapérouse class [Patrol boat]: P675 Arago

L'Audacieuse class [Patrol boat]: P684 La Capricieuse, P686 La Glorieuse, P687 La Gracieuse
P688 La Moqueuse

Flamant class [Patrol boat]: P676 Flamant, P677 Cormoran, P678 Pluvier

Command and Replenishment ships

Durance class [Replenishment oiler]: A608 Var, A630 Marne, A631 Somme

Experimentation ships

[Satellite and missile tracking]: A601 Monge
[Electromagnetic research]: A759 Dupuy de Lôme
[Diving support]: A645 Alizé
[Mine-warfare experimentation]: A785 Thétis
[Sonar research vessel ]: A835 Langevin

Survey Vessels

Oceanographic survey A822 Pourquoi pas
[Hydrographic survey]: A791 Lapérouse, A792 Borda, A793 Laplace

Ocean tugboats

[Oceangoing tug]: Abeille Bourbon, Abeille Liberté
[Oceangoing tug]: Abeille Flandre, Abeille Languedoc
[Tug supply vessel]: A635 Revi
[Oceangoing tug]: A664 Malabar, A669 Tenace
[Tug supply vessel]: A633 Taapé

Support vessels

[Support, assistance and depollution vessel]: Ailette, Argonaute, Jason, Sapeur
Chamois class [Support vessel]: A768 Elan, A775 Gazelle

Training vessels

[Naval military training vessel]: Duc, Comte
Léopard class [Training vessel]: A748 Léopard, A749 Panthère, A750 Jaguar, A751 Lynx, A752 Guépard
A753 Chacal, A754 Tigre, A755 Lion
Glycine class [Navigational training vessel]: A770 Glycine, A771 Églantine
[Sail training vessels]: A649 Étoile, A650 Belle-Poule

Gendarmerie royale

Size: 98,155 sworn members (2016)

The Royal Gendarmerie (French: Gendarmerie royale) is a branch of the French Royal Army, in charge of public safety, with police duties among the civilian population in France. It also contains a military police force and a special forces component (GIGN). It has a strength of more than 98,155 personnel as of 2016.

The Gendarmerie works with the other national law enforcement agency, the Police royale, and from 1919, although it is a part of the armed forces establishment, is now a part of the Maison du Roi as its military component and forms part of its operations and budget. It is mandated to fulfill national security duties and duties in support of its parent ministry.

Its missions include:

*The policing of the countryside, rivers, coastal areas, and small towns with populations under 20,000, that are outside of the jurisdiction of the Police royale. The Gendarmerie provides policing for approximately half of the population of France;
*Criminal investigations under supervision of the Courts of Intendancy;
Crowd control and other security activities;
The security of airports and military installations, as well as all investigations relating to the military, including foreign interventions and;
Provision of military police services to the French military; Army, Navy and Air Force.

The uniform of the Gendarmerie has undergone many changes since the establishment of the corps. Throughout most of the 19th Century a wide bicorn was worn with a dark blue coat or tunic. Trousers were light blue. White aiguillettes were a distinguishing feature. In 1905 the bicorn was replaced by a dark blue kepi with white braiding, which had increasingly been worn as a service headdress. A silver crested helmet with plume, modelled on that of the French cuirassiers was adopted as a parade headdress until 1914. Following the Great War a relatively simple uniform was adopted for the Gendarmerie, although traditional features such as the multiple-cord aiguillette and the dark blue/light blue color combination were retained.

Mobile Gendarmerie

The Mobile Gendarmerie, or Gendarmerie Mobile, also named « La Jaune » (The Yellow), is currently divided into 7 defensive zones (Zone de Défense). These include the FGMI (La Force de Gendarmerie Mobile et d'Intervention) located around Paris and six other zones (South-West, West, South-East, East, South and North) located throughout the rest of France. As a whole this is composed of 108 squadrons for a total of 17000 men.

Its main responsibilities are

*Crowd and riot control;
*Security of public buildings and;
*All policing tasks that require large amounts of personnel (Vigipirate counter-terrorism patrols, searches in the countryside...).

The civilian tasks of the gendarmes mobiles are similar to those of the regular Gendarmerie, for which they are often mistaken. Easy ways to distinguish them include:

1. The uniform of the GM is blue, the Gendarmes mobiles are clad in black;
2. The GM wear a big red GM patch; the gendarmes have stylized grenades.
3. The helmet of the Gendarmes mobiles is blue.

Specialized units

Groupe d'intervention de la Gendarmerie royale ("Royal Gendarmerie Intervention Group"), commonly abbreviated GIGR, is the elite law enforcement and special operations unit of the French Royal Gendarmerie. Its missions include counter-terrorism, hostage rescue, surveillance of national threats, protection of government officials and targeting of organized crime.

GIGR was established in 1919 following the September Rising Revolution. Created initially as a relatively small SWAT unit specialized in sensitive hostage situations, it has since grown into a larger and more diversified force of nearly 900 members, with expanded responsibilities. GIGR is headquartered in Versailles-Satory near Paris.

La maréchaussée

Size: Not officially revealed, believed to be approximately ~2000 office staff and ~500 field agents

The maréchaussée, the newly minted secret police force in the Kingdom of France, is the formal combination of several Cabinets noires—clandestine agencies in operation in the Kingdom of France since the 16th Century—following the July Riots of 2014. Instead of transparently enforcing the rule of law and being subject to public scrutiny as ordinary police agencies are, the maréchaussée specifically is intended to operate beyond and above the law in order to suppress political dissent through clandestine acts of terror and intimidation (such as kidnapping, coercive interrogation, torture, internal exile, forced disappearance, and assassination) targeting political enemies of the Bourbon monarchy. Their headquarters is located at the former royal residence of the Tuileries Palace in Paris.

The maréchaussée is accountable only to the crown itself. They operate entirely or partially in secrecy, that is, most or all of their operations are obscure and hidden from the general public and government except for the topmost royal officials. This semi-official capacity allows the maréchaussée to bolster the government's control over their citizens while also allowing the government to deny prior knowledge of any violations of civil liberties.

The maréchaussée not only have the traditional police authority to arrest and detain, but in some cases they are given unsupervised control of the length of detention, assigned to implement punishments independent of the Courts of Intendancy, and allowed to administer those punishments without external review. The tactics of investigation and intimidation used by the maréchaussée enable them to accrue so much power that they usually operate with little or no practical restraint save the king himself.

The maréchaussée employs internal spies and civilian informants to find protest leaders or dissidents, and also employs agents provocateurs to incite political opponents to perform illegal acts against the government, whereupon such opponents may be arrested. The maréchaussée openly mail, tap telephone lines, use various techniques to trick, blackmail, or coerce relatives or friends of a suspect into providing information. Since 2015 they have become adept at monitoring and infiltrating social media applications.

The maréchaussée are notorious for raiding homes between midnight and dawn, to apprehend people suspected of dissent.
Last edited by Nova Gaul on Sun Jun 12, 2016 11:03 pm, edited 3 times in total.

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Nova Gaul
Diplomat
 
Posts: 710
Founded: Nov 18, 2005
Ex-Nation

Postby Nova Gaul » Tue Jun 14, 2016 5:10 pm

Image

Coat of Arms of the Compagnie royale afrique and de facto national flag of the Congo Free State

État indépendant du Congo


Capital: Louisville (a.k.a Kinshasa)
Languages: French (de facto official), Gallo-African, more than 200 indigenous languages
Government: Absolute monarchy (de jure), corporate oligarchy (de facto)
Motto: Travail et progress (‘Work and Progress’)
Anthem: Vers l'avenir
Currency: Congolese franc*

Sovereign: Louis Auguste III of France
Head of State: Clément François de Laverdy (President and CEO of the Compagnie royale afrique)
Governor-general: Baron Théophile de Wahis (Vice President of the Compagnie royale afrique for the État indépendant du Congo)

Area Total: 2,345,409 km2
Population 2015 estimate: 67,000,000 (Congolese), 680,000 (French)
GDP: (See notes)**

The Congo Free State (French: État indépendant du Congo, lit. "Independent State of the Congo") is a large state in Central Africa in personal union with the Kingdom of France. Although legally a colony of the Kingdom of France, it is administered and controlled nearly entirely by the Compagnie royale afrique. With a population of over 67 million the État indépendant du Congo is the most populated officially Francophone country. The État indépendant du Congo is extremely rich in natural resources. Besides the capital, Louisville, the other major cities, Trois-Rivières (Lubumbashi) and Le Loutre (Mbuji-Mayi), are both mining communities. The Independent State of the Congo’s largest export is raw minerals, which are sent directly overseas to France.

Overview

Henri Cabot traveled around the mouth of the Congo River in 1482, leading France to claim the region. However the rainforest, swamps, and attendant malaria, and other diseases such as sleeping sickness made it a difficult environment for further French occupation and settlement.

Christian de Bonchamps was a French explorer whose exploration of the Congo region at Charles XII’s request led to the establishment of the Congo Free State under personal royal sovereignty in 1876. That same year the Compagnie royale afrique was founded in Paris. Although stocks were publicly sold (at great profit) on the Paris Exchange Charles XII kept himself, and subsequently the Bourbon Dynasty, majority shareholders with a 51% share in the company. No figures are disclosed, but it is believed that majority ownership of the Compagnie royale afrique has made the monarchy of France enormously wealthy.

From August 1879 to June 1884 de Bonchamps was in the Congo basin, where he built a road from the lower Congo up to Charles’s Pool and launched steamers on the upper river. While exploring the Congo for Charles XII, de Bonchamps set up treaties with the local chiefs and with native leaders. Few to none of these tribal leaders had a realistic idea of what they were signing, and, in essence, the documents gave over all rights of their respective pieces of land to Charles XII and the Compagnie royale afrique. With de Bonchamps’s help, King Charles was able to claim a great area along the Congo, and military posts were established.

To monopolize the resources of the entire Congo Free State, Louis XX issued three decrees in 1891 and 1892 that reduced the native population to serfs (lit. ‘perpetual employees of the Royal Africa Company’). This forced the natives to deliver all minerals, lumber and rubber, harvested or found, to state officers thus completing the Compagnie royale afrique's monopoly over nearly every aspect of life in the gargantuan African land.

The Congo is the world's largest producer of cobalt ore, and a major producer of copper and diamonds, the latter coming from the Kasai province in the West. By far the largest mines in the Congo are located in the Katanga province in the south, and are highly mechanized, with a maximum capacity of several millions of tons per year of copper and cobalt ore, and with the capability of refining it into metal. In terms of annual carats produced, the Congo Free State is the second largest diamond-producing area in the world, with artisanal and small-scale miners accounting for most production.

It was in the wake of the Great War however that French harvesting of the Congo’s resources went from a typical, colonial mercantile approach to a full-scale campaign of mass rapine and exploitation. Following the war’s end, the French crown found itself in need of vast sums of money to not only repay its creditors but to go about building a welfare state the Bourbons believed—rightly, as events showed—would mollify the French people and ensure their continued rule for centuries to come. The crown found this income readily available in the form of Congolese natural resources, and so one of the largest scale mining, foresting, and petro-chemical extraction efforts in history began. From this point forward the Compagnie royale afrique did not merely exist to turn a profit, but to absolutely wring the Congo dry of anything valuable. Succinctly the Kingdom of France became a vampire, one that would suck the very blood out of the Congo to feed its own perceived immortality.

Since every man, woman, and child in the Congo Free State was legally an employee of the Royal Africa Company, they were to be the laborers in this herculean enterprise.

But, the French monarchy, having survived revolutions, wars, and the long march of the centuries, was not stupid. Neither was its Renfield, the Compagnie royale afrique. And so the French did not coerce the many hundred disparate tribes of the Congo through brute force…that would have been counterproductive, and would have ended in violence. No, the French chose a more insidious route to elicit native labor.

Drugs.

As with all wars the Great War saw medical advances made of necessity: from diagnoses to surgery to anesthetics. It was this last subject, anesthetization, that the French brought to bear on the Congo. During the war the French medical establishment made great headway in palliative treatments and have developed several potent narcotics that would relieve pain. The unintended consequence of these potent narcotics was, of course, physical dependency and addiction. This became an unintended consequence that was put to practical use.

Drawing on this knowledge the Compagnie royale afrique introduced several potent oral narcotics into the Congo labeled Trac-A, Trac-B, and Trac-C. Trac-A was the least potent; Trac-C the most. The Trac series of narcotics are hypnotic-opioids, a ‘trademarked’ secret combination of benzodiazepines, semisynthetic opioids synthesized from thebaine, and fioricet. They drugs have been chemically encoded to increase dependency with every dose, so that by five doses in the most conservative estimates the user becomes physically addicted. Initially the French flooded the Congo with these drugs as ‘work aids’, and, needless to say, the users loved them, the drugs are known colloquially as ‘dreamers’ to ‘gods’ as potency increases. Once the population had become addicted, and company estimates show ≥ 90% of the Congo’s population is fully dependent, the drugs metamorphosized from being an aid to becoming payment for work accomplished (although company scrip is used to purchase basic goods and services like food and transport). It would not be an exaggeration to say that the majority of payment from the Royal Africa Company for services rendered by its ‘employees’ is made using the Trac series of narcotics. The people of the Congo then, for well over fifty years, have been living in a dream state where backbreaking labor is eased by French chemical ecstasy.

The even more insidious upshot to this program is if the Congolese become recalcitrant the Royal Africa Company simply withholds the drugs, sending uncooperative Congolese into a withdrawal so intense it has been known to lead to physical death. As was mentioned, the drugs were specifically designed to maximize addictive potential and tremendously exaggerate withdrawal symptoms. This explains, then, why although conditions in the Congo Free State are still primitive, even in some cases deplorable, by modern standards, there has not yet been one majority insurrection in the sprawling colony in its entire history—save for the odd bandit raid every decade.

Military of the État indépendant du Congo

The Force Publique (FP), the Compagnie royale afrique's private army, is used to enforce the resource quotas and provide domestic stability. Early on, the FP was used primarily to campaign against the native slave trade in the Upper Congo, protect he company's economic interests, and suppress the infrequent uprisings within the state. The Force Publique's officer corps includes only white Europeans (French regular soldiers and mercenaries from other countries). As of 2016 the FP's primary role is to exploit the natives as corvée laborers to promote the raw resources trade.

As with the French Royal Army there is an exception to the rule here—with the exception of occasional use of alcohol, all forms of drug use by the Force Publique are strictly prohibited and its troops tested frequently. They are compensated for the lack of recreational drug use by being paid in real French livres, of tremendous value in the Congo, as opposed to the worthless Compagnie royale afrique scrip known as the Congolese franc.

Force Publique Order of Battle

Special Security Division: Louisville
5,200 troops organized into five battalions
Secret compagnie memos reveal—‘appears combat ready'

Oriental Division: Le Loutre
4,100 troops
Secret compagnie memos reveal—‘ combat ready formation’

31st Parachute Brigade: Louisville
3,800 troops
Secret compagnie memos reveal—‘ high state of combat readiness'

32nd Parachute Brigade: Trois-Rivières
1,000 troops
Secret compagnie memos reveal—‘ still forming’

1st Armored Brigade: Trois-Rivières
1,300 troops, 100 AMX-30 tanks
Secret compagnie memos reveal—‘appears combat ready'

41st Commando Brigade: Le Loutre
1,200 troops
Secret compagnie memos reveal—‘ combat ready formation’

13th Infantry Brigade: Albertville (a.k.a. Kalemie)
1,500 troops
Secret compagnie memos reveal—‘One of the most neglected units in the Force Publique .'

21st Infantry Brigade: around Trois-Rivières
1,700 troops
Secret compagnie memos reveal—‘Modest combat capability'

22nd Light Infantry Brigade: Saint Paul (a.k.a. Kamina)
2,500 troops
Secret compagnie memos reveal—‘Role undefined'

Combat Aircraft

Fighters:

Mirage III (15)

Fixed Wing Transport Aircraft:

Nord Noratlas (25)

Helicopter Transports:

Aérospatiale Alouette II (40)

Aérospatiale Alouette III (40)

Notes:

*Although the official currency of the Congo Free State, the Congolese France is technically scrip. That is to say the Congolese franc is a substitute for government-issued legal tender or currency issued by the Compagnie royale afrique to pay its ‘employees’. It can only be exchanged in company stores owned by the Royal Africa Company.

**Since the État indépendant du Congo exists entirely to financially benefit metropolitan France, it has no individual GDP. Subsequently, I figured its earning power into the GDP of metropolitan France, which I hope explains why such a feudalistic state, a welfare state at that, has such a high standard of living in 2016.
Last edited by Nova Gaul on Tue Jun 14, 2016 5:13 pm, edited 1 time in total.


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