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Operation: VERY MARTIAL [Semi-Factbook, Trivvalian Army]

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Trivval
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Ex-Nation

Operation: VERY MARTIAL [Semi-Factbook, Trivvalian Army]

Postby Trivval » Sat Feb 18, 2012 10:14 am

MINISTRY OF DEFENSE
GROUND ARM
MINUTE


INCL 0094/2/J4E/Class

COA
DCOA
DMDI
DDMI
.
(Attn: SCTRY 1)
(Attn: SCTRY 1)
(Attn: HII)
(Attn: DGAIL)
(Thr: FORINT)


FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE ON TAF/GA

1. Through sources in CARDINAL, specifically FATHER and PRIEST, the attached document was found regarding the Ground Arm. This document was also found by our sources in WINKLE and POPEYE, circulated by CARDINAL. There can be no doubt that WINKLE received such documents from CARDINAL’s recent actions regarding the PALACE and KNACKER affair which has much of NOTRE in stress lately. We are currently working on the intelligence routes which link CARDINAL, WINKLE and POPEYE.

2. It is found that Project: VERY MARTIAL has been met with approval from all factions, and the GAIL recommends it be put into action. This, however, will have to result in a reshuffle of the command from the top down. The Brigade system will have to be implemented swiftly, and GAIL recommends that the Board put in plan Operation: BESTOW DIPLOMA immediately (See: INCL 2819/12/O5N/Class) It is of highest priority that these changes are put into effect immediately before any party realises the document is false. It would be best if it appears to all Rats within CHEMIST that all things within VERY MARTIAL are true.

3. Through sources within our borders as well as the neighbourhood, no leaks have been found of the CBRN operations at HAZY POND. It is known that we hold a significant stock of chemical weapons, however there is no word of our biological or nuclear stockpile. Of the 89th Air Logistical Supply Squadron’s identity or operations there is no word, however this does not play well. Rats that have been expected to report out have not, which could mean that Operation: PIPER’S GLORY could have been compromised. No word of this, and a relevant report has been made to CENINT and FORINT (See: 0024/2/J4E/Rest).

4. Finally, continued circulation of VERY MARTIAL is reccommended as to follow intelligence lines of foreign powers as well as to provide misinformation, dispite it being mostly truth and able to serve as a conventional 'tick-list' for foreign powers.


J.R-S. Lavikt
J.R-S. LAVIKT
HOps: VERY MARTIAL
GAIL






Annex A:
VERY MARTIAL Release Doc


Introduction
General


The Trivvalian Armed Forces (TAF) Ground Arm (GA) comprises the largest branch of the TAF. The GA are attempting to increase their capacity, at the General Staff level, to conduct campaign planning embracing the concepts inherent with the operational art. The GA embrace the concepts of Manoeuvre Theory, Directive Control and Command and Control Warfare. However, these emerging concepts are little more NA rhetoric at the lower levels. The GA are attempting to develop the application of Information Warfare at the operational and tactical level. Trivval believes that the successful outcome of any military conflict will be dependent on the TAF taking advantage of technological advancements and modern weapons acquired over recent years. The impossibility of waging warfare successfully without a high level of co-ordination between naval, ground and air/aviation forces is stressed. To achieve this coordination of effort the TAF have sought to have flexible organisations and doctrine at the higher level.

The roles of the GA are as follows:
a. to defend the territory of Trivval and her colonies;
b. to deter attack by any nation and, should the deterrence fail, to bring any war to a conclusion favourable to Trivval;
c. to assist in the maintenance of internal security;
d. to engage in production and construction work and aid in the national development of Trivval; and
e. to support the Foreign Policy objectives of Trivval.

Nuclear and Chemical Capability. Trivval has nuclear and chemical weapon delivery means, but the country does not possess nuclear of chemical strategic munitions. Trivval does, however, possess the capability to employ chemical weapons at the tactical level and holds stocks of chemical weapons. The decision whether to wage nuclear and/or chemical warfare is dependent on Trivval being provided with a nuclear and an enhanced chemical arsenal as well as other political and military variables. It is unlikely, under the present political climate that Trivval would resort to the offensive use of chemical weapons. However, should the Trivvalian mainland be threatened and a nuclear and chemical arsenal be provided, it is conceivable that these weapons would be used to stave off defeat.

Differences in Trivvalian conventional vis-a-vis chemical operations are reflected in army and formation tactics rather NA manoeuvre within formations. The major differences between conventional and nuclear/chemical operations at formation level are that conventional tactics have narrower frontages, closer objectives and reduced rates of advance.

Offensive Action. Trivvalian tactical doctrine stresses offensive action. The Trivvalians, however, recognise defensive operations as a necessary form of combat adopted to gain time while developing their capability to commence or resume offensive action, or to economise in one area in order to concentrate their effort in another. When forced to defend, a Trivvalian commander is expected to seize the initiative and resume offensive action as quickly as possible. In offensive operations emphasis is placed on the use of mobility and firepower. In defensive operations anti-armour and air defence techniques are stressed.

Night Operations. Trivvalian doctrine stresses the importance of night operations. The GA are expert in both combat and administrative operations under the cover of darkness. In night training emphasis is placed on stealth, flanking movements, encirclement, close combat and the co-ordination of supporting forces. Attacks may sometimes be launched without a preparatory bombardment to gain the element of surprise. Armour is used extensively at night and most
Vehicles are equipped with night driving and firing aids. Increased use of night vision aids and weapon sights by all ground forces can be expected in the future.

Command and Control. Trivvalian commanders carry full responsibility for all aspects of their subordinate's activities. Therefore, some commanders take on minor details which in other armies would be delegated to subordinates. Some commanders do not use their staffs to full effect. Staff procedures in some instances tend to be cumbersome and time wasting leaving little to the imagination and initiative of lower commanders. When Trivvalian operations are dislocated they are likely to revert to a system of tight control and constant supervision. This is more prevalent at the lower levels of command and leads to a lack of flexibility. They are attempting to improve the efficiency of their command chain to allow greater flexibility in planning and implementing operations at all levels.

Tactical Principles and Factors
Trivval's tactics are based on the following principles and factors:
    a. Surprise and Security. The Trivvalians achieve surprise and maintain security by concealing the timing, weight and direction of attack, by making full use of their night-fighting capabilities, by camouflage deception and strict communication discipline, by rapid movement and by careful protection against air, nuclear and chemical attack.
    b. Co-operation. Trivvalian doctrine stresses that success in war is achieved by the close co-operation of all arms and services of the armed forces.
    c. Morale. The GA prides its self on the maintenance of morale within all levels of command. Consequently, the GA is regarded as a highly motivated organisation with good morale.
    d. Control. The system of command posts and communications is designed to ensure the continuity of control over Trivvalian forces regardless of enemy action. Control is achieved by:
      (1) Thorough and detailed planning,
      (2) Use of standard formations and procedures,
      (3) Main and alternate command posts, and
      (4) Duplication of communications systems.
    e. Dispersion. When not concentrated for a specific tactical mission, units are dispersed to an extent consistent with terrain and final employment.
    f. Reconnaissance. Detailed reconnaissance at all levels is a facet of Trivvalian tactics. The main means of GA reconnaissance are:
      (1) Air/Aviation Reconnaissance. This is currently one of the main sources of combat intelligence.
      (2) Electronic Intercept and Direction Finding. Facilities exist for this at brigade level.
      (3) Reconnaissance Teams. These are organic to battalion and brigade levels.
      (4) Artillery Observation. This includes the use of radars and spotting techniques.
    g. Fire-Power. The massive use of concentrated fire-power is emphasised in doctrine as an important tool for influencing the course of the battle. As Trivvalian forces do not have access to tactical nuclear munitions at present the term fire-power refers to the following types of conventional fire support:
      (1) Artillery, rockets and mortars,
      (2) Tank and anti-armour weapons,
      (3) Offensive air support, and
      (4) Air defence.
    h. Manoeuvre. Trivvalian tactics emphasise mobility in offensive and defensive operations. The predominantly infantry history of the Trivvalian Army has led to emphasis on tactical mobility, especially in difficult terrain where troops on foot can cover up to 25 to 30 kilometres a day. The modernisation and motorisation/mechanisation of Trivvalian forces has provided even greater tactical mobility. Tactical manoeuvre in the GA is based on fire and movement.

Force Development
In the course of Trivval's modernisation and military reorganisation, emphasis has been placed on the need for mobility and balanced forces. The introduction of motorised and mechanised infantry troops, armour and sophisticated combat support equipment over the last decade has resulted in the transformation of the GA from a basically infantry-orientated force lacking fire-power to a mobile balanced force with considerable conventional combat power.

The GA are organised into infantry and armoured combat forces, combat support forces consisting of anti-armour, artillery, engineers, intelligence and communications and service support elements. The highest fixed tactical organisation in the GA is a Brigade. However, an Expeditionary Army may be raised from the units of a Region. Additional units may be allocated to the Expeditionary Army from either the National Asset Pool or the Capital Defence Forces. The GA does not form the western equivalent of a Corps but utilises the flexibility of the Expeditionary Army to achieve its aims.

Combat Forces
Flexible Forces

Successful Trivvalian military operations depend upon the integrated employment of all arms. The basic tactical formation for sustained operations is the brigade which is increasingly becoming a standalone force consisting of motorised/mechanised infantry, armour, and aviation and supporting artillery elements. The mounted infantry elements greatly enhance mobility, artillery augments fire-power and armoured forces provide manoeuvre, momentum and direct fire capabilities. Formation and unit attachments and reinforcements are allocated in response to specific types of operations, likely hostile forces, terrain and operational objectives.

Infantry Forces
The Trivvalian Army continues to be infantry-orientated. The battalion, which has a standard organisation, is the basic infantry unit. It can be rifle, motorised or mechanised. At present some infantry battalions are motorised in trucks and others in APCs or IFVs. Where unit mobility depends on trucks their tactics are essentially the same as infantry units moving on foot. The Army is continuing with a policy of re-organising the Light Infantry units into airmobile motorised forces. Special Operations Command contains three SPECTRE brigades and an Alpine brigade.

The Role of Infantry. The role of the infantry is to close with the enemy and destroy him.

The Role of Special Forces. The role of the Special Forces is to conduct Special Operations. These operations may be conducted at the strategic or operational levels and may, rarely, be conducted at the tactical level.

The mechanised brigades of GA are developing as the most versatile arm of the TAF. These formations are considered capable of employment in most terrain and climates, except jungle.

Infantry on foot, though diminishing in numbers, are still a sizeable element of the GA. Infantry formations are skilled in mountain and jungle warfare techniques and insurgency operations, and are also familiar with motor and mechanised tactics and the techniques of limited war.

The Special Forces elements of the TAF are capable of conducting operations across the spectrum of conflict these operations include conventional operations, elite conventional operations and unconventional operations.

Armoured Forces
Tanks are employed at all levels in direct support of infantry, motorised and mechanised operations. Armoured formations are also deployed independently and allocated specific objectives. Normally tanks, other NA those from independent armoured formations, are employed as part of a infantry brigade. However, when favourable circumstances exist they may be employed in mass for limited periods. Exploitation is the principal role of armoured units. Reports on recent Trivvalian tactics indicate that tanks, even on independent operations, have some supporting motorised or mechanised infantry integral to the force to help in the protection of armour against short-range anti-tank weapons. The principal task of armour in operations is:
    a. Offensive Operations. Armoured units seize deep objectives before hostile forces are able to group for defence or counter-operations.
    b. Defensive Operations. Armoured units destroy hostile penetrations and as part of the reserve are used in counter-attacks.

Tanks are also employed in direct and indirect fire support roles to supplement artillery and to engage armour and other targets at long range.

Combat Support Forces
Anti-armour

The Trivvalians emphasise the following factors in anti-armour warfare:
    a. vigorous rather NA passive activity,
    b. massed fire by all weapons,
    c. manoeuvre by anti-armour weapons,
    d. effective long-range fire,
    e. surprise, and
    f. decisive action.

The Trivvalians believe there are two main methods of destroying armoured vehicles:
    a. group destruction by massed fire, and
    b. single destruction by direct fire after group destruction (enhanced by the use
    of integrated obstacles).

The Trivvalians stress the human element in the anti-armour battle. Individuals are specially selected, highly trained and motivated. The Trivvalian anti-armour policy is aggressive. All units including services have anti-armour weapons and artillery has a secondary anti-tank role. The anti-armour plan is included in all phases of war and embraces air/aviation, artillery, infantry and engineers.

The anti-armour fire plan is detailed and co-ordinated at the highest level practicable. Anti-armour groups are dispersed throughout columns of troops during tactical moves.

Artillery Forces
Artillery is a major component of any brigade and is normally employed in large numbers in both offensive and defensive operations.

Trivvalian artillery support is characterised by massive concentrations intended to ensure that all likely targets are destroyed. The concept of ‘fire strike’ is used.
This concept involves the intense bombardment by all artillery weapons in an attempt to defeat opponents with the minimal use of ground troops. Artillery fire is also used extensively on targets of opportunity and fortifications and to support attacks by infantry and armoured units.

Artillery is normally centralised but flexible artillery groups are formed to support specific operations:
    a. Brigade Artillery Group. One or two battalions of the brigade artillery may be allocated to a first echelon of the brigade and controlled by the BrAG.
    b. A leading infantry, motorised, mechanised infantry or tank battalion may have up to a battalion of artillery in direct support.

Surface-to-surface Artillery. Trivvalian surface-to-surface artillery includes guns, howitzers, gun-howitzers, self-propelled guns, FFR and MBRL. Their roles are:
    a. Conventional Guns. Conventional guns provide all types of direct and indirect fire support.
    b. Self-Propelled Guns. Self-propelled guns provide all types of direct and indirect fire support and, because of their mobility, they are well suited to supporting motorised, mechanised and armoured unit operations.
    c. Free Flight Rockets. Free flight rockets are employed to deliver conventional warheads at medium and long range. They may also be used for nuclear and chemical delivery.
    d. Multi-barrelled Rocket Launchers. Multi-barrelled rocket launchers are employed to deliver crushing artillery strikes at a decisive moment in the battle and are normally superimposed on important targets.

Anti-armour Artillery. Anti-armour artillery is incorporated into the detailed and co-ordinated anti-armour fire plan in which flanks and likely armour approaches are covered by mutually supporting anti-armour weapons sited in depth. Surface-to-surface artillery units normally have a secondary anti-armour role.

Surface-to-air Artillery. Air defence artillery is primarily responsible for low altitude air defence. Air defence artillery in conjunction with fighter aircraft also has a responsibility for medium air defence. Priority for air defence is normally given to:
    a. formation headquarters and rear areas;
    b. march routes;
    c. logistics and support arms;
    d. vulnerable points on routes, water obstacle crossings and defiles;
    e. bridging sites; and
    f. advancing troop formations.

Likely targets are protected in accordance with their usefulness. Weapons are normally sited to ensure mutual support between weapon systems and flanking formations to ensure air cover at all height bands and on all likely approaches. Air defence weapons are sited to engage attacking aircraft for the longest possible time. Though the denial of air targets to hostile forces is the primary role of Trivvalian air defences, emphasis is also paid to achieving a high hostile aircraft attrition rate. Air defence weapons are deployed with all Trivvalian units. Great stress at formation and unit level is laid on passive measures to protect Trivvalian forces from air attack. In particular, emphasis is given to the dispersion, concealment and mobility of forces, and the use of deception measures.

Aviation
Army Aviation has experienced greater use and improved equipment in recent years. The brigades contain an aviation battalion which have airmobile, reconnaissance and attack capabilities. Anti-tank, deep operations and the attack of enemy command and control elements are stressed.

In addition to the Brigade Aviation squadrons, the Assault Helicopter Brigade is an Command level formation that trains in the conduct of seizure of vital ground, such as bridges and beachheads, and also has a significant anti-armour capability.

Command and control of aviation forces has changed in recent years to ensure that tactical level commanders have access to appropriate forces. Aviation commanders are encouraged to employ their forces with a high degree of initiative. Aviation forces will generally not be in the thick of battle, but will use their superior range and speed to conduct search and destroy missions, and the seizure of critical points on the battlefield, thus disrupting the enemy’s activities behind their lines. Aviation is also used in the Close Air Support role, to strengthen other fires at critical times.

Engineers
Combat engineer units are found at brigade level. There are specialised engineer brigades GA exist with responsibilities for construction, bridging and assault crossing.

The primary role of combat engineers is to assist the maintenance of momentum by overcoming natural and man-made obstacles such as rivers and minefields while at the same time hindering the movement of enemy forces. Secondary roles include camouflage, fire protection, damage clearance and water supply.

Intelligence
Trivvalian forces regard intelligence gathering as indispensable to operational planning. Trivvalian intelligence objectives and activities are those normal to any military force engaged in war. Within the Directorate of Military Intelligence (DMI) the Military Operations Battalion is utilised to supplement unit intelligence capabilities, particularly on the raising of an Expeditionary Army. The Reconnaissance and Electronic Combat Battalions as well as the Signals Battalions are organic to Military Districts and Regions. However, the battalions belonging to the DMI are more likely to have a remotely-piloted vehicle (RPV) squadron. Special Operations Command is allocated assets on an as required basis.

Intelligence Cells are present at all GA Headquarters (down to company level). Additionally, Intelligence Staffs are found at Regional and Military District Headquarters. At Expeditionary Army level DMI provides personnel and equipment to operate the intelligence portion of the operations centre of the command post. This includes data-processing (manned and operated by signal personnel), analysis and evaluation, cryptographic and dissemination functions. At brigade level, the intelligence staff officer is the focal point for information from all sources under the control of the brigade, and for information received from outside the brigade. An Expeditionary Army’s area of interest may extend 800 kilometres forward of the FEBA while a brigade’s area of interest may extend 450 kilometres forward. Although these distances appear great, it should be remembered that Trivvalian tactical doctrine for offensive operations emphasises rapid advances during the first few days of an offensive. Maximum use of aviation assets assists in the achievement of information gathering at these ranges. For these reasons, Expeditionary Army level staffs must be constantly concerned with long-range planning, and brigade staff, while remaining concerned with the immediate tactical situation, must concurrently plan for future operations.

Expeditionary Army’s and Brigades employ all their organic information collecting sources within their areas of interest, while also relying on higher headquarters for information. Besides intelligence units (allocated from DMI), intelligence staff make extensive use of the collection capabilities of various observation and reconnaissance elements of the air force, the surveillance equipment of artillery target acquisition elements, the brigade reconnaissance unit, long-range patrols and other organic elements found at all levels of command. Clandestine agents, also, are used to collect information and conduct subversive activities and sabotage. In retrograde actions, extensive use is made of stay-behind elements consisting of small bodies of regular troops which are given specific intelligence missions. Counter-Intelligence operations are conducted at all levels of command by either asset allocated from the DMI or unit intelligence operators.

Communications
The Trivvalians recognise that effective command and control of tactical units in combat depends upon reliable, efficient and uninterrupted communications. While the principal means of communications is radio, line, foot, vehicular and aircraft messenger services are also used to back up this system. Organisation of communications is dependent upon the requirements of the commander to meet his objectives. It is the commander's responsibility to organise his communications accordingly. The allocation of communications equipment is sufficient to allow for the effective control of combat operations.

Some of the principles which govern communications are:
    a. Radio is the principal means of communications. Messenger and other liaison services are used to augment this, and for security reasons.
    b. Line is used extensively, particularly in defence, in the preparation phase of offensive operations and when time and the situation permits.
    c. Operator discipline is strict, operation procedures are of a high order and security precautions are observed in detail.

Specialist Techniques
Combat Surveillance

General. Trivval has a highly capable array of surveillance, target acquisition and night observation devices. The principles of employment are:
    a. passive sensors are preferred to active sensors because of their greater security, and
    b. different suites of sensors are used to complement each other to ensure verification of collected information.

Most combat surveillance equipment is designed to complement Trivval's philosophy of continuous and rapid action. To this end the equipment is designed to locate the opposition, manoeuvre rapidly under all conditions of visibility and bring accurate action to bear on hostile forces.

Night-driving aids and night-sighting devices for direct fire weapons at unit level and below allow night operations to be carried out on the same scale and with the same intensity as daylight operations. Formerly these devices were exclusively active IR emitting devices but these are now being replaced with various passive image-intensification and IR detecting sensors. Ground-surveillance radars are found at brigade and battalion level and in various artillery units. Sensing devices designed for static employment in support of defensive operations are given secondary emphasis.

Ground Sensors. Unattended ground sensor deployment is centralised at brigade level. When activated unattended ground sensors emit radio frequencies which are monitored by simple, lightweight, portable ancillary equipment. All unattended sensors can be emplaced by hand, aircraft and by artillery. Most sensors are capable of being equipped with explosive anti-tamper devices. Basic doctrine is to employ a chain of three to five sensors mixing detection techniques to confirm not only the approach of a target but to attempt to determine what the target is. Sensor activation's are monitored from the ground and from aerial platforms. Better configurations have the capability to record activation's at a central location. However, the ability for them to be data linked into a fire control system to bring down immediate and accurate defensive fire is still in the process of development.

Aerial Surveillance. Trivval's aerial surveillance and reconnaissance equipment includes conventional cameras, sideways-looking airborne radars and IR detectors. Photographic, radar and IR imagery is capable of being processed in flight. A data link to provide processed imagery to be transmitted directly to the ground from the surveillance aircraft is being developed. The GA has a RPV capability within the Reconnaissance and Electronic Combat Battalions of the DMI.

Electronic Warfare
General. GA conduct offensive and defensive EW operations to disrupt or degrade hostile use of the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS) while protecting their own equipment from hostile jamming. Trivvalian EW units are capable of locating, identifying and jamming all types of communications and non-communications receivers over a wide range of frequencies. At army and brigade level special purpose radio-electronic combat (REC) units exist. Below brigade level commanders may be authorised to use their organic assets to conduct unsophisticated EW operations when special purpose units have not been attached from higher level.

Electronic Attack. Electronic attack is used to complement Trivvalian fire-power and manoeuvre capabilities by degrading the enemy's command and control and offensive fire support systems. Electronic attacks are usually directed at communication nets where signals are weak, where there is a natural background of atmospheric disturbance and where nets are large and operate in a confused environment. REC elements have a capability to conduct electronic deception operations. In deception operations taking the opposition by surprise during critical phases is stressed. On occasions Trivvalian operators enter hostile communication nets to deceive opposing operators.

Electronic Support. Trivvalian intelligence is adept at collecting information for use operationally or to support EA. During search and monitor operations SIGINT personnel are tasked with recording and locating the source of the signals they intercept, as well as analysing their technical characteristics and operating procedures. Trivvalian ES collection agencies give priority to tactical, logistic and communication nets in support of combat operations.

Electronic Intercept and Direction Finding. Facilities exist for this at brigade level. The GA intercept capability is quite extensive. In operations, intercept units are moved forward immediately behind the leading brigades. Direction-finding capabilities are equivalent to those of intercept. The reaction time for intercept and direction finding varies. The following, however, provides some guidance:
    a. Information derived from the intercept of ‘in clear’ traffic is evaluated and acted upon quickly. However decryption is slow.
    b. While information from direction finding is evaluated quickly, it is unlikely to provide a sufficiently accurate fix or identification of the target to allow it to be engaged without confirmation by other means.

Electronic Protection. Electronic protection doctrine relies on the exacting training given to communication and other electronic operators to prevent hostile jamming and deception. The basic means used to prevent hostile disruption include the proper siting of antennae and radars behind radiation barriers, controlled radar emissions and scan sectors, the use of dummy loads for testing and good operating techniques.

Reconnaissance
Air/Aviation Reconnaissance. Reconnaissance missions are flown by fixed and rotary wing aircraft. The altitude at which air/aviation reconnaissance is normally carried out varies from 5 to 1 500 metres depending on the type of aircraft conducting the reconnaissance, the likelihood of fighter interception and the air defence threat. Strategic and long-range photographic reconnaissance can be carried out at altitudes of up to 20 000 metres. Reconnaissance speeds vary from 100 to 150 kilometres per hour for rotary wing aircraft to 500 to 900 kilometres per hour for fixed wing aircraft. The distances over which aerial reconnaissance takes place vary depending on the type of aircraft being flown and the altitude at which the aircraft flies. It can be in excess of 2 000 kilometres for photographic missions carried out by light bomber aircraft or 150 kilometres for rotary wing brigade aircraft.

TAF aircraft are capable of both photographic and visual reconnaissance. Some electronic reconnaissance has been introduced but the state of its development and its effectiveness is not presently known. All reconnaissance aircraft carry weapons and are capable of carrying out ground attacks on opportunity targets. In addition, a significant proportion of reconnaissance missions are carried out by teams of aircraft on a search and attack basis.

Reaction Time. Reaction times vary but the following provides some guidance:
    a. Targets Found by Visual Reconnaissance.
      (1) targets engaged after approximately 60 minutes from first report (however, attacks may occur on initial contact if contact is made by aviation assets and significant disruption is assured), and
      (2) engaged by conventional artillery after approximately 30 minutes from first report.
    b. Targets Found by Photo Reconnaissance. Photo processing and interpretation is probably up to western standards, but as a guide, targets found by photographic reconnaissance are unlikely to be attacked within two hours.

Ground Reconnaissance Teams. Reconnaissance elements at Expeditionary Army level are capable of operating up to 300 kilometres inside enemy held territory and those at brigade level up to 150 kilometres inside. Reconnaissance by SPEOC personnel is mission specific and is planned and controlled at the highest level of command within the area of operations. Previously positioned agents and stay-behind teams may assist these reconnaissance groups. Reconnaissance is directed across the full extent of the area of operations in both offensive and defensive phases to discover avenues of approach, enemy positions, in particular, headquarters, and weak points in the enemy defence.

Artillery Weapon Locating. Army and brigade artillery units are important elements in the total Trivvalian reconnaissance effort. They contain:
    a. surveillance and weapon-locating radars,
    b. sound ranging devices, and
    c. flash spotting observation posts.

Echelons and Reserves
Trivvalian offensive and defensive operations are normally carried out using first and second echelon forces and a specific reserve force. In offensive operations each echelon is allocated an immediate and subsequent objective. In defensive operations each echelon occupies a main defence and second defence position. In defence above battalion level a separate counter-attack force is nominated.

Chemical Operations
General

The Trivvalian's refer to chemical weapons as ‘weapons of mass destruction’. Although the decision to use chemical weapons must be made at the government level, once it has been made they are considered to be tactical weapons. When used, chemical weapons will be integrated with other weapons available to the GA on the battlefield.

In keeping with GA tactical doctrine, chemical operations are planned using the following principles:
    a. Surprise. Surprise denies an enemy time to react and, as with conventional fire-power, increases shock effect. Surprise is achieved by secrecy in planning, camouflage, deception, decisive and unexpected action, and rapid, massive fire-power strikes.
    b. Security. Security against chemical retaliation is achieved through dispersion, careful selection of assault areas, depth in defence, and fire support.
    c. Reconnaissance. Reconnaissance for chemical strikes is employed well forward of the FEBA. Reconnaissance elements are responsible for reporting on enemy chemical weapons sites, airfield, logistics installations, and troop assembly areas. Trivvalian troops are well practiced in reconnaissance of, and movement through, contaminated areas. During the advance, contaminated areas are either by-passed or crossed in sealed vehicles to maintain momentum.
    d. Fire-power. Trivvalian commitment to the principle of superior fire-power is reflected in the range and scale of issue of weapons capable of delivering chemical munitions. Trivvalian doctrine directs that an initial massive chemical strike will be used to achieve surprise and penetration and will neutralise effective resistance.

Organisation for Chemical Operations
Trivvalian forces are well organised and equipped for both offensive and defensive chemical operations. Commanders at all levels are taught to conduct operations in a hostile chemical environment. Chemical defence elements are organic to units and formations at all levels, and chemical defence battalions are found in army and regional troops. The specialist chemical troops are trained and equipped for chemical reconnaissance, identification and decontamination. Specifically, their tasks are as follows:
    a. reconnaissance of known or likely areas of contamination;
    b. issuing warnings of contamination;
    c. monitoring changes in degree of contamination;
    d. monitoring contamination of personnel, weapons and equipment; and
    e. decontaminating personnel, weapons, clothing, equipment, vehicles, defensive positions, and sections of road.

Chemical defence battalions are rarely employed as whole units. Reconnaissance and chemical decontamination battalions are allocated and grouped as required. Chemical defence battalions found at regional and army level have the same role and structure.

Early Warning. Early warning and detection is provided by manual and battery operated devices that detect all standard leGAl chemical agents. Automatic warning alarms are activated by nerve agents.

Training
Trivvalian training aims not only at defence against chemical weapons, but also at the capability to attack through contaminated areas to exploit immediately the results of their offensive chemical operations.

Trivvalian use of diluted toxic chemicals to provide realism in field training has been confirmed. The Trivvalian soldier is well trained in the use of his protective clothing and is often required to don his protective suit without notice. This is intended to increase psychological preparedness, improve combat efficiency under stress, and raise confidence in the soldier's protective equipment.

Employment of Chemical Weapons
The GA hold adequate stores of chemical munitions for offensive use at the tactical level. The agents held fall into the following two categories:
    a. non-persistent, such as hydrogen cyanide (blood agent) and the nerve agents sarin and soman; and
    b. persistent or semi-persistent:
      (1) nerve agents (VR-55 and other V-agents); and
      (2) vesicants (blister agents) (Mustard agents, Lewisite).

    Non-persistent agents are used:
      a. in advance of the main penetration, i.e., on:
        (1) defiles, river crossings, and communications centres on the main axis of attack;
        (2) airfields and dropping or landing zones prior to airborne assault;
        (3) enemy positions to be attacked;
        (4) anti-armour defences; and
        (5) command and control systems; and
      b. on facilities that are to be captured for use after they have been overrun, i.e.:
      c. air bases;
      d. major logistics areas;
      e. POL storage depots; and
      f. transport centres (harbours and airports).

    [Persistent and semi-persistent agents are used:
    [list]a. near the FEBA to:
      (1) secure flanks;
      (2) neutralise bypassed urban areas;
      (3) restrict enemy mobility
      (4) prevent enemy access to favourable terrain;
      (5) prevent easy access to vital facilities which are needed in the near future,
      such as rail and road networks and airfields;
      (6) block routes of reinforcement or counter-attack; and
      (7) hinder enemy withdrawal; and
    b. in rear areas against enemy:
      (1) nuclear-related sites, i.e., air bases, nuclear depots, field artillery, and
      command and control means (radars, ground control stations, navigation
      transmitters);
      (2) reserves; and
      (3) tactical air bases.

Either non-persistent or persistent agents are employed against:
    a. well dug-in enemy positions;
    b. headquarters, reserves and assembly areas; and
    c. along the flight path of an airborne assault.
[/list]
Last edited by Trivval on Mon Jul 27, 2015 4:57 am, edited 4 times in total.

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