NATION

PASSWORD

PASSED: Stem Cells For Greater Health

A carefully preserved record of the most notable World Assembly debates.
User avatar
Studly Penguins
Spokesperson
 
Posts: 152
Founded: Jul 14, 2008
New York Times Democracy

PASSED: Stem Cells For Greater Health

Postby Studly Penguins » Mon May 18, 2009 6:37 am

Stem Cells For Greater Health

Category: Human Rights
Strength: Significant

To the Peoples of the World Assembled,

NOTING the significant value of the use of stem cells in medical research and the untapped potential that those cells can provide,

ALARMED at the number of diseases and other injuries going either without treatment or with inadequate treatment due to the nature of said ailment,

EMPHASIZING the need to Guarantee the right of Nations to research and develop stem cell related cures, treatments, and a Patient’s right to use Stem Cell therapies.

1) GUARANTEES the right of Doctors to engage in Stem Cell research should they so choose.

2) SOLEMNLY AFFIRMS that no Doctors or Medical Institutions can be held liable if they choose not use Stem Cell-related treatments if it violates their own personal values and/or principles.

3) CREATES the Stem Cell and Alternative Treatment Research Office to the WHA. Their objective is to research and develop potential cures and medicines derived from Stem Cells to help combat the effects of illness and injury. They shall be attached to the Health Research and Development Division (HRDD). All breakthroughs and developments shall be published and put into the Public Domain.

4) AFFIRMS the right of Nations to decide the source of the Stem Cells they use for research and development. Also mandates that the Stem Cells must be harvested in the most humane and least destructive way possible.

5) ALLOWING for trade amongst Nations in Stem Cells of any kind including: Cells, Research Equipment, or Training. It shall be left to each National Government to determine compensation for any transaction completed. In the event of a dispute in this area of Trade, the HRDD shall have the authority to settle the dispute.
Last edited by Kryozerkia on Sun May 31, 2009 1:38 pm, edited 13 times in total.

User avatar
Unibot
Senator
 
Posts: 4292
Founded: May 25, 2008
Ex-Nation

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research

Postby Unibot » Mon May 18, 2009 6:41 am

Wow, you're really trying to offend the theological crowd. :)

Um, give me a bit to review it - I'll be back in a couple hours and edit this post accordingly with my response.

User avatar
Studly Penguins
Spokesperson
 
Posts: 152
Founded: Jul 14, 2008
New York Times Democracy

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research

Postby Studly Penguins » Mon May 18, 2009 6:49 am

Wow, you're really trying to offend the theological crowd.

Um, give me a bit to review it - I'll be back in a couple hours and edit this post accordingly with my response.


Im not trying to offend anyone, but I know that it happens when one takes on certain subjects. Besides most fertility clincs throw out unused fertilized embryos so why not use them for something other than bio-hazardous waste??

There are other places to get stem cells other than embryos i.e. umbilical cords, bone marrow, etc. Hell people could donate their own for their own use if they ever needed it if they chose to.

And besides it doesnt force anyone to use or research Stem Cells, just guarantees their right to if they choose to without fear of persecution or legal litigation. Also would allow for the further reasearch and development of Stem Cell research for cures, medicines, and treatments.
Last edited by Studly Penguins on Mon May 18, 2009 6:51 am, edited 1 time in total.

User avatar
Philimbesi
Minister
 
Posts: 2347
Founded: Jun 07, 2007
Ex-Nation

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research

Postby Philimbesi » Mon May 18, 2009 7:03 am

Studly Penguins wrote:1) GUARANTEES the right of Nations and Doctors to engage in Stem Cell research should they so choose.


If the nation or the doctors choose to?

2) SOLUMNLY AFFIRMS that no Doctor or Medical Institution can be held liable if they choose not use Stem Cell-related treatments if it violates their own personal values and/or principles.


Fine with that.

3) Creates the Stem Cell and Alternative Treatment Research Division to the WHA. Their objective is to research and develop potential cures and medicines derived from Stem Cells to help combat the effects of illness and injury. All breakthroughs and developments shall be published and put into the Public Domain.


Fine, however might want to enter some type of data collection from nations that currently engage in stem cell research.

4) Funding shall come directly from the World Assembly; it shall receive no additional funding from other sources.


Fine.

All in all a good start. My only question is would the author see fit to include some type of "harvesting" standards? Might insulate the resolution from the stem cell farm discussion. At least a bit.
The Unified Districts Of Philimbesi
The Honorable Josiah Bartlet - President

Ideological Bulwark #236

User avatar
Flibbleites
Retired Moderator
 
Posts: 6569
Founded: Jan 02, 2004
Ex-Nation

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research

Postby Flibbleites » Mon May 18, 2009 7:13 am

Two questions.

1. Category & Strength

2. Are you talking about adult stem cells or embryonic stem cells?

Bob Flibble
WA Representative

User avatar
Unibot
Senator
 
Posts: 4292
Founded: May 25, 2008
Ex-Nation

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research

Postby Unibot » Mon May 18, 2009 7:23 am

Category & Strength


Human Rights?
Significant/Strong?

Because of the lives that it could potentially save, and the controversy it would have among the theological crowd, I would've suggested "Strong" - However at the same time it allows nations to continue not engaging in Stem Cell research...

GUARANTEES the right of Nations and Doctors to engage in Stem Cell research should they so choose


Because some more devout nations will have doctors that refuse to engage in Stem Cell research, this milds the proposal to a "Significant" ranking, I would say.
Last edited by Unibot on Mon May 18, 2009 7:24 am, edited 1 time in total.

User avatar
Absolvability
Diplomat
 
Posts: 857
Founded: Apr 08, 2009
Ex-Nation

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research

Postby Absolvability » Mon May 18, 2009 7:47 am

Well. I support stem cell research but I don't really see the point to this proposal. I understand that the author was probably trying to appease the opposition by making a lot of this proposal voluntary to doctors/nations; it just doesn't seem like, in the end, the proposal does anything.

Studly Penguins wrote:GUARANTEES the right of Nations and Doctors to engage in Stem Cell research should they so choose

Isn't this pretty much the way it is now? There is no international law saying anything of the contrary. If there were a repeal would be necessary. So in the end you are placing the final decision with the individual nation, which is where it has always been.

If you mean to say that Doctors may choose to engage in Stem Cell research despite a national law then you should express that more openly. As it stands you seem to lump doctors and nations together with no preference towards either.

Studly Penguins wrote:3) Creates the Stem Cell and Alternative Treatment Research Division to the WHA. Their objective is to research and develop potential cures and medicines derived from Stem Cells to help combat the effects of illness and injury. All breakthroughs and developments shall be published and put into the Public Domain.

So in the end this is the meat of your proposal. As I understand it though, a proposal needs to do more than create a committee.
Antonius Veloci
Ambassador of The Event Horizon of Absolvability

User avatar
Sionis Prioratus
Senator
 
Posts: 3537
Founded: Feb 07, 2009
Ex-Nation

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research

Postby Sionis Prioratus » Mon May 18, 2009 8:39 am

Wel dear friend, I happen to think it's wonderful. As for Flib's questions, it should be Human Rights, given that

Studly Penguins wrote:EMPHASIZING the need to Guarantee the right of Nations to research and develop stem cell related cures, treatments, and a Patient’s right to use Stem Cell therapies.


and strength, significant or strong, leaning significant.

About the kind of stem cells, maybe that should be left to the nations to decide. But it's just a suggestion.

Might I add, and I'm humbled you drew some inspiration from the "Access to Life-Saving Drugs"; as per the AtLSD, there now exists a Health Research & Development Division (HRDD) within the WHA. Maybe you could add to its duties, or create another division stating a partnership? The HRDD in relevant part, "[has] the aim to research and develop cures and vaccines for said diseases [(diseases that affect mainly the poorest populations, diseases for which there have not been as yet serious attempts at a research for a cure or a vaccine)]"

You have my vote.

Yours,
Last edited by Sionis Prioratus on Mon May 18, 2009 8:42 am, edited 1 time in total.
Cathérine Victoire de Saint-Clair
Haute Ambassadrice for the WA for
✡ The Jewish Kingdom of Sionis Prioratus
Daughter of The Late King Adrian the First
In the Name of
Sa Majesté Impériale Dagobert VI de Saint-Clair
A simple truth

User avatar
Studly Penguins
Spokesperson
 
Posts: 152
Founded: Jul 14, 2008
New York Times Democracy

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research

Postby Studly Penguins » Mon May 18, 2009 8:43 am

Absolvability wrote:Well. I support stem cell research but I don't really see the point to this proposal. I understand that the author was probably trying to appease the opposition by making a lot of this proposal voluntary to doctors/nations; it just doesn't seem like, in the end, the proposal does anything.

As of right now, you are correct. This is a work in progress and in no way to be construed as me thinking its complete. Long ways to go. As you mentioned there are harvesting standards to set, etc.
Studly Penguins wrote:GUARANTEES the right of Nations and Doctors to engage in Stem Cell research should they so choose

Isn't this pretty much the way it is now? There is no international law saying anything of the contrary. If there were a repeal would be necessary. So in the end you are placing the final decision with the individual nation, which is where it has always been.



If you mean to say that Doctors may choose to engage in Stem Cell research despite a national law then you should express that more openly. As it stands you seem to lump doctors and nations together with no preference towards either.

Ok, I will change it from the aforementioned text to only cover Doctors and not Nations. Good Point.

Studly Penguins wrote:3) Creates the Stem Cell and Alternative Treatment Research Division to the WHA. Their objective is to research and develop potential cures and medicines derived from Stem Cells to help combat the effects of illness and injury. All breakthroughs and developments shall be published and put into the Public Domain.

So in the end this is the meat of your proposal. As I understand it though, a proposal needs to do more than create a committee.

Ok is this where I should start inserting the harvesting standards?

User avatar
Studly Penguins
Spokesperson
 
Posts: 152
Founded: Jul 14, 2008
New York Times Democracy

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research

Postby Studly Penguins » Mon May 18, 2009 8:51 am

Sionis Prioratus wrote:Wel dear friend, I happen to think it's wonderful. As for Flib's questions, it should be Human Rights, given that

Studly Penguins wrote:EMPHASIZING the need to Guarantee the right of Nations to research and develop stem cell related cures, treatments, and a Patient’s right to use Stem Cell therapies.


and strength, significant or strong, leaning significant.

About the kind of stem cells, maybe that should be left to the nations to decide. But it's just a suggestion.

Might I add, and I'm humbled you drew some inspiration from the "Access to Life-Saving Drugs"; as per the AtLSD, there now exists a Health Research & Development Division (HRDD) within the WHA. Maybe you could add to its duties, or create another division stating a partnership? The HRDD in relevant part, "[has] the aim to research and develop cures and vaccines for said diseases [(diseases that affect mainly the poorest populations, diseases for which there have not been as yet serious attempts at a research for a cure or a vaccine)]"

You have my vote.

Yours,


Thanks!! How would you go about making the division stating a partnership? It would be best if they were separate but working together. I was thinking about covering Adult and Embryonic stem cells, but am open to the thought of allowing Nations to decide which one(s) they harvest to use for research.

Also too does anyone have any thoughts relating to what standards should be set? The thoughts I have totally suck and would kill my proposal. Im open to suggestions of any kind. I addressed Flib's concerns on category and strength currently now listed as Human Rights/Significant.

User avatar
Absolvability
Diplomat
 
Posts: 857
Founded: Apr 08, 2009
Ex-Nation

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research-Revised

Postby Absolvability » Mon May 18, 2009 8:53 am

Studly Penguins wrote:As of right now, you are correct. This is a work in progress and in no way to be construed as me thinking its complete. Long ways to go. As you mentioned there are harvesting standards to set, etc.

I assure you I realize and appreciate that this work is not yet completed. It is because I agree with this proposal that I want to make sure it is legal. I think you're off to a good start.

Studly Penguins wrote:Ok, I will change it from the aforementioned text to only cover Doctors and not Nations. Good Point.

Of course, at some point, somebody is going to mention that nations should have sovereignty over their doctors. It might be a good idea for you to guarantee doctors the right to the study and practice of researches (stem cells,) that will benefit their occupation and the general public, while leaving the issue of how/when to harvest with the nation. Some nations would much prefer to get cells from bone marrow than from embryos, for example.

Studly Penguins wrote:Ok is this where I should start inserting the harvesting standards?

Yes, it probably is. Though I think you'll find that this is where your serious opposition begins. -smiles-
Antonius Veloci
Ambassador of The Event Horizon of Absolvability

User avatar
Philimbesi
Minister
 
Posts: 2347
Founded: Jun 07, 2007
Ex-Nation

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research-Revised

Postby Philimbesi » Mon May 18, 2009 9:13 am

We agree with the change, and thanks for clarifying the nation / doctors thing.

I think adult vs embryonic should be left up to nations to decide, possibly some international restrictions making sure that the collection is humane. Restricting for lack of a better term 'trafficking' in them. Honestly I'm not sure how to phrase it.
The Unified Districts Of Philimbesi
The Honorable Josiah Bartlet - President

Ideological Bulwark #236

User avatar
Studly Penguins
Spokesperson
 
Posts: 152
Founded: Jul 14, 2008
New York Times Democracy

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research-Revised

Postby Studly Penguins » Mon May 18, 2009 9:31 am

Philimbesi wrote:We agree with the change, and thanks for clarifying the nation / doctors thing.

I think adult vs embryonic should be left up to nations to decide, possibly some international restrictions making sure that the collection is humane. Restricting for lack of a better term 'trafficking' in them. Honestly I'm not sure how to phrase it.


With your permission, may use your thoughts listed here to incorporate into the formation of the standards for research?

Im gonna write some up in a bit, but if you dont want me to use your thought(s) then I will write something else.

User avatar
Philimbesi
Minister
 
Posts: 2347
Founded: Jun 07, 2007
Ex-Nation

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research-Revised

Postby Philimbesi » Mon May 18, 2009 9:32 am

Studly Penguins wrote:
Philimbesi wrote:We agree with the change, and thanks for clarifying the nation / doctors thing.

I think adult vs embryonic should be left up to nations to decide, possibly some international restrictions making sure that the collection is humane. Restricting for lack of a better term 'trafficking' in them. Honestly I'm not sure how to phrase it.


With your permission, may use your thoughts listed here to incorporate into the formation of the standards for research?

Im gonna write some up in a bit, but if you dont want me to use your thought(s) then I will write something else.


If you can get something coherent and well.. in English... from that last post, go right ahead. :lol:
Last edited by Philimbesi on Mon May 18, 2009 9:33 am, edited 1 time in total.
The Unified Districts Of Philimbesi
The Honorable Josiah Bartlet - President

Ideological Bulwark #236

User avatar
Studly Penguins
Spokesperson
 
Posts: 152
Founded: Jul 14, 2008
New York Times Democracy

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research-Revised

Postby Studly Penguins » Mon May 18, 2009 9:42 am

Would a ban on trade of stem cells be a good thought??

Something like:

BANS all trade and commerce of Stem Cells across National Borders without the proper documentation and approval of the WHA's Health and Research Division.

Too much, not enough, any thoughts

User avatar
Studly Penguins
Spokesperson
 
Posts: 152
Founded: Jul 14, 2008
New York Times Democracy

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research- 2ndRevision

Postby Studly Penguins » Mon May 18, 2009 9:45 am

The new revision of this Draft is now posted at the top of this thread. Any new thoughts??

User avatar
Absolvability
Diplomat
 
Posts: 857
Founded: Apr 08, 2009
Ex-Nation

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research- 2ndRevision

Postby Absolvability » Mon May 18, 2009 11:12 am

Studly Penguins wrote:Would a ban on trade of stem cells be a good thought??

That may be a good protectionist policy. For the sake of your own proposal however I think this would be a counter-productive measure. Possibly declare the rights of nations to abstain from trade of stem cells. Certainly don't ban it.
Antonius Veloci
Ambassador of The Event Horizon of Absolvability

User avatar
Philimbesi
Minister
 
Posts: 2347
Founded: Jun 07, 2007
Ex-Nation

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research- 2ndRevision

Postby Philimbesi » Mon May 18, 2009 11:25 am

Studly Penguins wrote:The new revision of this Draft is now posted at the top of this thread. Any new thoughts??


Bans? huh. Not sure how a total ban works in conjunction with the goals of the commtee, one would think that in order to get that done some form of trade might be needed. Plus there may be some nations that don't have as much a problem with the research as much as the harvesting. Improbable yes, impossible no. Maybe some an outright ban on the sale of stem cells to avoid an international black market.

Something like:

BANS the sale of stem cells, for any reason.

ALLOWS for further regulation on the trade of stem cells as the individual nations see fit.



Still rough wording but hopefully the author picks up what I'm putting down.
The Unified Districts Of Philimbesi
The Honorable Josiah Bartlet - President

Ideological Bulwark #236

User avatar
Studly Penguins
Spokesperson
 
Posts: 152
Founded: Jul 14, 2008
New York Times Democracy

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research- 2ndRevision

Postby Studly Penguins » Mon May 18, 2009 11:50 am

Philimbesi wrote:
Studly Penguins wrote:The new revision of this Draft is now posted at the top of this thread. Any new thoughts??


Bans? huh. Not sure how a total ban works in conjunction with the goals of the commtee, one would think that in order to get that done some form of trade might be needed. Plus there may be some nations that don't have as much a problem with the research as much as the harvesting. Improbable yes, impossible no. Maybe some an outright ban on the sale of stem cells to avoid an international black market.

Something like:

BANS the sale of stem cells, for any reason.

ALLOWS for further regulation on the trade of stem cells as the individual nations see fit.



Still rough wording but hopefully the author picks up what I'm putting down.


I like it. I will make the appropriate edit now!

User avatar
Belriel
Bureaucrat
 
Posts: 44
Founded: May 13, 2009
Ex-Nation

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research- 2ndRevision

Postby Belriel » Mon May 18, 2009 12:02 pm

As the proposal is worded it does not distinguish between embryonic and somatic (adult) stem cells.

The Dominion of Belriel cannot condone embryonic stem cell research in any form, as we believe this is using life as a tool, rather than a gift. Also, embryonic stem cells at this time have been known to cause as much harm as they do good due to their unrestrained omnipotency. However, somatic stem cells can be taken from juvenile and adult living beings, and are more differentiated allowing more control over the growth of the cells. If this proposal were to implicitly select somatic stem cells, it could begin to be acceptable to our people.

As for trade, I heartily agree with your decision to ban international trade of your vague definition of stem cells as the trade of life-in any form-should be illegal. Now, again, should somatic stem cells be used exclusively then I would suggest that trade be opened, as then nations with more access to technology could trade their supply of stem cells with nations who cannot harvest these cells.

Yours,

User avatar
Studly Penguins
Spokesperson
 
Posts: 152
Founded: Jul 14, 2008
New York Times Democracy

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research- 2ndRevision

Postby Studly Penguins » Mon May 18, 2009 12:13 pm

Belriel wrote:As the proposal is worded it does not distinguish between embryonic and somatic (adult) stem cells.

The Dominion of Belriel cannot condone embryonic stem cell research in any form, as we believe this is using life as a tool, rather than a gift. Also, embryonic stem cells at this time have been known to cause as much harm as they do good due to their unrestrained omnipotency. However, somatic stem cells can be taken from juvenile and adult living beings, and are more differentiated allowing more control over the growth of the cells. If this proposal were to implicitly select somatic stem cells, it could begin to be acceptable to our people.

As for trade, I heartily agree with your decision to ban international trade of your vague definition of stem cells as the trade of life-in any form-should be illegal. Now, again, should somatic stem cells be used exclusively then I would suggest that trade be opened, as then nations with more access to technology could trade their supply of stem cells with nations who cannot harvest these cells.

Yours,


I'm afraid that the esteemed Ambassador missed the wording of Clause #4.

It is worded so Nations can select the type of Stem Cells that they wish to use. Some Nations prefer embryonic, some prefer stomatic as you state. Hell your nation doesnt even have to engage in Stem Cell research, nowhere in the text does it state that you must do research. There will be no restriction on what type of Stem Cells can be used.

It simply guarantees your Nation to do it if you wish without fear of prosecution, persecution, or litigation. Means if a Doctor in your Nation wishes to do research, he can and if he chooses not to then that ok as well.

User avatar
Philimbesi
Minister
 
Posts: 2347
Founded: Jun 07, 2007
Ex-Nation

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research- 2ndRevision

Postby Philimbesi » Mon May 18, 2009 12:17 pm

While I wouldn't presume to speak for the ambassador from Belriel, well I would presume but none-the-less, I believe he's saying that if embryonic research is on the the able they wouldn't support it at all. I'd ready myself for that kind of argument no matter what kind of NatSov provisions you put in there.
The Unified Districts Of Philimbesi
The Honorable Josiah Bartlet - President

Ideological Bulwark #236

User avatar
Belriel
Bureaucrat
 
Posts: 44
Founded: May 13, 2009
Ex-Nation

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research- 2ndRevision

Postby Belriel » Mon May 18, 2009 12:25 pm

Philimbesi wrote:While I wouldn't presume to speak for the ambassador from Belriel, well I would presume but none-the-less, I believe he's saying that if embryonic research is on the the able they wouldn't support it at all. I'd ready myself for that kind of argument no matter what kind of NatSov provisions you put in there.


I thank you for your mostly accurate analysis of my words.

To be more specific, the Dominion of Belriel, seeing the use and thus destruction of embryos to produce stem cells to be a careless disregard for the gift of life and a possible step toward genocide, would consider any nation that participates to be committing serious crimes against humanity. The Dominion of Belriel would conduct no trade whatsoever with these regions, and would suggest that other nations follow suit.

We would, however, condone and even participate in the harvesting of somatic stem cells from living donors and would move for trade in this area to be opened so that our country may trade these medical supplies with countries that need them.

Does that clarify my position?

User avatar
Studly Penguins
Spokesperson
 
Posts: 152
Founded: Jul 14, 2008
New York Times Democracy

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research- 2ndRevision

Postby Studly Penguins » Mon May 18, 2009 12:26 pm

Philimbesi wrote:While I wouldn't presume to speak for the ambassador from Belriel, well I would presume but none-the-less, I believe he's saying that if embryonic research is on the the able they wouldn't support it at all. I'd ready myself for that kind of argument no matter what kind of NatSov provisions you put in there.


Once again, you are correct Ambassador. I know this is a touchy subject, and that the Nat-Sov provisions probably will not make all people happy. I know that the struggle is still to come, but am confidant that we can get it done with plenty of help from other Delegations.

I just wanted to emphasize to the Delegation from Belreil that they have the option to choose what stem cells that they use should they decide to pursue Stem Cell Research.

User avatar
Studly Penguins
Spokesperson
 
Posts: 152
Founded: Jul 14, 2008
New York Times Democracy

Re: Proposal: Stem Cell Research- 2ndRevision

Postby Studly Penguins » Mon May 18, 2009 12:31 pm

Belriel wrote:
Philimbesi wrote:While I wouldn't presume to speak for the ambassador from Belriel, well I would presume but none-the-less, I believe he's saying that if embryonic research is on the the able they wouldn't support it at all. I'd ready myself for that kind of argument no matter what kind of NatSov provisions you put in there.


I thank you for your mostly accurate analysis of my words.

To be more specific, the Dominion of Belriel, seeing the use and thus destruction of embryos to produce stem cells to be a careless disregard for the gift of life and a possible step toward genocide, would consider any nation that participates to be committing serious crimes against humanity. The Dominion of Belriel would conduct no trade whatsoever with these regions, and would suggest that other nations follow suit.

We would, however, condone and even participate in the harvesting of somatic stem cells from living donors and would move for trade in this area to be opened so that our country may trade these medical supplies with countries that need them.

Does that clarify my position?


Yes, it does. How would you "open this area of trade" that you speak of. It sounds intriguing.

As far as embryos go, what do you do with ones that clinics are "throwing away"? That to me is more of a waste. At least then there'd be some use out of them. See aforementioned post that you have the option to get Stem Cells from whereever you please. Its in the text.

I do want your support, but I cant limit without defeating the purpose of this bill, the types of Cells you can use or not use.

Next

Advertisement

Remove ads

Return to WA Archives

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: Araraukar

Advertisement

Remove ads