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[PASSED] Nuclear Power Safeguards Act

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Pharthan
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Ex-Nation

[PASSED] Nuclear Power Safeguards Act

Postby Pharthan » Mon Jan 12, 2015 6:58 pm

Sixth Draft
Nuclear Power Safeguards Act
Category: Environmental
Area of Effect: All Businesses

Proposed by: Pharthan

AIMS to set definite preventative measures for safety in regards to nuclear power;

UNDERSTANDS that a nuclear meltdown can have an international effect;

HEREBY defines for the purposes of this resolution:
  1. Nuclear power as the use of sustained nuclear reactions of fission to generate heat and do useful work,
  2. Radiological disaster as a loss of control of radiation or radiological material, hazarding the safety of the public and environment or exceeding of exposure limits due to ionizing radiation,
  3. Decay heat as thermal energy from the fission or decay of fission products or fuel of reactors,
  4. Nuclear safety as the ability to prevent a nuclear meltdown or excess decay heat generation resulting in harm to the environment or public or unintended release of fission products.

LIMITS the resolution to facilities not mobile under their own power to protect facilities which may have other means of protection.

REQUIRES nations operating nuclear reactors applicable to this resolution to maintain their own the nuclear safety organization (NSO), to protect national and international populations, with the power and duty to:
1. Mandate shutdown of reactors deemed to not meet reactor safety standards until deficiencies are corrected and the facility is certified safe by the NSO.
2. Ensure that all reactors must have available:
  1. Four provided methods of Decay Heat Removal (DHR) with two methods to implement each.
    1. One DHR method may be the same as normal power-operation heat-removal.
    2. In addition to 2aI, one method must be able to account for Design Worst Case Decay Heat Generation (DHG) and still prevent a radiological disaster, without an external power source.
    3. Methods described in (2) must be resistant to natural disasters and their magnitudes they are susceptible to, to be determined by the NSO based on historical and geological data.
    4. One remaining DHR method may be heat loss to ambient.
    5. If (2) cannot be met, the reactor plant must stop operations which promote DHG.
  2. Requirements of 2a need not be met if 2aII may be met by 2aIV.
  3. Two methods of ceasing DHG processes are available capable of compensating for maximum possible reactor power at operation.
    1. One method must not require an external power source to the facility.
3. Inspect reactor plants at least once every two years to of evaluate nuclear-safety standards, procedures, systems, and materials and inform the facility of deficiencies.
4. Advise courses of action and guidelines for nuclear safety to facilities.
5. During investigations, test knowledge of operators of nuclear facilities to ensure they are properly trained.
6. Establish exposure limits for the populace in regards to exposure to nuclear power to ensure they receive less than harmful levels of radiation exposure due to the facilities.

ESTABLISHES the World Nuclear Regulatory Agency with the responsibility and power to:
1. Once every ten years certify individual nation's NSO to verify level of knowledge, attention to detail in inspections, and that the organization is maintaining standards.
2. Mandate and advise the national NSO on how to correct deficiencies in order to maintain the organization operational.
3. Collect information on and advise NSOs on best practices, observed in various nations to all member nations, provided the nation does not deem the information confidential.

REQUIRES reactor plant agencies to abide by advisories and mandates of the NSO.

MANDATES nations to establish procedures and arrangements to maintain safety and update them as deficiencies are discovered.

Nuclear Power Safeguards Act

Category: Environmental
Area of Effect: All Businesses
Proposed by: Pharthan

AIMS to set definite preventative measures for safety in regards to nuclear power;

DEFINES nuclear power as the use of sustained nuclear reactions of fission to generate heat and do useful work.

DEFINES radiological disaster as a loss of control of radiation or radiological material, hazarding the safety of the public and environment or exceeding of exposure limits due to ionizing radiation.

DEFINES decay heat as thermal energy from the fission or decay of fission products or fuel of reactors.

DEFINES nuclear safety as the ability to prevent a nuclear meltdown or excess decay heat generation resulting in harm to the environment or public or unintended release of fission products.

LIMITS the resolution to facilities not mobile under their own power to protect facilities which may have other means of protection.

REQUIRES nations operating nuclear reactors applicable to this resolution to maintain their own the nuclear safety organization (NSO), to protect national and international populations, with the power and duty to:
1. Mandate shutdown of reactors deemed to not meet reactor safety standards until deficiencies are corrected and the facility is certified safe by the NSO.
2. Ensure that all reactors must have available:
  1. Four provided methods of Decay Heat Removal (DHR) with two methods to implement each.
    1. One DHR method may be the same as normal power-operation heat-removal.
    2. In addition to 2aI, one method must be able to account for Design Worst Case Decay Heat Generation (DHG) and still prevent a radiological disaster, without an external power source.
    3. Methods described in (2) must be resistant to natural disasters and their magnitudes they are susceptible to, to be determined by the NSO based on historical and geological data.
    4. One remaining DHR method may be heat loss to ambient.
    5. If (2) cannot be met, the reactor plant must stop operations which promote DHG.
  2. Requirements of 2a need not be met if 2aII may be met by 2aIV.
  3. Two methods of ceasing DHG processes are available capable of compensating for maximum possible reactor power at operation.
    1. One method must not require an external power source to the facility.
3. Inspect reactor plants at least once every two years to of evaluate nuclear-safety standards, procedures, systems, and materials and inform the facility of deficiencies.
4. Advise courses of action and guidelines for nuclear safety to facilities.
5. During investigations, test knowledge of operators of nuclear facilities to ensure they are properly trained.
6. Establish exposure limits for the populace in regards to exposure to nuclear power to ensure they receive less than harmful levels of radiation exposure due to the facilities.

ESTABLISHES the World Nuclear Regulatory Agency with the responsibility and power to:
1. Once every ten years certify individual nation's NSO to verify level of knowledge, attention to detail in inspections, and that the organization is maintaining standards.
2. Mandate and advise the national NSO on how to correct deficiencies in order to maintain the organization operational.
3. Collect information on and advise NSOs on best practices, observed in various nations to all member nations, provided the nation does not deem the information confidential.

REQUIRES reactor plant agencies to abide by advisories and mandates of the NSO.

MANDATES nations to establish procedures and arrangements to maintain safety and update them as deficiencies are discovered.

Nuclear Power Safeguards Act

Category: Environmental
Area of Effect: All Businesses
Proposed by: Pharthan

AIMS to set forth definite preventative measures for safety of the public in regards to nuclear power;

DEFINES nuclear power as the use of sustained nuclear fission to generate heat and do useful work;

DEFINES radiological disaster as a loss of control of radiation or radiological materials causing hazard to the safety and health of the general public and the environment or the exceeding of their exposure limits due to ionizing radiation from a nuclear power;

DEFINES decay heat as thermal energy resulting from the fission or decay of fission products or fuel from a nuclear reactor;

DEFINES nuclear and reactor safety as the ability to prevent a nuclear meltdown, uncontrolled criticality, or excessive decay heat generation resulting in harm to the environment or general population, or unintended release of fission products;

LIMITS the resolution to facilities not mobile under their own power to reduce effects on facilities which may have other means of viable protective measures or means of preventing release of fission products to citizenry;

HEREBY:

REQUIRES each nation operating nuclear reactors applicable to this resolution to maintain their own the nuclear safety organization, in order to protect national and international populations, with the power and responsibility to:
  • 1. Mandate shutdown of any reactors deemed to not meet reactor safety standards until such a time as deficiencies are corrected and the facility is certified once more as safe by the NSO.
  • 2. Ensure that all reactors must have available:
    • a. Four provided methods of Decay Heat Removal (DHR) with at minimum two methods of implementation each.
      • (1) One DHR method may be same as normal power-operation heat-removal.
      • (2) In addition to 2a(1), one method must be able to account for Design Worst Case Decay Heat Generation (DHG) and still prevent a radiological disaster, and must not require an external power source to the reactor plant.
      • (3) Methods described in (2) must be resistant to natural disasters, including a 9.0 Earthquake and 100ft (30.48m) Tsunami if the facility could be reached by one.
      • (4) One remaining DHR method may be heat loss to ambient.
      • (5) If (2) cannot be met, the reactor plant must cease operations which promote DHG.
    • c. Requirements of 2a need not be met if 2a(2) may be met by 2a(4).
    • b. Two methods of ceasing decay heat generating processes are available capable of compensating for maximum possible reactor power at operation.
      • (1) One method must not require an external power source to the reactor plant.
  • 3. Inspect nuclear reactor plants at least once every two years for the purpose of evaluating nuclear-safety standards, procedures, systems, and material history and inform the facility management of any deficiencies found in such inspections.
  • 4. Advise courses of action and guidelines for nuclear safety to facilities.
  • 5. During investigations, test knowledge of operators of nuclear facilities to ensure they are properly trained; if deficient, require the operator to be properly trained prior to continuing work.
  • 6. Establish standard exposure limits for the general population in regards to exposure to nuclear power to ensure they receive less than harmful levels of radiation exposure due to normal power plant operations.

ESTABLISHES the World Nuclear Regulatory Agency with the responsibility and power to:
  • 1. Certify, once every ten years, individual nation's nuclear safety organizations to verify proper level of knowledge, attention to detail in inspections, and that the organization is properly .
  • 2. Mandate and/or advise the national nuclear safety organization on how to correct deficiencies noted, in order to maintain the organization operational.
  • 3. Collect information on and advise nuclear safety organizations on "best practices," observed in various nations to all member nations, provided the nation does not deem the information to be confidential.

REQUIRES reactor plant agencies to abide by guidelines and mandates set forth by the nuclear safety organization.

MANDATES nations to establish procedures and arrangements to maintain safety and stability and update them as applicable deficiencies are discovered, whether by nuclear safety organization, the reactor plant, or any oversight organization.



[box]Nuclear Power Safeguards Act

Category: Health
Area of Effect: International Aid
Proposed by: Pharthan

AIMS to set forth definite preventative measures for safety of the public in regards to nuclear power;

DEFINES nuclear power as the use of sustained nuclear reaction to generate heat and do useful work;

DEFINES radiological disaster as a loss of control of radiation or radiological materials causing hazard to health of general public or the exceeding of their exposure limits due to ionizing radiation from a nuclear power;

DEFINES nuclear and reactor safety as the ability to prevent a nuclear meltdown, uncontrolled criticality, or excessive decay heat generation resulting in harm to the environment or general population, or unintended release of fission products;

DEFINES decay heat as thermal energy resulting from the fission or decay of fission products or fuel from a nuclear reactor;

LIMITS the resolution to facilities not mobile under their own power to reduce effects on facilities who may have other means of viable manners of protective measures or means of preventing release of fission products to citizenry;

ESTABLISHES the Nuclear Safety Organization, in order to protect the general population, with the power and responsibility to:
  • 1. Mandate shutdown of any reactors deemed unsafe until such a time as deficiencies are corrected and the facility is certified once more as safe by the NSO.
  • 2. Ensure that all reactors must have available:
    • a. Four provided methods of Decay Heat Removal (DHR) with at minimum two methods of implementation each.
      • (1) One DHR method may be same as normal power-operation heat-removal.
      • (2) In addition to 2a(1), one method must be able to account for Design Worst Case Decay Heat Generation (DHG) and still prevent a radiological disaster, and must not require an external power source to the reactor plant.
      • (3) Methods described in (2) must be resistant to natural disasters, including a 9.0 Earthquake and 100ft (30.48m) Tsunami if the facility could be reached by one.
      • (4) One remaining DHR method may be heat loss to ambient.
      • (5) If (2) cannot be met, the reactor plant must cease operations which promote DHG.
    • c. Requirements of 2a need not be met if 2a(2) may be met by 2a(4).
    • b. Two methods of ceasing decay heat generating processes are available capable of compensating for maximum possible reactor power at operation.
      • (1) One method must not require an external power source to the reactor plant.
  • 3. Inspect nuclear power plants once a year for the purpose of evaluating nuclear-safety standards, procedures, systems, and material history and inform the facility management of any deficiencies found in such inspections.
  • 4. Advise courses of action and guidelines for nuclear safety to facilities.
  • 5. During investigations, test knowledge of operators of nuclear facilities to ensure they are properly trained; if deficient, require the operator to be properly trained prior to continuing work.
  • 6. Establish standard exposure limits for the general population in regards to exposure to nuclear power to ensure they receive less than harmful levels of radiation exposure due to normal power plant operations.

REQUIRES nations and their reactor plant agencies to abide by guidelines and mandates set forth by the NSO.

ALLOWS for nations to deny the NSO to remove information about the nation's nuclear facilities deemed unsafe for foreign sources to know, in order to protect the nations being investigated.

MANDATES nations to establish procedures and arrangements to maintain safety and stability and update them as applicable deficiencies are discovered, whether by NSO, the reactor plant, or any oversight organization.



Nuclear Safeguards Resolution

Category: ?
Industry Affected: ?
Proposed by: Pharthan

AIMS to set forth definite preventative measures for safety in regards to nuclear power;

DEFINES nuclear power as the use of sustained nuclear reaction to generate heat and do useful work;

DEFINES nuclear disaster as the release of fission products to the environment as the result of excessive decay heat from a nuclear reactor;

DEFINES nuclear and reactor safety as the ability to prevent a nuclear meltdown, excessive decay heat generation resulting in harm to the environment or humans, or unintended release of fission products.

DEFINES decay heat as thermal energy resulting from the fission or decay of fission products or fuel from a nuclear reactor.

LIMITS the resolution to facilities not mobile under their own power to reduce effects on facilities who may have other means of viable manners of protective measures;

ESTABLISHES the Nuclear Safety Organization, with the power and responsibility to:
  • 1. Mandate shutdown of any reactors deemed unsafe until such a time as deficiencies are corrected and the facility is certified once more as safe by the NSO.
  • 2. Ensure that all reactors must have available:
    • a. Four provided methods of Decay Heat Removal (DHR) with at minimum two methods of implementation each.
      • (1) One DHR method may be same as normal power-operation heat-removal.
      • (2) In addition to 2a(1), one method must be able to account for Design Worst Case Decay Heat Generation (DHG) and still prevent a nuclear disaster, and must not require an external power source to the reactor plant.
      • (3) Methods described in (2) must be resistant to natural disasters, including a 9.0 Earthquake and 100ft (30.48m) Tsunami if the facility could be reached by one.
      • (4) One remaining DHR method may be heat loss to ambient.
      • (5) If (2) cannot be met, the reactor plant must cease operations which promote DHG.
    • c. Requirements of 2a need not be met if 2a(2) may be met by 2a(4).
    • b. Two methods of ceasing decay heat generating processes are available capable of compensating for maximum possible reactor power at operation.
      • (1) One method must not require an external power source to the reactor plant.
  • 3. Inspect nuclear power plants once a year for the purpose of evaluating nuclear-safety standards, procedures, systems, and material history and inform the facility management of any deficiencies found in such inspections.
  • 4. Advise courses of action and guidelines for nuclear safety to facilities.
  • 5. During investigations, test knowledge of operators of nuclear facilities to ensure they are properly trained; if deficient, require the operator to be properly trained prior to continuing work.

REQUIRES nations and their reactor plant agencies to abide by guidelines and mandates set forth by the NSO.

MANDATES nations to establish procedures and arrangements to maintain safety and stability and update them as applicable deficiencies are discovered, whether by NSO, the reactor plant, or any oversight organization.





OOC NOTES:
Nuclear Disaster Response act #60 only deals with response and not at all with prevention, so a preventative resolution would not overlap.
Workplace Safety act #7 would only matter with handling of materials and personnel safety and would not prevent meltdown and does not make any requirements to keep personnel safe against I foreseeable circumstances.
Disaster Preparedness act #105 deals only with reactor containment (in its statement of "structure") and would not prevent meltdown.

The below are related resolutions.


Nuclear Power Safety Act [Struck out by Resolution #212]
A resolution to increase the quality of the world's environment, at the expense of industry.

Category: Environmental
Industry Affected: Uranium Mining
Proposed by: Silvadus

Description: The General Assembly,

DEFINING nuclear power as the use of sustained nuclear fission to generate heat and do useful work,

RECOGNIZING that nuclear power is an efficient and abundant source of power,

AWARE that many nations use nuclear power as a source of power and some use it as a main source of power,

REALIZING the potential hazards of nuclear power such as nuclear waste and nuclear accidents that can cause long term damage to people’s health and the environment,

BELIEVING that most hazards caused by nuclear power can be easily prevented or dealt with responsibly,

CONCERNED that some nations may not have well-established safety standards for nuclear power and may be at risk of nuclear hazards,

ESTABLISHES the Nuclear Energy Safety Commission (NESC) to promote and oversee the safety standards of nuclear power plants,

SHALL grant the NESC the responsibilities of:
I. The inspection of nuclear energy power plants for the purpose of evaluating safety protocols,
II. Determining the level of compliance of safety protocols in conjunction with standardized practices,
III. Determining which safety protocols are lacking, and inform facility management and the controlling government of deficiencies,
IV. Advising courses of action(s) needed to bring safety protocols and standards in line with standardized practices,
V. Receiving and evaluating outstanding safety practices for implementation for standardization as “best practices”,

MANDATES the following for nations:
I. Take prime responsibility for risks caused by exposure to radiation while handling radioactive material for the purpose of nuclear power,
II. Establish procedures and arrangements to maintain safety and stability while operating nuclear power plants,
III. Have safety measures in place to prevent or have arrangements to deal with exposure to radiation while handling radioactive material,
IV. Follow adequate building designs for the construction of nuclear power plant facilities,
V. Establish proper regulations for facilities and activities dealing with the handling of radioactive materials for the purpose of generating power,
VI. Enforce regulations placed upon nuclear facilities and attempt to pass legislation to better the safety of said nuclear facilities,

Co-authored by Lestaria and neuchies

Votes For: 7,976
Votes Against: 2,884

Implemented Thu Jun 21 2012

[WAR204 on NS] [WAR204 on NSwiki] [Official Forum Topic]

Repeal "Nuclear Power Safety Act"
A resolution to repeal previously passed legislation

Category: Repeal
Resolution: #204
Proposed by: Bergnovinaia

Description: WA Resolution #204: Nuclear Power Safety Act (Category: Environmental; Industry Affected: Uranium Mining) shall be struck out and rendered null and void.

Argument: The World Assembly:

NOTING that General Assembly Resolution #204, "Nuclear Power Safety Act", establishes the Nuclear Energy Safety Commission (NESC) and its duties but does not require nations to comply with its recommendations;

REGRETTING that the NESC's sole mandate is to recommend that member-states implement measures already required under extant international law such as GA#60, "Nuclear Disaster Response Act" and GA#105, "Preparing for Disasters;"

NOTING that GA#60 already mandates that member nations take specific measures to deal with nuclear crises;

RECOGNIZING that GA#105 already requires member states to inspect nuclear facilities for safety reasons;

FURTHER NOTING that GA#7, "Workplace Safety Standards Act" already establishes guidelines for safe work environments, as well as protocols for individuals who have to handle hazardous materials;

FRUSTRATED by the oversights of the author of GA#204 regarding the above legislation as well as the potential dangers created by GA#204 as follows:

APPALLED that GA#204 allows energy corporations and national nuclear energy industries to pick and choose guidelines that suit their corporation’s or nation’s needs without regards to civilian safety;

WORRIED that in order to maximize energy output and profits, nuclear energy industries will cut corners, exposing workers and civilians to the many dangers of nuclear radiation;

TROUBLED that the mandate that member nations “follow adequate building designs" to construct nuclear power plant facilities allows nuclear energy industries to use older, more hazardous plans deemed as "adequate”;

ANXIOUS that nations are required to "establish procedures and arrangements to maintain safety and stability", but are not required to update these procedures on a regular basis;

FRIGHTENED that the same mandate does not give any real form of direction and thus gives nuclear energy industries the freedom to implement potentially inefficient and non-protective safety codes;
CONCERNED also that GA#204 defines nuclear power as "the use of sustained nuclear fission to generate heat and do useful work", thereby excluding other forms of energy generation by nuclear processes, such as nuclear fusion, from safety regulations;

HOPING that any future resolutions related to the safety of nuclear power address these issues and properly take previous World Assembly legislation into account;

REPEALS General Assembly Resolution #204: Nuclear Power Safety Act.

Co-author: Ossitania

Votes For: 6,501
Votes Against: 3,615

Implemented Tue Aug 21 2012

[WAR212 on NS] [WAR212 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]

Workplace Safety Standards Act
A resolution to improve worldwide human and civil rights.

Category: Human Rights
Strength: Significant
Proposed by: The Dourian Embassy

Description: Believing that employees have the right to safe working conditions while at their workplace;

Understanding that a unified standard by which to measure workplace safety may lead to a reduction of workplace accidents, reduce health care costs, and help save lives;

The World Assembly, hereby:

1) Defines, as pertaining to this resolution:
A) An employee as any individual who performs a task or tasks for compensation that is not self employed, employed in law enforcement, or in the military.
B) A workplace as any location where an employee completes a task or tasks for compensation.

2) Guarantees the right of all employees to a safe working environment.

3) Requires that all chemicals be properly labeled, and that safety information be easily accessible in all workplaces pertaining to the chemical that include but are not limited to:
A) Physical data
B) Toxicity
C) Health effects
D) First aid instructions
E) Reactivity
F) Storage
G) Disposal
H) Protective equipment
I) Spill handling procedures
J) Flammability
K) Radioactivity

4) Requires that all workplaces establish minimum standards for Personal Protective Equipment(PPE) to ensure the safety of employees with full understanding of the hazards and environments employees may face.

5) Requires that all employees be provided with or provide their own PPE and that they be required to use them.

6) Requires that the workplace be reasonably free of safety hazards, that all equipment and tools can be safely operated, and that the workplace be maintained in such a state as long as employees are present.

7) Requires that all employees be trained to safely handle any hazardous materials they are required to work with or near.

8) Requires that proper training for tool, machine, and motorized vehicle operation be provided when employees are required to use them in the course of their work.

9) Requires a reasonable amount of emergency exits be provided that allow all employees to leave the workplace quickly.

10) Requires that emergency exits be kept accessible and clearly marked.

11) Requires that employees not enter or remain at a workplace when their ability to work safely is impaired to the point of endangering themselves or those around them.

12) Requires that all employees refrain from purposefully neglecting safety precautions in workplaces.

13) Requires that each nation ensure that within it there exist at least one adequately funded governmental body that inspects work sites and ensures compliance with this act throughout its territory.

14) Accepts that nothing in this resolution bars more stringent workplace safety standards.

Co-Authored by Yelda

Votes For: 7,675
Votes Against: 2,513

Implemented Mon May 12 2008

[WAR7 on NS] [WAR7 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]

Nuclear Disaster Response Act
A resolution to improve world security by boosting police and military budgets.

Category: International Security
Strength: Strong
Proposed by: Veilyonia

Description: The World Assembly,

REALIZING that nuclear disasters, whether accidentally caused, or caused as result of conflict, pose a serious threat to the world’s population,

UNDERSTANDING that nuclear radiation can have catastrophic effects on the environment and international population if the disaster is not dealt with accordingly, as contaminated waterways and nuclear fallout can disperse nuclear radiation across international borders,

ALARMED that many nations do not adequately respond to nuclear disasters, or underestimate their severity, placing not just their national population, but the international community at risk,

HEREBY

1) DEFINES, for the purposes of appropriately interpreting the material of this resolution:
-A ‘nuclear disaster’ as any event, brought about intentionally or accidentally, that results in the widespread expulsion of harmful concentrations of nuclear radiation
- A ‘contaminated zone’ as an area containing concentrations of radiation that can be harmful or fatal with prolonged exposure.

2) ESTABLISHES the Nuclear Disaster Response Organization (NDRO), which shall perform the following duties:

A) Confirming the severity of nuclear disasters, that is, the amount of radiation released, and its extent and distribution.
B) Providing cleanup crews to control the spread of radiation, and prevent individuals from receiving harmful doses of radiation.
C) Determining the causes of accidental nuclear disasters, for the purposes of preventing similar disasters in the future.

3) MANDATES that all member nations report nuclear disasters to the NDRO, and any surrounding nations that may have been affected by the disaster.

4) REQUIRES that nations afflicted by nuclear disasters take the following measures in dealing with the disaster, including, but not limited to:

A) Evacuating any areas that have been contaminated by radiation as a result of the disaster, beginning with areas closest to the source of radiation and moving outwards.
B) Providing clean water to areas that have had their sources of drinking water contaminated as a result of the disaster.
C) Providing immediate medical services to those suffering from radiation poisoning as a result of the disaster.
D) Clearly marking contaminated zones with multi-lingual signs, using languages present in the surrounding area.
E) Taking appropriate measures to prevent the spread of radiation by restricting or diverting the flow of contaminated waterways, where possible.

Votes For: 4,725
Votes Against: 985

Implemented Wed Sep 2 2009

[WAR60 on NS] [WAR60 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]

Preparing for Disasters
A resolution to improve world security by boosting police and military budgets.

Category: International Security
Strength: Mild
Proposed by: Topid

Description:
The General Assembly,

Defining for the purposes of this resolution a ‘disaster’ as an event that causes massive loss of life or property damage, exempting any event intentionally caused by a warring party, or any acts of terrorism, or other political attacks,

Noting the vast amounts of wealth spent annually by member states, NGOs, and the World Assembly itself in providing humanitarian aid after disasters,

Recognizing that some of the loss of life and damage to property could be avoided if a nation had some warning a disaster was pending,

Seeking to prevent the loss of as many lives or the damage of as much property as possible when disasters occur,

Hereby:

I. Establishes the World Assembly Disaster Bureau (WADB) which shall be tasked with monitoring public hazards,
(a) Defines ‘public hazard’ as a condition, event, or situation that could become a disaster or makes a disaster possible or likely to occur,
(b) The WADB shall operate "early warning" systems for the initial detection of possible disasters,

II. Demands member states to regularly inspect structures such as dams, levees, nuclear facilities, and any other structures or vehicles which hold materials which, if the structure were to malfunction, could precipitate a disaster in the immediate area,
(a) Member states shall share the findings of these inspections with the WADB,
(b) The WADB shall provide all the help that a nation requests in this process such as training national investigators or performing the investigations for the nation,
(c) The WADB is to keep all information about each nation's infrastructure strictly confidential to prevent this information from being used in a manner not intended by the resolution,

III. Mandates each nation to create response plans for likely or reasonably possible disasters,
(a) Part of each nation's response plan will be to ensure an adequate amount of funds are available to respond to a disaster,
(b) The WADB shall be able to give loans and grants to nations which cannot afford to respond to disasters on their own,

VI. Mandates WADB shall issue warnings to national governments and all national monitoring agencies, when they suspect a disaster is pending, and shall also notify the various NGOs, WA Organizations, and National Governments which frequently send humanitarian aid, in the hopes the aid will arrive sooner if advanced notice is given;

V. Declares member states maintain the right to operate their own disaster alert system,
(a) The WADB shall provide as much assistance as possible to national systems on request,

VI. Encourages member states to respond to alerts in a manner that will protect the lives of as many civilians as possible.

VII Directs the WADB to research and experiment with techniques to better detect disasters, technologies that would assist in responding to a disaster, improvements to structure that reduce the danger of a disaster,
(a) The WADB shall share this information with the national governments of all nations, for the government to use as they wish,

VIII. Instructs the WADB to collaborate with all World Assembly organizations to achieve its goals,

Co-Author: The Most Serene Republic of Cievan

Votes For: 3,376
Votes Against: 1,922

Implemented Tue Aug 3 2010

[WAR105 on NS] [WAR105 on NSwiki] [Official Debate Topic]





Ambassador Benjamin Reynolds stood at his podium, confidently, and began. "Ladies and Gentlemen of the World Assembly, it was brought to my attention by Pharthan's Nuclear Regulatory Agency that, while Pharthan and many other nations have sufficient nuclear safeguards, others are operating old, outdated, or unsafe reactors, or are just plain careless with their operation." He paused. "Furthermore, while there are a good many resolutions involving direct safety of workers, or how to respond to a nuclear accident, there yet remain to be any resolutions regarding preventing one. As such, the Nation of Pharthan is proposing a Nuclear Safeguards Resolution to ensure all reactor plants are equipped with sufficient safeguards to ensure the protection of our international citizenry. I will now turn over the floor to a representative from Pharthan's Nuclear Regulatory Agency to answer the more technical questions regarding this issue."

OOC:
Still trying to figure out which category this should fall under.
Last edited by Ardchoille on Fri Feb 20, 2015 10:06 pm, edited 37 times in total.
Reason: At vote edit
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Separatist Peoples
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Founded: Feb 17, 2011
Civil Rights Lovefest

Postby Separatist Peoples » Mon Jan 12, 2015 8:26 pm

"Category and strength? That should be the first step, as the text needs to read to the category. As it stands, you've got a well written block of text that doesn't quite fit anywhere. I'd suggest picking a category and rewriting this to fit instead of shoehorning it to the category."

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Pharthan
Minister
 
Posts: 2969
Founded: Feb 18, 2012
Ex-Nation

Postby Pharthan » Mon Jan 12, 2015 8:29 pm

OOC: It would most naturally fit under Environmental, and when originally thought of this resolution, it would have easily fit under Uranium Mining, but that is no longer an option. Strength would best fit "Mild," though.
Last edited by Pharthan on Mon Jan 12, 2015 8:29 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Separatist Peoples
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Postby Separatist Peoples » Mon Jan 12, 2015 8:33 pm

Pharthan wrote:OOC: It would most naturally fit under Environmental, and when originally thought of this resolution, it would have easily fit under Uranium Mining, but that is no longer an option. Strength would best fit "Mild," though.

OOC: environmental doesn't have strengths, just areas of affect. This is a problem you need to work out before approaching the text, because otherwise you get this exact issue. If I were you, I'd start over having picked a category for your topic, looking at the category effects, and trying again. You might try the Health category, as you are looking to set standards to improve the health of member citizens, as Environmental: All Business wouldn't fit as an AoE.
Last edited by Separatist Peoples on Mon Jan 12, 2015 8:34 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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Pharthan
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Ex-Nation

Postby Pharthan » Thu Jan 15, 2015 5:41 am

Separatist Peoples wrote:
Pharthan wrote:OOC: It would most naturally fit under Environmental, and when originally thought of this resolution, it would have easily fit under Uranium Mining, but that is no longer an option. Strength would best fit "Mild," though.

OOC: environmental doesn't have strengths, just areas of affect. This is a problem you need to work out before approaching the text, because otherwise you get this exact issue. If I were you, I'd start over having picked a category for your topic, looking at the category effects, and trying again. You might try the Health category, as you are looking to set standards to improve the health of member citizens, as Environmental: All Business wouldn't fit as an AoE.

OOC: Thank you for your input. I have modified some of the verbage to more fit the issue of Health.

The original draft is now included as a spoiler, with the modified draft as visible.

Nuclear Safeguards Resolution

Category: Health
Area of Effect: Healthcare
Proposed by: Pharthan

AIMS to set forth definite preventative measures for safety of the public in regards to nuclear power;

DEFINES nuclear power as the use of sustained nuclear reaction to generate heat and do useful work;

DEFINES radiological disaster as a loss of control of radiation or radiological materials causing hazard to health of general public or the exceeding of their exposure limits due to ionizing radiation from a nuclear power;

DEFINES nuclear and reactor safety as the ability to prevent a nuclear meltdown, uncontrolled criticality, or excessive decay heat generation resulting in harm to the environment or general population, or unintended release of fission products;

DEFINES decay heat as thermal energy resulting from the fission or decay of fission products or fuel from a nuclear reactor;

LIMITS the resolution to facilities not mobile under their own power to reduce effects on facilities who may have other means of viable manners of protective measures or means of preventing release of fission products to citizenry;

ESTABLISHES the Nuclear Safety Organization, in order to protect the general population, with the power and responsibility to:
  • 1. Mandate shutdown of any reactors deemed unsafe until such a time as deficiencies are corrected and the facility is certified once more as safe by the NSO.
  • 2. Ensure that all reactors must have available:
    • a. Four provided methods of Decay Heat Removal (DHR) with at minimum two methods of implementation each.
      • (1) One DHR method may be same as normal power-operation heat-removal.
      • (2) In addition to 2a(1), one method must be able to account for Design Worst Case Decay Heat Generation (DHG) and still prevent a radiological disaster, and must not require an external power source to the reactor plant.
      • (3) Methods described in (2) must be resistant to natural disasters, including a 9.0 Earthquake and 100ft (30.48m) Tsunami if the facility could be reached by one.
      • (4) One remaining DHR method may be heat loss to ambient.
      • (5) If (2) cannot be met, the reactor plant must cease operations which promote DHG.
    • c. Requirements of 2a need not be met if 2a(2) may be met by 2a(4).
    • b. Two methods of ceasing decay heat generating processes are available capable of compensating for maximum possible reactor power at operation.
      • (1) One method must not require an external power source to the reactor plant.
  • 3. Inspect nuclear power plants once a year for the purpose of evaluating nuclear-safety standards, procedures, systems, and material history and inform the facility management of any deficiencies found in such inspections.
  • 4. Advise courses of action and guidelines for nuclear safety to facilities.
  • 5. During investigations, test knowledge of operators of nuclear facilities to ensure they are properly trained; if deficient, require the operator to be properly trained prior to continuing work.
  • 6. Establish standard exposure limits for the general population in regards to exposure to nuclear power.

REQUIRES nations and their reactor plant agencies to abide by guidelines and mandates set forth by the NSO.

MANDATES nations to establish procedures and arrangements to maintain safety and stability and update them as applicable deficiencies are discovered, whether by NSO, the reactor plant, or any oversight organization.
Last edited by Pharthan on Thu Jan 15, 2015 5:42 am, edited 1 time in total.
HALCYON ARMS STOREFRONT

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Normlpeople
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Ex-Nation

Postby Normlpeople » Thu Jan 15, 2015 6:24 am

OOC: This is awfully technical for a draft such as this, and such specific technicality leads to confusion and repeals. Might I suggest writing it a little more generally for the ambassadors here who may not be nuclear technicians?
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Pharthan
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Ex-Nation

Postby Pharthan » Thu Jan 15, 2015 7:05 am

Normlpeople wrote:OOC: This is awfully technical for a draft such as this, and such specific technicality leads to confusion and repeals. Might I suggest writing it a little more generally for the ambassadors here who may not be nuclear technicians?

OOC: Specificity was used where it would still cover all reactors and vagueness (if, albeit, in technical terms) was used where necessary to cover all without being too restrictive. For instance, a great many IRL reactors would have to do absolutely nothing to fit these terms, regardless of type, size, or function. Conversely, with how many II "NUCLEAR MELTDOWN" incidents I've seen, the same cannot be true of NS, at least roleplay-wise.
Is there anything specifically you feel would be more well defined?
Last edited by Pharthan on Thu Jan 15, 2015 7:08 am, edited 3 times in total.
HALCYON ARMS STOREFRONT

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"Besides, if God didn't want us making glowing fish and insect-resistant corn, the building blocks of life wouldn't be so easy for science to fiddle with." - Dracoria

Why haven't I had anything new in my storefront for so long? This is why. I've been busy.

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The Empire of Ebola
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Ex-Nation

Postby The Empire of Ebola » Fri Jan 16, 2015 9:47 am

No.

This is a backdoor way for certain powers to conduct inspections of another nations infrastructure under the guise of "nuclear safety".
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Chester Pearson
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Ex-Nation

Postby Chester Pearson » Fri Jan 16, 2015 12:48 pm

I am failing to see how this has anything to do with healthcare funding....
Separatist Peoples wrote:With a lawnchair and a large bag of popcorn in hand, Ambassador SaDiablo walks in and sets himself up comfortably. Out of a dufflebag comes a large foam finger with the name "Chester Pearson" emblazoned on it, as well as a few six-packs.
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Pharthan
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Ex-Nation

Postby Pharthan » Fri Jan 16, 2015 3:09 pm

The Empire of Ebola wrote:No.

This is a backdoor way for certain powers to conduct inspections of another nations infrastructure under the guise of "nuclear safety".

You say that like it is the intent.

However, would a clause allowing nations to inspect and prevent sensitive information regarding infrastructure from leaving their nation satisfy you, or perhaps kne allowing a nation providing their own inspectors? Or perhaps ones dating that the nations providing inspectors be chosen at random for which countries they will inspect?
HALCYON ARMS STOREFRONT

"Humanity is a way for the cosmos to know itself." - Carl Sagan
"Besides, if God didn't want us making glowing fish and insect-resistant corn, the building blocks of life wouldn't be so easy for science to fiddle with." - Dracoria

Why haven't I had anything new in my storefront for so long? This is why. I've been busy.

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The Empire of Ebola
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Ex-Nation

Postby The Empire of Ebola » Fri Jan 16, 2015 4:28 pm

Pharthan wrote:
The Empire of Ebola wrote:No.

This is a backdoor way for certain powers to conduct inspections of another nations infrastructure under the guise of "nuclear safety".

You say that like it is the intent.

However, would a clause allowing nations to inspect and prevent sensitive information regarding infrastructure from leaving their nation satisfy you, or perhaps kne allowing a nation providing their own inspectors? Or perhaps ones dating that the nations providing inspectors be chosen at random for which countries they will inspect?


Why should any sovereign nation "let" ANYONE inspect ANYTHING they have the right to build or create?

NO. Anyone trying to inspect anything in our Empire without our express consent (which will never be given) will be shot and their home nation destroyed via nuclear attack.
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Chester Pearson
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Ex-Nation

Postby Chester Pearson » Fri Jan 16, 2015 6:16 pm

The Empire of Ebola wrote:
Pharthan wrote:You say that like it is the intent.

However, would a clause allowing nations to inspect and prevent sensitive information regarding infrastructure from leaving their nation satisfy you, or perhaps kne allowing a nation providing their own inspectors? Or perhaps ones dating that the nations providing inspectors be chosen at random for which countries they will inspect?


Why should any sovereign nation "let" ANYONE inspect ANYTHING they have the right to build or create?

NO. Anyone trying to inspect anything in our Empire without our express consent (which will never be given) will be shot and their home nation destroyed via nuclear attack.


Are you quite done yet? Nobody here gives two flying fucks about your ego Ambassador, and certainly no one is going to stroke it for you. Dick wavers tend to get treated very poorly around here.

And before you attempt to retort, I have an I.V. bag with your name on it....
Separatist Peoples wrote:With a lawnchair and a large bag of popcorn in hand, Ambassador SaDiablo walks in and sets himself up comfortably. Out of a dufflebag comes a large foam finger with the name "Chester Pearson" emblazoned on it, as well as a few six-packs.
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Pharthan
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Ex-Nation

Postby Pharthan » Fri Jan 16, 2015 9:53 pm

The Empire of Ebola wrote:
Pharthan wrote:You say that like it is the intent.

However, would a clause allowing nations to inspect and prevent sensitive information regarding infrastructure from leaving their nation satisfy you, or perhaps kne allowing a nation providing their own inspectors? Or perhaps ones dating that the nations providing inspectors be chosen at random for which countries they will inspect?


Why should any sovereign nation "let" ANYONE inspect ANYTHING they have the right to build or create?

NO. Anyone trying to inspect anything in our Empire without our express consent (which will never be given) will be shot and their home nation destroyed via nuclear attack.

Then I would highly recommend you review every other resolution mandating your facilities be inspected by various outside entities, cry yourself to sleep, and then promptly leave the World Assembly.
HALCYON ARMS STOREFRONT

"Humanity is a way for the cosmos to know itself." - Carl Sagan
"Besides, if God didn't want us making glowing fish and insect-resistant corn, the building blocks of life wouldn't be so easy for science to fiddle with." - Dracoria

Why haven't I had anything new in my storefront for so long? This is why. I've been busy.

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The Dark Star Republic
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Founded: Oct 19, 2013
Ex-Nation

Postby The Dark Star Republic » Fri Jan 16, 2015 9:54 pm

Pharthan wrote:Then I would highly recommend you review every other resolution mandating your facilities be inspected by various outside entities,

Which would those be?

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The Empire of Ebola
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Ex-Nation

Postby The Empire of Ebola » Fri Jan 16, 2015 10:05 pm

Pharthan wrote:
The Empire of Ebola wrote:
Why should any sovereign nation "let" ANYONE inspect ANYTHING they have the right to build or create?

NO. Anyone trying to inspect anything in our Empire without our express consent (which will never be given) will be shot and their home nation destroyed via nuclear attack.

Then I would highly recommend you review every other resolution mandating your facilities be inspected by various outside entities, cry yourself to sleep, and then promptly leave the World Assembly.


I would LOVE to see anyone from this toothless paper tiger of a WA try and enter the Empire uninvited under the guise of an "inspection". This assembly is not supposed to tarnish, subjugate, or otherwise infringe upon the sovereign rights of a member nation. No nation here, regardless of their ideology, and regardless of whether we like them or not, needs to have the Big Brother fist of the WA dictating to them how and why they may live or govern themselves.
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Pharthan
Minister
 
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Founded: Feb 18, 2012
Ex-Nation

Postby Pharthan » Fri Jan 16, 2015 10:32 pm

The Empire of Ebola wrote:
Pharthan wrote:Then I would highly recommend you review every other resolution mandating your facilities be inspected by various outside entities, cry yourself to sleep, and then promptly leave the World Assembly.


I would LOVE to see anyone from this toothless paper tiger of a WA try and enter the Empire uninvited under the guise of an "inspection". This assembly is not supposed to tarnish, subjugate, or otherwise infringe upon the sovereign rights of a member nation. No nation here, regardless of their ideology, and regardless of whether we like them or not, needs to have the Big Brother fist of the WA dictating to them how and why they may live or govern themselves.

This resolution by no mean infringes upon your rights, rather, it ensures that your nation is not operating in a manner harmful to your citizenry or other nation's citizenry. This is not about how your nation governs itself, it's about how your nation can harm other nations.

This does not infringe anything unless your nation is already operating nuclear power plants in an unsafe manner, nor does it subjugate anyone, or tarnish anything unless your goal is to significantly increase the cancer rates in your population.

I would love to see what would happen if your nation had a nuclear meltdown significant enough that contamination was detectable in mine.
Chester Pearson wrote:I am failing to see how this has anything to do with healthcare funding....


This resolution may better fit International Aid, as it would be giving assistance to other nations.
Last edited by Pharthan on Fri Jan 16, 2015 11:14 pm, edited 2 times in total.
HALCYON ARMS STOREFRONT

"Humanity is a way for the cosmos to know itself." - Carl Sagan
"Besides, if God didn't want us making glowing fish and insect-resistant corn, the building blocks of life wouldn't be so easy for science to fiddle with." - Dracoria

Why haven't I had anything new in my storefront for so long? This is why. I've been busy.

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Pharthan
Minister
 
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Founded: Feb 18, 2012
Ex-Nation

Postby Pharthan » Sun Jan 18, 2015 2:41 am

The second draft has been modified to more fit a Health scenario and has been changed to international aid, as well as a Confidentiality clause has been added to assist in protecting national sovereignty.
Last edited by Pharthan on Sun Jan 18, 2015 2:45 am, edited 1 time in total.
HALCYON ARMS STOREFRONT

"Humanity is a way for the cosmos to know itself." - Carl Sagan
"Besides, if God didn't want us making glowing fish and insect-resistant corn, the building blocks of life wouldn't be so easy for science to fiddle with." - Dracoria

Why haven't I had anything new in my storefront for so long? This is why. I've been busy.

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Dooom35796821595
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Corrupt Dictatorship

Postby Dooom35796821595 » Sun Jan 18, 2015 3:58 pm

Yearly inspections of every facility? Can a reactor degrade so far in a year that it would require another inspection? This seems slightly overzealous.

Other then that, it seems like a solid resolution.
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The Dark Star Republic
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Ex-Nation

Postby The Dark Star Republic » Sun Jan 18, 2015 4:12 pm

"In the definition section, you mention 'decay heat' before you define it. So I would suggest moving that defining clause above the one defining 'nuclear and reactor safety' - though, I'm not sure why you're defining that term, given you don't use it in the rest of the proposal. In general, your definitions appear unnecessary given the authority given to a committee.

"Having a centralised WA agency inspect every nuclear reactor in the entire WA every year seems unnecessarily burdensome. Perhaps you could follow the example of the Food and Drug Standards Act: instead of having the WA conduct the inspections, require that every nation operating nuclear reactors have their own regulatory and inspection agency, and then have the centralised WA agency certify those agencies. That greatly reduces the administrative burden as the WA simply has to affirm the practices of domestic regulators."

~ Carmelo Van Ploppington
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Pharthan
Minister
 
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Founded: Feb 18, 2012
Ex-Nation

Postby Pharthan » Mon Jan 19, 2015 12:46 am

"I would like to thank the Dooom Ambassador and the Dark Star Republic Attache for their input; it is logical and sound. We will be implementing this advice. With our latest draft, we have modified the resolution so that inspections are carried out every two years, vice one, and by national organizations rather than global. We've also added the World Nuclear Regulatory Agency to, once a decade, verify that these agencies are operating properly. Some nomenclature has been modified as well."

OOC: Yeah, when I wrote it, I was thinking more along the lines of what I'm used to, which is yearly inspections. Granted, that's more for training purposes as we cycle through people on a much more regular basis than a normal civilian plant would.
Last edited by Pharthan on Mon Jan 19, 2015 1:21 am, edited 1 time in total.
HALCYON ARMS STOREFRONT

"Humanity is a way for the cosmos to know itself." - Carl Sagan
"Besides, if God didn't want us making glowing fish and insect-resistant corn, the building blocks of life wouldn't be so easy for science to fiddle with." - Dracoria

Why haven't I had anything new in my storefront for so long? This is why. I've been busy.

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El Fiji Grande
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Founded: Jan 11, 2013
Civil Rights Lovefest

Postby El Fiji Grande » Thu Jan 22, 2015 9:00 pm

I think your third draft looks sound to me.
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Chester Pearson
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Founded: Aug 02, 2013
Ex-Nation

Postby Chester Pearson » Thu Jan 22, 2015 9:35 pm

Once again I ask, how does this relate to healthcare?
Separatist Peoples wrote:With a lawnchair and a large bag of popcorn in hand, Ambassador SaDiablo walks in and sets himself up comfortably. Out of a dufflebag comes a large foam finger with the name "Chester Pearson" emblazoned on it, as well as a few six-packs.
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Secretary-General United Regions Alliance
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Pharthan
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Founded: Feb 18, 2012
Ex-Nation

Postby Pharthan » Thu Jan 22, 2015 10:13 pm

Chester Pearson wrote:Once again I ask, how does this relate to healthcare?

It is now Health-International Aid, as it pertains to the health and wellbeing of international citizenry and helping other nations maintain their wellbeing via nuclear power protection; the end goal is to protect health.
HALCYON ARMS STOREFRONT

"Humanity is a way for the cosmos to know itself." - Carl Sagan
"Besides, if God didn't want us making glowing fish and insect-resistant corn, the building blocks of life wouldn't be so easy for science to fiddle with." - Dracoria

Why haven't I had anything new in my storefront for so long? This is why. I've been busy.

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Chester Pearson
Minister
 
Posts: 2753
Founded: Aug 02, 2013
Ex-Nation

Postby Chester Pearson » Thu Jan 22, 2015 10:39 pm

Pharthan wrote:
Chester Pearson wrote:Once again I ask, how does this relate to healthcare?

It is now Health-International Aid, as it pertains to the health and wellbeing of international citizenry and helping other nations maintain their wellbeing via nuclear power protection; the end goal is to protect health.


Health -- A resolution to modify universal standards of healthcare.

Most of these will improve nations' health at government expense, though no doubt industry will be eager to help. Bioethics sets limits on how far you can go.

Area of Effect

Healthcare: If universal health care has always been your Great White Whale, you may be able to persuade others to join the hunt. But for those with simpler ambitions, it's about governments coughing up funds to improve the health and general wellness of their people. Now you don't have to try disguising government funding for health as social justice (or recreational drug use, either).
Examples to come

International Aid: Well, of course we want all the wealthier member governments to spend their money on poor sick foreigners ... and their citizens will gladly support that, naturally.
Examples to come

Research: Makes everyone cleverer, doesn't it? Industry profits from the side-effects, governments just have to give it a little bit of seed money, and it practically runs itself. Public and private research and the study of health and medicine benefit. Nothing could possibly go wrong.
Examples to come

Bioethics: Just because escaped superbugs might cause one or two silly little epidemics somewhere unimportant, people are being scared into putting the brakes on Science! You say it's setting ethical international standards for healthcare and research. I say it's the free individual's civil rights freedoms being chipped away by the nanny state!


I highly suggest you read that category again, because if you submit this as is, under the category you are proposing, I will file a GHR against on a category violation....
Separatist Peoples wrote:With a lawnchair and a large bag of popcorn in hand, Ambassador SaDiablo walks in and sets himself up comfortably. Out of a dufflebag comes a large foam finger with the name "Chester Pearson" emblazoned on it, as well as a few six-packs.
Economic Left/Right: -8.88
Social Libertarian/Authoritarian: -3.90
-17.5 / -6
Chester B. Pearson,
Ambassador, Imperial Minster of Foreign Affairs United Federation of Canada
Premier The North American Union
Secretary-General United Regions Alliance
World Assembly Resolution Author
Recognized as one of the most famous NS's ever

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Pharthan
Minister
 
Posts: 2969
Founded: Feb 18, 2012
Ex-Nation

Postby Pharthan » Thu Jan 22, 2015 11:43 pm

Chester Pearson wrote:
I highly suggest you read that category again, because if you submit this as is, under the category you are proposing, I will file a GHR against on a category violation....

Well, if you are willing to spend the time to explain why you're going to sink it, would you be willing to spend the time to make a simple suggestion, as so many others have done, as to how to improve upon the error you've pointed out?

I, for one, find it utterly perplexing that given the current rules any number of well thought out, well intended, well researched, and generally all-around good resolutions could be sunk by not fitting into a relatively spartan list of categories. I find it even more perplexing that anyone would waste their effort attempting to sink such resolutions for such an arbitrary reason.
HALCYON ARMS STOREFRONT

"Humanity is a way for the cosmos to know itself." - Carl Sagan
"Besides, if God didn't want us making glowing fish and insect-resistant corn, the building blocks of life wouldn't be so easy for science to fiddle with." - Dracoria

Why haven't I had anything new in my storefront for so long? This is why. I've been busy.

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