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Postby United States of PA » Fri Dec 31, 2010 5:18 am

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PAMI 575-200

Length: 70m
Wingspan: 67m
Height: 19m (Tail)
Propulsion: 2x T-111-380 High Bypass Turbofan
Total Net Thrust: 760kn
Empty Weight: 145 tonnes
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 260 tonnes
Maximum Fuel Weight: 140,000 Liters
Passenger Count: 250-450
Max Range: 12,350km
Cargo Capacity: 170m2
Operational Ceiling: 14,000m
Cruising Speed: Mach 0.89
Crew: Pilot, Co-pilot, Navigator, variable number of Flight Attendants




History

The PAMI 575-200 was designed as the regular all round member of the 575 Family, and was designed as a domestic use aircraft, used for connecting 2 or more airports within a single nation or for short distance international flights.

Seeing as the aircraft was designed for shorter distance flights than other members of the PAMI 575 Family, the aircraft was designed to take a slightly higher frequency of takeoffs and landings than other aircraft, in an attempt to reduce short term maintenance needs on the aircraft.

Airframe Composition

The Airframe designed of the PAMI 575 is characterized by its light-weight construction design, intended to reduce its Gross Empty Weight. By weight, the Airframe’s construction consists of 50% composite, 20% Aluminum, 15% Titanium, 10% Steel and 5% other materials. By Volume, the Aircraft will be roughly 80% composite construction.

By constructing the aircraft with Lighter weight in mind, allows for the aircraft to use up less fuel on its takeoff run, increasing its maximum range, even if only slightly. It also allows for greater fuel storage for the same total weight as a aircraft built using conventional construction techniques, increasing total range.

The Aluminum in the aircraft construction is mainly used on the aircrafts wing and tail leading edges, with Titanium being used on the engines and fasteners, with steel being used in various places. The Aircrafts construction consists of approximately 42,180kg of Carbon Fiber reinforced Plastic, making up roughly 29% of the aircrafts total weight, made using approximately 27,710kg of Carbon Fiber.

The high used of Carbon Fiber reinforced composites is due to the much higher strength to weight ratio than traditional materials, meaning that one kilogram of a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite will be stronger than a kilogram of a more traditional material, reducing the total amount of material needed to make a just as strong aircraft. This has a somewhat inverse effect on a aircrafts cost however, increasing the aircrafts total cost.


Wing Design

The PAMI-575s wing design consists of a Supercritical Airfoil Design coupled with Raked Wingtips.

The Supercritical airfoil design was designed in the 1950s and 1960s out of a difficultly to break the sound barrier or even mach 0.9 using conventional Airfoil designs. Supersonic airflow over the upper surface of traditional airfoils induced an excessive amount of wave drag and a form of aircraft instability called the “Mach Truck”. The “Mach Truck” is a aerodynamic effect where the nose of a aircraft tends to pitch downwards as the airflow around the wing around the wings approach supersonic flow.

Due to the airfoil shape used in Supercritical Airfoils, aircraft built with these encounter the “Mach truck” both less severely at much higher speeds, allowing the wing to maintain high performance at speeds very close to Mach 1. Techniques learned from the original Supercritical airfoil sections led to the design of airfoils for high subsonic and transonic aircraft, such as the Boeing 777 and AV-8B Harrier II.

A Diagram showing the difference in airflow between a Supercritical and Conventional Airfoil

Supercritical airfoils offer four main benefits to a aircraft: a higher Drag Divergence Mach Number, they develop shock waves further back the wing than traditional airfoils, greatly reduced shock induced boundary layer separation and their geometry allows for a more efficient wing design such as being thicker or reducing the aircrafts wing sweep, which can both result in a lighter wing.

At a particular speed for a given airfoil section, the critical mach number, flow over the upper surface of a airfoil can become locally supersonic, but soon slows down to match the air pressure over the trailing edge of the wing without generating a shock.

At a certain point along the airfoil, a shock is generated which increases the pressure coefficient to a critical value, where the local flow velocity will be Mach 1. While the position of this shockwave is determined by Airfoil geometry, a supercritical airfoil is much more efficient seeing as the shockwave is minimized and created as far back as possible, reducing drag. In addition, compared to a traditional Airfoil design, a Supercritical produces more lift at its aft end, due to its more even pressure distribution over the upper surface.

In addition to improved transonic performance, a supercritical wings enlarged leading edge gives it excellent high lift characteristics, enabling the aircraft using it to have the benefits of having superior takeoff and landing performance.

The aircraft also features Raked wingtips, which are where the wingtip of the aircraft has a higher degree of sweep than the rest of the wing. The stated purpose of using a Raked Wingtip over other wingtips, such as Non-Planar wingtips and Winglets is to increase a aircrafts fuel efficiency and climb performance, reducing a aircrafts takeoff roll.

Raked Wingtips do all of these in much the same fashion as winglets do, by increasing the effective aspect ratio of the aircrafts wings while at the same time interrupting harmful wingtip vortices. This decreases the total amount of drag induced upon the aircrafts, as shown by testing by both the Aircraft manufacturer Boeing and the American NASA, which have shown that Raked Wingtips reduce drag by as much as 5.5%, compared to anywhere from a 3.5% to a 4.5% reduction in drag from more conventional winglets.

Boeing 787 Rollout, showing the aircrafts Raked Wingtips



Engines


The propulsion for the PAMI 575-200 comes from a pair of engines located on inner wing pylons. All of the engines available for the 575 are designed using weight saving, fuel saving, reduced maintenance cost and increased engine life span features originally hallmarked by the General Electric Next Generation (GEnx) turbofan.

The choice to use a GEnx inspired engine was due to the fuel savings especially, alongside all other factors. The reduced Maintenance costs of the engine type, combined with its fuel savings, greatly reduce the operating cost of the engine/s, and in extension, the operating costs of the aircraft.

The engines used on the PAMI 575-200, the Caterpillar T-111-380, achieve a weight loss on the engine through the same features as the GEnx. These design features include a fan diameter of 111in, or 2.8m. Along with this the Fan blades of the T-111-380 are composite with Titanium Leading edges. This saves weight while not sacrificing fan strength. The engines fan case is also made of composites, further lowering weight while also reducing expansion from heat. The final major weight reducing factor is that of making the Stage 6 and 7 low pressure turbine blades of Titanium Aluminide.

Some of the fuel burn reductions techniques present in the T-111-380 include making the Fan Bypass Ratio 19:2, which also has a side effect of making the engine quieter when running. There is also a High Pressure Compressor based on the GE90-94B, with a 23:1 pressure ratio and only 10 stages, along with shrouded Guide Vanes to reduce Secondary Flow. In addition to all of the above, the spools for the engines reaction turbines are counter rotating, in order to reduce the load on the engines guide vanes. Finally, the aircrafts Twin Annular Premixed Swirler (TAPS) is of a Lean design combustor, in order to reduce emission with improved airflow to prevent back flash.

Some of the maintenance reducing features includes Spools with lower parts numbers achieved through using Blisks in some of the engine stages, alongside low blade counts in others, and a lower overall number of stages. All of these allow for a reduced number of parts, and therefore, in return, a lower number of parts that could fail and need to be regularly checked. Other maintenance reduction features include lower internal engine temperatures through the use of more efficient cooling techniques. Finally, there is debris extraction within the low pressure compressor guards high pressure compressor, to prevent unwanted material from getting into and severely damaging the aircrafts engine.

All of these features are reported to result in fuel savings in the area of 15% over an older engine of the same size, such as the CF6-80C2.

The T-111-380 is capable of achieving engine power outputs of up to 380kn, as evidenced by the last set of numbers in the engines name. Total net power for the engines on the PAMI 777-200 totals 760kn.


Passenger Seating and Comfort

Passenger seating in the PAMI 575-200 is available in 3 Different Configurations, that of Three Classes, 2 Classes, and Economy Configuration.

The Three Class configuration consists of a 1st, 2nd, and 3rd class on the aircraft with first class obviously being for comfort, 2nd a mix of comfort and maximum number of people, and 3rd being intended to fly the cheapest with the most people. This configuration can seat up to 250 People.

First class Seating in a PAMI 575-200 in 3 Class and 2 Class Configuration


The Two Class configuration retains the 1st Class seating, but features increased Economy Class seating due to the removal of the aircrafts second class. Up to 350 people can be seated onboard in this configuration.

Economy Seating is designed to seat as many people as possible, and therefore results in rather cramped seating and some uncomfort. Regardless of this however, Economy class on PAMI 777 retains several creature comforts. In Economy configuration the Aircraft can seat up to 450 people, the aircrafts maximum passenger count.

Economy Seating in a PAMI 575 series Airliner


Regardless of what seating arrangement is used in a PAMI 575-200, the comforts of each retain the same, with the main difference between each class being in the quality of the seat and the amount of leg room.

Each passenger has access to a small TV Screen located in the back of the seat ahead of them, or, in the case of the forward most passengers, a small handheld TV which has a small mount that can be placed on the armrest. These TVs are capable of receiving either Local TV Signals or using the aircrafts satellite antennae to receive satellite TV for the passenger to watch. In addition, it to possible to play DVDs through the TV if the passenger has brought some onboard the aircraft for the flight.

In addition Electronics wise, each aircraft has the ability to carry a onboard laptop for each passenger to use during the course of the flight, as well as complete WiFi connectivity. This allows embarked passengers to be able to do various things on the internet, such as watch YouTube videos, check their email, instant message co-workers on a upcoming deal, check the weather at the airport they will be coming in at, to simply chatting with their friends and family.


Cockpit


The Cockpit of the PAMI 575 family is that of a glass cockpit design, being all electronic and digital. This contrasts to older designs seeing as previous aircraft relied heavily on Mechanical Gauges for information input to the pilot and crew.

The Displays in the PAMI 575 Family are that of a Liquid Crystal Display, chosen for the systems efficiency, reliability, and legibility. Liquid Crystal Displays, or LCDs, replaced Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) displays in most applications because of the LCDs better energy efficiency, greater compactness, portability, their light weight, reliability and lower cost.

As LCDs do not produce any light of their own, a external light source is required to see the display. This is typically provided by a Fluorescent Lamp located behind the display panel.

PAMI 575 Series Cockpit


Sale

The PAMI 575-200 is available at rates dependent upon the exact seating arrangement. Below is a table with the costs for each available variant of the 575-200. All orders for the PAMI 575-200 can be lodged through PAMI's main storefront, located here

575-200 3 Class: $230mn
575-200 2 Class: $225mn
575-200 Economy: $215mn

((All Credit for the images go to their appropriate owners))
Last edited by United States of PA on Sat Jan 08, 2011 4:44 pm, edited 2 times in total.
One Big Ass Mistake America
In other words, conservatives are generous with their own money, and liberals are generous with other peoples money.
"I object and take exception to everyone saying that Obama and Congress are spending money like a drunken sailor. As a former drunken sailor, I quit when I ran out of money." ~ Unknown
"We will not continue the failed economic policies of the past eight years." We will double down on the strategy
"See, it doesn't matter how many people you have, how old your civilization is, or any such tripe. We're still the by-God US of A and we will seriously bitch slap you so hard your ancestors going back millenia will feel it if you piss us off."

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Postby United States of PA » Sat Jan 08, 2011 3:24 pm

AH90 “Aenfeuushta” Advanced Heavy Attack Helicopter


Crew: 2
Length: 18m (With both rotors turning) 16m (Fuselage)
Height: 3.9m
Rotor diameter: 18m
Empty weight: 6,900kg
MTOW: 10,000kg
Engines: 2x General Motors GM-1190 Turboshafts (2,500hp each)
Never Exceed Speed: 390km/h
Cruising speed: 295km/h
Combat Range: 550km
Ferry Range: 2,100km
Service ceiling: 6,700m (Minimum loading)
Armament: 1x 30x130mm electrically Operated Chain Gun (640 rounds)
6x Hardpoints (4x 300kg, 2x 65kg)
Electronics:
“Tawnshi” Attack Helicopter Radar
“Tiparee-AH” Battlefield Management System
Radar Jammer
Laser Warning Receiver
Radar Warning Receiver

The AH-90 “Aenfeuushta” Advanced Heavy Attack Helicopter was a program commenced by the Pennsylvanian Army and Marine Corps for a universal heavy Attack Helicopter that was highly advanced, lethal to all forms of combat units it was likely to encounter. It accomplished this through a series of highly advanced Electronics and weapons.

While most elements of the Pennsylvanian Armed forces considered a Attack Helicopter to be secondary in combat effectiveness to that of a Close Air Support unit, such as a A-10C or Su-25, the need for a Attack Helicopter was recognized for Organic Division Support and Clandestine support, such as for support of Special Ops missions. The reason for this was due to the fact that a helicopter could land nearly anywhere that was flat and sported a clearing large enough to accept its Rotors.

Another reason was due to the fact that, a small but powerful sect of Army Generals viewed a helicopter as being more able to infiltrate enemy lines and conduct recon and eliminate vital targets, such as high priority enemy convoys or even enemy headquarters units, due to their ability to more easily follow terrain contours and their easier ability to locate enemy forces due to their ability to hover if uncertain about something and watch it, however this viewpoint is highly subjective to the person doing the decision making.


Armament


The primary armament of the AH-90 was its missiles; the most common of what would be employed was the LA-420A1 Havik, AGM-114 Hellfire, and the 9K121 Vikhr Missile (AT-16 Scallion). While these are only a few of the many missiles the Aircraft can accept, to name every last one would be far too time consuming and space consuming.

In Pennsylvanian service, the aircraft was designed to most often carry the Lamonian Designed LA-420A1 ATGM, the standard Long Range Heavy Anti-Tank Guided Missile of the Pennsylvanian Armed Forces. As a result, the AH-90 was designed to carry 18 of the 65kg missiles, 4 each on 4 Under wing hard points on a quad mounting system, and 1 on each of the end of the wings.

In addition to the Anti-Tank Guided Missiles that the helicopter could carry, the helicopter is also capable of carrying up to 76 CRV7 70mm Rockets, if using all of the birds under wing hard points. The choice to design the helicopters Rocket load around the CRV7 70mm Rocket was due to the fact that, for its size, the CRV7 is a incredibly powerful rocket, being able to penetrate the armor of the Centurion Tank on certain angles using a 8 inch steel rod in a practice round. This success led to the development of a dedicated anti-tank version of the rocket, using a Tungsten Penetrator rod, which could penetrate the armor of a T-72 Tank from any angle. Another interesting round of the CRV7 is the 16 pound WDU-50001/B “Anti-Bunkerette” round, which is capable of penetrating 13 feet of earth, 3 feet of concrete or a inch of steel.

The helicopter is also capable of carrying a pair of Man Portable Air to Air Missiles such as the FIM-92 Stinger, the Starstreak Missile, or a Mistral Missile. This allows the helicopter a limited ability to engage other aerial targets, such as Slow flying, low altitude aircraft, or especially other helicopters in the nearby area.

The final armament of the helicopter consists of a 30x130mm electrically fired Chain Gun located below the helicopters cockpit. This gun allows for continued firing over a period of time against nearly any target. The gun is capable of accepting a vast array of Shells, ranging from APFSDS, HEI, HEI-T, and HE to many others.

The 30x130mm Autocannon used in the AH-90 is not to unsimilar to many other autocannons in the world, in that it uses a conventional Rifled Barrel. However, it is still somewhat unqiue through its use of a Electro Thermal Chemical Ignition.

Electro-thermal Chemical (ETC) ignition technology began out of the constant battle between Armor and Round during the Cold War. During the late 1980s, intelligence reports informed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization that the Future Soviet Tank (FST) could exceed 700mm Rolled Homogenous Armor equivalent (RHAe) at its maximum thickness, far beyond the effectiveness of the contemporary M829 Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot (APFSDS), than in use by some of the NATO Forces present in Western Germany. It is estimated today that, in order to effectively perforate future Armor, any new tank guns would have to achieve 18MJ worth of Muzzle Energy, double what is achievable with modern Solid Propellant. The easiest way to achieve this level of muzzle energy would’ve been to adopt a new 140mm Main Gun as the standard armament, but this would’ve required a complete and total re-design of the turrets of the tanks than in use in order to accept the new main gun.

The introduction of Electro-Thermal Chemical Ignition technology allows for the use of Liquid Propellant in a tanks main gun, allowing for vastly higher power propellants to be used, increasing the shots muzzle velocity and energy. For example, the lightweight American XM-291 came close to achieving 17MJ of muzzle energy, the lower end of the muzzle energy that a conventional 140mm gun would achieve. That’s from a 120mm gun.

An Electro-Thermal Chemical gun uses a Plasma cartridge to ignite and control the rounds propellant, using an electrical charge as a catalyst to the ignition of the propellant. The most common and most efficient one is that of the FLARE, or Flashboard Large Area Emitter. A FLARE works by providing several areas of parallel strings too offer a large area of plasma or Ultraviolet radiation and uses the breakdown and vaporization of the gapes of diamonds to provide the plasma needed to ignite the shells propellant. The strings used in a FLARE setup are suspended in tubes and are mounted azimuthal to the main guns axis.

In the American XM-291 gun project, a relatively primitive 120mm light gun with a none fully developed FLARE ignition system achieved 17MJ of muzzle energy, the lower energy spectrum of a conventional 140mm main gun. If a none fully developed FLARE igniter could achieve this, one can only imagine what a fully developed one could do.

The choice to use a ETC ignition source was due to the fact that the more even burn allowed for maximal use of the shells propellant, and for a optimized muzzle energy and velocity. This allowed for fairly effective use of shells based around the shells velocity: namely shells such as Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot rounds, such as APDS and APFSDS. This would allow for the autocannon on the helicopter to be able to penetrate armor on lighter Armored Fighting Vehicles, namely Infantry Fighting Vehicles (IFV) and Armored Personnel Carriers (APC). The cannon also has a limited ability to penetrate the rear and top section of some Tanks. These abilities give this rather small cannon a ability to punch past its expected weight just by looking at it.



Some Example loadouts:

Multirole

4x MANPADS (2 on each wingtip)
8x ATGMs (4 under each wing)
38 70mm rockets (19 under each wing)

Anti-Air

28 MANPADS (12 under each wing, 2 on each wingtip)

Escort

2x MANPADS (2 on one wingtip)
1x ATGM (1 on one wingtip)
76x 70mm Rockets (38 under each wing in two rocket pods)

Long Range

4x MANPADS (2 on each wingtip)
38x 70mm rockets (19 under each wing)
2x External Fuel Tanks (1 under each wing)


Engines & Propulsion

The propulsion of the AH-90 Heavy Attack Helicopter consists of a pair of General Motors GM-1190 Turboshafts, producing 2,500 horsepower each. The total of 5,000hp, combined with the large Rotors of the Helicopter, give it exceptional lift, for a highly respectable Maximum Takeoff Weight.

A Turboshaft works by essentially taking a Turbojet Engine and adding a shaft to it, which than rotates the Helicopters Propellers in this case. This has advantages in power over conventional engines, generating more shaft horsepower than earlier engines, enabling a greater Maximum Takeoff Weighter

The main rotor of the AH-90 has consists of five blades, which work to produce a amount of lift higher than that of comparably sized four blade rotors. These five blades generate a immense amount of lift, enabling the aircraft to reach its Maximum Takeoff weight of 13,000kg.

The rear rotor of the Helicopter is encased inside of the Fuselage tail itself, not too dissimilar from the RAH-66 “Comanche” rear rotor assembly. The main two reasons for this decision were as follows.

By putting the tail rotor inside of the fuselage itself, the amount of colliding air between the air being force down by the main rotor and the air being forced upwards by the tail rotor would be minimized. As a result, the Audible signature of the helicopter would be reduced somewhat. This would aid the Aircrafts ability to sneak up on enemy formations that are operating without Radar.

The other primary reason was due to the immense size of the main rotor, which, had the tail rotor not been placed inside of the tail, would literally shear large portions of both rotors off, causing immense damage to the aircraft, if not outright destroying it.


Radar & Electronics’


The AH-90 contains a highly advanced Electronic suite, allowing for a highly advanced support helicopter and tank killer. The main electronic of the Helicopter is that of the “Tawnshi” Millimeter wave Fire Control Radar and Target Locater. However, due to quirks in the system which may cause false targets to pop up on the radar and its somewhat lackluster performance in very flat terrain or urban warfare, it is advised that the radar is used mainly for recon and location of potential targets, and that it is not used to fire the helicopters missiles. It is also advised that the Radar Fire Control Ability is not used unless it is not possible to get a line of sight to allow for a firing of the missile using Imaging Infra-Red (IIR), Infra Red (IR) or a Laser without presenting too much risk to the helicopter.

The Tawnshi system is designed to find, identify, and classify targets based on their radar signature and returns. It is also capable of automatically firing any of the Helicopters up to 18 Anti-Tank Guided Missiles autonomously at the 18 highest threat contacts. For example, if 4 Anti-Aircraft Guns were to be detected, along with 4 enemy Armored Fighting Vehicles, such as say, enemy T-80Us, the 4 AA Guns would each receive the brunt of the attack, most likely two missiles each, while each of the four tanks would receive a single missile each.

Tawnshi is capable of detecting upwards of 1,200 Targets, and actively track and classify up to 36 of these. Of these 36, they will be numbered from 1-36 in the aircraft’s onboard computer based on their estimated level of threat. This will assist the Fire Control System in automatically targeting the enemy if so ordered to do so.

Tawnshi is mounted above the Helicopters main rotor, in a fashion not too dissimilar from the American AH-64D Apache Longbow, in order to allow for the Radar dome to get a view on something over a treeline or behind a hill, without exposing the main body of the helicopter itself to enemy detection or fire.


The Battlefield Management system in the AH-90 is not too unlike the “Tiparee” System found in Pennsylvanian Fighter Aircraft such as the F/A-30 “Lagrel”.

The Aerial Battlefield Management System employed by the AH-90 is that of the “Tiparee-AH” (Attack Helicopter) System, designed to allow maximum information sharing across multiple platforms.

The primary job of the Tiparee-AH System is that of sharing of Radar and Status Information across a multitude of platforms, such as other Fighter Aircraft, Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEW/CS), Ground Based Radar Sights and Naval Ships.

For example, if a E-9 JSTARS were to detect a group of enemy ground units bivouacked near a town where a flight of AH-90s were located, the information would immediately be transmitted to all of the AH-90s in the area, providing them with targets, or, area’s to avoid if they are on a contact sensitive mission.

Another example is that, were a AH-90 to locate a platoon of enemy Armored Fighting Vehicles, and the AH-90 were to not have any weapons, it could than relay all of the information to nearby Air or ground units, informing them of the enemy’s location for either a airstrike by nearby units, or for a artillery strike from a nearby friendly ground force.

The System also shares the status of aircraft based on numbers of fully operational, partly operational, and none operational systems. This information is that transmitted to other aircraft and installations or ships, informing them of the aircrafts status.

The final major transmitted item is that of the remaining weapons for each aircraft allowing each of aircraft equipped with this system to know how many missiles remain in each of its allied aircraft.


Finally, the helicopter is also capable of having a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) built in, allowing the gunner to "aim" the choppers gunner, Laser Designator, or FLIR by simply looking at the target. This allows the gunner to keep his eyes on the target and surrounding area while firing the helos main gun or designating a target for a missile.

A HMD also can allow information, such as altitude, Speed, Remaining Weapons and even the FLIR image to be displayed on the screen in front of one of the pilots eyes, increasing their situational awareness by allowing them to keep tabs on their own aircrafts systems without having to look down at the cockpit panels.





EO/FLIR and Countermeasures


The AH-90 mounts a Forward Looking Infra Red (FLIR) system used for the location of Human Beings, Vehicles, Buildings and other objects that emit heat or a lack thereof. The system allows for the helicopters gunner, who controls the FLIR, to locate targets such as enemy Trucks, AFVs, and combatants through weather such as Fog, Rain, or even through terrain such as Tree canopies.

While the helicopters gunner possesses control of a rotatable dome on the front end of the helicopter, which possesses the FLIR as well as the Helicopters Laser Designator used for guiding either the helicopters own missiles or that of another to the target.

The helicopters pilot as possesses control of a non-moveable Navigational FLIR, used for navigation at low altitude in poor weather conditions, such as heavy fog or rain, or if the helicopter flies into a thick smoke cloud.

The helicopter possesses countermeasure systems designed to provide it a modem of self defense against incoming missiles. When the helicopter was designed, it was well known that Attack Helicopters were extremely vulnerable to even the most outdated of Air Defenses. As a result, the countermeasures present on the AH90 would be somewhat minimalist to a outsider looking inward. When it was designed, it was decided that it would be better to try to maximize the crews survivability rather than try to keep the helicopter from being hit by anything.

As a result, the helicopter packs a relatively standard load of just Chaff and Flares for countermeasures, as well as a Radar Jammer that is worked into the Tawnshi dome. The Helicopter carries on average, 60 Flares within its tail, along with 6 canisters of Chaff. Each time that countermeasures are released, 10 flares and a single canister of Chaff are dispensed. Due to the location of the Flare & Chaff dispenser, the Flares and Chaff only effectively work when the missile that they are attempting to fool comes in from behind the helicopter. If the missile comes in from in front of the helo or above it, the chance of the missile being fooled is drastically reduced.

In place of a advanced and far reaching Countermeasure suite, it was decided instead to try to allow the crew to survive any contact with enemy forces. The helicopter is fitted with Zero/Zero ejection seats. The Ejection seats work by the crew pulling their ejection handles, as in a fighter jet. Immediately following this, small explosive charges at the base of each of the helicopters 5 main rotors detonate, shearing the connecting bolts, and sending the rotors flying outwards and away from the helicopter. The canopy is that ejected, and the seats motors than ignite, rocketing the crew skywards and away from the crashing helicopter, hopefully safely.

The helicopter also has an ability to generate a smoke screen, through dumping some of the helicopters fuel supply directly onto the exterior housings of the Helicopter’s Turboshaft Powerplant, and than focusing the smoke through a pair of outlets, one on each side, roughly halfway down the fuselage, intended to prevent the smoke from being sucked back into the aircrafts engines, potentially causing a powerplant failure.




Armor


The Armor of the AH-90 is centered around the Crew and the Helicopters engine and related systems.

Around the crew, there is a “Titanium Bathtub”, which encompasses titanium in enough thickness to resist 25mm High Explosive Incendiary Rounds. This Titanium Bathtub is located around the lower sides of the crew and behind them. To the lower left and right, in front of the Gunner, below both of them, and behind the pilot are these Titanium plates, allowing for 25mm protection for the crew from any angle below them. In addition to this, the Canopy of the Helicopter is rated to resist 14.5x114mm Heavy Machine Gun Rounds, such as those fired by the Soviet Made KPV Heavy Machine Gun.

Around the main propulsion Systems, the armor remains largely Titanium, and remains rated to 25mm HEI protection. In the case of the Engine compartment armor, it remains largely to protect against shells being fired upwards at the helicopter from the ground. Therefore, as a result, if some random guy were to fire a AKM horizontally at the helicopters engines, there stands a good chance he would hit the engines, since there is no armor on the Sides or Top of the Engine Compartment.


Export

Export of the AH90 “Aenfeuushta” Advanced Heavy Attack Helicopter is restricted, and any denial is final.

Domestic Production Rights are not available for the AH-90, instead there are two options in place of such, that of a Negotiated Contract, wherein Pennsylvanian Companies will produce the AH-90, which will than ne shipped to your country, at a minor discount, or a Domestic Production Line, where a Pennsylvanian Aerospace Producer will set up a production line in the country that wishes to use the AH-90, allowing them to produce the helicopter domestically, but at the cost of Paying a $4 million royalty on each helicopter, raising the total price for each produced Helicopter to $46mn.

Single AH-90: $42mn
Contract: $40mn
Domestic Production Line Royalties: $4mn per produced helicopter ($46mn total)
One Big Ass Mistake America
In other words, conservatives are generous with their own money, and liberals are generous with other peoples money.
"I object and take exception to everyone saying that Obama and Congress are spending money like a drunken sailor. As a former drunken sailor, I quit when I ran out of money." ~ Unknown
"We will not continue the failed economic policies of the past eight years." We will double down on the strategy
"See, it doesn't matter how many people you have, how old your civilization is, or any such tripe. We're still the by-God US of A and we will seriously bitch slap you so hard your ancestors going back millenia will feel it if you piss us off."

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Founded: Apr 01, 2009
Compulsory Consumerist State

Postby United States of PA » Sat Jan 08, 2011 3:25 pm

UH-100 “Kiyamawka” Multipurpose Transport Helicopter

Crew: 4 Crew (Pilot, Co-pilot, Door Gunner, Crew Chief), up to 20 Soldiers or 8 Stretchers
Length: 18m
Height: 5.3m
Rotor diameter: 18m
Empty weight: 6,700kg
MTOW: 13,000kg
Engines: 2x General Electric Turboshafts producing 2,700hp each (5,400hp total)
Never Exceed Speed: 352kph
Cruising speed: 280kph
Combat Radius: Up to 600km
Ferry Range: 2,700km with Stub Wings and External Fuel Tanks
Service ceiling: 5,500m
Armament: Variant Dependent



History

The UH-100 “Kiyamawka” started out as UHX, a joint Army and Marine Corps Request for Information on a replacement for the UH-60 “Blackhawk” helicopters than in use for Transporting Troops and light equipment around the front.

The requirements detailed a helicopter that would be able to attain high enough speeds to be able to, for the most part, keep pace with the AH-90 Heavy Attack Helicopter just than entering service, which would often serve as combat escorts for the UHX.

Troop wise, the requirement stated that at least 18 troops should be able to be carried along with all of their gear, or 8 Stretchers. This would allow each helicopter to easily transport a squad of soldiers to the front or wherever they would be needed in the area. The helicopter was also needed to be able to carry a pair of door mounted Machine Guns, such as the M240 or the M134 Minigun, as well as a pair of stub wings, capable of carrying anything from External Fuel Pods to Machine guns, bombs, rockets and missiles.

During the course of the Request for Information and the resulting Request for Proposals, dozens of designs were submitted, with the eventual winner being the UH-100 offered by Pittsburgh Helicopter Construction ltd., a small, family owned business known for designing and building high quality helicopters, both for the military and for the Civilian Sector.



Powerplant & Propulsion

The UH-100 is powered by a pair of General Electric producing 2,700 shaft horsepower each, for a combined total of 5,400 shaft horsepower.

A turboshaft is a form of Gas Turbine, and in fact, not too unlike a Turbojet, which is in turn attached to the helicopters rotor. This setup allows a more efficient power output compared to other engine setups, most of which have not been used since the 1960s and the Development of the American UH-1 Huey.

The Main rotor of the UH-100 is of a five bladed design, designed to provide maximum lift, thus enabling a higher maximum takeoff for the helicopter.

The rear rotor of the Helicopter is encased inside of the Fuselage tail itself, not too dissimilar from the RAH-66 “Comanche” rear rotor assembly. The main two reasons for this decision were as follows.

By putting the tail rotor inside of the fuselage itself, the amount of colliding air between the air being force down by the main rotor and the air being forced upwards by the tail rotor would be minimized. As a result, the Audible signature of the helicopter would be reduced somewhat. This would aid the Aircrafts ability to sneak up on enemy formations that are operating without Radar.

The other primary reason was due to the immense size of the main rotor, which, had the tail rotor not been placed inside of the tail, would literally shear large portions of both rotors off, causing immense damage to the aircraft, if not outright destroying it.

Armament

The exact armament of the UH-100 can range intensely from both the nation using the helicopter and even the service using it. The helicopter is designed to mount a vast array of weapons, ranging from door guns to Light Machine Guns or Squad automatic weapons from the troops inside of the helicopter being balanced on a pair of bungee straps located in the top of each exit door, to stub wing mounted heavy weapons.

Inside of the helicopter the UH-100 the helicopter has a pair of heavy duty mounts, one on each side next to a door, in similar fashion to many western helicopters, such as the UH-60, NH-90, EC-725 and CH-47. These mounts are capable of handling a variety of weapons of certain calibers up to and including 12.7x99mm. Some of the usual loadouts may include a M134 Dillion Aero Gatling Gun, commonly referred to as the “Minigun”, a M2HB Browning Heavy Machine gun, or smaller weapons like a M240H or a M60D. The Mount is also capable of mounting Automatic Grenade Launchers in a limited degree, namely the Mk-19, Heckler & Koch GMG and the Mk-47 Striker. This versatility of the helicopters door mounts allows for a wide range of firepower to be carried, increasing the helicopters firepower if landing in a hot Landing Zone/Extraction Zone or being used to support friendly troops.

In addition to the two door mounts that can mount a heavy machine gun, above each of the helicopters two exit doors and slightly inside, directly above the outermost seat on both sides of the rear wall is a bungee strap attached to a adjustable rope. The purpose of this setup is to allow a situation similar to what happened on numerous occasions in Vietnam involving UH-1 Hueys, where the most popular door gunner setup came to be using a bungee strap to rest the gun on, which would allow for one of the soldiers riding in the back of the helicopter to strap into his seat, pull down the rest, and lean out the door while firing at the enemy. This would effectively allow in some cases a doubling of the helicopters firepower.

In addition to the interior mountings, it is also possible to mount a pair of stub wings on the helicopter. These stub wings can be used for anything from mounting additional fuel tanks to allow for extended range missions to mounting additional weapons to increase the helos firepower.

For example, if the helicopter were to have a pair of CRV7 Rocket Pods placed on the outermost pylons of the two stub wings, and a pair of M134 on the inner pylons, this would greatly increase the helicopters firepower, allowing it to even directly attack enemy armored units or entrenched forces. With the addition of certain electronics, namely a Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) Sensor or Infrared Search and Track (IRST) and a Nose mounted Laser Designator.

These electronic additions allow the helicopter to fire guided missiles, such as Air to Air Missiles, or Anti-Tank Guided missiles. These greatly increase the hitting power of the helicopter.

In addition to being able to mount rockets and missiles on the stub wings, it is also possible to mount external fuel tanks or additional machine guns on the stub wings. However, the mounting of additional stub wings would require one of two things. Either the use of the other pylon on the wing to mount a ammo pod, or the reduction of internal space to facilitate the adding ammunition. This results in the loss of space for up to 7 fully equipped soldiers, reducing the amount of soldiers that can be carried to 13 soldiers at most.

In addition to the stub wings, it is also possible to add a small turret to the nose of the aircraft. Inside of this turret a Automatic Grenade Launcher, like a Mk-19 or Mk-47, is typically mounted, and controlled by the Co-pilot. The ability to add such a turret was decided to add firepower especially during times of Counter Insurgency Operations, when a Utility or Transport helicopter may be needed to provide fire support for friendly troops, especially if the friendly’s are out of range of all nearby support.


Electronics & Battlefield Management System


The standard electronic’s suite is not all that dissimilar to most other utility helicopters, consisting of all the normally expected electronic’s, as well as a collision avoidance radar.

Extra electronic’s may be added on a mission to mission basis, such as a Passive Sonar attached to a winch by a variable length steel cable to be used during Submarine Detection and Termination Operations.

It is also possible to add other systems, such as a Large Radar Dome to the underside of the aircraft to allow the aircraft to be used in a limited role as a Airborne Early Warning System.

The above two are just a limited number of examples of different electronics that can be mounted to the helicopter on a case by case basis to improve its ability to act in a certain role.


The Battlefield Management system in the UH-100 is not too unlike the “Tiparee” System found in other Pennsylvanian Helicopters such as the AH-90 Advanced Heavy Attack Helicopter.

The Aerial Battlefield Management System employed by the AH-90 is that of the “Tiparee-UH” (Utility Helicopter) System, designed to allow maximum information sharing across multiple platforms.

The primary job of the Tiparee-UH System is that of sharing of Radar and Status Information across a multitude of platforms, such as other Fighter Aircraft, Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEW/CS), Ground Based Radar Sights and Naval Ships.

For example, if a E-9 JSTARS were to detect a group of enemy ground units bivouacked near a town where a flight of UH-100s were located, the information would immediately be transmitted to all of the UH-100s in the area, providing them with targets, or, area’s to avoid if they are on a contact sensitive mission.

Another example is that, were a UH-100 to locate a platoon of enemy Armored Fighting Vehicles, and the UH-100 were to not have any weapons, it could than relay all of the information to nearby Air or ground units, informing them of the enemy’s location for either a airstrike by nearby units, or for a artillery strike from a nearby friendly ground force.

The System also shares the status of aircraft based on numbers of fully operational, partly operational, and none operational systems. This information is that transmitted to other aircraft and installations or ships, informing them of the aircrafts status.

The final major transmitted item is that of the remaining weapons for each aircraft allowing each of aircraft equipped with this system to know how many missiles remain in each of its allied aircraft.

Troop Compartment


Inside of the troop compartment of the UH-100, there are 20 seats onboard, one of reach of the 20 troops that the helicopter can. Six of the seats are located across the back of the troop compartment running from side to side.

In front of these 6 seats, running along the length of the helicopter, are 7 pairs of seats, placed back to back, for a total of 14 more seats. The 7 pairs of back to back seats are located slightly forward of the set of six along the aft bulkhead, therefore allowing room for a Stretcher to be placed on the floor if needed while the seats are present.

It is possible to remove the seats, in order to configure the helicopter for purposes other than Troop Transport, such as Supply or Casualty Transport. This is accomplished by simply removing four bolts from each seat/pair of seats.

Each seat has a plate of titanium alloy in the base, just below the padding, that is capable of stopping repeated hits from weapons up to 7.62x54mm Russian power rounds. The backs of the seats also have a titanium plate in them rated to the same level of protection. This is intended to prevent a round from punching through the thin skin of the helicopters outside in some places, and hitting a soldier inside in the back or coming up through his rear end.


The helicopters two door gunners are forced to remain standing, due to the belief that, by remaining standing, they are more likely to remain focused on their job, as well as have better agility in case they have to suddenly aim their weapon at a different target.


Variants


The UH-100 comes in 4 Basic Variants to simplify construction and maintenance. As a result of their being four Basic variants of the UH-100, parts commonality is increased, allowing for easier maintenance between variants.

The First Variant consists of a Regular Utility Helicopter, tailored for basic Troop Transport or carrying light cargo overland, and is equipped to carry out such duties.

The next variant is that of a Navalized Variant, which is not too dissimilar from the Basic Uility Helicopter, but is more tailored for use aboard a combat ship. As such, its Tail will fold, as will its main rotor. It is also equipped with a interior winch, designed to allow use of a Dipping Sonar.

The third variant is that of a Special Operations Aircraft ,and as such has a lot of electronic addons, such as FLIR, Terrain Mapping Radar, a refueling boom and a encrypted Radio.

The final variant is that of a Civilian Grade Utility Helicopter. The only difference between the Civilian Helicopter and the Military Grade Utility Helicopter is that all Military related system have been removed, having been replaced with Civilian Systems, and the ability to mount stub wings and weapons has also been removed.

Each of the variants of the helicopter is able to mount a internal winch, capable of supporting weights of up to 2,000kg, with the hookup cable being ran through a removal hatch in the bottom of the floor. This allows the helicopter to lift and carry light cargoes, such as Small Field Guns, light Utility Vehicles, or Ground Equipment.



While the helicopter only has 3 Basic Military variants, what makes the helicopter so useful is its ability to mount a vast array of sub systems, ranging from Dipping Sonars and Sonobuoy’s, to high grade radars, Missile, Rockets and Autocannons.


Export

The export of the UH-100 is largely free on a unit by unit basis, but Domestic Production Rights are restricted. Contracts are available. A contract works through a Pennsylvanian Manufacturer producing the helicopter on a unit by unit basis as requested by the user.

With Standard Export, none of the helicopters will come equipped with the helicopters Tiparee-UH Battlefield Management system. This is to prevent sensitive Pennsylvanian Military Technology from falling into potentially hostile hands.

In addition, civilians models of the helicopter lacks all military related electronic’s and systems.


Single Unit: $20mn
Contract: $19mn per unit
Domestic Production rights: $400bn
One Big Ass Mistake America
In other words, conservatives are generous with their own money, and liberals are generous with other peoples money.
"I object and take exception to everyone saying that Obama and Congress are spending money like a drunken sailor. As a former drunken sailor, I quit when I ran out of money." ~ Unknown
"We will not continue the failed economic policies of the past eight years." We will double down on the strategy
"See, it doesn't matter how many people you have, how old your civilization is, or any such tripe. We're still the by-God US of A and we will seriously bitch slap you so hard your ancestors going back millenia will feel it if you piss us off."

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Postby United States of PA » Tue Jan 18, 2011 12:01 pm

Picture

Belzoni Class Anti-Submarine Frigate

Type: Anti-Submarine Frigate (FF)
Displacement (Full): 6,858 Tonnes
Length: (Overall): 150m
Beam: (Overall): 19m
Design Draught: 5m
Propulsion: 2x Gas Turbines, 2x Propeller
Power: 110,000hp
Flank Speed: 36 knots
Cruise Speed: 19 knots
Range: 9,500km
Armament:
32x Mk41 Vertical Launch System
2x 324mm Triple Torpedo Tubes
8x AShM Missile Launchers (Uses missiles similar to RGM-84 Harpoon or MM40 Exocet)
1x 76mm Rapid Fire Gun
2x 21 Missile RAM Launchers (42 Missiles)
1x CIWS Mount
Countermeasures: Nulka Missile Decoy, SLQ-32(V)5, SLQ-25 Nixie Torpedo Decoy
Sensors:
PEC-9900 Long Range Multipurpose Radar
PAC11 Bow Mounted Active & Passive Sonar
PAC11 Towed Sonar Array
PEC Ship Self Defense Suite (SSDS)
Aircraft: 1x SH-60 sized Helicopter (With full accommodations)
Cost: $845 million


The Belzoni Class Anti-Submarine Frigate (FF) was designed out of a desire by the Pennsylvanian Navy to replace its present classes of Frigates, which were foreign designed and produced in nature, with a new class designed and produced domestically, which also was more suited to the needs of the Pennsylvanian Navy. The Belzoni class was designed around the role of Fleet Anti-Submarine Warfare and is as a result armed and equipped near solely for that role. However, this does not change thing too severely, and the ship continues to enjoy the powerful Self Defense Capabilities that are a characteristic of the Pennsylvanian Navy.

Armament

Each ship of the Belzoni Class are equipped standard with a numerous amount of different weapons systems, ranging from Surface to Air Missiles to Torpedo’s.

The Belzoni Class Frigate is standard equipped with four sets of four by two Vertical Launch Cells, for a grand total of 32 Cells. These cells are able to equip a large number of individual weapons, ranging from SM1/SM2/SM6 Medium to Long Range Surface to Air Missiles, RGM-84 Harpoon Anti-Shipping Missiles, Tomahawk Land Attack or Anti-Shipping Missiles, or Vertical Launch Anti-Submarine Rockets (VL-ASROC). This armament allows the Frigate to, despite its primary role as an Anti-Submarine Warfare Frigate act in limited capability in other roles, such as Ground Attack, Anti-Shipping Warfare and Zone Air Defense.

The Belzoni Class is also equipped with a single 76mm Super Rapid Fire Mount, located on the forward section of the ship immediately aft of the VLS Bank. The 76mm used on the Belzoni class is very similar to the Otobreda 76mm designed and built by the Italian Arms Conglomerate Otobreda. As a result, the 76mm mount on the Belzoni class is capable of firing upwards of 120 rounds per minute at a range of out to 30km. However, firing at these super rapid rates for a full minute will rapidly deplete the ships ammunition stores, which only hold 100 ready to fire rounds, with 350 more in the magazine. This mount is capable of engaging nearly any imaginable target, including Missiles, Aircraft, Ships, and even targets on land.

On the stern of the Belzoni Class, located above the ships hanger, are two Quad Anti-Shipping Missile (AShM) Launchers, one point to each side of the ship. These launchers are able to fire missiles such as the RGM-84 Harpoon, Exocet, Kh-35 or Naval Strike Missiles (NSM), depending on the exact launch canister used. These eight missiles, despite not be a large or impressive number of AShMs, are intended to give the Belzoni Class a small, but powerful punch against enemy ships if needed that are beyond the ships 76mm mounts maximum range.

Roughly amidships of the Belzoni class on each side of the vessel is a pair of triple 324mm torpedo launchers. These torpedo launchers were designed around using the American Mk50 or Mk54 Torpedoes, or the Pennsylvanian designed Mk84LAAST torpedo. These tubes are primarily used for anti-submarine work, though if needed are more than capable of being used against nearby surface shipping.

For Close in Weapons Systems (CIWS) the Belzoni Class carries a single CIWS mount on top of the bridge, able to accept most systems such as Goalkeeper, Phalanx or Kashtan. This system is intended to provide limited defense against incoming missiles and a cheaper alternative to the ships main 76mm mount. In addition to the CIWS mount above the bridge, the Belzoni class mounts two 21 Cell RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) Point Defense Missile (PDM) launchers, one forward and below the bridge, and the other aft on top of the helicopter hanger behind the AShM Quad Launchers. The RIM-116 launchers are there to provide a more efficient close in defense against incoming missiles, due to the RIM-116s much higher success rate over any of the Close in Weapons Systems that are capable of being mounted above the ships bridge.


Aircraft

The Belzoni Class Frigate is capable of carrying up to a single SH-60 sized Helicopter with full accommodations for it. The main purpose of the embarked helo on the Frigate is for ranged Anti-Submarine Warfare capability, intended to detect and engage a enemy submarine beyond both the submarines effective torpedo range and the effective range of most of the Frigates own weapons, allowing the ship to hopefully remain out of range of enemy combatants.


Electronics

Seeing as the Belzoni Class Frigate operates primarily in a Anti-Submarine Warfare role, the main set of electronics onboard the frigate is that of its Sonar Suite, consisting of the PAC11 Bow Mounted Active&Passive Sonar, and its accompanying PAC11 Passive Towed Array Sonar. The bow mounted sonar carries a very powerful Active Set, used to detect submarines by detecting the pockets of air located within the hull used to ballast the ship and keep the crew alive. It also mounts a very sensitive Passive sonar system, used to detect submarines through the sound that is emitted through its hull pushing water aside and its propeller cutting through the water, among others. The passive sonar is only able to detect units in front of the ship however, because the noise from the Belzoni classes own propellers produce too much noise for it to hear any submarine coming up from behind. This is the reason for the use of a Towed Array Sonar on the ship as well. The PAC11 towed array is slightly unique from most other Towed Arrays, as instead of consisting of just one cable and one set of sound receivers, the PAC11 instead has two of each these, allowing the frigate using it to float one above the thermal layer and one below. This allows the maximum amount of detection capability available. The PAC11 is sensitive enough that it is theoretically possible to hear sounds originating from more than 500km away, though at any distance approaching these ranges accuracy is anything but reliable.

For Surface and Air Search purposes, the ship uses an multipurpose long range radar, the PEI9900 Long Range Multipurpose Radar. The PEI9900 can trace its ancestry back to the PEI-9940 Long Range Multipurpose Radar, which is now a feature on nearly every major Pennsylvanian Combatant. The PEI9900 is capable of detecting low Radar Cross Section Targets at medium to long ranges. Below is a short table of some of the detection ranges of a PEI9900 Radar onboard a Belzoni Class Frigate.

Range figures are based on the Radars 20m Above Sea Level Height onboard the ship. All figures are also based on the target having a RCS of between 0.01m2 and 1m2.

@10m – 31.485km
@20m – 36.887km
@50m – 47.605km
@100m – 59.684km
@500m – 110.661km
@1000m – 148.859km
@5000m – 310.063km
@10000m – 430.856km
@15000m – 523.543km
@20000m – 601.683km

The PEI9900 is also capable of acting a Surface search radar, using the same figures are above based on ship height, resulting in a detection distance of about 31-47km.It is capable of tracking up to 750 Aerial Targets and up to 25 Naval Targets. The radar also has a built in fire Control system, able to guide up to 18 Surface to Air missile to Aerial Targets, or able to guide up to 8 Anti-Shipping Missiles to their targets. This allows the ship too, despite its small size and relatively small armament, to remain a potent force on the battlefield to most types of targets.

The last major piece of the ships Electronic Suite would be the Pennsylvania Electronic’s Incorporated Ship Self Defense Suite (SSDS), a program integrated with the ships Air Search Radar that designates the targets on the radar in terms of threat, and prioritizes them for Interception. The system is quite similar to the AEGIS Air Defense System found in some American Ships, namely the Ticonderoga Class Cruiser and the Arleigh Burke Class Destroyer.

The System prioritizes targets based on their radar signature. For example, if the target is detected and showed to be a slow moving, low altitude, straight flying, small target heading straight towards the ship, and has a surface search radar signature, would probably be classified as a sea skimming Anti-Shipping Missile (AShM), and would receive higher priority from the ships defense systems than a aircraft such as a F-15 Eagle, due to the significantly lower threat to the ship that the F-15 represents over that of the Anti-Shipping Missile.

The program is able to classify, designate, and prioritize every target on the radar screen within 5 seconds of detection. The different classifications that the SSDS Program recognizes include CM(Cruise Missile), AShM (Anti-Shipping Missile), SAM/AAM(Surface to Air/Air to Air Missile), F(Fighter), B(Bomber), AT (Aerial Transport) and others.


Export

The export of the Belzoni Class Frigate is relatively open, with each vessel being available for the standard price of $845 million each. Domestic Production rights run for roughly $1.3 trillion, and a Belzoni Class produced in a Pennsylvanian Shipyard under a production Contract runs for about $800mn per unit, due to the benefits in allowing Pennsylvanian Shipyards a long term contract providing the Belzoni Class Frigate for the buyers navy.


Single Unit: $845mn
Domestic Production Rights: $1.3tn
Last edited by United States of PA on Tue Jan 18, 2011 1:45 pm, edited 1 time in total.
One Big Ass Mistake America
In other words, conservatives are generous with their own money, and liberals are generous with other peoples money.
"I object and take exception to everyone saying that Obama and Congress are spending money like a drunken sailor. As a former drunken sailor, I quit when I ran out of money." ~ Unknown
"We will not continue the failed economic policies of the past eight years." We will double down on the strategy
"See, it doesn't matter how many people you have, how old your civilization is, or any such tripe. We're still the by-God US of A and we will seriously bitch slap you so hard your ancestors going back millenia will feel it if you piss us off."

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Postby United States of PA » Sat Feb 26, 2011 11:48 pm

Arapaho Class Guided Missile Destroyer

Type: Guided Missile Destroyer
Displacement (Full): 11,954 Tonnes
Length: 180m
Beam: (Overall): 21m
Design Draught: 11m
Propulsion: PEC2010 Gas Turbines, 2x Variable Pitch Propellers
Power: 130,000hp
Flank Speed: 35 knots
Cruise Speed: 19 knots
Range: 13,000km
Armament:
1x 127mm Rapid Fire Mount
9x 16 Cell Vertical Launch Systems (144 Cells)
2x Triple 324mm Torpedo Launchers
2x Close in Weapons Systems
2x 21 Cell RIM-116 Launcher (42 Missiles)

Countermeasures: Nulka Missile Decoy, SLQ-32(V)5, SLQ-25 Nixie Torpedo Decoy
Sensors:
PEI-1000 Long Range Multifunction Radar
2x PEI-1100 Fire control Radar
PEI8000 Bow mounted sonar
PEI8010 Towed Array sonar
PEC Ship Self Defense Suite (SSDS)
Aircraft: 2x SH-60 Size Helicopters (Full Accomodations)
Cost: $1.7bn


The Arapaho Class Guided Missile Destroyer (DDG) was designed for use by the Pennsylvanian Federal Republic Navy as a replacement for the Navies otherwise capable but slightly under armed Air Defense Destroyers. Part of the requirement for the design was that it have greater multipurpose capability than the navies previous destroyers.

Armament

The Arapaho Class Destroyer carries a multitude or armaments, consisting of multiple Close in Weapon Systems (CIWS), a 127mm Rapid Fire Cannon mount located on the foredeck of the ship, as well as a highly respectable amount of Vertical Launch Cells as well as dedicated Anti-Shipping Missile Launchers and six 324mm torpedo tubes.

The Arapaho class carries 144 Vertical Launch Cells, capable of taking missiles such as the Lyran Hellion or Hellion II, RGM-109 Tomahawk, the Standard Missile Series (SM1, 2, 3 and 6), VL-Harpoon and VL-ASROC. These cells give the ship a incredible multi-purpose capability, allowing it to attack all types of foreseeable targets, whether they be on land, at sea, undersea, or in the air.

Located on the foredeck of the ship is a single 127mm 62 Caliber Rapid Fire Mount, intended to provide a deterrence against opposing small vessels that have managed to get close to the vessel, limited ability against fixed and rotary wing aircraft, and a effective defense at range from Speedboats. The gun is capable of attaining a rate of fire of around 20 rounds per minute, and carries an ammunition storage of 750 rounds of varying types.

Located amidships is a pair of triple 324mm torpedo tubes, one on each side. These tubes are intended to allow for the ship to embark with a number of small torpedoes, such as the American Mk50 or Mk54 Torpedoes, or the Pennsylvanian Mk84 LAAST. These enable the ship to have limited hitting power against close in submarines, as well as smaller surface vessels such as Patrol boats and Offshore Patrol Vessels.

Located on each side of the ships exhaust stacks is a single universal Close In Weapons System (CIWS) mount. The choice to use a universal mount allows for the use of a wide variety of CIWS Systems, such as Phalanx, Goalkeeper, Kashtan, Millenium Gun, and Sea Senith. However, the primary intended armament of these mounts is that of the Kashtan system, or similar, and thus allocates room for the reloading and storing of the systems missiles.

Finally, located directly in front of and below the Ships Bridge, as well as on top of the ships helicopter hanger is a pair of 21 Cell Point Defense Missile (PDM) Launchers, intended to fire missiles such as the RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM). These provide a highly capable point defense against incoming missiles and low flying aircraft for the class.

Aircraft

The Arapaho Class of destroyers carry full accommodations for up to two SH-60 sized helicopters, enabling the ships to be able to conduct ASW and other operations over the horizon from the ship to a degree. This also enables the ship to remain safely out of range from enemy combatants, namely enemy submarines.

Electronics

Since the Arapaho Class Guided Missile Destroyer has a primarily multirole purpose, the ship has a highly capable sonar suite alongside that of a highly Capable Anti-Air and Anti-Surface Suite.

For the ships one role of Anti-Submarine Warfare, its sonar suite consists of the PAC11 Bow Mounted Active & Passive Sonar, and its accompanying PAC11 Passive Towed Array Sonar. The bow mounted sonar carries a very powerful Active Set, used to detect submarines by detecting the pockets of air located within the hull used to ballast the ship and keep the crew alive. It also mounts a very sensitive Passive sonar system, used to detect submarines through the sound that is emitted through its hull pushing water aside and its propeller cutting through the water, among others. The passive sonar is only able to detect units in front of the ship however, because the noise from the Belzoni classes own propellers produce too much noise for it to hear any submarine coming up from behind. This is the reason for the use of a Towed Array Sonar on the ship as well. The PAC11 towed array is slightly unique from most other Towed Arrays, as instead of consisting of just one cable and one set of sound receivers, the PAC11 instead has two of each these, allowing the ship using it to float one above the thermal layer and one below. This allows the maximum amount of detection capability available. The PAC11 is sensitive enough that it is theoretically possible to hear sounds originating from more than 500km away, though at any distance approaching these ranges accuracy is anything but reliable.

For Surface and Air Search purposes, the ship uses an multipurpose long range radar, the PEI9900 Long Range Multipurpose Radar. The PEI9900 can trace its ancestry back to the PEI-9940 Long Range Multipurpose Radar, which is now a feature on nearly every major Pennsylvanian Combatant. The PEI9900 is capable of detecting low Radar Cross Section Targets at medium to long ranges. Below is a short table of some of the detection ranges of a PEI9900 Radar onboard a Belzoni Class Frigate.

Range figures are based on the Radars 24m Above Sea Level Height onboard the ship. All figures are also based on the target having a RCS of between 0.01m2 and 1m2.

@10m – 33.245km
@20m – 38.647km
@50m – 49.365km
@100m – 61.445km
@500m – 112.422km
@1000m – 150.620km
@5000m – 311.823km
@10000m – 432.616km
@15000m – 525.304km
@20000m – 603.443km

The PEI9900 is also capable of acting a Surface search radar, using the same figures are above based on ship height, resulting in a detection distance of about 31-47km.It is capable of tracking up to 750 Aerial Targets and up to 25 Naval Targets. The radar also has a built in fire Control system, able to guide up to 18 Surface to Air missile to Aerial Targets, or able to guide up to 8 Anti-Shipping Missiles to their targets. This allows the ship too, despite its small size and relatively small armament, to remain a potent force on the battlefield to most types of targets.

The last major piece of the ships Electronic Suite would be the Pennsylvania Electronic’s Incorporated Ship Self Defense Suite (SSDS), a program integrated with the ships Air Search Radar that designates the targets on the radar in terms of threat, and prioritizes them for Interception. The system is quite similar to the AEGIS Air Defense System found in some American Ships, namely the Ticonderoga Class Cruiser and the Arleigh Burke Class Destroyer.

The System prioritizes targets based on their radar signature. For example, if the target is detected and showed to be a slow moving, low altitude, straight flying, small target heading straight towards the ship, and has a surface search radar signature, would probably be classified as a sea skimming Anti-Shipping Missile (AShM), and would receive higher priority from the ships defense systems than a aircraft such as a F-15 Eagle, due to the significantly lower threat to the ship that the F-15 represents over that of the Anti-Shipping Missile.

The program is able to classify, designate, and prioritize every target on the radar screen within 5 seconds of detection. The different classifications that the SSDS Program recognizes include CM(Cruise Missile), AShM (Anti-Shipping Missile), SAM/AAM(Surface to Air/Air to Air Missile), F(Fighter), B(Bomber), AT (Aerial Transport) and others.


Export

The Export of the Arapaho Class Guided Missile Destroyer is relatively open, provided the purchasing nation has no history of past hostilities with the Federal Republic or its allies. Each vessel runs for a price of $1.7 billion per unit, and about $2.55 trillion for domestic production rights.

Single Unit: $1.7bn
Domestic Production Rights: $2.55tn
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Postby United States of PA » Fri Apr 15, 2011 8:18 pm

Costs:
- New Production: $16 million

Dimensions:
- Length: 8.1m (Hull) 11.2m (Gun Forward)
- Height: 2.6m
- Width: 3.4m (+0.7m when using Slat Armor)
- Mass: 74 tonnes
- Track Width: 600mm
-Ground Pressure (apprx): 1.5kg/cm2

Internal Systems:
- Crew: 3
- Autoloader: M300 140mm Main Gun Autoloader
- Ammunition: 36 (Main Gun) 300 (Primary Coax.)
- Transmission: General Motors 2010 Heavy Duty MilSpec Automatic
- Fuel Capacity: 960L (Internal) 150L (External)


Powerplant: Caterpillar RB Model Diesel Heavy Duty 12 Cylinder
- Power: 2,200hp
- Displacement: 36 liters
- Layout: Opposed Piston
- Induction: Sequential Supercharger and Turbocharger
- Fuel Consumption: 2.1 liters per kilometer
- Suspensions: Active In Arm Suspension Unit

Performance:
- Maximum Speed (Road): 65km/h
- Range: 460km (Internal only) 530km (External included)
- Power-Weight Ratio: 29 hp/tonne


Armament:
- Primary: 140mm LOVA ETC ERFB Main Gun
- Coaxial: 35mm ERFB Electro-Thermal Chemical Autocannon
- Secondary Coaxial: 1x 7.62x63mm Light Machine Gun
-Commanders Gun: 1x Remote Weapons Station with a 15mm Heavy Machine Gun
- Dischargers: 42x 70mm Multiuse Grenade Launchers


History and Background

The M8P (Pennsylvanian) Advanced Block II Medium Tank was a program started in response to rumors of the beginning of the Lyran LY8 Main Battle Tank and the recent development of prototypes of the Lamonian M21A2. The M8P ABIIMT (A bi mat) program was intended to increase the M8s combat effectiveness, through a series of armament upgrades, electronics upgrades, and armor improvements.

The original production M8 Medium Tank had been built at a time when it was felt that a somewhat minimalistic Electronics’ suite and a 120mm main gun would suffice in nearly all anticipated combat scenarios that the Federal Republic Armored Forces would likely see in the near future. At the same time, it was also felt that the M8 would also be able to give tanks such as the commonly used LY4A1 a fair run for its money. However, shortly after the final deliveries of the M8 were accomplished, and the only production being done was attrition replacements and parts production, it became inherently clear that the M8 was now unable to achieve most of its design goals, due to underarmament, a flawed Susquehannoc Armor Scheme and a underdeveloped Fire Control System.

For the ABIIMT program decisions were made to completely redesign the vehicles turret, allowing use of a 140mm L/50 main gun, while keeping the same ammo storage. The turret was made substantially longer and slightly taller, bringing the vehicles height to 2.4m, from the previous 2.2m. This also resulted in a roughly 15 tonne increase in weight over the standard variant of the tank.


Main Armament

The main armament of the M8P consists of a 140mm L/50 main with Integrated Electrothermal Chemical Ignition and Full bore Rifling. The choice to use a 140mm was made in order to be able to generate enough muzzle energy and to be able to fire rounds large enough to be able to penetrate most available tanks frontal armor that the Federal Republic was likely to see on the field of combat. The gun makes use of advanced production techniques, consisting of a tantalum barrel lining, in place of the normal chromium, followed by the primary carbon fibre reinforced barrel, and finally a outer coating of Stainless-Steel, to protect the two inner layers from the elements.


Electro-thermal Chemical (ETC) ignition technology began out of the constant battle between Armor and Round during the Cold War. During the late 1980s, intelligence reports informed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization that the Future Soviet Tank (FST) could exceed 700mm Rolled Homogenous Armor equivalent (RHAe) at its maximum thickness, far beyond the effectiveness of the contemporary M829 Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot (APFSDS), than in use by some of the NATO Forces present in Western Germany. It is estimated today that, in order to effectively perforate future Armor, any new tank guns would have to achieve 18MJ worth of Muzzle Energy, double what is achievable with modern Solid Propellant. The easiest way to achieve this level of muzzle energy would’ve been to adopt a new 140mm Main Gun as the standard armament, but this would’ve required a complete and total re-design of the turrets of the tanks than in use in order to accept the new main gun.

The introduction of Electro-Thermal Chemical Ignition technology allows for the use of Liquid Propellant in a tanks main gun, allowing for vastly higher power propellants to be used, increasing the shots muzzle velocity and energy. For example, the lightweight American XM-291 came close to achieving 17MJ of muzzle energy, the lower end of the muzzle energy that a conventional 140mm gun would achieve. That’s from a 120mm gun.

An Electro-Thermal Chemical gun uses a Plasma cartridge to ignite and control the rounds propellant, using an electrical charge as a catalyst to the ignition of the propellant. The most common and most efficient one is that of the FLARE, or Flashboard Large Area Emitter. A FLARE works by providing several areas of parallel strings too offer a large area of plasma or Ultraviolet radiation and uses the breakdown and vaporization of the gapes of diamonds to provide the plasma needed to ignite the shells propellant. The strings used in a FLARE setup are suspended in tubes and are mounted azimuthal to the main guns axis.

In the American XM-291 gun project, a relatively primitive 120mm light gun with a none fully developed FLARE ignition system achieved 17MJ of muzzle energy, the lower energy spectrum of a conventional 140mm main gun. If a none fully developed FLARE igniter could achieve this, one can only imagine what a fully developed one could do.


Inside of the barrel is a Tantalum lining, compared to the typically used Chromium Lining, Tantalum offers a longer barrel life given the higher pressures seen in modern guns and propellants. It achieves this by being significantly harder than Chromium, being very resistant to corrosion, as well as having the potential to be a low friction surface in certain forms. These are all factors highly sought after in a Main Guns Lining, with the decrease in friction between the round and barrel, as well as the ability of the Barrel lining to better resist corrosion caused by repeated firing of rounds.

Encasing the tantalum barrel lining is a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Primary construction, followed by an outer casing of steel. The choice to use a Carbon Fibre Reinforced Barrel around the tantalum barrel lining was made in order to both increase barrel strength, and to decrease overall barrel weight. This results in a barrel that is both stronger than, and lighter than, a equivalent all steel construction barrel.

Full bore Rifling, also known as Extended Range, Full bore (ERFB), works by modifying the shell being fired by the gun to grip the rifling of the barrel more effectively, creating a seamless environment behind the shell, preventing the escape of any expansion gases, much like in a smoothbore main gun. This offers noticeable returns in Muzzle Velocity if used by itself, but at the same time, when used with larger and more effective propellant charges, can reach the Muzzle Velocity attained by some Smoothbore weapons, albeit at the decrease in expected decrease in barrel life expectancy.

Primary Coaxial Armament

The primary Coaxial Weapon of the M8P is that of a 35mm Electro Thermal Chemical Igntion Autocannon with Full Bore Rifling, also known as Extended Range Full Bore (ERFB). The cannon is a carryover from the original M8 Medium Tank.

The primary coaxial weapon of the M8 Medium Tank is a 35mm Chaingun. The 35mm Chaingun is intended to be used for the destruction of Lightly Armored Vehicles, such as Infantry Fighting Vehicles, Light Tanks, Armored Personnel Carriers and other lightly armored vehicles. The 35mm, designated the M246, is also an electro Thermal Chemical Ignition gun, along with an ERFB Setup. The choice for ETC ignition was to maximize the use of the shells propellant, and to allow for the most optimum burn rate, maximizing power. The choice to include an ERFB setup in the chain gun was also to allow for the maximum muzzle velocity attainable, and to allow for the accuracy that a rifled weapon offers as well. ERFB, or Extended Range, Full Bore, works by fixing a series of Fins to the side of the shell being fired and lining them up with the rifling in the weapons barrel. When fired, this allows for a seamless environment, preventing the escape of the propellant gases, like a smoothbore, but still causing the shell to spin, giving it the same accuracy as a Rifled Weapon. While a ERFB Equipped Cannon attains a higher muzzle velocity than a similar Rifled Cannon,

Secondary Coaxial Armament

On the opposite side of the main gun from the 35mm Chaingun is a single 7.62x63mm General Purpose Machine Gun (GPMG) with 1,100 rounds of ammunition. The purpose of the GPMG is for use against the most lightly of armored targets, infantry, and for suppression effects when it is deemed the 35mm chaingun is unneeded.

Commanders Weapon

The commander of the tank is equipped a Universal Remote Weapons System (URWS), designed to be able to accept and use nearly any weapon under 15.7mm. This allows for a wide variety of potential armament options for the vehicle, allowing for a nation to customize their tanks as to how they wish to see them armed.



Fire Control System

The Fire Control system of the M8P ABIIMT consist of the joint Lamonian-Etoile Arcture Designed Adepto FCS, produced under license in the Federal Republic of Pennsylvania.

Contracting with Sequoia Electrodynamics in the Lamonian allied nation of Etoile Arcture has resulted in the Adepto Fire Control System. Adepto is a Latin word, with a meaning of “to obtain, get, acquire.” Considering that the purpose of a Fire Control System is to acquire a fire control solution, Adepto is properly named for the job that it is tasked with. Standard laser filtered tank optics are included with the entire package, but the electronics fit for Adepto is first rate.

The gunner utilizes a Gyro stabilized panoramic Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) EO/IIR sensor, with 3x to 9.5x zoom. A Kigre Incorporated inspired, High Repetition Rate Q-switched, InGaAs laser diode pumped, Er:Glass laser rangefinder is also utilized. The two-mode laser range finder can be operated in a pulsed mode (for normal range finding), or in a constant stream, capable of being used to paint an enemy target to assist guided missiles, like the Comburo GLATGM, or the Havik II ATGM.

Er3+ doped phosphate laser glass exhibits high thermal shock resistance in combination with superior laser performance. The laser and thermo-mechanical properties of this new glass make it an excellent material to meet the demanding requirements of high repetition rate laser systems. Also included in the gunner’s sensor suite, is a weather sensor on the turret rear, GPS/INS gear, a ballistic computer, a cant sensor, and a muzzle reference sensor.

Taking a cue from the MCA-7 series of tanks, the LA-16 radar can share its information with the fire control system, which can be useful in the presence of smoke, or other battlefield obscurants. Terrain that is likely to obstruct the tank’s path can also be picked up, so that the driver knows the locations to avoid in the area (or similarly, the location of cover).

The Tank Commander has his own Gyro stabilized panoramic CdZnTe EO/IIR sensor, which shares all of the functions that the gunner’s sensor has. The driver has four such sensors, one in each quadrant of the tank. These CdZnTe EO/IIR sensors allow the driver to complete his job more efficiently, displaying obstacles that cannot be seen by the driver’s standard optics. If battle damage renders the driver’s sensors inoperable, the driver can rely on standard optics, while the Tank Commander’s sensor data can also be displayed on the driver’s video screen (which also displays all information related to the driving task, including fluid levels, and other information), which was purpose developed.

Borrowing from fire control measures designed by the Koreans for the K2 Black Panther, and implemented in Lamonian and allied MBTs, Lyran Arms and the Varessan Commonwealth's VMRDB developed a built-in trigger-delay mechanism.

Earlier platforms can be found to, despite all other fire control methods, miss their target when they fire their main gun, and hit a slight bump at the same time, a problem exacerbated, as would be expected, by movement at high speeds and/or across uneven terrain. The designers of the K2 anticipated this situation, and generated a solution for it by installing a laser emitter-receiver assembly linked to the FCS, a concept that was brought across for implementation in the main gun on the A2, and is now commonplace on Lamonian MBTs.

The emitter is fitted near the top of the barrel, with the receiver being placed at the barrel's base. The weapon can only be fired when the laser receiver array is exactly aligned with the emitted laser. To illustrate, if at the point of firing, when the gunner presses the trigger, linked as it is to the fire control system, the vehicle comes upon an irregularity in the terrain at the same moment, the laser will find itself pushed off the receiver by the sudden movement, and the FCS will delay the round's ignition until the beam reorients to the receiver again. As the barrel shakes up and down, the FCS will automatically fire off the gun when the laser finds its mark, and the barrel is judged to be on target. This system, combined with an advanced gyro-stabilizer, static pendulum cant-sensor and powerful fire control system, dramatically improves the vehicle's capacity to engage targets while moving at speed, even across broken terrain.

Another feature of the Adepto Fire Control System is the digitally displayed Gunner’s sight data. Modified from a similar system found on the Leclerc tank, the TS-70 Gunner’s Sight provides the tank gunner with useful information in an easy to follow format.

Image

Diagram of the A2’s TS-70 Gunners Sight Digital Display

1 - System error message(s)
2 – Sensor/main gun position compared to front of tank hull
3 - Selected ammunition: F = APFSDS, H = HEAT, T = Training, S = Smoke
4 - EO or IIR mode display: Red = EO, Green = IIR
5 – APS radar on/off indicator: Red = off, Green = on
6 - Measured distance to target (meters)
7 - Aim point in the form of a cross

While this digital display can be affected by battle damage, it was decided to include the technology for the purposes of streamlined presentation of vital data to the gunner.


((Above is a excerpt directly from Lamoni’s M21A2 writeup, unchanged, credit goes to Lamoni and Etoile Arcture))


Propulsion and Mobility

The Li Toneur is powered by a Caterpillar RB Model Diesel Heavy Duty 12 Cylinder Engine, developed and built by Caterpillar Inc. originally for a series of heavy duty Bulldozers designed for use in some of the Pennsylvanian Pit Mines. Despite have been designed for use by a heavy duty bulldozer, the decision to use the Heavy Duty 12 was due to its reliability, high power, and the fact that it could be relatively easily modified for use in a Tank. The engine has a very high compression ratio, and a very high power to displacement ratio, enabling the engine to put out rather high amounts of power for its size.

A opposed piston engine works by putting 2 pistons into each cylinder, allowing each pair to use the same intake and exhaust valves, and while eliminating the existence of a Cylinder Head and Head Gaskets, both of which present a weak point in a engines cylinder design. This weak point is due to the fact that, in most modern engine arrangements, such as Inline, V, W, and Flat Engines, you cannot get the highest compression ratio possible for the engine, due to the fact that past a certain point, the risk of cracking one of the cylinder heads or blowing out a head gasket becomes too great a risk. This limits the compression ratio which you can use in a engine.

An opposed piston engine doesn’t have to worry about this risk, because the design in its entirety lacks both of these weakpoints, as demonstrated by the below diagram. This, combined with the Sequential Supercharger and Turbocharger , allows the engine to put out nearly 60 horsepower for every liter it displaces. This allows for the engine to be relatively small, yet still put out high amounts of power.


Image


Armor

The Armor of the M8P is that of a revised Hannoc Scheme used on the original M8 Li Toneur. The choice to revise the scheme was due to a series of deficiencies found in the original armor scheme, which were required to be rectified in the replacement.

Any External Armor (NERA, ERA etc.)
Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al
Resilin
Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al
Titanium Diboride
Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al
Depleted Uranium Mesh
Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al
Depleted Uranium Mesh
Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al
Titanium Diboride
Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al
Dyneema

The Exterior part of the tanks armor consists of just about any sort of armor that one could imagine placing on the outside of the tank, ranging from Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA) to non-Explosive Reactive Armor (NERA) slate armor for standoff use against light anti-tank missiles, to even Sandbags located in places such as along the side of the turret or hull for added improvised protection.


The next layer of the primary armor scheme consists of a layer of Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al Titanium Alloy, chosen for its high tensile strength, density, and its elasticity over the alternate, Ti-6Al-4V.

There is also a layer of Resilin Used within the Armor of the M8P, intended to help yaw a penetrating Kinetic Energy Penetrator round, such as a 3BM44 or M829A3, or assist in causing Chemical Energy Penetrators, commonly known as HEAT rounds (High Explosive Anti-Tank) to dissipate quicker because of the difference in density of Resilin compared to that of the preceding and following Titanium Alloy Layers.


Following the second layer of Titanium Alloy is a layer of Titanium Diboride, a Ceramic comprising mainly titanium and boron, and noted for its extreme hardness, high melting point, and its higher than average density, which adds in combating penetrating rounds of many different types. The decision to use TiB2 over other materials such as SiC (Silicon Carbide) was due to its better properties and behavior for a vehicles main armor, when utilized in certain methods.

The leading layer of Titanium Diboride is backed by another layer of Titanium Alloy, to prevent the ceramic plate from cracking following a penetration, allowing greater multi-hit protection.

Immediately behind the TiB2 layers backing plate, is a layer of Depleted Uranium Mesh. The choice to use Depleted Uranium over other heavy metals, namely Tungsten, was due to its better properties for the job at hand, given by its much higher density. The choice to use DU Mesh as well was made to reduce overall weight of the armor. However, this would typically result in many small indiscrete places in the vehicles armor where a round could penetrate and simply bypass the armor. To prevent this from happening, immediately behind the initial layer of DU Mesh and its backing plate is another layer of DU Mesh, used to cover the holes in the primary layer of DU Mesh, ensuring that regardless of where the shell hits, there will always be full Armor protection.



Located behind the two layers of Depleted Uranium Mesh is another layer of Titanium Alloy encased Titanium Diboride, to provide the final layer of major armor before the tanks Anti-Spalling Layer, consisting of a layer of Dyneema throughout the interior of the tank on the outside of the armor, intended to prevent pieces of material from scabbing away from the interior wall, such as that caused by the impact of a High Explosive Squash Head (HESH) Round, and maiming or killing the crew.


Every other section of the tank, with the exception of the rear portion of the hull, is armored to resist 35mm Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot (APFSDS) or 155mm Artillery Fragments. The Choice to armor the rest of the tank against 35mm APFSDS and 155mm Artillery Fragments was to make sure that the tank was not taken out by a “David” so to speak, or something disproportionally smaller than the tank itself.

While the main armor of the tank itself is a very formidable anti-armor system, to retain a sense of modularity with the tanks armor, an option for a “Bolt on” armor system was included. This Bolt on system includes a Countersloping Armor Addon on the front and sides of the turret, Thicker Armored Skirts, and Explosive Reactive Armor along the frontal hull and Armored Skirts.

The Countersloping armor works by providing a first hit contact for an Explosively Formed Penetrator or Kinetic Energy Penetrator. If the shell that hits the Countersloping is a KEP shot, for example, a M829A3 APFSDS, than it will penetrate the countersloping with no issue. However, upon penetrating through, the Long Rod Penetrator will immediately begin to yaw to the side, and, will, as a result, cause the penetrator to impact the main armor at a inopportune angle, causing part of the Penetrator to literally shatter against the main armor of the tank, greatly reducing its effectiveness. Meanwhile, if a HEAT shell were to hit the countersloping, than it would also penetrate with no issue, but, instead of causing the molten jet to yaw to one side or another, the jet will instead begin to spread out, reducing its effectiveness when it hits the main armor of the tank.

Combined with the fact that there is usually some form of ERA attached to most areas of the Countersloping armor, this result is a very effective defense against most types of Anti-Tank shells. The other main part of the Bolt on Armor package is that of a thicker Armored Skirt, intended to provide added protection for the vehicles tracks, and for its hull. This allows for, when the Thicker Skirt is used, for the tank to resist up to 45mm shells on certain angles.

Outside of the Hannoc armor however, there is a minimalist use of any material other than the basics, Aluminum and High Carbon Steel being the two major ones. The majority of the Chassis remains of a Steel Construction, and the Armored Skirts, and, in extension, any place on the tank other than the Frontal Lower Hull and Frontal Turret Face, is made of a mainly steel construction, with some spots being made of a very high amount of Aluminum as well. This was due to the exorbant anticipated costs if the entire tank were to be armored, even just slight, in Titanium Alloy.


Active Protection System and Battlefield Management System

The Tanks Active Protection System, or APS, the primary defense against Anti-Tank missiles, is that of the Pennsylvanian Designed Quick Shot system, designed using experience with various systems, including the Israeli Trophy and Ironfist, and the Lyro GOLIATH and WATCHKEEPER systems, which had been employed on many Lyran Designed Vehicles, which Pennsylvanian Companies produced for export, and which had also been used by several branches of the Pennsylvanian Armed Forces.

The Quick Shot system has 4 main tier, Acquisition At Range, Passive Defenses, Primary Active Protection, and Terminal Active Protection.

The First tier uses a small radar transmitter, located on the top of the turret, to scan for incoming missiles. The Radar, and its associated computer, which will be discussed in greater length in the Battlefield Management System Section, are programmed to look for small, fast moving targets approaching from a certain angle or several angles.

The First tier of the system at which the system begins to actively try to fool or eliminate the missile is the second tier, which occurs at ranges beyond 100 meters. At this distance, all of the systems are passive, mainly involving passive attempts at fooling the Missile’s Seeker Head. A four point Infra-Red Laser system is located on the tank. The system has a single IR Laser on each corner of the turret, for a total of four different lasers, which can be trained on up to four different inbound missiles.

Each laser has a reliable chance of fooling the seeker head of an Anti-Tank Guided missile, though, like all systems, it is far from fool proof, and some missiles will naturally not be fooled by such a decoy system. Nonetheless, during Testing, the Passive Infra-Red Decoy system proved to be quite effective in its intended role, that of fooling, or, to use another word, blinding enemy missile seekers.

The third tier of the vehicles Active Protection System includes a trio of 6 barreled, 40mm grenade launchers. Two of these grenade launchers are located on the back corners of the turret, while the last one is located near the front of the turret, behind the Secondary Coaxial. Each of these grenades launchers contains usually a single 40mm High Explosive Fragmentation warhead, and is aimed using information input from the Tanks Battlefield Management system, and, in extension, the radar suite that is used to detect these inbound missiles. Each of these launchers is capable out to a range of about 75 meters, and, when used against incoming Anti-Tank missiles, is designed to be used at ranges between 25m and 75m.

The fourth and final tier of the system is a Shotgun like system. The basic principle as to how it fires is not all that different from an ERA tile. When a missile makes it past both of the previous tiers, the Infra-Red Laser Based Decoy system, and the 40mm Grenade Hard kill systems, than the final tier, which is another hardkill system, is the tanks last bet to take the missile out.

The last tier of the vehicles defense works in a sort of Shotgun fashion. There are 2, 360 degree rotatable launchers, each with 8 blocks on them. Each block contains about 120 pellets the size of a smaller buck or birdshot, found in common hunting shotguns. Behind this, is a small explosive charge. The device works by having the various sensory suites on the tank detect a incoming missile, and, if it passes through the 25m mark, and past the intended use range of the Tier 3 Grenade Launchers, than the Shotgun, as it is commonly called will be armed and instantly rotated to point itself at the threat. Upon the threat entering to within 10m, the explosive charge on one of the bricks on each of the launchers will fire at the threat, sending all 120 pellets towards it, hopefully destroying or disabling the missile.

The Battlefield management system of the M8 Li Toneur , and, in extension, many other Pennsylvanian Armed Forces ground vehicles, is the Aennoor Battlefield Management System. Aennoor, meaning bear in the Susquehannoc Language, is a system designed to interlink all Pennsylvanian Ground Vehicles within a certain area to one another, advising other vehicles of the status of these vehicles, and of the location, whereabouts, and status of detected enemy vehicles.

Aennoor is designed to classify enemy threats, both missile and vehicle, and to assess the status of the vehicle, and transmit it to other nearby units using Aennoor. The system classifies its threats by two main features, the Sensory suite the tank boasts, which is used mainly to classify Missile threats, and by use of the Commander designating targets, which is used to locate enemy vehicles and infantry units.

The commander does this by using his command console, which includes a touchscreen used specifically for the Aennoor system, to designate the rough area of the enemy vehicle or unit, and its type. For example, lets say a tank commander spots a enemy Armored Personnel Carrier in a tree line 3km from his position, but he is not in a good position to have his gunner engage the target. He can point out the rough position of the enemy APC on the touchscreen on his command console, and picking out the unit type, in this case, an Armored Personnel Carrier. Aennoor then sends this information out across the net to all nearby Vehicles. This allows a tank in a better position to engage to fire and destroy the target, allowing the best use of vehicle resources. As soon as the engaging tank reports that the target is destroyed, the APC is automatically taken off of the map, preventing confusion over whether or not there is a vehicle there.

The Aennoor System also has a very high digital bandwidth, allowing it to transfer large amounts of data very quickly. The average bandwidth of the Aennoor system is usually something in the area of 40-60 Mbit/s, allowing it to transmit anything the system or commander wants to near instantaneously to nearby units.

In addition to all of the above, the Aennoor system also boosts very reliable communication systems, having been designed to take relatively major bumps and even shell hits without failing. All of the communications in the tank are also Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) Proofed, meaning that, even were a Thermonuclear Warhead detonated nearby, the tanks Commo systems would continue to operate, allowing the vehicle to remain in contact with command and friendlies.

The input and output from the Aennoor System is also well encrypted, intended to prevent enemy units from accessing the Systems feed in the middle of a battle. The encryption system works by using 10,000 random digits and letters and symbols from Civilian Satellite Traffic, and organizing them into a nearly unbreakable code to prevent opposing forces from cracking it without spending significant amounts of time, energy, and resources to the job. Because of the possibility of thousands, if not, millions of different symbols, for each individual digit in the code, means that the likelyhood of a enemy breaking the code fast enough to be used in a ongoing battle is very low, if not, impossible.



Signature Reduction

Signature reduction on the M8 Li Toneur was placed at a very high importance. The reason for this was that the fact that a tank that was more difficult to see, was naturally, harder to kill. The primary focus of Signature reduction on the tank was in its Infra-Red Spectrum.

Most of the heat generated by a tank in motion is generated by its various engine systems, like one would assume, as well as its Tracks, which are heating up by constant friction with each of the road wheels.

To help lower the Heat emissions of the Engine and related systems, the Exhaust pipe was given extra length, the result of adding as many curves into the pipe as possible, the idea being that, the more surface area that could be presented, the lesser the heat on the surface of the pipe. In addition to this, certain sections of the exhaust pipe are continually cooled by coolant fluid. The point of this was that since heat always transfers some of its energy to the lower temperature material, by applying some coolant to the exhaust pipe, the heat seen at the exhaust outlet would be as low as possible. In another attempt to lower the Infra-red Signature of the tanks exhaust, the Exhaust was placed underneath the armored skirt, to have its heat dissipated into the track heat, and as such, hidden by the Armored Skirt and Canvas Dust Skirt.



Crew Amenities


The Li Toneur is designed to offer the greatest degree of comfort possible for the crew. Including in these are reclined seats, fitted with warmers or coolers, as well as the ability to carry nearly 40 liters of water. Included in the water lines from the tanks that carry this water are a water cooler and a water heater. The ability for each crewman to access hot water at anytime in the tank was done as a morale boaster.

The NBC (Nuclear, Biological, Chemical) Systems fitted in the Li Toneur are designed to be operated in temperatures ranging from -50C to +55C at full efficiency.

Included in the turret of the tank is a cooled refrigerator, capable of carrying some rations, soft drinks, water, or various other sorts of food and drink.

Included on the tank are both a Loudspeaker system and a phone on the aft part of the tank. The reason for this was to allow the tank commander to converse with the local infantry commander if for some reason the radios would go down. For example, the commander could use the Loudspeaker to call the Squad, Company or Platoon Commander over, and then have him/her use the phone for direct communications.

There have also been records of Pennsylvanian Tank commanders playing De-moralizing music at full volume over the loudspeakers, in a attempt to lower the Morale of the enemy they are fighting, especially in Urban Warfare. The songs chosen are usually ones that won’t affect the Pennsylvanian soldiers, but that would act as a de-moralizer to anyone who is fighting them. This has of course had mixed results.

An ability also exists for the crew to connect to the internet through the tanks Satellite Connection, albeit at the commanders discretion. This allows the crew to check their email, surf the internet, and even chat with their family when not in combat. It is also possible to connect a foot soldiers Laptop, for example, to the Satellite connection on the tank, allowing nearby infantryman to do the same.

Export

Export of the M8P Advanced Block II Medium Tank (ABIIMT) is done on a case by case basis, where in the requesting nations history is checked prior to the purchase of the vehicle. Domestic Production Rights are not available, but it is possible for a request for a Production Line to be set up within your country by one of the Pennsylvanian Companies that produce the M8P, at a additional rate of $2mn per vehicle, for a grand price of $18mn for every vehicle produced outside of the Federal Republic.

Single Tank: $16 million
Foreign Production Line: $18mn per vehicle
One Big Ass Mistake America
In other words, conservatives are generous with their own money, and liberals are generous with other peoples money.
"I object and take exception to everyone saying that Obama and Congress are spending money like a drunken sailor. As a former drunken sailor, I quit when I ran out of money." ~ Unknown
"We will not continue the failed economic policies of the past eight years." We will double down on the strategy
"See, it doesn't matter how many people you have, how old your civilization is, or any such tripe. We're still the by-God US of A and we will seriously bitch slap you so hard your ancestors going back millenia will feel it if you piss us off."

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United States of PA
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Posts: 3919
Founded: Apr 01, 2009
Compulsory Consumerist State

Postby United States of PA » Fri Apr 15, 2011 8:19 pm

Weight: 11kg
Barrel Length: 700mm
Overall Length: 1,100mm

Layout: Bullpup
Action: Bolt
Effective Range: 1,700m+
Cartridge:
9x90mm MEN
.416 Barret
.375 H&H Magnum And Family
.378 Weatherby Magnum
.408 Cheytac
.416 Weatherby Magnum



Magazine Size:
5 rounds

The M500 Long Range Advanced Sniper System (LRASS) was a rifle designed for a tender put out for a long range, high accuracy; high power Sniper Rifle by the Pennsylvanian Joint Command for the various branches of the armed forces.

The rifle retains most conventional building techniques, not introducing any sort of exotic ammo or firing mechanism. The primary design cartridge for the rifle is that of the 9x90mm MEN round, designed for the H&K WSG2000 Semi-Automatic Sniper Rifle as a round to outperform the 12.7x99mm NATO Round. The round does this so rather well, allowing it to be a excellent alternative to the 12.7x99mm NATO round as a Anti-Material Rifle round. The rifle is also able to accept numerous other rounds in the same basic size area as the 9x90mm, the most well known of which are listed above, and range in the 9-10mm region.

The rifles barrel is of a free floating, high carbon chromium lined construct, designed to offer improved structural integrity, and in the case of the chromium lined barrel, to increase the barrel life of the rifle.

The rifle utilizes a bullpup layout, in order to decrease the overall length of the rifle, while retaining the same barrel length as a conventional layout rifle. This allows easier moving of around of the rifle due to the shorter length.

Export

The Rifle is open to export to most nations that are not a direct opponent of the Federal Republic of Pennsylvania, and upon receipt of a order, unless otherwise specified, the rifle will be chambered for 9x90mm MEN. Production Rights are not available. Each rifle sells for $9,000, and comes without a scope, allowing the buyer to choose their own.
One Big Ass Mistake America
In other words, conservatives are generous with their own money, and liberals are generous with other peoples money.
"I object and take exception to everyone saying that Obama and Congress are spending money like a drunken sailor. As a former drunken sailor, I quit when I ran out of money." ~ Unknown
"We will not continue the failed economic policies of the past eight years." We will double down on the strategy
"See, it doesn't matter how many people you have, how old your civilization is, or any such tripe. We're still the by-God US of A and we will seriously bitch slap you so hard your ancestors going back millenia will feel it if you piss us off."

User avatar
United States of PA
Senator
 
Posts: 3919
Founded: Apr 01, 2009
Compulsory Consumerist State

Postby United States of PA » Fri Apr 15, 2011 8:21 pm

http://s569.photobucket.com/albums/ss13 ... 1001-1.png



Designation: M100 Self Propelled Howitzer
- Name: Taandee Wiikiyen

Costs:
- New Production: $6.1mn

Dimensions:
- Length: 13.7m (with gun) 9m (Hull)
- Height: 3.1m
- Width: 3.4m
- Mass: 57 tonnes
- Track Width: 600mm
-Ground Pressure (apprx): 6.7kg/m2

Internal Systems:
- Crew: 3 (Commander, Driver, Gunner)
- Autoloader: MH980 155mm Howitzer Autloader
- Ammunition: 60 shells
- Transmission: Caterpillar Heavy Duty Milspec Automatic Transmission
- Fuel Capacity: 700L


Powerplant: Caterpillar RB Model Diesel Heavy Duty 12 Cylinder
- Power: 1,400bhp
- Displacement: 36 liters displacement
- Layout: Opposed Piston
- Induction: Twin Supercharger
- Fuel Consumption: ~2.1L per 1km Average

Performance:
- Maximum Speed (Road): 65km/h
- Range: 340km
- Power-Weight Ratio: 24hp/tonne


Armament:
- Primary: 155mm L/55 Electro Thermal Chemical Extended Range Full Bore Howitzer
- Commanders Gun: 1x Universal Mount


Program History

The M100 “Taandee Wiikiyen” (Susquehannoc for “How far?”) Self Propelled Howitzer began out of the XSPH (X for Expermental) of the mid 2000s, out of a request for a design to replace the Lyran Designed LY7/366 “Lammasu” in Pennsylvanian Service with a Domestic Design.

Requirements for the Design included a improvement over the Lammasu in terms of Ammo Carried, Range, Accuracy, and reloading speed. Ammo Carriage was improved by using a dedicated chassis, as well as by using every available space in the vehicle, albeit at a bit of a cost to fuel storage, reducing its effective range without refueling. Range and accuracy were increased by replacing the Lammasu’s Smoothbore main gun with a Extended Range Full Bore cannon, which added the accuracy of a Rifled Cannon, but with a higher Muzzle Velocity, increasing range. Improvements in Rate of fire were made through using a cannon with liquid coolant surrounding the barrel and cooling fins located within the coolant, to help dissipate heat from shells being fire. Reloading speed was slightly improved over a LY/366, without the need of removing a rifle-esque magazine. The entire reloading system of the M100 is completely automatic, allowing the crew of each vehicle to be reduced to 3 personal, over the 4 or 5 required on similarly sized howitzers with manual reloading. This also allows the reloading of the howitzer to easily be completely in about five to six minutes, even under enemy fire when using a specially designed Ammo Resupply Vehicle (ARSV).

In addition to being able to fire faster, farther, and longer than the Lammasu, the vehicle is also weighs roughly 11 metric tonnes less. This difference is substantial, through because of this, the M100 can go many more places that the Lammasu cannot, enabling both its tactical and Strategic Mobility to be increased, increasing its total effectiveness.



Main Armament


The main armament of the M100 Self Propelled Howitzer consists of a 155m, 55 Caliber Howitzer, with Electro Thermal Chemical Ignition systems. The cannon is also built with Extended Range Full bore capability, increasing the guns Muzzle Velocity and as a result, the guns range.

The Main armament is that of the MH980 155mm L/55 Advanced Howitzer. The MH980 was designed specifically to offer range increases, as well as Rate of Fire increases, over the LY366 Howitzer cannon used in the Lammasu.

It achieves its improved rate of fire, which is capable of 11-14 rounds per minute through a series of both simple and complex cooling systems for the barrel. The most simplistic of the Cooling measures was through adding simple cooling fins to the outside of the gun barrel. This would in turn increase the total surface area of the barrel, and in return increasing heat dissipation. In addition to the Cooling Fins, located within the thermal sleeve of the barrel is a series of small diameter tubes within the barrel, that are applied over the thermal fins and the barrel itself. Running throughout these tubes is a coolant, intended to help dissipate even more heat from the barrel. Knowing full well that, by the time the coolant reaches the far end of the barrel, it would likely be hot enough as to not be of further use in a cooling method, and is therefore turn on end, and ran down another tube located farther away from the barrel, to be run back to the vehicles radiator to be cooled down, and than reused.

These features combine to allow enough cooling of the barrel to be done on average to allow a sustained fire rate of anywhere from 11 to 15 rounds per minute, depending on atmospheric Conditions.



The MH980 uses a Electro Thermal Chemical Ignition System, which allows a more even burn of the shells propellant, maximizing its efficiency. This allows for a higher Muzzle Velocity and Muzzle Energy out of the cannon. Other fringe benefits through the use of a ETC Ignition

Electro-thermal Chemical (ETC) ignition technology began out of the constant battle between Armor and Round during the Cold War. During the late 1980s, intelligence reports informed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization that the Future Soviet Tank (FST) could exceed 700mm Rolled Homogenous Armor equivalent (RHAe) at its maximum thickness, far beyond the effectiveness of the contemporary M829 Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot (APFSDS), than in use by some of the NATO Forces present in Western Germany. It is estimated today that, in order to effectively perforate future Armor, any new tank guns would have to achieve 18MJ worth of Muzzle Energy, double what is achievable with modern Solid Propellant. The easiest way to achieve this level of muzzle energy would’ve been to adopt a new 140mm Main Gun as the standard armament, but this would’ve required a complete and total re-design of the turrets of the tanks than in use in order to accept the new main gun.

The introduction of Electro-Thermal Chemical Ignition technology allows for the use of Liquid Propellant in a tanks main gun, allowing for vastly higher power propellants to be used, increasing the shots muzzle velocity and energy. For example, the lightweight American XM-291 came close to achieving 17MJ of muzzle energy, the lower end of the muzzle energy that a conventional 140mm gun would achieve. That’s from a 120mm gun.

An Electro-Thermal Chemical gun uses a Plasma cartridge to ignite and control the rounds propellant, using an electrical charge as a catalyst to the ignition of the propellant. The most common and most efficient one is that of the FLARE, or Flashboard Large Area Emitter. A FLARE works by providing several areas of parallel strings too offer a large area of plasma or Ultraviolet radiation and uses the breakdown and vaporization of the gapes of diamonds to provide the plasma needed to ignite the shells propellant. The strings used in a FLARE setup are suspended in tubes and are mounted azimuthally to the main guns axis.

In the American XM-291 gun project, a relatively primitive 120mm light gun with a none fully developed FLARE ignition system achieved 17MJ of muzzle energy, the lower energy spectrum of a conventional 140mm main gun. If a non fully developed FLARE igniter could achieve this, one can only imagine what a fully developed one could do.

The Main howitzer found on the M100 Self Propelled Howitzer is capable of achieving quite remarkable ranges from its main gun, thanks to the Dual Use of Electro Thermal Chemical Ignition, and the use of Extended Range Full Bore, or ERFB technology.

Extended Range Full Bore works, in layman’s terms, by adding fines to the exterior of the shell being used, which fit into the rifle of the cannon. When fired, these fins expand and grip the rifling of the barrel, expanding to create a seamless environment, not too dissimilar from that of a Smoothbore gun.

This results in a noticeable and appreciable increase in the muzzle velocity of a Rifled Cannon, while retaining the accuracy. This allows Tanks to hit targets at roughly twice the range than tanks using a conventional Smoothbore cannon, or, in the case of howitzers, allow a Increase in range on the order of a dozen or more kilometers. Two of the most known Howitzers in existence, the South African G6, and the German Panzerhaubitze 2000, or Pzh 2000, both used ERFB methods, to great effects, the G6 becoming one of the most long ranged howitzers in the world, and the Pzh 2000 to become one of the most effective.

Through the combination of ETC and ERFB, the main gun of the M100 is able to reach a range of up to 33km with regular High Explosive Shells, up to 53km with Base Bleed High Explosive Shells, and up to 77km maximum range with a High Velocity V-LAP round. This enabled the M100 to be able to reach out and touch targets at up to 73km effectively, or 45.3 miles. This range is typically the realm of Long Range Rocket Systems, such as the M270A1 or BM-30 Smerch, for reference. While these range figures may not seem like all that much of a improvement over that of the Denels G6-52 Extended Range Howitzer is due the use of much heavier shells as standard for the howitzer over that of other guns, given the shells higher Muzzle Energy gained from various improved factors such as the Electro Thermal Chemical Ignition and the Full Bore Rifling.

The M100 carries up to 60 Rounds for its main gun, which is upwards of 20 rounds more than most other 155mm Howitzers. This increase in ammo storage in achieved by increasing the size of the hull significantly, as well as removing some of the vehicles fuel storage. All of the rounds are ready to fire, through the use of a autoloader which has all shells and shell components readily accessible and ready to be loaded. 30 of the shells are stored in the hull, underneath the front of the turret, while the remaining 30 are located in the rear of the vehicles turret, which has a half meter overhang over the back of the vehicle. There is a single automatic arm located in the center of all this, that swivels and pivots in order to move the shells from their storage points into the breach of the gun, along with the propellant charges.


The M100 is capable of having all 60 shells reloaded inside of five and a half minutes when using the specially designed Automatic Resupply vehicle based off of the M100 chassis. The M100 is reloaded through a opening in the rear of the turret.

The reloading of the M100 is designed to be carried out by a specialized ARSV (Ammunition Resupply Vehicle), which is capable of fully reloading the vehicles 60 round magazine in about five and a half minutes when using the vehicle. Using the ARSV allows automatic reloading, with the entire crew of both vehicles being under armor and safe from enemy return fire.


On top of the turret of the M100 is a single Universal Remote Weapons station, designed to take any weapon of just about any caliber. To name a few weapons that the URWS can would be a M2HB, a NSV, PKT, FN MAG, Kord, or a CIS 50. This list is far from exhaustive however, and with certain modifications, can easily accept nearly any existing machine gun.


Fire Control System


The Fire Control System (FCS) of the M100 is that of the Tiparee FCS. The Tiparee FCS was designed from the ground up to be used as a 155mm Howitzer FCS, and excels in that role.

The Tiparee system is designed to automatically and without human interference, aim, elevate, and angle the main gun of the M100, to allow for the most accurate fire mission possible. Before firing, the Tiparee system records the temperature of the barrel, the shell being fired, as well as Barrel flex or droop. Upon assessing all of those factors, the FCS will than assess and calculate the best firing angle.

The Tiparee system is also capable of conducting a Multiple Rounds, Simultaneous Impact, or MRSI. A MRSI barrage is conduct by rapid firing a number of rounds at differing angles, allowing all of the rounds to land on target at roughly the same time. In the case of the M100, it is capable of a 6 round MRSI barrage at a range of 25km. This is intended to give the appearance of 6 separate guns doing a Time on Target Barrage (ToT), where each gun fires at the same time, with all six shells landing at the same time.

The ability to conduct a MRSI barrage greatly increases the firepower of the gun system, as a dozen guns, doing a MRSI barrage at 25km, can fire up to 72 rounds by themselves, giving the appearance as if 72 separate guns were firing at the same time conducting a ToT barrage. This greatly multiplies the apparent force of the artillery barrage, since many enemies will assume there are vastly more individual guns firing at them than there actually is.


The battlefield management system of the M100 is rather simplistic, designed solely to show detected enemy ground units, known enemy positions locations, and a 3D terrain map. The decision to make a rather simplistic BMS for the M100, one that in contrast to most of the rest of the Pennsylvanian Armed Forces lacks a designation or nickname.

In addition to being able to designate enemy locations and formations or even individual units, as well as the 3D map, allows the crew of the M100 to easily pick out targets. Another goal of the BMS in the M100 is to allow easy Time on Target or Multi gun MRSI barrages. The BMS allows a commander of a battery to wait until all guns are ready, sync them up so that they are all firing at the same target, and can autonomously order all of the guns to fire at the same time, and carry out their MRSI at the same, allowing many dozens of rounds to be able to land on the target at the same time.


Propulsion & Mobility

The propulsion of the M100 SPH is the same as that of the M8 Medium Tank and the M92 Heavy Tank/Heavy Support Tank, albeit downrated to 1,400bhp.

The M100 is powered by a Caterpillar RB Model Diesel Heavy Duty 12 Cylinder Engine, developed and built by Caterpillar Inc. originally for a series of heavy duty Bulldozers designed for use in some of the Pennsylvanian Pit Mines. Despite have been designed for use by a heavy duty bulldozer, the decision to use the Heavy Duty 12 was due to its reliability, high power, and the fact that it could be relatively easily modified for use in a Armored Vehicle. The engine is capable of attaining a very high compression ratio, as well as a very high power to displacement ratio, enabling the engine to put out rather high amounts of power for its size.

An opposed piston engine works by putting 2 pistons into each cylinder, allowing each pair to use the same intake and exhaust valves, and while eliminating the existence of a Cylinder Head and Head Gaskets, both of which present a weak point in a engines cylinder design. This weak point is due to the fact that, in most modern engine arrangements, such as Inline, V, W, and Flat Engines, you cannot get the highest compression ratio possible for the engine, due to the fact that past a certain point, the risk of cracking one of the cylinder heads or blowing out a head gasket becomes too great a risk. This limits the compression ratio which you can use in a engine.

An opposed piston engine doesn’t have to worry about this risk, because the design in its entirety lacks both of these weak points, as demonstrated by the below diagram. This, combined with the twin Supercharger, allows the engine to put out nearly 60 horsepower for every liter it displaces. This allows for the engine to be relatively small, yet still put out high amounts of power.

Image

Tactical and Strategic Mobility were a major part of the design, so long as it didn’t impact on the vehicles effectiveness at its other requirements. As a result, the vehicle weighs more than some other vehicles of the same role, but not of the same capabilities. For example, a pretty similar M109A6 Paladin, carrying the same diameter main gun, but at a slightly shorter length, but lacking many of the more advanced features of the M100, weighs in at just 27.5tons, versus the 57 tonnes of the M100.


Armor


The armor of the M100 Self Propelled Howitzer is quite thin by many vehicles standards these days, having been design to take only the punishment of potential Small Arms Fire, and the greatest threat perceived to the Vehicle, that of enemy Counter battery.

Due to the perceived presence of the fact that most likely any nation that the Federal Republic of Pennsylvania would likely find itself fighting would be employing either 105mm or 155mm howitzers, due to the extreme prominence of those two calibers, alongside smaller but similar Soviet Styled calibers, such as 152mm, made 155mm as the like heaviest protection that would be required by the Vehicle.

The vehicle is protected on all angles from 155mm Shell Fragments, intended to protect the vehicle from enemy counter battery, due to the perceived low chance of a direct hit by a Contact round.


Signature Reduction


Due to the perceived low chance of the vehicle ever coming into direct combat, the decision was made to reduce the total amount of Signature Reduction to Infra-Red Suppression, to protect against Howitzer Launched Anti-Tank rounds, such as SADARM rounds. This thermal reduction is achieved through such actions as venting the exhaust into the vehicles tracks, underneath the skirt, and cooling the exhaust at the same time.

In addition to mounting the exhaust ventilation underneath the vehicles tracks, the length of the exhaust pipe was also increased, along with cooling fins being added to it, along with other major heat producers. This resulted in a increase in surface area, which in turn would increase the heat dissipation off of the material per unit of time, lowering its overall temperature.


Export

The M100 Self Propelled Howitzer is for the most part open on a single unit by unit basis for the standard price of $1.5mn USD. Domestic Production Rights are available, but restricted in the interest of Pennsylvanian National security in case some incident were to arise with the buying nation. For all other nations, whom cannot attain a Domestic Production License, there is instead a Domestic Production Line, which works by having a Pennsylvanian Manufacturer set up a production line within your nation, employing your nation’s workers and adding money to your economy. There is also the chance of the Pennsylvanian Manufacturer using excess vehicles produced from this line to sell abroad in the same fashion as any vehicle produced within the Pennsylvanian Republic, adding further capital and work to the host nation.


Single Unit: $9.1mn
Domestic Production Line Royalty: $1,000,000 per unit produced

Ammunition Resupply Vehicle (ARSV)

Single Unit: $1.9mn
Domestic Production Line Royalty: $900,000 per unit produced
Last edited by United States of PA on Tue May 10, 2011 1:30 pm, edited 1 time in total.
One Big Ass Mistake America
In other words, conservatives are generous with their own money, and liberals are generous with other peoples money.
"I object and take exception to everyone saying that Obama and Congress are spending money like a drunken sailor. As a former drunken sailor, I quit when I ran out of money." ~ Unknown
"We will not continue the failed economic policies of the past eight years." We will double down on the strategy
"See, it doesn't matter how many people you have, how old your civilization is, or any such tripe. We're still the by-God US of A and we will seriously bitch slap you so hard your ancestors going back millenia will feel it if you piss us off."

User avatar
United States of PA
Senator
 
Posts: 3919
Founded: Apr 01, 2009
Compulsory Consumerist State

Postby United States of PA » Fri Apr 15, 2011 8:22 pm

Image

Designation: M92 Heavy Gunned Tank Destroyer
- Name: Aenfiizii

Costs:
- New Production: $28 million

Dimensions:
- Length: 8.1m (Hull) 12m (Gun Forward)
- Height: 2.37m (Main Turret Roof)
- Width: 4m
- Mass: 88 tonnes
- Track Width: 660mm
-Ground Pressure (apprx): 0.8 kg cm2

Internal Systems:
- Crew: 3
- Autoloader: M320 Large Caliber Autoloader
- Ammunition: 34 Ready Rounds (Main Gun) 600 Rounds (Coax) 400 Rounds (Commanders Weapon)
- Transmission: General Motors 2010 Heavy Duty MilSpec Automatic
- Fuel Capacity: 1,250L (Internal) 400L (External)


Powerplant: Caterpillar RB Model Diesel Heavy Duty 12 Cylinder
- Power: 2,200bhp
- Displacement: 36 liters displacement
- Layout: Opposed Piston
- Induction: Twin Supercharger
- Fuel Consumption: ~2.1L per 1km Average

Performance:
- Maximum Speed (Road):
- Range: 785km (With External Drums) 550km (Internal only)
- Power-Weight Ratio: 25hp/tonne


Armament:
- Primary: 155mm Electro Thermal Chemical ERFB L/46 Main Gun
- Coaxial: 1x 7.62mm General Purpose Machine Gun
- Secondary Coaxial/Commanders Gun: 35mm Compact Chaingun (Roof mounted)
- Dischargers: 18x 70mm Grenade Launchers


Background and Conceptualization

The reasoning behind the development and production of the M92 “Aenfiizii” Heavy Support Tank/Heavy Tank was to provide a so called “high” to the M8 Li Toneur’s “low”. The “high” aspects of the tank include its very thick armor and very powerful gun, needed to fulfill its operational role, of Heavy Armored Support and Heavy Armored Breakthrough.

The M92 was envisioned to act as a Tank to stall or even stop enemy Armored Advances while M8 Medium Tanks outmaneuvered the stalled enemy, or to lob off enemy Armored Attacks at the base, cutting the advancing enemy troops off from resupply and reinforcement. In General engagements, the M92 is too support M8 Advances from medium range, lobbing large shells of various types downrange as threats pop up, or too support from up close, using its large gun to destroy enemy vehicles or bunkers. It can also act in limited degree as a Infantry Support tank, given its large gun, which enables high charges of High Explosive or a very large Canister Shot, and its heavy armor, allowing it to shrug off many weapons.

In the Request for Proposal (RFP) that eventually yielded the M92, it was made clear that the M92 was to be a “No Holds Barred” tank, meaning that the requirements were to be met or exceeded, regardless of cost. Nonetheless, in order to allow at least some electronic’s and mechanical similarity, many systems and the engine was reused from the M8 “Li Toneur”, which was, at the time, on route to became the most used tank in Pennsylvanian Army and Marine Corps History.


Armament

The main armament of the M92 is that of a 155mm, Electro Thermal Chemical Ignition, Extended Range Full-Bore, 46 Caliber Heavy Tank Gun, designed specifically with the role of being able to lug high capacity rounds based around High Explosives, or fire large bore Armored Piercing Discarding Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot (APFSDS) at high velocities long range or large diameter Gun Launched Anti-Tank Guided Missiles.

The use of a Extended Range Full-Bore main gun allows for a spin to be imparted on the shell, while still creating a seamless seal, preventing the escape of any propellant gases, like in a Smoothbore, combining the “Best of both worlds”.

The Main gun of the tank, the M450, uses a Electro-Thermal Chemical Ignition Source, which allows for a more even and better burn of the shells propellant, maximizing efficiency and muzzle velocity/energy.

Electro-thermal Chemical (ETC) ignition technology began out of the constant battle between Armor and Round during the Cold War. During the late 1980s, intelligence reports informed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization that the Future Soviet Tank (FST) could exceed 700mm Rolled Homogenous Armor equivalent (RHAe) at its maximum thickness, far beyond the effectiveness of the contemporary M829 Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot (APFSDS), than in use by some of the NATO Forces present in Western Germany. It is estimated today that, in order to effectively perforate future Armor, any new tank guns would have to achieve 18MJ worth of Muzzle Energy, double what is achievable with modern Solid Propellant. The easiest way to achieve this level of muzzle energy would’ve been to adopt a new 140mm Main Gun as the standard armament, but this would’ve required a complete and total re-design of the turrets of the tanks than in use in order to accept the new main gun.

The introduction of Electro-Thermal Chemical Ignition technology allows for the use of Liquid Propellant in a tanks main gun, allowing for vastly higher power propellants to be used, increasing the shots muzzle velocity and energy. For example, the lightweight American XM-291 came close to achieving 17MJ of muzzle energy, the lower end of the muzzle energy that a conventional 140mm gun would achieve. That’s from a 120mm gun.

An Electro-Thermal Chemical gun uses a Plasma cartridge to ignite and control the rounds propellant, using an electrical charge as a catalyst to the ignition of the propellant. The most common and most efficient one is that of the FLARE, or Flashboard Large Area Emitter. A FLARE works by providing several areas of parallel strings too offer a large area of plasma or Ultraviolet radiation and uses the breakdown and vaporization of the gapes of diamonds to provide the plasma needed to ignite the shells propellant. The strings used in a FLARE setup are suspended in tubes and are mounted azimuthal to the main guns axis.
In the American XM-291 gun project, a relatively primitive 120mm light gun with a none fully developed FLARE ignition system achieved 17MJ of muzzle energy, the lower energy spectrum of a conventional 140mm main gun. If a none fully developed FLARE igniter could achieve this, one can only imagine what a fully developed one could do.


The main coaxial Armament is that of a 7.62mm General Purpose Machine Gun (GPMG) mounted alongside the 155mm main gun. It contains 600 rounds of ammunition for the machine gun, enabling about one minute of sustained fire.


In a interesting mounting, the commanders Gun is not the typical machine gun, but is instead a 35mm autocannon located in a weathering mounting, along with the various commanders sights. The idea behind this change is that, if the commander spots a dangerous, yet, low priority target, such as a Armored Personnel carrier, he can engage it immediately without taking the time to have his gunner relocate to engage.

In another slight twist, the commander can also hand control of the 35mm over to the gunner by pressing in a few commands on his touch screen, which will automatically slave the Autocannon to the Gunners sight, while leaving the Commanders Sights in his control.


Propulsion and Mobility

The M92 is powered by a Caterpillar RB Model Diesel Heavy Duty 12 Cylinder Engine, developed and built by Caterpillar Inc. originally for a series of heavy duty Bulldozers designed for use in some of the Pennsylvanian Pit Mines. Despite have been designed for use by a heavy duty bulldozer, the decision to use the Heavy Duty 12 was due to its reliability, high power, and the fact that it could be relatively easily modified for use in a Tank. The engine has a very high compression ratio, and a very high power to displacement ratio, enabling the engine to put out rather high amounts of power for its size.

A opposed piston engine works by putting 2 pistons into each cylinder, allowing each pair to use the same intake and exhaust valves, and while eliminating the existence of a Cylinder Head and Head Gaskets, both of which present a weak point in a engines cylinder design. This weak point is due to the fact that, in most modern engine arrangements, such as Inline, V, W, and Flat Engines, you cannot get the highest compression ratio possible for the engine, due to the fact that past a certain point, the risk of cracking one of the cylinder heads or blowing out a head gasket becomes too great a risk. This limits the compression ratio which you can use in a engine.

An opposed piston engine doesn’t have to worry about this risk, because the design in its entirety lacks both of these weakpoints, as demonstrated by the below diagram. This, combined with the twin Supercharger, allows the engine to put out nearly 60 horsepower for every liter it displaces. This allows for the engine to be relatively small, yet still put out high amounts of power.

Image

Despite the weight of the tank, Strategic and Tactical mobility was a major consideration within the tank design, with the goal being that the tank being able to fit into most of the major airlifters in the Pennsylvanian Air Force, and be able to move at respectable speeds of its own accord.




Armor


Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al
Resilin
Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al
Tungsten Carbide
Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al
Silicon Carbide
Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al
Depleted Uranium Mesh
Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al
Dyneema


The armor of the M92 “Aenfiizii” is itself based off of the “Hannoc” Armor Scheme, though, with enough difference to warrant its own name, that of “Cherokee”, the name of the main rival to the Dominant Susquehannoc Native Tribe of Susquehanna Island.

The Cherokee Armor Scheme is designed for maximum effectiveness against both Explosively Formed Penetrators and Kinetic Energy Penetrators, with a mix of Titanium Alloys Encasing Ceramics and a layer of Depleted Uranium Mesh, backed up with a layer of Dyneema for an Anti-Spall Layer.

The Cherokee Armor Scheme is focused on the Turret Face, Turret Sides and Lower Front Turret Hull, the three places most expected to get impacted by the high power rounds that are expected to hit the M92. These three area’s are the most protected, and the only location to have the Cherokee Armor protect it. On side of the hull, the majority of the armor protection is provided by Armored Skirts, and, the ability to add Explosive Reactive Armor or Non-Explosive Reactive Armor onto them. The Armored Skirts themselves are made of High Strength Steel, and are designed to protect against 50mm Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot rounds on the front 2/3rds of the tank hull, enabling protection against most Infantry Fighting Vehicle Main Weapons. When ERA is also added, this protection can provide single shot protection against Rocket Fired Anti-Tank Weapons, such as AT-4s, M72s, and some models of Russian RPGs.


Electronics’ and Active Protection Systems

The Tanks Active Protection System, or APS, the primary defense against Anti-Tank missiles, is that of the Pennsylvanian Designed Quick Shot system, designed using experience with various systems, including the Israeli Trophy and Ironfist, and the Lyro GOLIATH and WATCHKEEPER systems, which had been employed on many Lyran Designed Vehicles, which Pennsylvanian Companies produced for export, and which had also been used by several branches of the Pennsylvanian Armed Forces.

The Quick Shot system has 4 main tier, Acquisition At Range, Passive Defenses, Primary Active Protection, and Terminal Active Protection.

The First tier uses a small radar transmitter, located on the top of the turret, to scan for incoming missiles. The Radar, and its associated computer, which will be discussed in greater length in the Battlefield Management System Section, are programmed to look for small, fast moving targets approaching from a certain angle or several angles.

The First tier of the system at which the system begins to actively try to fool or eliminate the missile is the second tier, which occurs at ranges beyond 100 meters. At this distance, all of the systems are passive, mainly involving passive attempts at fooling the Missile’s Seeker Head. A four point Infra-Red Laser system is located on the tank. The system has a single IR Laser on each corner of the turret, for a total of four different lasers, which can be trained on up to four different inbound missiles.

Each laser has a reliable chance of fooling the seeker head of an Anti-Tank Guided missile, though, like all systems, it is far from fool proof, and some missiles will naturally not be fooled by such a decoy system. Nonetheless, during Testing, the Passive Infra-Red Decoy system proved to be quite effective in its intended role, that of fooling, or, to use another word, blinding enemy missile seekers.

The third tier of the vehicles Active Protection System includes a trio of 6 barreled, 40mm grenade launchers. Two of these grenade launchers are located on the back corners of the turret, while the last one is located near the front of the turret, behind the Secondary Coaxial. Each of these grenades launchers contains usually a single 40mm High Explosive Fragmentation warhead, and is aimed using information input from the Tanks Battlefield Management system, and, in extension, the radar suite that is used to detect these inbound missiles. Each of these launchers is capable out to a range of about 75 meters, and, when used against incoming Anti-Tank missiles, is designed to be used at ranges between 25m and 75m.

The fourth and final tier of the system is a Shotgun like system. The basic principle as to how it fires is not all that different from an ERA tile. When a missile makes it past both of the previous tiers, the Infra-Red Laser Based Decoy system, and the 40mm Grenade Hard kill systems, than the final tier, which is another hardkill system, is the tanks last bet to take the missile out.

The last tier of the vehicles defense works in a sort of Shotgun fashion. There are 2, 360 degree rotatable launchers, each with 8 blocks on them. Each block contains about 120 pellets the size of a smaller buck or birdshot, found in common hunting shotguns. Behind this, is a small explosive charge. The device works by having the various sensory suites on the tank detect a incoming missile, and, if it passes through the 25m mark, and past the intended use range of the Tier 3 Grenade Launchers, than the Shotgun, as it is commonly called will be armed and instantly rotated to point itself at the threat. Upon the threat entering to within 10m, the explosive charge on one of the bricks on each of the launchers will fire at the threat, sending all 120 pellets towards it, hopefully destroying or disabling the missile.

The Battlefield management system of the M92 “Aenfiizii” , and, in extension, many other Pennsylvanian Armed Forces ground vehicles, is the Aennoor Battlefield Management System. Aennoor, meaning bear in the Susquehannoc Language, is a system designed to interlink all Pennsylvanian Ground Vehicles within a certain area to one another, advising other vehicles of the status of these vehicles, and of the location, whereabouts, and status of detected enemy vehicles.

Aennoor is designed to classify enemy threats, both missile and vehicle, and to assess the status of the vehicle, and transmit it to other nearby units using Aennoor. The system classifies its threats by two main features, the Sensory suite the tank boasts, which is used mainly to classify Missile threats, and by use of the Commander designating targets, which is used to locate enemy vehicles and infantry units.

The commander does this by using his command console, which includes a touchscreen used specifically for the Aennoor system, to designate the rough area of the enemy vehicle or unit, and its type. For example, lets say a tank commander spots a enemy Armored Personnel Carrier in a tree line 3km from his position, but he is not in a good position to have his gunner engage the target. He can point out the rough position of the enemy APC on the touchscreen on his command console, and picking out the unit type, in this case, an Armored Personnel Carrier. Aennoor then sends this information out across the net to all nearby Vehicles. This allows a tank in a better position to engage to fire and destroy the target, allowing the best use of vehicle resources. As soon as the engaging tank reports that the target is destroyed, the APC is automatically taken off of the map, preventing confusion over whether or not there is a vehicle there.

The Aennoor System also has a very high digital bandwidth, allowing it to transfer large amounts of data very quickly. The average bandwidth of the Aennoor system is usually something in the area of 40-60 Mbit/s, allowing it to transmit anything the system or commander wants to near instantaneously to nearby units.

In addition to all of the above, the Aennoor system also boosts very reliable communication systems, having been designed to take relatively major bumps and even shell hits without failing. All of the communications in the tank are also Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) Proofed, meaning that, even were a Thermonuclear Warhead detonated nearby, the tanks Commo systems would continue to operate, allowing the vehicle to remain in contact with command and friendlies.

The input and output from the Aennoor System is also well encrypted, intended to prevent enemy units from accessing the Systems feed in the middle of a battle. The encryption system works by using 10,000 random digits and letters and symbols from Civilian Satellite Traffic, and organizing them into a nearly unbreakable code to prevent opposing forces from cracking it without spending significant amounts of time, energy, and resources to the job. Because of the possibility of thousands, if not, millions of different symbols, for each individual digit in the code, means that the likelyhood of a enemy breaking the code fast enough to be used in a ongoing battle is very low, if not, impossible.

Signature Reduction

Signature reduction on the M92 Aenfiizii was placed at a very high importance. The reason for this was that the fact that a tank that was more difficult to see, was naturally, harder to kill. The primary focus of Signature reduction on the tank was in its Infra-Red Spectrum.

Most of the heat generated by a tank in motion is generated by its various engine systems, like one would assume, as well as its Tracks, which are heating up by constant friction with each of the road wheels.

To help lower the Heat emissions of the Engine and related systems, the Exhaust pipe was given extra length, the result of adding as many curves into the pipe as possible, the idea being that, the more surface area that could be presented, the lesser the heat on the surface of the pipe. In addition to this, certain sections of the exhaust pipe are continually cooled by coolant fluid. The point of this was that since heat always transfers some of its energy to the lower temperature material, by applying some coolant to the exhaust pipe, the heat seen at the exhaust outlet would be as low as possible. In another attempt to lower the Infra-red Signature of the tanks exhaust, the Exhaust was placed underneath the armored skirt, to have its heat dissipated into the track heat, and as such, hidden by the Armored Skirt and Canvas Dust Skirt.


Crew Amenities

The Aenfiiziis designed to offer the greatest degree of comfort possible for the crew. Including in these are reclined seats, fitted with warmers or coolers, as well as the ability to carry nearly 40 liters of water. Included in the water lines from the tanks that carry this water are a water cooler and a water heater. The ability for each crewman to access hot water at anytime in the tank was done as a morale boaster.

The NBC (Nuclear, Biological, Chemical) Systems fitted in the Li Toneur are designed to be operated in temperatures ranging from -50C to +55C at full efficiency.

Included in the turret of the tank is a cooled refrigerator, capable of carrying some rations, soft drinks, water, or various other sorts of food and drink.

Included on the tank are both a Loudspeaker system and a phone on the aft part of the tank. The reason for this was to allow the tank commander to converse with the local infantry commander if for some reason the radios would go down. For example, the commander could use the Loudspeaker to call the Squad, Company or Platoon Commander over, and then have him/her use the phone for direct communications.

There have also been records of Pennsylvanian Tank commanders playing De-moralizing music at full volume over the loudspeakers, in a attempt to lower the Morale of the enemy they are fighting, especially in Urban Warfare. The songs chosen are usually ones that won’t affect the Pennsylvanian soldiers, but that would act as a de-moralizer to anyone who is fighting them. This has of course had mixed results.

An ability also exists for the crew to connect to the internet through the tanks Satellite Connection, albeit at the commanders discretion. This allows the crew to check their email, surf the internet, and even chat with their family when not in combat. It is also possible to connect a foot soldiers Laptop, for example, to the Satellite connection on the tank, allowing nearby infantryman to do the same.

Export

The Export of the M92 “Aenfiizii” Heavy Tank/Heavy Support Tank is generally open, unless the requesting nation has had a history of Unneeded Violence, of Selling Military Secrets of nations to ones hostile to them, or of reselling military equipment to others at a profit, among others.

Any Export denials are final, and any appeals are unlikely to go anywhere.

Single Unit: $28 Million
One Big Ass Mistake America
In other words, conservatives are generous with their own money, and liberals are generous with other peoples money.
"I object and take exception to everyone saying that Obama and Congress are spending money like a drunken sailor. As a former drunken sailor, I quit when I ran out of money." ~ Unknown
"We will not continue the failed economic policies of the past eight years." We will double down on the strategy
"See, it doesn't matter how many people you have, how old your civilization is, or any such tripe. We're still the by-God US of A and we will seriously bitch slap you so hard your ancestors going back millenia will feel it if you piss us off."

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Postby United States of PA » Fri Apr 15, 2011 8:22 pm

FGM-190 “Dragoon” Anti-Tank Guided Missile

Length: 750mm
Diameter: 140mm (Missile) 148mm (Tube + Missile)
Weight: 10kg (Missile + Tube)
Warhead: Tandem Shaped Charge, Blast Fragmentation or Thermobaric
Warhead Weight/composition: 3 kg, PBXN 103, or 5 kg Thermobaric
Range: 10 m (min) - 750 m (max)
Speed: up to 250m/s
Detonation Mechanism: Impact Fuze
Engine: Single Stage, Cold Launch
Guidance: EO/IIR Fire and Forget (Anti-Tank), Unguided (Blast Frag & Thermobaric)
Targets: AFVs, MBTs, Low Flying Helicopters, caves, structures
Launch systems: Shoulder Fired
Penetration: ~1000-1120mm RHAe after ERA, 3.5 m concrete
Reload Time: ~20 seconds
Crew: 1

$10,000 (Tandem Heat and Blast Frag Warhead)
$15,000 (Thermobaric Warhead)
$40,000 (Launcher Tube and Guidance System/Sights)



The FGM-190 “Dragoon” is a light, shoulder launched Rocket Propelled Grenade Launcher, capable of using up to 3 different warheads, a Tandem Warhead Anti-Tank Shot, or a Blast Fragmentation or Thermobaric Warhead, for use against Structures, Infantry, Bunkers or Lightly Armored or Unarmored vehicles.

The Anti-Tank Tandem warhead version of the FGM-190 utilizes a two stage warhead, the first being a Precursor charge, designed to detonate any Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA) in front of the missile, paving the way for the main charge, a 140mm wide Depleted Uranium lined Penetrator. With the DUs penetration to width efficiency of about eight, this results in the Missile being able to penetrate roughly 1000-1100mm RHAe after ERA. This version of the launcher utilizes a EO/IIR guided Top Down attack profile, allowing the missile to attack some of the weakest armor on the tank.

The other two warheads that the missile can fire contain either a Blast Fragmentation Warhead, used for attacking lightly armored or unarmored vehicles, such as Armored Personnel Carriers, Groups of Infantry, Cars, or buildings of construction such as Wood. The other warhead for the launcher is that of a Thermobaric warhead, useful for firing through windows into the interior of a building or bunker, to clear out rooms.

The FGM-190 “Dragoon” uses a compressed gas cold launch, allowing for the missile to be safely fired from inside a building without causing injuries to the user or any nearby people. This, combined with the missiles smokeless propellant, allows the missile to be fired with a relatively small chance of the launcher, or missile, being spotted by the enemy.

While the Tandem-Heat version of the missile used a EO/IIR Guided Fire and Forget Tracking system, the Thermobaric and Blast Frag variants of the missile are unguided, with the user using a Laser Range Finder to find the exact range to target, with him/her than having to adjust for the range using the various markings found within the Scope.
One Big Ass Mistake America
In other words, conservatives are generous with their own money, and liberals are generous with other peoples money.
"I object and take exception to everyone saying that Obama and Congress are spending money like a drunken sailor. As a former drunken sailor, I quit when I ran out of money." ~ Unknown
"We will not continue the failed economic policies of the past eight years." We will double down on the strategy
"See, it doesn't matter how many people you have, how old your civilization is, or any such tripe. We're still the by-God US of A and we will seriously bitch slap you so hard your ancestors going back millenia will feel it if you piss us off."

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Postby United States of PA » Tue May 10, 2011 1:26 pm

http://i569.photobucket.com/albums/ss13 ... 1001-1.png



Designation: M100 Self Propelled Howitzer
- Name: Taandee Wiikiyen

Costs:
- New Production: $6.1mn

Dimensions:
- Length: 13.7m (with gun) 9m (Hull)
- Height: 3.1m
- Width: 3.4m
- Mass: 57 tonnes
- Track Width: 600mm
-Ground Pressure (apprx): 6.7kg/m2

Internal Systems:
- Crew: 3 (Commander, Driver, Gunner)
- Autoloader: MH980 155mm Howitzer Autloader
- Ammunition: 60 shells
- Transmission: Caterpillar Heavy Duty Milspec Automatic Transmission
- Fuel Capacity: 700L


Powerplant: Caterpillar RB Model Diesel Heavy Duty 12 Cylinder
- Power: 1,400bhp
- Displacement: 36 liters displacement
- Layout: Opposed Piston
- Induction: Twin Supercharger
- Fuel Consumption: ~2.1L per 1km Average

Performance:
- Maximum Speed (Road): 65km/h
- Range: 340km
- Power-Weight Ratio: 24hp/tonne


Armament:
- Primary: 155mm L/55 Electro Thermal Chemical Extended Range Full Bore Howitzer
- Commanders Gun: 1x Universal Mount


Program History

The M100 “Taandee Wiikiyen” (Susquehannoc for “How far?”) Self Propelled Howitzer began out of the XSPH (X for Expermental) of the mid 2000s, out of a request for a design to replace the Lyran Designed LY7/366 “Lammasu” in Pennsylvanian Service with a Domestic Design.

Requirements for the Design included a improvement over the Lammasu in terms of Ammo Carried, Range, Accuracy, and reloading speed. Ammo Carriage was improved by using a dedicated chassis, as well as by using every available space in the vehicle, albeit at a bit of a cost to fuel storage, reducing its effective range without refueling. Range and accuracy were increased by replacing the Lammasu’s Smoothbore main gun with a Extended Range Full Bore cannon, which added the accuracy of a Rifled Cannon, but with a higher Muzzle Velocity, increasing range. Improvements in Rate of fire were made through using a cannon with liquid coolant surrounding the barrel and cooling fins located within the coolant, to help dissipate heat from shells being fire. Reloading speed was slightly improved over a LY/366, without the need of removing a rifle-esque magazine. The entire reloading system of the M100 is completely automatic, allowing the crew of each vehicle to be reduced to 3 personal, over the 4 or 5 required on similarly sized howitzers with manual reloading. This also allows the reloading of the howitzer to easily be completely in about five to six minutes, even under enemy fire when using a specially designed Ammo Resupply Vehicle (ARSV).

In addition to being able to fire faster, farther, and longer than the Lammasu, the vehicle is also weighs roughly 11 metric tonnes less. This difference is substantial, through because of this, the M100 can go many more places that the Lammasu cannot, enabling both its tactical and Strategic Mobility to be increased, increasing its total effectiveness.



Main Armament


The main armament of the M100 Self Propelled Howitzer consists of a 155m, 55 Caliber Howitzer, with Electro Thermal Chemical Ignition systems. The cannon is also built with Extended Range Full bore capability, increasing the guns Muzzle Velocity and as a result, the guns range.

The Main armament is that of the MH980 155mm L/55 Advanced Howitzer. The MH980 was designed specifically to offer range increases, as well as Rate of Fire increases, over the LY366 Howitzer cannon used in the Lammasu.

It achieves its improved rate of fire, which is capable of 11-14 rounds per minute through a series of both simple and complex cooling systems for the barrel. The most simplistic of the Cooling measures was through adding simple cooling fins to the outside of the gun barrel. This would in turn increase the total surface area of the barrel, and in return increasing heat dissipation. In addition to the Cooling Fins, located within the thermal sleeve of the barrel is a series of small diameter tubes within the barrel, that are applied over the thermal fins and the barrel itself. Running throughout these tubes is a coolant, intended to help dissipate even more heat from the barrel. Knowing full well that, by the time the coolant reaches the far end of the barrel, it would likely be hot enough as to not be of further use in a cooling method, and is therefore turn on end, and ran down another tube located farther away from the barrel, to be run back to the vehicles radiator to be cooled down, and than reused.

These features combine to allow enough cooling of the barrel to be done on average to allow a sustained fire rate of anywhere from 11 to 15 rounds per minute, depending on atmospheric Conditions.



The MH980 uses a Electro Thermal Chemical Ignition System, which allows a more even burn of the shells propellant, maximizing its efficiency. This allows for a higher Muzzle Velocity and Muzzle Energy out of the cannon. Other fringe benefits through the use of a ETC Ignition

Electro-thermal Chemical (ETC) ignition technology began out of the constant battle between Armor and Round during the Cold War. During the late 1980s, intelligence reports informed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization that the Future Soviet Tank (FST) could exceed 700mm Rolled Homogenous Armor equivalent (RHAe) at its maximum thickness, far beyond the effectiveness of the contemporary M829 Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot (APFSDS), than in use by some of the NATO Forces present in Western Germany. It is estimated today that, in order to effectively perforate future Armor, any new tank guns would have to achieve 18MJ worth of Muzzle Energy, double what is achievable with modern Solid Propellant. The easiest way to achieve this level of muzzle energy would’ve been to adopt a new 140mm Main Gun as the standard armament, but this would’ve required a complete and total re-design of the turrets of the tanks than in use in order to accept the new main gun.

The introduction of Electro-Thermal Chemical Ignition technology allows for the use of Liquid Propellant in a tanks main gun, allowing for vastly higher power propellants to be used, increasing the shots muzzle velocity and energy. For example, the lightweight American XM-291 came close to achieving 17MJ of muzzle energy, the lower end of the muzzle energy that a conventional 140mm gun would achieve. That’s from a 120mm gun.

An Electro-Thermal Chemical gun uses a Plasma cartridge to ignite and control the rounds propellant, using an electrical charge as a catalyst to the ignition of the propellant. The most common and most efficient one is that of the FLARE, or Flashboard Large Area Emitter. A FLARE works by providing several areas of parallel strings too offer a large area of plasma or Ultraviolet radiation and uses the breakdown and vaporization of the gapes of diamonds to provide the plasma needed to ignite the shells propellant. The strings used in a FLARE setup are suspended in tubes and are mounted azimuthally to the main guns axis.

In the American XM-291 gun project, a relatively primitive 120mm light gun with a none fully developed FLARE ignition system achieved 17MJ of muzzle energy, the lower energy spectrum of a conventional 140mm main gun. If a non fully developed FLARE igniter could achieve this, one can only imagine what a fully developed one could do.

The Main howitzer found on the M100 Self Propelled Howitzer is capable of achieving quite remarkable ranges from its main gun, thanks to the Dual Use of Electro Thermal Chemical Ignition, and the use of Extended Range Full Bore, or ERFB technology.

Extended Range Full Bore works, in layman’s terms, by adding fines to the exterior of the shell being used, which fit into the rifle of the cannon. When fired, these fins expand and grip the rifling of the barrel, expanding to create a seamless environment, not too dissimilar from that of a Smoothbore gun.

This results in a noticeable and appreciable increase in the muzzle velocity of a Rifled Cannon, while retaining the accuracy. This allows Tanks to hit targets at roughly twice the range than tanks using a conventional Smoothbore cannon, or, in the case of howitzers, allow a Increase in range on the order of a dozen or more kilometers. Two of the most known Howitzers in existence, the South African G6, and the German Panzerhaubitze 2000, or Pzh 2000, both used ERFB methods, to great effects, the G6 becoming one of the most long ranged howitzers in the world, and the Pzh 2000 to become one of the most effective.

Through the combination of ETC and ERFB, the main gun of the M100 is able to reach a range of up to 33km with regular High Explosive Shells, up to 53km with Base Bleed High Explosive Shells, and up to 77km maximum range with a High Velocity V-LAP round. This enabled the M100 to be able to reach out and touch targets at up to 73km effectively, or 45.3 miles. This range is typically the realm of Long Range Rocket Systems, such as the M270A1 or BM-30 Smerch, for reference. While these range figures may not seem like all that much of a improvement over that of the Denels G6-52 Extended Range Howitzer is due the use of much heavier shells as standard for the howitzer over that of other guns, given the shells higher Muzzle Energy gained from various improved factors such as the Electro Thermal Chemical Ignition and the Full Bore Rifling.

The M100 carries up to 60 Rounds for its main gun, which is upwards of 20 rounds more than most other 155mm Howitzers. This increase in ammo storage in achieved by increasing the size of the hull significantly, as well as removing some of the vehicles fuel storage. All of the rounds are ready to fire, through the use of a autoloader which has all shells and shell components readily accessible and ready to be loaded. 30 of the shells are stored in the hull, underneath the front of the turret, while the remaining 30 are located in the rear of the vehicles turret, which has a half meter overhang over the back of the vehicle. There is a single automatic arm located in the center of all this, that swivels and pivots in order to move the shells from their storage points into the breach of the gun, along with the propellant charges.


The M100 is capable of having all 60 shells reloaded inside of five and a half minutes when using the specially designed Automatic Resupply vehicle based off of the M100 chassis. The M100 is reloaded through a opening in the rear of the turret.

The reloading of the M100 is designed to be carried out by a specialized ARSV (Ammunition Resupply Vehicle), which is capable of fully reloading the vehicles 60 round magazine in about five and a half minutes when using the vehicle. Using the ARSV allows automatic reloading, with the entire crew of both vehicles being under armor and safe from enemy return fire.


On top of the turret of the M100 is a single Universal Remote Weapons station, designed to take any weapon of just about any caliber. To name a few weapons that the URWS can would be a M2HB, a NSV, PKT, FN MAG, Kord, or a CIS 50. This list is far from exhaustive however, and with certain modifications, can easily accept nearly any existing machine gun.


Fire Control System


The Fire Control System (FCS) of the M100 is that of the Tiparee FCS. The Tiparee FCS was designed from the ground up to be used as a 155mm Howitzer FCS, and excels in that role.

The Tiparee system is designed to automatically and without human interference, aim, elevate, and angle the main gun of the M100, to allow for the most accurate fire mission possible. Before firing, the Tiparee system records the temperature of the barrel, the shell being fired, as well as Barrel flex or droop. Upon assessing all of those factors, the FCS will than assess and calculate the best firing angle.

The Tiparee system is also capable of conducting a Multiple Rounds, Simultaneous Impact, or MRSI. A MRSI barrage is conduct by rapid firing a number of rounds at differing angles, allowing all of the rounds to land on target at roughly the same time. In the case of the M100, it is capable of a 6 round MRSI barrage at a range of 25km. This is intended to give the appearance of 6 separate guns doing a Time on Target Barrage (ToT), where each gun fires at the same time, with all six shells landing at the same time.

The ability to conduct a MRSI barrage greatly increases the firepower of the gun system, as a dozen guns, doing a MRSI barrage at 25km, can fire up to 72 rounds by themselves, giving the appearance as if 72 separate guns were firing at the same time conducting a ToT barrage. This greatly multiplies the apparent force of the artillery barrage, since many enemies will assume there are vastly more individual guns firing at them than there actually is.


The battlefield management system of the M100 is rather simplistic, designed solely to show detected enemy ground units, known enemy positions locations, and a 3D terrain map. The decision to make a rather simplistic BMS for the M100, one that in contrast to most of the rest of the Pennsylvanian Armed Forces lacks a designation or nickname.

In addition to being able to designate enemy locations and formations or even individual units, as well as the 3D map, allows the crew of the M100 to easily pick out targets. Another goal of the BMS in the M100 is to allow easy Time on Target or Multi gun MRSI barrages. The BMS allows a commander of a battery to wait until all guns are ready, sync them up so that they are all firing at the same target, and can autonomously order all of the guns to fire at the same time, and carry out their MRSI at the same, allowing many dozens of rounds to be able to land on the target at the same time.


Propulsion & Mobility

The propulsion of the M100 SPH is the same as that of the M8 Medium Tank and the M92 Heavy Tank/Heavy Support Tank, albeit downrated to 1,400bhp.

The M100 is powered by a Caterpillar RB Model Diesel Heavy Duty 12 Cylinder Engine, developed and built by Caterpillar Inc. originally for a series of heavy duty Bulldozers designed for use in some of the Pennsylvanian Pit Mines. Despite have been designed for use by a heavy duty bulldozer, the decision to use the Heavy Duty 12 was due to its reliability, high power, and the fact that it could be relatively easily modified for use in a Armored Vehicle. The engine is capable of attaining a very high compression ratio, as well as a very high power to displacement ratio, enabling the engine to put out rather high amounts of power for its size.

An opposed piston engine works by putting 2 pistons into each cylinder, allowing each pair to use the same intake and exhaust valves, and while eliminating the existence of a Cylinder Head and Head Gaskets, both of which present a weak point in a engines cylinder design. This weak point is due to the fact that, in most modern engine arrangements, such as Inline, V, W, and Flat Engines, you cannot get the highest compression ratio possible for the engine, due to the fact that past a certain point, the risk of cracking one of the cylinder heads or blowing out a head gasket becomes too great a risk. This limits the compression ratio which you can use in a engine.

An opposed piston engine doesn’t have to worry about this risk, because the design in its entirety lacks both of these weak points, as demonstrated by the below diagram. This, combined with the twin Supercharger, allows the engine to put out nearly 60 horsepower for every liter it displaces. This allows for the engine to be relatively small, yet still put out high amounts of power.

Image

Tactical and Strategic Mobility were a major part of the design, so long as it didn’t impact on the vehicles effectiveness at its other requirements. As a result, the vehicle weighs more than some other vehicles of the same role, but not of the same capabilities. For example, a pretty similar M109A6 Paladin, carrying the same diameter main gun, but at a slightly shorter length, but lacking many of the more advanced features of the M100, weighs in at just 27.5tons, versus the 57 tonnes of the M100.


Armor


The armor of the M100 Self Propelled Howitzer is quite thin by many vehicles standards these days, having been design to take only the punishment of potential Small Arms Fire, and the greatest threat perceived to the Vehicle, that of enemy Counter battery.

Due to the perceived presence of the fact that most likely any nation that the Federal Republic of Pennsylvania would likely find itself fighting would be employing either 105mm or 155mm howitzers, due to the extreme prominence of those two calibers, alongside smaller but similar Soviet Styled calibers, such as 152mm, made 155mm as the like heaviest protection that would be required by the Vehicle.

The vehicle is protected on all angles from 155mm Shell Fragments, intended to protect the vehicle from enemy counter battery, due to the perceived low chance of a direct hit by a Contact round.


Signature Reduction


Due to the perceived low chance of the vehicle ever coming into direct combat, the decision was made to reduce the total amount of Signature Reduction to Infra-Red Suppression, to protect against Howitzer Launched Anti-Tank rounds, such as SADARM rounds. This thermal reduction is achieved through such actions as venting the exhaust into the vehicles tracks, underneath the skirt, and cooling the exhaust at the same time.

In addition to mounting the exhaust ventilation underneath the vehicles tracks, the length of the exhaust pipe was also increased, along with cooling fins being added to it, along with other major heat producers. This resulted in a increase in surface area, which in turn would increase the heat dissipation off of the material per unit of time, lowering its overall temperature.


Export

The M100 Self Propelled Howitzer is for the most part open on a single unit by unit basis for the standard price of $1.5mn USD. Domestic Production Rights are available, but restricted in the interest of Pennsylvanian National security in case some incident were to arise with the buying nation. For all other nations, whom cannot attain a Domestic Production License, there is instead a Domestic Production Line, which works by having a Pennsylvanian Manufacturer set up a production line within your nation, employing your nation’s workers and adding money to your economy. However, a Royalty will have to be paid on each unit produced, equivalent to ~33% of the units cost, or a additional $500,000 on the unit. There is also the chance of the Pennsylvanian Manufacturer using excess vehicles produced from this line to sell abroad in the same fashion as any vehicle produced within the Pennsylvanian Republic, adding further capital and work to the host nation.


Single Unit: $6.1mn
Domestic Production Line Royalty: $500,000 per unit produced

Ammunition Resupply Vehicle (ARSV)

Single Unit: $900,000
Domestic Production Line Royalty: $500,000 per unit produced
Last edited by United States of PA on Thu Jun 09, 2011 3:00 pm, edited 1 time in total.
One Big Ass Mistake America
In other words, conservatives are generous with their own money, and liberals are generous with other peoples money.
"I object and take exception to everyone saying that Obama and Congress are spending money like a drunken sailor. As a former drunken sailor, I quit when I ran out of money." ~ Unknown
"We will not continue the failed economic policies of the past eight years." We will double down on the strategy
"See, it doesn't matter how many people you have, how old your civilization is, or any such tripe. We're still the by-God US of A and we will seriously bitch slap you so hard your ancestors going back millenia will feel it if you piss us off."

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Postby United States of PA » Tue May 10, 2011 1:27 pm

Image


Designation: M1192 Infantry Fighting Vehicle
- Name: Li Tenan

Costs:
- New Production: $3.8mn

Dimensions:
- Length: 8m
- Height: 2.6m
- Width: 3.4m
- Mass: 38 tonnes
- Track Width: 600mm

Internal Systems:
- Crew: 3 + 6 dismounts
- Autoloader: General Dynamics 50(330SS)-150
- Ammunition: 450 (Main Gun) 950 (Coax)
- Transmission: General Motors Heavy Duty (6fwd, 1 rv)
- Fuel Capacity: 930L (Internal)


Powerplant: Caterpillar O-6 RB Model Turbocharged Diesel
- Power: 1,000bhp
- Displacement: 16.6 Liters
- Layout: 6 Cylinder Opposed Piston Horizontal
- Induction: Twin Turbocharged
- Fuel Consumption: ~1.6L per kilometer

Performance:
- Maximum Speed (Road): 65km/h
- Range: 580km
- Power-Weight Ratio: 26.3 hp/tonne


Armament:
- Primary: M992 Electric Chain Gun
- Coaxial: 1x 7.62x63mm General Purpose Machine Gun
-Commander: 1x 15x120mm Heavy Machine Gun
- Dischargers: 10x 70mm Grenade Launchers


The M1192 Infantry Fighting Vehicle, commonly known as the Li Tenan was designed by the Pittsburgh Motor Corporation as a replacement for the Pennsylvanian Armies than in service IFVs, primarily of foreign design, as well as an overall more suitable replacement for the Pennsylvanian Armies Strategy and Tactics regarding the IFV and APC.

Armament

The primary Armament of the M1192 Li Tenan Infantry Fighting Vehicle is that of a Dual Fed, Dual Bore M992 Electric Autocannon firing a 50x330mm Supershot round or a 35x228mm round, depending on what the recipient nation wishes to have. The only change needed to fire either round from the gun is that of a barrel change out and a few other minor parts, in order to accompany the slight difference in size of the shells.

The Autocannon incorporates a dual feed system, allowing the gunner of the vehicle to switch between the rounds being fired from the gun at an instant with the push of a button or pedal. The gunner can therefore switch as needed, between say, Armor Piercing (AP) rounds to High Explosive Incendiary (HEI) if needed. This, along with the relative ease of transitioning from 35mm to 50mm or back allows a great deal of operational versatility to the vehicles main armament. The Autocannon is effective out to ranges between 3,500m and 4,200m, depending on the round used.

As a coaxial gun, the M1192 can mount most weapons in the 8mm and under range, with the primary option being that of a 7.62x63mm (.30-06) general purpose machine gun carrying 950 rounds of ammunition of varying types. The Coax is primarily intended to be used in a suppression role against enemy infantry or against lightly armored enemy targets, such as trucks or cars.

The Commander also has at his disposal a 15x120mm Heavy Machine Gun as standard, or if requested, almost any other weapon up to 20mm, mounted in a Remote Weapons Station. Included in this RWS is a night/day sight and thermal imaging sight for the commander to use for spotting purposes, as well as a laser rangefinder.

Additionally, on both sides of the outside of the turret it is possible to mount between two and four Missiles Anti-Tank Guided Missiles, or, depending on the size, eight Man Portable Air Defense Systems such as Stinger. The size of the missile decides how many can be carried at a single time, such as two TOW IICs on both sides, or a single, much larger missile.


Fire Control System

The Fire Control system of the M1192 is that of the Mark VVI Fire Assistance Control Computer. The Mark VVI FACC works by allowing the most accurate Firing Solution physically possible, thus, maximizing the chances that the First Shell, and most of its following shells, will hit their target/s. For Ranging, the FACC uses a high power Laser Beam, which allows an accurate measurement of the distance to the target down to a centimeter, and at ranges out to 10km. This Laser Beam also measures wind speed and direction while a Infra-Red Thermometer reads the temperature of the air, all of which can affect a shell in flight, reducing its normal accuracy. It also measures the speed and velocity of the target. When all of this information is gathered, Range, Wind Speed and Direction, Ambient Temperature, as well as Velocity of the target, the FACC than calculates the proper spot for the gunner to aim the gun for the best chance of hitting the target tank. Other information that is imputed into the computer during this process includes the Muzzle Droop as well as the temperature of the main guns barrel.


Propulsion and Suspension

The Li Tenan is powered by a Caterpillar O-6 RB Model Opposed Piston Turbocharged Diesel Engine, developed and built by Caterpillar Inc. originally for a series of Long Haul, high weight highway trucks. Despite have been designed for use by a Highway Truck, the decision to use the O-6 RB Model was due to its reliability, high power, and the fact that it could be relatively easily modified for use in an Armored Fighting Vehicle. The engine has a very high compression ratio, and a very high power to displacement ratio, enabling the engine to put out rather high amounts of power for its size.

An opposed piston engine works by putting 2 pistons into each cylinder, allowing each pair to use the same intake and exhaust valves, and while eliminating the existence of a Cylinder Head and Head Gaskets, both of which present a weak point in a engines cylinder design. This weak point is due to the fact that, in most modern engine arrangements, such as Inline, V, W, and Flat Engines, you cannot get the highest compression ratio possible for the engine, due to the fact that past a certain point, the risk of cracking one of the cylinder heads or blowing out a head gasket becomes too great a risk. This limits the compression ratio which you can use in a engine.

An opposed piston engine doesn’t have to worry about this risk, because the design in its entirety lacks both of these weak points, as demonstrated by the below diagram. This, combined with the Turbocharger, allows the engine to put out nearly 60 horsepower for every liter it displaces. This allows for the engine to be relatively small, yet still put out high amounts of power. A Turbocharger works by being placed in the engines exhaust system, which is then used to spin a fan blade at speeds up to 150,000 revolutions per minute, which is in turn used to power a air compressor. The Air Compressor than in turn forces a greater volume of air into the engines cylinders, also increasing the amount of fuel that can be added. This in turn permeates into increased power output from a engine of smaller size than one with the same power output, but which lacks a Turbocharger or Supercharger.

The suspension of the M1192 Li Tenan consists of an Active in Arm Hydropneumatic system. A Hydropneumatic Suspension system uses a combination of Oil or another fluid and Air, in the case of the M1192, Nitrogen, to offer improved ride quality, for increased crew comfort and better firing accuracy. In the case of the M1192, this Hydropneumatic System is also paired with a Active In Arm system, which allows the tank to kneel forward, backwards, or side to side, to compensate for terrain differences or obstructions.


Armor

The Armor of the M1192 is primarily intended to defend against lighter weapons that will most likely be brought to bear against it. For that reason, in the frontal aspect of the vehicle, armor protection is limited to 50mm Supershot rounds, while protection on the sides drops to 25mm, and finally 155mm Artillery Fragments and Small Arms on other aspects of the vehicle, such as the back and top.

The frontal armor of the M1192 consists of a material blend of Improved Rolled homogenous Armor (IRHA), Titanium Diboride (Tib2), IRHA, Tungsten, IRHA, TiB2, and finally IRHA in that order on the frontal aspect, and IRHA or regular Rolled Homogenous Armor around the rest of the vehicle, with a internal layer of Dyneema providing Anti-Spall protection throughout the vehicle.

The choice to protect the frontal aspect of the vehicle against 50mm weapons, like the one that the M1192 sports as standard in the Pennsylvanian Armed Forces, was made as that was viewed to be the most likely highest caliber weapon that would be pitted against the vehicle, unless heavier vehicles, such as Tanks or Tank Destroyers were encountered. This decision also accounted for the vehicles overall nearly 15 tonne weight jump over similar vehicles, such as the CV9040B, alongside the vehicles much larger overall size.

Externally, most of the side and front of the vehicle can be protected by various types of Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA), ranging from Heavy ERA to Light ERA. The vehicle can also be protected by Slat Armor, intended to provide standoff protection against anti-tank missiles and rockets like the RPG-7. These sections of slat armor are designed to be placed roughly 30cm from each side of the vehicle, and can be placed nearly anywhere on the vehicle, including the infantry door, due to the fact that it opens sideways instead of downwards.

Active Protection System and Battlefield Management System

The Tanks Active Protection System, or APS, the primary defense against Anti-Tank missiles, is that of the Pennsylvanian Designed Quick Shot system, designed using experience with various systems, including the Israeli Trophy and Ironfist, and the Lyro GOLIATH and WATCHKEEPER systems, which had been employed on many Lyran Designed Vehicles, which Pennsylvanian Companies produced for export, and which had also been used by several branches of the Pennsylvanian Armed Forces.

The Quick Shot system has three main tiers, Acquisition At Range, Passive Defenses, and Primary Terminal Interception.

The Quick Shot APS system uses a small radar transmitter, located on the top of the turret, to scan for incoming missiles. The Radar, and its associated computer, which will be discussed in greater length in the Battlefield Management System Section, are programmed to look for small, fast moving targets approaching from a certain angle or several angles.

The First tier of the system at which the system begins to actively try to fool or eliminate the missile is the second tier, which occurs at ranges beyond 100 meters. At this distance, all of the systems are passive, mainly involving passive attempts at fooling the Missile’s Seeker Head. A four point Directional Infra Red Countermeasure (DIRCM) is located on the tank. The system has a single DIRCM on each corner of the turret, for a total of four different countermeasure systems, which can be trained on up to four different inbound missiles coming from almost any direction around the vehicle.

Each DIRCM has a reliable chance of fooling the seeker head of an Anti-Tank Guided missile, though, like all systems, it is far from fool proof, and some missiles will naturally not be fooled by such a decoy system. Nonetheless, during Testing, the Passive Infra-Red Decoy system proved to be quite effective in its intended role, that of fooling, or, to use another word, blinding enemy missile seekers.

The final tear of the vehicles Active Protection System includes a trio of launchers, two on the back corners of the turret and one closer to the front of the turret, slightly offset to the right side. These three launchers consist of a combined shrapnel grenade and shot loadings, intended to destroy incoming missiles a short distance away from the vehicle. Each launcher has four Grenade launchers, backed up by four more ERA like blocks, which, when detonated, fire several dozen to just over a hundred small pieces of shrapnel or pellets. both systems are intended to either damage the missiles guidance, fins, or warhead/s, or simply detonate the warheads outright, in order to attempt to prevent the missile from causing severe damage to the vehicle.

The Battlefield management system of the M1192 , and, in extension, many other Pennsylvanian Armed Forces ground vehicles, is the Aennoor Battlefield Management System. Aennoor, meaning bear in the Susquehannoc Language, is a system designed to interlink all Pennsylvanian Ground Vehicles within a certain area to one another, advising other vehicles of the status of these vehicles, and of the location, whereabouts, and status of detected enemy vehicles.

Aennoor is designed to classify enemy threats, both missile and vehicle, and to assess the status of the vehicle, and transmit it to other nearby units using Aennoor. The system classifies its threats by two main features, the Sensory suite the vehicle boasts, which is used mainly to classify Missile threats, and by use of the Commander designating targets, which is used to locate enemy vehicles and infantry units.

The commander does this by using his command console, which includes a touchscreen used specifically for the Aennoor system, to designate the rough area of the enemy vehicle or unit, and its type. For example, lets say a tank commander spots a enemy Armored Personnel Carrier in a tree line 3km from his position, but he is not in a good position to have his gunner engage the target. He can point out the rough position of the enemy APC on the touchscreen on his command console, and picking out the unit type, in this case, an Armored Personnel Carrier. Aennoor then sends this information out across the net to all nearby Vehicles. This allows a tank in a better position to engage to fire and destroy the target, allowing the best use of vehicle resources. As soon as the engaging tank reports that the target is destroyed, the APC is automatically taken off of the map, preventing confusion over whether or not there is a vehicle there.

The Aennoor System also has a very high digital bandwidth, allowing it to transfer large amounts of data very quickly. The average bandwidth of the Aennoor system is usually something in the area of 40-60 Mbit/s, allowing it to transmit anything the system or commander wants to near instantaneously to nearby units.

In addition to all of the above, the Aennoor system also boosts very reliable communication systems, having been designed to take relatively major bumps and even shell hits without failing. All of the communications in the tank are also Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) Proofed, meaning that, even were a Thermonuclear Warhead detonated nearby, the tanks Commo systems would continue to operate, allowing the vehicle to remain in contact with command and friendlies.

The input and output from the Aennoor System is also well encrypted, intended to prevent enemy units from accessing the Systems feed in the middle of a battle. The Encryption system consists of a 256-bit AES Encryption, guaranteeing that the chances of the codes being intercepted and broken in time for them to be used is nearly zero, if not zero.

Signature Reduction

Signature reduction on the M1192 was placed at a very high importance. The reason for this was that the fact that a tank that was more difficult to see, was naturally, harder to kill. The primary focus of Signature reduction on the tank was in its Infra-Red Spectrum.

Most of the heat generated by a tracked fighting vehicle in motion is generated by its various engine systems, like one would assume, as well as its Tracks, which are heating up by constant friction with each of the road wheels.

To help lower the Heat emissions of the Engine and related systems, the Exhaust pipe was given extra length, the result of adding as many curves into the pipe as possible, the idea being that, the more surface area that could be presented, the lesser the heat on the surface of the pipe. In addition to this, certain sections of the exhaust pipe are continually cooled by coolant fluid. The point of this was that since heat always transfers some of its energy to the lower temperature material, by applying some coolant to the exhaust pipe, the heat seen at the exhaust outlet would be as low as possible. In another attempt to lower the Infra-red Signature of the tanks exhaust, the Exhaust was placed underneath the armored skirt, to have its heat dissipated into the track heat, and as such, hidden by the Armored Skirt and Canvas Dust Skirt.

Dismounts & Vehicle Role

The M1192 carries up to six dismounts, though this is increasable to eight if the ammo storage and weapons storage racks at the front of the troop compartment are removed and 2 more seats are added.

Under Pennsylvanian Mechanized Infantry Doctrine, the IFV is intended primarily to act as a squads heavy support unit, using its Autocannon, Missiles, and Machine guns to tackle targets that the infantry cannot, as well as carrying the squads heavy weapons, such as Machine Guns, Rocket or Missile Launchers, and perhaps most importantly of all, extra ammo for the squads weapons. For this reason, two dismounts in the standard version are sacrificed for a fairly extensive weapons rack, able to hold extra ammo ranging from rifle rounds to grenades, to weapons such as General Purpose Machine Guns and Missile or Rocket Launchers like the FGM-172 Predator or the RPG-7, or additional firearms.

Variants

There are two variants to the M1192, the original base M1192, and the M1192 CFV (Cavalry Fighting Vehicle). The M1192 CFV fulfills the role of heavy Recon and as such sacrifices all but two dismounts for extra ammo storage and more and longer ranged radios. This change increases ammo storage for the main gun by about 75 rounds, and for the coax by roughly 300 rounds, bringing the totals to 525 rounds for the main gun, and 1,250 rounds for the coax. Other variants include a M1192-120, with a modified turret mounting a autoloaded 120mm cannon of smoothbore or rifled design with 16 rounds of ammunition, at the cost of all but 2 dismounts, as well as a vast majority of others, ranging from, but not all encompassing, Medical, Air Defense, NBC Treatment and Decontamination and many others.
Last edited by United States of PA on Fri Jun 17, 2011 2:52 am, edited 2 times in total.
One Big Ass Mistake America
In other words, conservatives are generous with their own money, and liberals are generous with other peoples money.
"I object and take exception to everyone saying that Obama and Congress are spending money like a drunken sailor. As a former drunken sailor, I quit when I ran out of money." ~ Unknown
"We will not continue the failed economic policies of the past eight years." We will double down on the strategy
"See, it doesn't matter how many people you have, how old your civilization is, or any such tripe. We're still the by-God US of A and we will seriously bitch slap you so hard your ancestors going back millenia will feel it if you piss us off."

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Compulsory Consumerist State

Postby United States of PA » Fri Jun 17, 2011 2:54 am

Image



Specifications
Weight: 3.6-4.2kg
Length: 936mm (Stock extended) 785mm (Stock Folded)
Barrel length: 520mm
Cartridge: 6.5x45mm, 5.56x45mm, 7.62x39mm, 7.62x51mm, 7.62x54R, 30-06, .303 British, others of similar size
Action: Gas Operated, Closed Rotating Bolt
Rate of fire: 650rpm (+-25)
Muzzle velocity: 850-1050m/s
Effective range: up to 600 m
Feed system: 30 Round Box magazine, 100 round Beta-C Magazine, 50 Round Drum
Sights: Built in Reflex Sight with 1x Zoom, 3x Zoom also available, Back up Notch sights.

The AR-45 Assault rifle is a Pennsylvanian Army Standard Issue rifle, intended for service with most branches of the Armed Forces, and, as such, is designed to take a great deal of punishment while retaining its reliability.

The design of the rifle is based in part off of several of the most efficient rifles in the world, reliable, lightweight, accurate and powerful. Among these rifles were the Heckler & Koch XM8 and G36, the American Magpul Masada/Bushmaster Adaptive Combat Rifle, and the Austrian Steyr AUG.

The Rifle itself takes a high degree of its design features from the XM8 and the G36, which are, by themselves, very similar rifles. The Rifle operates off of the same style of action as the XM8 and G36, with a Gas Piston operating a Closed Rotating Bolt. This type of action prevents any expansion gas from being introduced directly into the Bolt and related Action system, unlike the Direct Impingement system used on the Eugene Stoner series of rifles, the AR-15 and derivatives. This can result in the rifle being up to eight times more reliable than a Direct Impingement rifle, and the exact amount can be even higher. During testing, the XM8 Prototype, which used a Gas Piston very similar to the AR-45’s system, and, in a extreme dust environment, suffered only 127 stoppages during 50,000 rounds fired. The M4, which used Direct Impingement, had 882 stoppages during the same test.

A Gas piston styled action works by having a gas cutoff tube at some point along the barrel. This gas than runs down another tube, and pushes a piston rod backwards, which works the rifles bolt. This than cycles the bolt backwards, ejecting the spent casing, and inserting a new cartridge. After this, the bolt spring than cycles the rifles bolt back forwards, readying the rifle to fire.

During the working of the action in a Gas Piston operated system, if properly built, no expansion gases will be introduced to the bolt itself, greatly improving reliability. The gun also uses a Short Stroke action, which means that the rifle utilizes a gas piston that only moves part of the way to “tap” the bolt, which will than travel the rest of the way, completing the action. This results in the centre of gravity not moving too significantly, like in a Long Stroke system, resulting in better accuracy. A short stroke piston system is also easier to clean, lessening maintenance requirements. All of these features combined results in a very reliable rifle that is rather easy to clean and maintain.

The rifle makes extensive use of Composites in its design, intended to reduce weight, both loaded and unloaded, so as to make carrying easier. This lower weight of the rifle allows a soldier to carry more ammunition than if his rifle was of a heavier weight.

The main design feature that the rifle borrows from the Steyr AUG actually comes from the Australian version of the rifle, some of the improvements made to improve the resilience of the rifle against dust and sand, improving the rifles reliability in desert or extreme dust environments. This represents the full extent of the influences on the design of the rifle from the Steyr AUG.

The rifle also borrows a design feature from Eugene Stoners AR-15 and related rifles, in that the rifle can be quickly modified using a different Upper Receiver and Barrel. In the case of the AR-45, the magazine well is also attached to the Upper Receiver, automatically adjusting the Magazine Well whenever the upper and barrel is changed out for a different cartridge.

Export

The AR-45 Assault Rifle is available in export to any nation that is not deemed a threat to the Federal Republic of Pennsylvania or its allies. The Rifle is available at the standard price of $1300.

Single Unit: $1300
Domestic Production Line: $13bn
One Big Ass Mistake America
In other words, conservatives are generous with their own money, and liberals are generous with other peoples money.
"I object and take exception to everyone saying that Obama and Congress are spending money like a drunken sailor. As a former drunken sailor, I quit when I ran out of money." ~ Unknown
"We will not continue the failed economic policies of the past eight years." We will double down on the strategy
"See, it doesn't matter how many people you have, how old your civilization is, or any such tripe. We're still the by-God US of A and we will seriously bitch slap you so hard your ancestors going back millenia will feel it if you piss us off."

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United States of PA
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Posts: 3919
Founded: Apr 01, 2009
Compulsory Consumerist State

Postby United States of PA » Sat Jan 07, 2012 6:07 pm

Propulsion/Stats:
(2) A2B Pressurized Water Reactors
(4) Steam Turbines (340,000shp)
(4) Fixed Pitch Propellers
Max Speed: 35 knots Flank
Size
66,148 Tons Standard
310m Long (Waterline)
340m Long (Flight Deck)
61m Beam (Flight Deck)
34m Beam (Waterline)
10m Draft
Armament
(6) Close in Weapons Systems
(4) 21 Round Point Defense Missile Launcher
(4) 8 Round Medium/Long Range SAM Launchers
Aircraft
45-65 Fighters and Helicopters

Sensors
PEI 9940 Multipurpose Long Range Radar


Crew: 2,100 (Crew) 1,200 (Air Wing) 3,300 (Total)
Price: $4 billion


The Na-Dene Class Escort Carrier was designed out of a need by the Pennsylvanian Navy for a midsized Aircraft Carrier to conduct Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) patrols, and when needed, other roles.

Na-Dene is a Mythical God in Susquehannoc folk lore that was tasked with protecting merchants and travelers. It was henceforth the chosen name for the new Aircraft Carrier because its stated role was that of ASW Protection for any unit it was deployed with, alongside limited Air Defense and Surface Strike.

The Na-Dene Class Carrier uses a similar size platform to the 1940s Era American Midway Class Carrier, and therefore externally appears quite similar to the SCB-110 Refit USS Midway. However, the looks are deceiving, as the Na-Dene is much more heavily armed than the USS Midway, and is designed with a much different air group in mind.

Flight Deck and Related Systems

The Flight deck of the Na-Dene Class Aircraft Carriers is equipped with a trio of Electro Magnetic Aircraft Launch System, or EMALS as a replacement for older, less efficient and powerful Steam Catapults. The Choice to use a EMALS Catapult over a Steam Catapult was the fact that a EMALS could control the launch of a aircraft more accurately, as well as being more able to be working into a Ramp, further reducing the energy and speed needed to get a aircraft airborne.

They also require less maintenance and manpower, takes up less space, and weighs less than a contemporary steam catapult. In addition, a EMALS Catapult is less likely to fail, do not require any steam to operate it, resulting in less energy needed to achieve more than 100Megajoules of energy. For comparison, a steam Catapult aboard the USS Nimitz requires 614kg of Steam to achieve 95Megajoules. The EMALS Catapult used by the Gerald R Ford Class for comparison, does not require the 614kg of Steam, and achieves 122Megajoules.

The use of the EMALS Catapult also allows a increase in maximum aircraft weight for takeoff, at a standard maximum of 45 metric tonnes on the Na-Dene.

The Flight deck is also equipped with a trio of Aircraft Elevators, one on the port side towards the rear of the aircraft deck, and two on the starboard side, one fore and one aft of the Island. Each catapult is rating for up to 55 tonnes of weight.

Propulsion

The Na-Dene Class aircraft Carrier is powered by a pair of A2B Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) driving four Steam Turbines, which provide a combined total of 340,000 horsepower to the ships four fixed pitch propeller shafts, allowing the ship to be driven at a flank speed of up to 35 knots.

The two A2B reactors on the ship provide the entirety of the ships electrical power, which amounts to roughly three times the amount needed to actually operate the vessel, allowing the ship to be facing with potentially massive electronics upgrades in the future, without a need to re-engine the ship to provide the needed electrical power.

Armament

The Self Defense Suit of the Na-Dene Class Aircraft carrier is designed to allow it to have a fighting chance of defeating a missile if it were to slip by its escorts.

The ship carries 6 Close In Weapons Systems (CIWS) mounts, three on each side, one on the bow, one amidships, and one on the stern. The layout of these mounts is intended to provide overlapping fields of fire, to allow two or even potentially, on certain angles, all three mounts, increasing the chances of hitting and killing an incoming missile. The standard mount for the Na-Dene Class is that of the Kashtan dual Gun-Missile mount.

In addition, the ship also carries Four Point Defense Missile Launchers (PDM), using the RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) in 21 missile boxes, and Four Medium-Long Range Surface to Air Missile (SAM) launchers, with Eight missiles per box of missiles roughly the size of a RIM-174 Standard ERAM (SM-6), 1 of each located on each corner of the flight deck. These SAM launchers allow the ship to have substantial Anti-Air Capabilites out to a range of several hundred kilometers, depending on the missile used in the M-LR SAM Launchers.

All of these weapons are controlled by a computer, which classifies enemy threats based on type, and prioritizes them for intercept. For example, a F-15C would most likely not be shot at, while a missile such as a Sunburn would receive the full attention of the Ships defense systems, since the Sunburn presents a much large threat to the integrity of the ship. This also works on terms of different Anti-Shipping Missiles.
One Big Ass Mistake America
In other words, conservatives are generous with their own money, and liberals are generous with other peoples money.
"I object and take exception to everyone saying that Obama and Congress are spending money like a drunken sailor. As a former drunken sailor, I quit when I ran out of money." ~ Unknown
"We will not continue the failed economic policies of the past eight years." We will double down on the strategy
"See, it doesn't matter how many people you have, how old your civilization is, or any such tripe. We're still the by-God US of A and we will seriously bitch slap you so hard your ancestors going back millenia will feel it if you piss us off."

User avatar
United States of PA
Senator
 
Posts: 3919
Founded: Apr 01, 2009
Compulsory Consumerist State

Postby United States of PA » Fri Feb 17, 2012 8:53 pm

Specifications:

General characteristics:
Crew: 9
Length: 63.7m
Wingspan: 64.8m
Height: 18.3m
Empty weight: 147,000kg
Loaded weight: 304,826.4kg
Max takeoff weight: 347,500kg
Fuel weight: 145,026.4kg (181,283L)
Powerplant: 2x T-111-380 High Bypass Turbofan
Cruise speed: Mach 0.84 (905 km/h)
Max Speed: Mach 0.89 (950 km/h)
Ferry range: 17,370km (Internal Fuel) 18,100km (With 6,000kg of Drop Tanks)
Service ceiling: 13,140m
Thrust/weight: 0.32

Armament
2x Internal Bays (15 hardpoints)
3x Wet External Hardpoints (2,000kg limit each, 6,000kg total)


Avionics
Magnetic Anomaly Detector (MAD)
AN/APS-116 Sea Search Radar
AN/APS-137 Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar
Turreted EO-IR Imaging System
AN/ARS-2 Sonobuoy Receiver
AN/ASN-92 inertial guidance system with doppler radar navigation and TACAN
Various ESM Systems
180 Sonobuoys (175 Tactical, 5 Search and Rescue)



Background

The P-20 Long Range Patrol Aircraft (LRAP), commonly called the “Neptune” by its crews, after the Roman God of the Sea, is a Maritime Patrol Aircraft fielded by the Federal Republic Navy for the purpose of Long Range Sea Patrol and Anti-Submarine Warfare.




Airframe Composition

The Airframe designed of the P-20 is characterized by its light-weight construction design, intended to reduce its Gross Empty Weight. By weight, the Airframe’s construction consists of 50% composite, 20% Aluminum, 15% Titanium, 10% Steel and 5% other materials. By Volume, the Aircraft will be roughly 80% composite construction.

By constructing the aircraft with Lighter weight in mind, allows for the aircraft to use up less fuel on its takeoff run, increasing its maximum range, even if only slightly. It also allows for greater fuel storage for the same total weight as a aircraft built using conventional construction techniques, increasing total range.

The Aluminum in the aircraft construction is mainly used on the aircrafts wing and tail leading edges, with Titanium being used on the engines and fasteners, with steel being used in various places. The Aircrafts construction consists of approximately 42,180kg of Carbon Fiber reinforced Plastic, making up roughly 29% of the aircrafts total weight, made using approximately 27,710kg of Carbon Fiber.

The high used of Carbon Fiber reinforced composites is due to the much higher strength to weight ratio than traditional materials, meaning that one kilogram of a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite will be stronger than a kilogram of a more traditional material, reducing the total amount of material needed to make a just as strong aircraft. This has a somewhat inverse effect on a aircrafts cost however, increasing the aircrafts total cost.


Wing Design

The P-20s wing design consists of a Supercritical Airfoil Design coupled with Raked Wingtips.

The Supercritical airfoil design was designed in the 1950s and 1960s out of a difficultly to break the sound barrier or even mach 0.9 using conventional Airfoil designs. Supersonic airflow over the upper surface of traditional airfoils induced an excessive amount of wave drag and a form of aircraft instability called the “Mach Truck”. The “Mach Truck” is a aerodynamic effect where the nose of a aircraft tends to pitch downwards as the airflow around the wing around the wings approach supersonic flow.

Due to the airfoil shape used in Supercritical Airfoils, aircraft built with these encounter the “Mach truck” both less severely at much higher speeds, allowing the wing to maintain high performance at speeds very close to Mach 1. Techniques learned from the original Supercritical airfoil sections led to the design of airfoils for high subsonic and transonic aircraft, such as the Boeing 777 and AV-8B Harrier II.

A Diagram showing the difference in airflow between a Supercritical and Conventional Airfoil

Supercritical airfoils offer four main benefits to a aircraft: a higher Drag Divergence Mach Number, they develop shock waves further back the wing than traditional airfoils, greatly reduced shock induced boundary layer separation and their geometry allows for a more efficient wing design such as being thicker or reducing the aircrafts wing sweep, which can both result in a lighter wing.

At a particular speed for a given airfoil section, the critical mach number, flow over the upper surface of a airfoil can become locally supersonic, but soon slows down to match the air pressure over the trailing edge of the wing without generating a shock.

At a certain point along the airfoil, a shock is generated which increases the pressure coefficient to a critical value, where the local flow velocity will be Mach 1. While the position of this shockwave is determined by Airfoil geometry, a supercritical airfoil is much more efficient seeing as the shockwave is minimized and created as far back as possible, reducing drag. In addition, compared to a traditional Airfoil design, a Supercritical produces more lift at its aft end, due to its more even pressure distribution over the upper surface.

In addition to improved transonic performance, a supercritical wings enlarged leading edge gives it excellent high lift characteristics, enabling the aircraft using it to have the benefits of having superior takeoff and landing performance.

The aircraft also features Raked wingtips, which are where the wingtip of the aircraft has a higher degree of sweep than the rest of the wing. The stated purpose of using a Raked Wingtip over other wingtips, such as Non-Planar wingtips and Winglets is to increase a aircrafts fuel efficiency and climb performance, reducing a aircrafts takeoff roll.

Raked Wingtips do all of these in much the same fashion as winglets do, by increasing the effective aspect ratio of the aircrafts wings while at the same time interrupting harmful wingtip vortices. This decreases the total amount of drag induced upon the aircrafts, as shown by testing by both the Aircraft manufacturer Boeing and the American NASA, which have shown that Raked Wingtips reduce drag by as much as 5.5%, compared to anywhere from a 3.5% to a 4.5% reduction in drag from more conventional winglets.

Boeing 787 Rollout, showing the aircrafts Raked Wingtips



Engines


The propulsion for the P-20 comes from a pair of engines located on inner wing pylons. All of the engines available for the P-20 are designed using weight saving, fuel saving, reduced maintenance cost and increased engine life span features originally hallmarked by the General Electric Next Generation (GEnx) turbofan.

The choice to use a GEnx inspired engine was due to the fuel savings especially, alongside all other factors. The reduced Maintenance costs of the engine type, combined with its fuel savings, greatly reduce the operating cost of the engine/s, and in extension, the operating costs of the aircraft.

The engines used on the P-20, the Caterpillar T-111-380, achieve a weight loss on the engine through the same features as the GEnx. These design features include a fan diameter of 111in, or 2.8m. Along with this the Fan blades of the T-111-380 are composite with Titanium Leading edges. This saves weight while not sacrificing fan strength. The engines fan case is also made of composites, further lowering weight while also reducing expansion from heat. The final major weight reducing factor is that of making the Stage 6 and 7 low pressure turbine blades of Titanium Aluminide.

Some of the fuel burn reductions techniques present in the T-111-380 include making the Fan Bypass Ratio 19:2, which also has a side effect of making the engine quieter when running. There is also a High Pressure Compressor based on the GE90-94B, with a 23:1 pressure ratio and only 10 stages, along with shrouded Guide Vanes to reduce Secondary Flow. In addition to all of the above, the spools for the engines reaction turbines are counter rotating, in order to reduce the load on the engines guide vanes. Finally, the aircrafts Twin Annular Premixed Swirler (TAPS) is of a Lean design combustor, in order to reduce emission with improved airflow to prevent back flash.

Some of the maintenance reducing features includes Spools with lower parts numbers achieved through using Blisks in some of the engine stages, alongside low blade counts in others, and a lower overall number of stages. All of these allow for a reduced number of parts, and therefore, in return, a lower number of parts that could fail and need to be regularly checked. Other maintenance reduction features include lower internal engine temperatures through the use of more efficient cooling techniques. Finally, there is debris extraction within the low pressure compressor guards high pressure compressor, to prevent unwanted material from getting into and severely damaging the aircrafts engine.

All of these features are reported to result in fuel savings in the area of 15% over an older engine of the same size, such as the CF6-80C2.

The T-111-380 is capable of achieving engine power outputs of up to 380kn, as evidenced by the last set of numbers in the engines name. Total net power for the engines on the P-20 totals 760kn.

Electronics

The Electronics Suite of the P-20 is primarily focused around the aircrafts primary mission of Maritime Patrol. Therefore, by nature, most of the aircrafts electronics are focused against the detection of Surface Ships and Submarines, with the only Air Search Radar onboard being there just to help the aircraft avoid collisions with other aircraft, and to provide warnings incase a enemy craft may be inbound.

The primary Submarine Detection methods of the P-20 are that of an ASQ-100 Magnetic Anomaly Detector & Magnetic Compensator. A Magnetic Anomaly Detector works by detecting changes in the earth’s magnetic field, such as those caused by the ferrous metals used in the construction of a submarines hull, reactor or other parts. Even if a submarines hull were to be made of a non-ferrous metal, such as Titanium, the submarine would still be able to be detected, as other parts of the submarine, such as the Reactor or Diesel Engines, would still be made of a ferrous metal. The aircraft also makes extensive use of Sonar Buoys (180 in total), both active and passive to help facilitate the detection of submarines in a specific area of ocean.

In order to reduce interference from the aircraft itself, the ASQ-100 is mounted in a boom on the tail of the aircraft.

For Surface Detection the P-20 makes use of ANY-15 Multi-mission Surface Search Radar. The radar is optimized for use on Open Ocean, Littoral and Overland operations, enabling the aircraft to find, target, and engage ships as well as locate targets inland. The Radar is able to provide High Resolution images in a variety of modes, including Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Inverse Synthetic Aperture (ISAR): which is capable of detecting and identifying targets at long range, Periscope Detection, in addition to being used as the aircrafts primary navigation radar.

Located in the nose of the Aircraft, in a self contained turret, is a large EO-IR Imaging System looking forward of the aircraft. Because of its large size, the System is capable of locating and identifying targets from 20-30 kilometers away, and allowing for engagement of identified targets.

The aircraft is also equipped with another radar that of the AN/APG-67 Collision Avoidance Radar, intended solely to provide alert signals in case of imminent collision with a surface feature or another aircraft.

In order to assist and support ELINT (Electronic Intelligence) SIGINT (Signals Intelligence) and COMINT (Communications Intelligence) operations, the P-20 is equipped with a large array of sensors ranging capable of assisting in finding the location of Radio Stations, Radar Stations and other installations or even individual units.

Export

The P-20 is available for sale to certain states at a price of $290mn per aircraft. Production Licenses are available to certain states with a royalty of $15mn per aircraft produced. Any denial of purchase is final.
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Lamoni
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Inoffensive Centrist Democracy

Postby Lamoni » Tue Jan 08, 2013 2:08 am

OOC: Due to an OOC agreement between Pennsylvania and Lamoni, the Free Republic of Lamoni has now taken over this storefront, and is giving Lyran Arms the chance to host these designs on the Lyran Arms storefront. Thank you for your co-operation.
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