The Lusignans ruled Cyprus for 3 centuries. Cyprus became a feudal kingdom where a Catholic elite ruled over the Orthodox majority. However in the 14th century the Italian cities of Genoa and Venice were growing increasingly rich and powerful threatening the independence of Cyrpus. The in 1425 the Mamelukes from Egypt raided Cyprus. Finally a king of Cyprus married a Venetian woman. The king died leaving the queen sole ruler of Cyprus. In 1489 she was persuaded to abdicate and Cyprus came under direct Venetian rule. However the Ottoman Turks were now the rising power in the Mediterranean. In 1571 they conquered Cyprus.
At first most Cypriots welcomed Turkish rule preferring it to the oppressive Venetian rule. The feudal system was abolished and the Turks respected the Orthodox Church. Nevertheless plague struck Cyprus at intervals and there were eventually rebellions against Turkish rule.
In the 19th century Britain became a superpower. In 1875 the Suez Canal opened and Britain was keen to protect the route to India. In 1878 the British were allowed to occupy and administer Cyprus (although Turkey was technically still sovereign). However in 1914 the Turks joined Germany's side in the First World War and Britain formally annexed Cyprus. In 1925 Cyprus was made a British Crown Colony.
However Greek Orthodox Cypriots now demanded enosis (union with Greece) and in 1931 riots took place. During the Second World War many Cypriots fought for the British. However when peace came Greek Orthodox Cypriots again demanded union with Greece. Turkish Cypriots, on the other hand wanted British rule to continue.
In 1955 a Greek Cypriot organisation called EOKA began a series of bombings in Cyprus. In 1958 a Turkish organisation called TMT was formed and intercommunal fighting began. Finally in 1960 Cyprus was granted independence. Archbishop Makarios was elected president.
However in 1963 the Greeks proposed changes to the constitution. The Turks refused and there was more intercommunal fighting. In 1964 the UN sent a peacekeeping force to Cyprus. However a solution was not found and in April 1974 hardline Greeks staged a coup. Archbishop Markarios was overthrown and fled abroad. As a result in July 1974 Turkish forces invaded Northern Cyprus. The island the became partitioned. Refugees from both sides crossed the border between the two parts of Cyprus. Meanwhile the hardliners fell from power and in December 1974 Archbishop Makarios returned from exile. He died in 1977.
In 1975 the Turkish section called itself the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus and it seemed that some sort of federation of the two parts might be possible. However in 1983 the Turkish section of Cyprus declared full independence. It called itself the Turkish Republic of North Cyprus.
The two sections of Cyprus remained separate and in 2004 the Southern (Greek) Republic of Cyprus joined the EU. Today the population of the whole of Cyprus is 1.1 million.
I think the most healthy solution is two separated independent nation both for Greek and Turkish peoples. The British existence in the island should be ended and the remaining lands should be shared between two sides in an equal way.
What's your opinion ?